Bibliography A-C

This is a copy of the complete lenr-canr.org bibliography, as of August 29, 2018. Comments (below) and error corrections are invited.

Complete Bibliography

1. Developments in Electrochemistry – Science Inspired by Martin Fleischmann, ed. D. Pletcher, Z.Q. Tian, and D.E.G. Williams. 2014: Wiley.

First Author:
All Authors:
Keywords:

2. Abbenseth, R. and H. Wipf, Thermal Expansion and Lattice Anharmonicity of Pd-H and Pd-D Alloys. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1980. 10: p. 353.

First Author: Abbenseth, R.
All Authors: Abbenseth, R., Wipf, H.
Keywords: Thermal Expansion, Lattice Parameter, PdH, PdD

3. ABC, “Good Morning America”. 1994.

First Author: ABC
All Authors: ABC
Keywords: history

4. Abell, G.C. and A. Attalla, NMR Evidence for Solid-Fluid Transition Near 250 K of 3He Bubbles in Palladium Tritide. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1987. 59(9): p. 995.

First Author: Abell, G. C.
All Authors: Abell, G. C., Attalla, A.
Keywords: Pd tritium, Helium, PdT

5. Abell, G.C., et al., Helium release from aged palladium tritide. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(2): p. 1220.

First Author: Abell, G. C.
All Authors: Abell, G. C., Matson, L. K., Steinmeyer, R. H., Bowman Jr., R. C., Oliver, B. M.
Keywords: Helium diffusion, PdT

6. Aben, P.C. and W.G. Burgers, Surface Structure and Electrochemical Potential of Palladium while Absorbing Hydrogen in Aqueous Solution. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1989. 56: p. 1989.

First Author: Aben, P. C.
All Authors: Aben, P. C., Burgers, W. G.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen, lattice Parameter, overvoltage, phase Diagram, PdH

7. Aberdam, D., et al., Limits on neutron emission following deuterium absorption into palladium and titanium. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 65(10): p. 1196.

First Author: Aberdam, D.
All Authors: Aberdam, D., Avenier, M., Bagieu, G., Bouchez, J., Cavaignac, J. F., Collot, J., Durand, R., Faure, R., Favier, J., Kajfasz, E., Koang, D. H., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Pessard, H., Rouault, A., Senateur, J. P., Stutz, A., Weiss, F.
Keywords: neutron, method

8. Abriola, D., et al., Examination of nuclear measurement conditions in cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 265: p. 355.

First Author: Abriola, D.
All Authors: Abriola, D., Achterberg, E., Davidson, M., Debray, M., Etchegoyen, M. C., Fazzini, N., Niello, J. F., Ferrero, A. M. J., Filevich, A., Galia, M.C., Garavaglia, R., B., Garcia, Gettar, R. T., Gil, S., Grahmann, H., Huck, H., Jech, A., Kreiner, A. J., Macchiavelli, A. O., Magallanes, J. F., Maqueda, E., Marti, G., Pacheco, A. J., Percz, M. L., Pomar, C., Ramirez, M., Scassera, M.
Keywords: gamma emission, neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, PdCl2

9. AbuTaha, A.F., Cold fusion – engineering perspectives. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 391.

First Author: AbuTaha, A. F.
All Authors: AbuTaha, A. F.
Keywords: lattice stress, stored energy critique

10. AbuTaha, A.F., Cold fusion – the heat mechanism. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 345.

First Author: AbuTaha, A. F.
All Authors: AbuTaha, A. F.
Keywords: critique lattice stress, stored energy fractofusion

11. Abyaneh, M., et al. Concerning the Modeling of Systems in Terms of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED): The Special Case of “Cold Fusion”. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Abyaneh, M.
All Authors: Abyaneh, M., Fleischmann, M., Del Giudice, E., Vitiello, G.
Keywords: theory

12. Accomazzi, P., Binuclear Atoms: A Model to Explain Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 68-75.

First Author: Accomazzi, P.
All Authors: Accomazzi, P.
Keywords: Binuclear atom, LENR, Mills hydrino, Rossi E-Cat, Ultra dense hydrogen

In this paper we show that the helium-like hydrogen spectra obtained by Randell L. Mills and ultra-dense hydrogen obtained by Holmlid can be interpreted as experimental evidence of Binuclear Atoms. The hydrogen Binuclear Atom, a model proposed 25 years ago, is a metastable configuration in which the two nuclei are held together at a very short distance in an atom-like configuration. This should be a d­­istinctive configuration of the hydrogen molecule where nuclei are characterized by a high kinetic energy, and nuclear motion is coupled with electronic motion. This is a completely different model from the usual Born-Oppenheimer picture of atoms and molecules we are used to, where nuclei oscillate about their equilibrium positions and electronic motion is decoupled from the nuclear one. The identification of helium-like hydrogen spectra and ultra-dense hydrogen as Binuclear Atoms has a strong impact on one of the main objections to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR): the overcoming of the Coulomb barrier thus identifying a sound mechanism for the occurrence of LENR. This work is not conclusive. The only goal of this work is to focus the attention of people interested in LENR mechanism on this subject, and encourage them to take this hypothesis more seriously.

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13. Ackermann, E., Indicators of Failed Information Epidemics in the Scientific Journal Literature: A Publication Analysis of Polywater and Cold Nuclear Fusion. Scientametrics, 2005. 66(3).

First Author: Ackermann, E.
All Authors: Ackermann, E.
Keywords: review

14. Adachi, G., H. Sakaguchi, and K. Nagao, (3)He and (4)He from D2 absorbed in LaNi5. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1992. 181: p. 469.

First Author: Adachi, G.
All Authors: Adachi, G., Sakaguchi, H., Nagao, K.
Keywords: Helium LiNi5, D2

15. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. Experimental Observation And A Possible Way To The Creation Of Anomalous Isotopes And Stable Superheavy Nuclei Via The Electron-Nucleus Collapse. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: superheavy nuclei

The problem of supercompression of a solid target to a collapse state is considered. The basic principles of construction and the parameters of an experimental setup ensuring such a supercompression are described. The model and method of creation and evolution of superheavy nuclear clusters with 250<A<500 and A>3000-5000 in the controlled collapse zone and in the volume of a remote accumulating screen are discussed. The evolution of such clusters results in the synthesis of isotopes with 1<A<500 and with anomalous spatial distribution in the volume of a remote screen. These phenomena were interpreted on the basis of the idea of the formation of a self-organizing and self-supporting collapse of the electron-nucleus plasma under the action of a coherent driver up to a state close to the nuclear substance.

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16. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. The Conditions And Realization Of Self-Similar Coulomb Collapse Of Condensed Target And Low-Energy Laboratory Nucleosynthesis. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory

17. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. Observation And Modeling Of The Ordered Motion Of Hypothetical Magnetically Charged Particles On The Multilayer Surface And The Problem Of Low-Energy Fusion. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory

18. Adamenko, S. and V. Vysotskii. The possible mechanism of creation of light magnetic monopoles in strong magnetic field of a laboratory system. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Adamenko, S.
All Authors: Adamenko, S., Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory

In this work the reasons and mechanism of the creation of unknown magneto-charged particles, which were observed in experiments on supercompression of condensed target in Kiev Electrodynamics Laboratory “Proton-21”, are discussed. It is shown that these particles are most probably the hypothetical light magnetic monopoles that were introduced by George Lochak as magneto-excited neutrinos. The parameters of these particles (including mass of monopole and both size and binding energy of monopole-antimonopole pair) and the method of their creation are discussed and calculated.

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19. Adkisson, W.M., The Cause of and Happenings During Cold Fusion Events. 1991.

First Author: Adkisson, W. M.
All Authors: Adkisson, W. M.
Keywords: history

20. Adler, P.N., R.L. Schulte, and H. Margolin, Deuterium surface segregation in titanium alloys. Metal. Trans., 1990. 21A: p. 2003.

First Author: Adler, P. N.
All Authors: Adler, P. N., Schulte, R. L., Margolin, H.
Keywords: TiD, transmutation, D2, Ti

21. Adzic, R.R., et al. Tritium Measurements and Deuterium Loading in D2O Electrolysis With a Palladium Cathode. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Adzic, R. R.
All Authors: Adzic, R. R., Gervasio, I., Bae, I., Cahan, B., Yeager, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, OCV, loading, ICCF-1

ABSTRACTMeasurements have been performed to check on the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) phenomena. They involved 1) measurements of tritium in the cell solution and the gas above it; and 2) determination of the D/Pd ratio by coulometry. Enhancement of tritium in the D2O solution was found in these two open glass cells, as well as in another four cells with Ni-anodes. The largest enhancement factor found was ~50. The neutron measurements were inconclusive.

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22. Afanaseyev, V.P., et al. On the Possibility of D-D Fusion Stimulation by High-Current Arc Discharge in Gas-Filled Metal. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Afanaseyev, V. P.
All Authors: Afanaseyev, V. P., Dyuzhev, G. A., Logatchev, A. A., Tsirkel’, B. I., Shkolnik, S. M., Kazarinov, N., Solin, L. M.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, D2, gas discharge, neutron

23. Affatato, S., et al. Measurement of a Very Low Neutron Background Within a Significant Gamma-Ray Environment by Means of a Coincidence Spectrometer with n-g Pulse-Shape Discrimination. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Affatato, S.
All Authors: Affatato, S., Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bulgarelli, D., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., D’Antone, I., DeCastro, S., Galli, D., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Morganti, M., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poli, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Zavattini, G., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, method

24. Afonichev, D. High-Frequency Radiation And Tritium Channel. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Ti

In the process of deformation at a temperature T=710у of titanium alloy samples preliminarily saturated by deuterium a radiation, which is not a neutron flow was detected. Electromagnetic radiation in the range of radio frequencies was detected in titanium alloy samples in the process of their saturation by deuterium. The probable mechanism of its occurrence may be a retardation of charged particles in the metallic matrix.

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25. Afonichev, D. Ascending Diffusion Or Transmutation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: transmutation

In any field of investigations new ideas in combination with newly developed equipment can provide advance results. In view of arising interest to cold nuclear fusion (CNF) [1] and searches for consequences of its occurrence the study of the interaction of hydrogen with metals has coincided with the wide spread of the micro-probe X-ray spectrum analysis. This analysis is performed during measurements of alloying element concentration [1] with resolution of about 1×1 µm2.

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26. Afonichev, D. and M. Murzinova, Indicator of the process of cold fusion. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 1005-1010.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D., Murzinova, M.
Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion, Titanium, Deuterium, Tritium, Electromagnetic radiation, Radio frequencies

27. Afonichev, D. About products of nucleus reactions during diffusion of deuterium through palladium membrane (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D.
Keywords: Tritium

On the basis of the results of our previous experiments on deformation of deuterium saturated titanium alloy samples and saturation of titanium alloys, the mechanism of cold nuclear fusion proceeding via the tritium channel is proposed.

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28. Afonichev, D. and E.G. Galkin. On the products of nucleus reactions formed during deuterium diffusion through palladium membrane. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Afonichev, D.
All Authors: Afonichev, D., Galkin, E. G.
Keywords:

We report on the results of experimental observation of interaction of deuterons in a palladium membrane in deuterium gas under the pressure of P=0,07 Mpa. The temperature fluctuation with an amplitude of DT=4¸50 C was observed. After a 42 hour experiment, a significant increase in the number of of tritium (3T) atoms, N>109, has been revealed, while no traces of 4He have been found.

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29. Agelao, G. and M.C. Romano, Heat and helium production during exothermic reactions between gases through palladium geometrical elements loaded with hydrogen. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 224.

First Author: Agelao, G.
All Authors: Agelao, G., Romano, M. C.
Keywords: D2 Pd foil, film health

30. Agnello, M., et al. Search for Neutron Emission in Titanium-Deuterium Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2

31. Agnello, M., et al. Improvement of the TOFUS Apparatus. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Botta, E., Bressani, T., Brunasso, O., Calvo, D., Dattola, D., Gianotti, P., Lamberti, C., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: apparatus, method, neutron, ICCF-2

32. Agnello, M., et al. Measurement of 2.5 MeV Neutron Emission from Ti/D and Pd/D Systems. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Agnello, M.
All Authors: Agnello, M., Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Iazzi, F., Lamberti, C., Minetti, B., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2, ICCF-3

A new set of measurements of neutron emission from gas (D2 and H2) loaded Ti and Pd systems has been carried out in the TOFUS experiment. The temperature and pressure controls of the gas loading apparatus were improved. The results concerning the Ti/D system show the presence of a small 2.5 MeV neutron emission, with a signal having a statistical significance of ~ 5 sigma. The results on the Pd/D system doesn’t show a statistically significant signal (less ~ 2 sigma).

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33. Agostino, R.G., et al. Electronic Fingerprint of D Site Occupation in Pd Deuteride. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Agostino, R. G.
All Authors: Agostino, R. G., Filosa, R., Formoso, V., Liberti, G., De Ninno, A., D’Acapito, F., Colonna, S.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, structure, ICCF-8

34. Ahern, B.S., K.H. Johnson, and J. Clark, H. R., Method of Maximizing Anharmonic Oscillations in Deuterated Alloys. 1995: US Patent #5,411,654.

First Author: Ahern, B. S.
All Authors: Ahern, B. S., Johnson, K. H., Clark, Jr. , H. R.
Keywords:

35. Ahern, B.S. Energy Localization The key to Understanding Energy in Nanotechnology & Nature (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Ahern, B. S.
All Authors: Ahern, B. S.
Keywords: Theory

Nature assembles ordered structures out of chaos without a temperature gradient or energy input.Systems generally go from ordered to chaotic.How does nature go from the chaotic to ordered?

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36. Aiello, S., et al., Nuclear fusion experiment in palladium charged by deuterium gas. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 115.

First Author: Aiello, S.
All Authors: Aiello, S., De Filippo, E., Lanzano, G., Lo Nigro, S., Pagano, A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2, Pd, gamma emission, particle emission

37. Aina, R. and U. Mastromatteo. Investigation of anomalous densities of high-energy alpha-particles tracks in CR-39 detectors during electrolysis of heavy water on palladium cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Aina, R.
All Authors: Aina, R., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

No meaningful evidence of specific particle emission with E>2.5 MeV during D2O electrolysis (comparable track count), with or without Pd codeposition.

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38. Aizawa, H., et al., Detecting Energetic Charged Particle in D2O and H2O Electrolysis Using a Simple Arrangement of Cathode and CR-39. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Aizawa, H.
All Authors: Aizawa, H., Mita, K., Mizukami, D., Uno, H., Yamada, H.
Keywords: Charged particle, CR-39

Electrolysis of D2O and H2O solutions is carried out under several DC current patterns using a Ni film cathode. A CR-39 track detector is set in close contact with the cathode to detect an energetic charged particle. An impressive increasing in number of etch pit is occasionally observed.

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39. Akimoto, T., et al. Temperature dependency on counting efficiency of NE213 liquid scintillator for low level neutron measurement. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Akimoto, T.
All Authors: Akimoto, T., Mizuno, T., Saito, T., Murai, I., Kumada, T.
Keywords: neutron, detection, method, NE213, ICCF-6

Examination of the temperature dependency on counting efficiency of a NE213 liquid scintillator showed that the efficiency decreased with the detector temperature. This was explained as a decrease in fluorescence emission of the scintillator with the temperature increase. Therefore, correction is needed for background data in electrolysis experiments.

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40. Akita, H., et al. Electrolytic Hydrogen/Deuterium Absorption into Pd, Pd-Rh, and Pd-Ag Alloys in Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Akita, H.
All Authors: Akita, H., Tsuchida, Y., Nakata, T., Kubota, A., Kobayashi, M., Yamamoto, Y., Hasegawa, N., Hayakawa, N., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, Pd-Ag, Pd-Rh, loading, Au, ICCF-4, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

41. Al Katrib, A.K. and D.J. Nagel. Can Water be the Origin of Excess Energy? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Al Katrib, A. K.
All Authors: Al Katrib, A. K., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

This study was initiated due to the concern of some critics of LENR research that small energy changes in many H2O or D2O molecules in electrochemical cells can explain observed excess heat. More than three hundred LENR papers from 1989 to 2008 that reported excess energy were acquired and reviewed to extract quantitative results and other information. Excess energies and cell volumes were found in 17 papers. These data were used to compute eV per water molecule values. Most experiments showed excess energy outputs that would lead to ratios below the vibrational energy of water molecules at room temperature (0.04 eV/molecule). However, 65% of the papers, which reported both excess energies and cell volumes, indicated values significantly higher. The highest reported value was 42.6 eV/molecule. Eleven ratios are far beyond what is plausible for water to be the source of anomalous heat. Therefore, it is concluded that some unknown rearrangement of water molecules in many LENR experiments is not the source of excess heat.

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42. Alabin, K., et al., Isotopic and Elemental Composition of Substance in Nickel-Hydrogen Heat Generators. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 32-44.

First Author: Alabin, K.
All Authors: Alabin, K., Andreev, S. N., Sobolev, A. G., Zabavin, S. N., Parkhomov, A., Timerbulatov, T. R.
Keywords: Elemental composition, Heat generation, Hydrogen, Isotopic composition, Nickel

Results of isotopic and elemental composition analyses of fuel and matter near the active zone of nickel-hydrogen reactors before and after experiment with the integral excess energy up to 790 MJ are presented. No significant changes in the isotopic composition of nickel or lithium were observed. A significant increase in the concentration of impurities of a number of nuclides has been observed not only in fuel but also in structural elements adjacent to the active zones of the reactors.

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43. Albagli, D., et al., Measurement and analysis of neutron and gamma-ray emission rates, other fusion products, and power in electrochemical cells having Pd cathodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 133.

First Author: Albagli, D.
All Authors: Albagli, D., Ballinger, R. G., Cammarata, V., Chen, X., Crooks, R. M., Fiore, C., Gaudreau, M. P. J., Hwang, I., Li, C. K., Linsay, P., Luckhardt, S. C., Parker, R. R., Petrasso, R. D., Schloh, M., Wenzel, K. W., Wrighton, M. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd helium neutron- heat-, gamma emission, D2O, MIT

44. Alber, D., et al., Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 333: p. 319.

First Author: Alber, D.
All Authors: Alber, D., Boebel, O., Schwarz, C., Duwe, H., Hilscher, D., Homeyer, H., Jahnke, U., Spellmeyer, B.
Keywords: neutron, Jones

45. Alberg, M.A., et al., Upper limits to fusion rates of isotopic hydrogen molecules in palladium. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41: p. 2544.

First Author: Alberg, M. A.
All Authors: Alberg, M. A., Wilets, L., Rehr, J. J., Mustre de Leon, J.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, Pd fusion rate

46. Albers, P., et al., Investigations of palladium catalysts on different carbon supports. J. Catal., 1999. 181: p. 145.

First Author: Albers, P.
All Authors: Albers, P., Burmeister, R., Seibold, K., Prescher, G., Parker, S. F., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: catalyst, Pd

47. Aleksan, R., et al., Limits on electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium by neutron flux measurements. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 234: p. 389.

First Author: Aleksan, R.
All Authors: Aleksan, R., Avenier, M., Bagieu, G., Bouchez, J., Cavaignac, J. F., Collot, J., Cousinou, M. C., Declais, Y., Dufour, Y., Durand, R., Faure, R., Favier, J., Kajfasz, E., De Kerret, H., Koang, D. H., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Mallet, J., Nagy, E., Obolensky, M., Pessard, H., Pierre, F., Stutz, A., Wuethrick, J. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, D2O

48. Alekseev, V.A., et al., Tritium production in the interaction of dense streams of deuterium plama with metal surfaces. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1995. 21: p. 231.

First Author: Alekseev, V. A.
All Authors: Alekseev, V. A., Vasil’ev, V. I., Romodanov, V. A., Ryshkov, Yu. F., Rylov, S. V., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Strunnikov, V. M.
Keywords: Ti, V, Fe, Zr, Nb, tritium, gas discharge

49. Alessandrello, A., et al., Search for cold fusion induced by electrolysis in palladium. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. A103: p. 1617.

First Author: Alessandrello, A.
All Authors: Alessandrello, A., Bellotti, E., Cattadori, C., Antonione, C., Bianchi, G., Rondinini, S., Torchio, S., Fiorini, E., Guiliani, A., Ragazzi, S., Zanotti, L., Gatti, C.
Keywords: gamma emission, neutron, tritium, fractofusion, D2, Helium electrolysis, heat-, negative

50. Alexander, K.F., Cold nuclear fusion. Wissensch. Fortschr., 1989. 39: p. 9 (in German).

First Author: Alexander, K. F.
All Authors: Alexander, K. F.
Keywords: Review

51. Alexandrov, D. Heavy Electrons in Nano-Structure Clusters of Disordered Solids. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Alexandrov, D.
All Authors: Alexandrov, D.
Keywords: theory

The existence of heavy electrons is found theoretically in nano-structure clusters of disordered solids. The basis of the investigation is the electron band structures of disordered semiconductors previously determined by the author. The existence of electron energy pockets is found for the electrons in the conduction bands of these semiconductors that are nano-confining potential valleys of dimensions in the range of the primitive cell. The electron wave function of the confined electron is determined in when the electron interacts with local electrical field that is external for the energy pocket, and the average velocity of the electron is found. An expression for electron mass of an electron localized in pocket is derived. It is found that this electron mass is greater than the electron mass at rest and the confined electrons are designated heavy electrons. The possibility of interactions of protons with heavy electrons is discussed.

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52. Alguero, M., et al. On the Subsistence of Anomalous Nuclear Effects After Interrupting the Electrolysis in F-P Type Experiments with Deuterated Ti Cathodes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti D2O, loading neutron ICCF-4 electrolysis

53. Alguero, M., et al. An Experimental Method to Measure the Rate of H(D)-Absorption by a Pd Cathode During the Electrolysis of an Aqueous Solution: Advantages and Disadvantages. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: D/Pd, method loading, Pd, electrolysis ICCF-5

An experimental set up to measure the rate of BCD) uptake by a Pd cathode during the electrolysis of an aqueous electrolyte has been built and its behavior is analyzed. The experimental procedure is based on the pressure changes that take place within a closed electrolytic cell during the hydride (deuteride) formation. Calibration of the system has been done by accomplishing electrolysis with two Pl electrodes and the error sources have been studied. A protocol to be used in Pd hydrogenation (deuteration) is defined. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of this experimental m ethod against measurements of the Pd electric resistance variations are briefly discussed.

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54. Alguero, M., et al., An interpretation of some postelectrolysis nuclear effects in deuterated titanium. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 390.

First Author: Alguero, M.
All Authors: Alguero, M., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Ti, D2O fractofusion

55. Allard, K., et al., Application of the Electron-Donation Model for Hydrogen Absorption to Palladium-Rich Alloys. Hydrogen-Gold-Palladium. J. Phys. Chem., 1968. 72: p. 136.

First Author: Allard, K.
All Authors: Allard, K., Maeland, A. J., Simons, J. W., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: H, electron Structure Au-Pd Phase Diagram, loading

56. Altaiskii, M.V., et al., Fluctuational enhancement of quantum mechanical and wave barrier penetrability and some physical consequences. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990. 52(1): p. 78 (in Russian).

First Author: Altaiskii, M. V.
All Authors: Altaiskii, M. V., Artekha, S. N., Barts, B. I., Bar’yakhtar, V. G., Moiseev, S. S.
Keywords: Theory fluctuations vibration distance

57. Amato, I., Cold Fusion Keeps Its Head Just Above Water. Science News, 1989. 13: p. 278.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history

58. Amato, I., Cold Fusion Saga: Trials and Tribulations. Science News, 1990. 137(24): p. 374.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history

59. Amato, I., If Not Cold Fusion, Try Fracto-Fusion? Science News, 1990. 137: p. 87.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history, fractofusion

60. Amato, I., Cold Fusion:Wanted Dead And Alive, in Science News. 1990. p. 14.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: review, newspaper

61. Amato, I., Cluster Fusion: Close But No Cigar. Science, 1992. 256(5054): p. 178.

First Author: Amato, I.
All Authors: Amato, I.
Keywords: history

62. Ambadkar, A. and J. Dash, Electrolysis Of D2O With A Palladium Cathode Compared With Electrolysis Of H2O With A Platinum Electrode: Procedure And Experimental Details. 2003, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Ambadkar, A.
All Authors: Ambadkar, A., Dash, J.
Keywords: heat

A description of experimental procedures used by Ambadkar and Dash at the Low Energy Nuclear Laboratory (LENL), Portland State University.

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63. Amini, F. Production Method for Violent TCB Jet Plasma from Cavity. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Amini, F.
All Authors: Amini, F.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

1. IntroductionOne of our hydropower plants (Masjed – E – Soleyman, Iran) has four Francis turbines. Two units on the right side (looking downstream) share a common penstock and a common long tailrace tunnel, and the other two units on the left also share a penstock and tailrace tunnel. Upon commissioning of one unit, the hydraulic transient in the draft tube during load rejection above 75% was excessive. It was apparent that the guide vane closing law that had been adopted would result in water column separation during load rejection at full power. Tests with a slower closing rate showed that the risk of column separation was reduced, but a violent surge developed in the draft tube close to maximum over speed. The energy level and cavity volume that are produced are much more than those of regular TCB (Transient Cavitation Bubbles) experiments, and therefore, we should expect more intense effects than a regular TCB jet produces.

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64. Amini, F., The Study of Cavitation Bubble-Surface Plasmon Resonance Interaction For LENR and Biochemical processes. 2013, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Amini, F.
All Authors: Amini, F.
Keywords: Cavitation

The cavitation bubble resonator (CBR) can be used as a new coupling technique. The purpose of this paper is to study coupled SPR-CBR, coupled CBR-Nickel and coupled CBR-Biochemical. It is expected the cavitation bubble resonator assists a pseudo coupling process. The design of nano CBR cell can play a significant role in the sciences of therapeutic drugs and power generation.

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65. An, X.W., et al., Calorimetric investigation of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Thermochim. Acta, 1991. 183: p. 107.

First Author: An, X. W.
All Authors: An, X. W., Yan, H. K., Han, B. X., Guo, D., Xie, D. Y., Zhu, Q. H., Hu, R. H.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, heat, D2O, H2O

66. An, H.K., et al., Analysis of deformed palladium cathodes resulting from heavy water electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 408.

First Author: An, H. K.
All Authors: An, H. K., Jeong, E. I., Hong, J. H., Lee, Y.
Keywords: Pd Ti Au surface layer heat electrolysis D2O

67. Andermann, G. Theoretical Model for Low Temperature Nuclear Events. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Andermann, G.
All Authors: Andermann, G.
Keywords: theory

68. Andermann, G. A Theoretical Model (Nu-Q) for Rationalizing Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Events Observed in Deuterium Loaded Pd Cathodes. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Andermann, G.
All Authors: Andermann, G.
Keywords: theory dineutron ICCF-1

69. Anderson, I.S., D.K. Ross, and C.J. Carlile, The Structure of the g Phase of Palladium Deuteride. Phys. Lett. A, 1978. 68: p. 249.

First Author: Anderson, I. S.
All Authors: Anderson, I. S., Ross, D. K., Carlile, C. J.
Keywords: structure, PdD, lattice Parameter, gamma phase

70. Anderson, G.C., Clandestine NSF Panel Warms to Cold Fusion. The Scientist, 1989.

First Author: Anderson, G. C.
All Authors: Anderson, G. C.
Keywords: history

71. Anderson, R.E., et al. Neutron Measurements in Search of Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Anderson, R. E.
All Authors: Anderson, R. E., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W., Butterfield, K. B., Gottesfeld, S., Baker, D. A., Springer, T. E., Garzon, F. H., Bolton, R. D., Leonard, E. M., Chancellor, T.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, D2O, neutron

72. Anderson, R.E. and S.E. Jones. Comments on an Experiment at Yale on Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Anderson, R. E.
All Authors: Anderson, R. E., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: neutron, error, critique

73. Anderson, D.M. and J. Bockris, Cold Fusion at Texas A&M. Science, 1990. 249: p. 463.

First Author: Anderson, D. M.
All Authors: Anderson, D. M., Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

74. Anderson, J., et al., Letters and Response about Cold Fusion at Texas A&M. Science, 1990. 249: p. 463-465.

First Author: Anderson, J.
All Authors: Anderson, J., Bockris, J., Worledge, D. H., Taubes, G.
Keywords: history

75. Anderson, M., Big Idea: Bring Back the “Cold Fusion” Dream, in Discover Magazine. 2012.

First Author: Anderson, M.
All Authors: Anderson, M.
Keywords: Theory

76. Andreani, R., La fusione ‘fredda'” (“‘Cold’ fusion”). Energ. Nucl. (Rome), 1989. 6: p. 8 (in Italian).

First Author: Andreani, R.
All Authors: Andreani, R.
Keywords: history

77. Andresen, B.D., et al., Potentially explosive organic reaction mechanisms in Pd/D2O electrochemical cells. Chem. Health Safety, 1994. 1: p. 44.

First Author: Andresen, B. D.
All Authors: Andresen, B. D., Whipple, R. E., Alcaraz, A., Haas, J. S., Grant, P. M.
Keywords: explosion, SRI, accident

78. Angelone, M. Neutron Detection: Principles, Methods, Issues (and Tips) (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Angelone, M.
All Authors: Angelone, M.
Keywords: neutron

In this paper a very brief review of the main physical laws and basic detection principles for neutrons are addressed. The main issues to be faced when measuring pulsed “neutron emission”, as claimed in most experiments, are addressed too.It is not in the author’s intention to investigate whether or not neutrons are actually emitted in CMNS phenomena, however, an “ideal”; experiment that could allow to unambiguous measurement of neutrons from a CMNS type experiment will be outlined.

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79. Angelone, M. Neutron Detection: Principles, Methods, Issues (and Tips). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Angelone, M.
All Authors: Angelone, M.
Keywords:

The production and detection of neutrons in the so called “cold fusion” phenomena is claimed since the first announcement by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. In the last twenty years the same claim hasbeen made by other authors despite they were operating under different experimental conditions. However, most of the scientific community is yet sceptic about the actual emission of neutrons from events that in a more general statement are known as “low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matte-ܠ(CMNS) and the methods adopted by the various authors are often subjected to several criticisms. Indeed CMNS phenomena are rather complex and relate with several different subjects so synergy among various experts is necessary. Among these subjects, neutron detections requires a particular care and expertise because the measurements are carried out with a very low signal to noise ratio. In this paper a very brief review of the main physical laws and basic detection principles for neutrons are addressed. It is not in the autho-ڳ intention to investigate whether or not neutrons are actually emitted in CMNS phenomena, however, some tips that could allow to unambiguous measurement of neutrons from a CMNS type experiment will be addressed too.

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80. Anghaie, S., P. Froelich, and H.J. Monkhurst, On fusion/fission chain reactions in the Fleischmann-Pons ‘cold fusion’ experiment. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 500.

First Author: Anghaie, S.
All Authors: Anghaie, S., Froelich, P., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, fission,, fusion Li chain reaction

81. Antanasijevic, R.D., et al., Preliminary observations on possible implications of new Bohr orbits (resulting from electromagnetic spin-spin and spin-orbit coupling) in ‘cold’ quantum mechanical fusion processes appearing in strong ‘plasma focus’ and ‘capillary fusion’ experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 180: p. 25.

First Author: Antanasijevic, R. D.
All Authors: Antanasijevic, R. D., Lakicevic, I., Maric, Z., Zevic, D., Zaric, A., Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: Theory spin-spin, neutron, Pd, gas discharge electron mass

82. Antanasijevic, R.D., et al. “Cold Fusion” in Terms of New Quantum Chemistry: The Role of Magnetic Interactions in Dense Physica Media. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Antanasijevic, R. D.
All Authors: Antanasijevic, R. D., Konjevic, D. J., Maric, Z., Sevic, D. M., Vigier, J. P., Zaric, A. J.
Keywords: neutron, X-ray, plasma, gas discharge, ICCF-5

Various recently reported “break even” in different types of “cold fusion” experiments have a common physical origin if one assumes that one should add, in dense states, the action of magnetic interactions of oriented nuclear spins to the usual Coulomb forces. In that case one is led to predict a) the existence of new “tight” quantum molecular states (associated to new “tight” Bohr orbits) which correspond to the emission of X–ray lines and excess energy b) the associated apparition of a certain amount of nuclear fusion reactions due to those magnetic interactions and enhanced tunneling by strong electron concentrations. They appear in the form of neutron (or γ) bursts and various types of “ashes” of particular nuclear fusion reactions in electrolysis, glow discharge, capillary devices, resonance sonoluminescence and plasma discharge experiments. They both contribute to observable energy excess in amounts which vary which chosen set-ups.To explore this assumption two experiments are presented here i.e. 1) discharge experiments in plasma focus and “capillary fusion” devices (i.e. nuclear fusion) of 10^8 neutrons/burst 2) X-ray measurements in deuterium plasma focus which confirm the existence of new Bohr orbits.New possible experiments to check it are also briefly discussed.

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83. Antonov, V.E., et al., Phasometric T-P Diagram of the Rh-H System up to 400 C and Pressure of 67 kbar. Doky. Akad. Sci. SSSR, 1979. 248: p. 131.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Belash, I. T., Koltighin, V. M., Poniatovskii, E. G.
Keywords: Rh, H, phase Diagram

84. Antonov, V.E., et al., The Solubility of Hydrogen in the Platinum Metals under High Pressure. Platinum Met. Rev., 1984. 28: p. 158.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Belash, I. T., Malyshev, V. Yu., Ponyatovsky, E. G.
Keywords: Mn, Fe, Co, Mo, Tc, Re, Au, Ru, Os, Ir, Pt, Pd, H, solubility, phase Diagram, structure, resistance, pressure

85. Antonov, A.V., et al., An attempt to observe cold thermonuclear fusion during the electrolysis of heavy water. Sov. Phys. Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(5): p. 52.

First Author: Antonov, A. V.
All Authors: Antonov, A. V., Benetskii, B. A., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Klyachko, A. V., Konobeevskii, E. S., Mordovskoi, M. V., Popov, V. I., Rozantsev, A. I., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

86. Antonov, V.E., et al., The Pd-Pt-H System: Phase Transformations at High Pressure and Superconductivity. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1993. 78: p. 137.

First Author: Antonov, V. E.
All Authors: Antonov, V. E., Antonova, T. E., Belash, I. T., Ponyatovsky, E. G., Rashupkin, V. I.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, H, phase diagram, superconductivity, resistivity, lattice parameter

87. Anufriev, G.S. and B.S. Boltenkov, Helium isotopes and hydrogen in aluminium and other metals. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1991. 56(2): p. 73 (in Russian).

First Author: Anufriev, G. S.
All Authors: Anufriev, G. S., Boltenkov, B. S.
Keywords: 3He/4He, helium, tritium Al, Ag, Ni, electrolysis

88. Aoki, T., Y. Kurata, and H. Ebihara. Study of Concentrations of Helium and Tritium in Electrolytic Cells with Excess Heat Generations. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, helium, Pd, D2O, current density, gamma emission, neutron, ICCF-4, electrolysis, negative

Concentrations of helium and tritium in gas and liquid phases in calorimetric cells with excess heat generations were measured. Values of factor F (nuclear ash) defined as ratio of amount of heat released by particular nuclear reactions to the excess heat, were calculated to be F(He in gas phase) ≈ (4ѱ6)×10^-3 and F(T in liquid phase) ≈ (8Ѷ)×10^-10, and upper limit of F(T in gas phase) ≤ 1×10^-6. These extremely small values suggested either that (1) the nuclear reactions might occur in deep inside of the Pd cathode, or (2) the major amount of the detected excess heat could not match with the heat expected from the nuclear reactions if the reactions occurred on the surface of Pd cathodes.

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89. Aoki, T., et al. Search for neutrons emitted from sodium tungsten bronzes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H., Yoshikawa, N.
Keywords: neutron, W-bronze, NaWO3, ICCF-6

An experiment on the neutron emission from the single crystals of the sodium tungsten bronze (Na x WO3, x=0.9) was started to check the reproducibility. After applying the cathodic treatment to the crystals in a heating chamber, the neutron emission had been expected in the instants of pressurizing and depressurizing the deuterium gas. However, the weighted mean values of the measured neutron counting rates at these moments were in agreement with those of the background rates.

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90. Aoki, T., et al., Search for nuclear products of the D + D nuclear fusion. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 22.

First Author: Aoki, T.
All Authors: Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H., Yoshikawa, N.
Keywords: Pd, tungsten bronze, electrolysis, D2, heat, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, helium, NaWO3, negative

Nuclear products which were caused by the D + D nuclear fusion reaction were searched in electrolytic cells and in gas phase of Pd + D systems. Measurements of nuclear products were made for gamma-ray, neutron, tritium and helium. To detect neutron, liquid scintillation and 3He counters were used. For gamma-ray measurement, a NaI detector was used. For tritium concentration measurement in gas phase, a gas proportional chamber was fabricated and operated in low background level. The signals of those detectors were fed to Pulse Height Analyzer and recorded as energy spectra which were carefully compared with background spectra. A different type of neutron hunting was also tried in the instants of pressurizing and depressurizing the deuterium gas in crystal. A large size crystal of tungsten bronze was prepared for the experiment.

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91. Aoyama, T., et al., Highly reliable low-level neutron detection using 3He proportional counters. Radioisot., 1991. 40: p. 188.

First Author: Aoyama, T.
All Authors: Aoyama, T., Mori, C., Uritani, A., Matsui, T., Naito, K.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, method

92. Apak, R., Conformism in chemistry and the results. Kim. Sanayi, 1989. 31: p. 157-8 (in Turkish, Engl. abstr.).

First Author: Apak, R.
All Authors: Apak, R.
Keywords: history

93. Apicella, M., et al. Reproducibility of Excess of Power and Evidence of 4He in Palladium Foils Loaded with Deuterium (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Branover, H., Castagna, E., Dardik, I., El-Boher, A., Lesin, S., Mazzitelli, G., McKubre, M. C. H., Sarto, F., Sibilia, C., Santoro, E., Tanzella, F. L., Violante, V., Zilov, T.
Keywords: heat, helium

This presentation was given at the March APS meeting in Los Angeles, CA, March 24, 2005. Published by www.newenergytimes.com. Topics covered include: Material Science & Excess of Power Reproducibility, Surface Electronic Excitations with Lasers Trigger, Excess Power Reproducibility, Experimental Results

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94. Apicella, M., et al. Some recent results at ENEA. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Capobianco, L., D’Aulerio, L., Mazzitelli, G., Sarto, F., Rosada, A., Santoro, E., Violante, V., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Sibilia, C.
Keywords: Excess heat

Recent research activity at ENEA, in the field of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, has been oriented to material science and Laser triggering in order to increase the reproducibility of excess of power production during loading of palladium with deuterium. Isoperibolic calorimetry in gas phase, isoperibolic and flow calorimetry with electrochemical systems have been carried out. Nuclear ashes detection was done by means of high resolution and high sensitivity mass spectrometer. Material science studies allowed to obtain a palladium showing high solubility for hydrogen isotopes and giving deuterium concentration at equilibrium larger than 0.95 (as D/Pd atomic fraction) with a reproducibility larger than 90%. Excess of power production by using the above-mentioned material achieves a reproducibility up to 30% without triggering. Laser irradiation with a proper polarization seems to have a significant role in further increasing of the excess of power production reproducibility. Heat bursts exhibit an integrated energy at least 10 times greater than the sum of all possible chemical reactions within a closed cell. The energy gain calculated at the end of the experiments is observed with deuterium but not with hydrogen. Preliminary measurements give a 4He signal in reasonable agreement with the expected values by assuming a D + D = 4He + heat (24 MeV for event) reaction.

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95. Apicella, M., et al. Mass spectrometry: critical aspects related to the particles detection in the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method

SUMMARY * Mass spectrometry – potentiality of the technique – details on the measurement * Critical aspects and experimental requirements for: – mass spectrometer – measurment apparatus * Experimental set up at ENEA and some results

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96. Apicella, M., et al. Mass Spectrometry: Critical Aspects of Particles Detection related to Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Apicella, M.
All Authors: Apicella, M., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords:

The detection of transmutations in Fleischmann and Pons experiments is a critical issue in order to assess the nuclear origin of the excess heat production. A very accurate study in this field has been carried out in ENEA, aimed to investigate the possible occurrence of nuclear transmutation in nickel hydride thin films. The research work, which took several years and involved an international collaboration between many research laboratories, came to the conclusion that the experiments didn’t produce any evidence of transmutation experiments, pointing out the importance of using state of the art instrumentation in performing such a kind of study.

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97. Apostol, M. and I.A. Dorobantu, On a competition between solid state and nuclear scale energies. A possible theoretical approach to cold fusion in palladium and other transitional elements. Rev. Roum. Phys., 1989. 34: p. 233.

First Author: Apostol, M.
All Authors: Apostol, M., Dorobantu, I. A.
Keywords: Theory

98. Appleby, A.J., et al. Evidence for Excess Heat Generation Rates During Electrolysis of D2O in LiOD Using a Palladium Cathode-A Microcalorimetric Study. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Appleby, A. J.
All Authors: Appleby, A. J., Srinivasan, S., Kim, Y. J., Murphy, O. J., Martin, C. R.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

99. Appleby, A.J., et al. Anomalous Calorimetric Results During Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Palladium from Alkaline Deuteroxide Electrolyte. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Appleby, A. J.
All Authors: Appleby, A. J., Kim, Y. J., Murphy, O. J., Srinivasan, S.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis surface effect H2O Li6 Na current density helium ICCF-1

Convincing evidence of anomalous thermal fluxes from palladium cathodes in LiOD solutions is provided. When combined with other evidence for tritium formation, these argue for the existence of solid state nuclear processes in this system. Compared with previous work, effects are only seen at a relatively low level, and they appear to decrease with decreasing electrode surface/volume ratio. They are also observed in a sealed cell with internal gas recombination, which requires no thermodynamic corrections. The effect of lithium ion is seen to be specific, and the effect seems to involve only the palladium surface layers.

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100. Arachi, Y., et al., Structural analysis of nano-sized-Pd/ZrO2 composit after H(D) absorption. Solid State Ionics, 2006. 177: p. 1861-1864.

First Author: Arachi, Y.
All Authors: Arachi, Y., Emura, S., Omura, A., Nunogaki, M., Asai, T., Yamaura, S., Inoue, A., Arata, Y.
Keywords: Hydrogen absorption, XAFS, Nano-sized composite

101. Arapi, A., et al. Experimental observation of the new elements production in the deuterated and/or hydride palladium electrodes, exposed to low energy DC glow discharge. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Arapi, A.
All Authors: Arapi, A., Ito, R., Sato, N., Itagaki, M., Narita, S., Yamada, H.
Keywords: glow diacharge, D2, H2, transmutation, Ba, Ni, Li, Be, ICCF-9

Elemental and isotopic structures of the palladium cathode before and after experiment under DC glow discharge were investigated by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Production of new elements with various atomic masses and impurities increase were surveyed. By analyzing obtained results, it was found that beryllium and nickel for deuterium-palladium system, and lithium, nickel and barium for hydrogen-palladium system, were generated during glow discharge experiments.

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102. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense ‘cold fusion’ reaction. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1989. 62: p. 398 (In Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, heat

103. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of an intense cold fusion reaction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 95.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, method, Pd, electrolysis, neutron, hardness heat+

104. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of intense ‘cold’ fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1990. 66: p. 1.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, pressure, heat+, neutron+, D2O, fractofusion

105. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Corroborating evidence for ‘cold’ fusion reaction. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1990. 66(B): p. 110.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, Pd-Ni, layer

106. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. “Cold” Fusion in a Complex Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, Ni, D2, layer, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, H2O ICCF-3

A new cathode was developed, consisting of a nickel ride with a palladium layer applied by plasma spraying, the palladium layer activates the surface functions of the deuteride it cathode. High reproducibility of a “cold” fusion reaction is confirmed by using this cathode.

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107. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Reproducible “Cold” Fusion Reaction Using A Complex Cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 287.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, energy

108. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, ‘Cold’ fusion caused by a weak ‘on-off effect’. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1992. 66: p. 33.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: on-off effect, electrolysis, Pd, neutron, theory

109. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, ‘Cold’ fusion in deuterated complex cathode. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1992. 67((5)): p. 432 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Ni, Pd, electrolysis, heat, layer, D2O, neutron H2O

110. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Excess heat in a double structure deuterated cathode. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1993. 69((8)): p. 963 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: complex cathode, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, pressure, Pd-black

111. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy generated in DS-cathode with ‘Pd-black’. Koon Gakkaishi, 1994. 20(4): p. 148 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black heat+ particle

Abstract: It was verified that a new kind of energy is caused by “Spillover-Deuterium” generated in a double structure (DS)-cathode with “Pd-black”. Using this cathode, the authors confirmed the sustained production of a significantly abnormal amount of energy over a period of several months that could not be ascribed to chemical reaction energy. The chemical reaction energy of 0.1 [mol] Pd-black used is only 4[kJ], but more than 200[MJ] of excess energy was continuously produced for over 3000 [hr] at an average rate of 50-100 [kJ/hr] using a DS-cathode with a same quantity of Pd-black. Intermittent operation over a period of two years using this structure proved the complete reproducibility of these results.

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112. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, A new energy caused by “Spillover-deuterium”. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1994. 70 ser. B: p. 106.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black, D2 surface analysis, heat+, structure

113. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Excess Heat and Mechanism in Cold Fusion Reaction. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory heat+ ICCF-5 particle lattice quake

The authors have proposed a new “Model” which can reasonably explain the existence of Cold Fusion Reaction and also verify the generation of tremendous excess energy in the DS-cathode, which is fifty thousand times higher than chemical reaction energy. The new model is named “Latticequake Model”. Cold fusion is caused by high energy deuterium similar to “hot” fusion.

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114. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion (“cold fusion”). Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21((6)): p. 303 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd D2O, Helium, heat+, Pd-black

115. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Peculiar relation between hot plasma fusion and solid-state plasma fusion (“cold fusion”). Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21: p. 130 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, heat+, Pd-black, D2O electrolysis

116. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Cold fusion caused by ‘lattice quake’. Koon Gakkaishi, 1995. 21: p. 43 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory Pd-black D2O electrolysis, heat+

117. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Cold fusion reactions driven by ‘Latticequake’. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1995. 71: p. 98.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory

118. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Achievement of Solid-State Plasma Fusion (“Cold Fusion”). in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Pd-black, D2, heat+, helium ICCF-6 particle

In a series of studies, a significantly large amount of helium (^4He/D, = (1-0.2)~10^-2, D2: “fuel” :He: “ash”) was clearly detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) as the deuterium nuclear reaction product (“ash”) released from the highly deuterated palladium host-solid (Pd-black = 0.04 [mu]: distributed 0.02 – 0.06 [mu) that had produced large amounts of anomalous excess energy (200 – 500 [MJ/cm^3) through long period such as 5000 [hrs], when it was heated in a high vacuum (~10^4 [torr]), high temperature (3000 [deg C]).

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119. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Generation and mechanism of solid-state plasma fusion (“cold fusion”). Koon Gakkaishi, 1996. 22(1): p. 29 (Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory

120. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Deuterium nuclear reaction process within solid. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1996. 72 Ser. B: p. 179.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: Theory, helium

121. Arata, Y. and C. Zhang, Presence of helium (4/2He, 3/2He) confirmed in highly deuterated Pd-black by the new detecting methodology. J. High Temp. Soc., 1997. 23: p. 110 (in Japanese).

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, C.
Keywords: Helium method, D2O

122. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Solid-state plasma fusion (‘cold fusion’). J. High Temp. Soc., 1997. 23 (special volume): p. 1-56.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: theory, helium heat+,, lattice quake, D2O, Pd-black, 4He

123. Arata, Y. and C. Zhang, Presence of helium (4/2He, 3/2He) confirmed in deuterated Pd-black by the “vi-effect” in a “closed QMS” environment. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1997. 73: p. 62.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Helium D2O, H2O

124. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Helium (4He, 3He) within deuterated Pd-black. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1997. 73: p. 1.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: helium heat+, Pd-black

125. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous difference between reaction energies generated within D2O-cell and H2O-cell. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1998. 37: p. L1274.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+ D2O, H2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Both D2O-cell and H2O-cell are constructed with the same Double Structure Cathode (DS-cathode), and connected in series as a “Double-cell” to examine the energy generation under the same electrolytic current. D2O-cell generates tremendously excess energy during a long. Such as over several thousand hours, but any energy is never generated in H2O-cell when the chemical energy is subtracted in both cells. . . .

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126. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous ‘deuterium-reaction energies’ within solid. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1998. 74 B: p. 155.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, Pd-black, heat+, D2O, H2O

Both D2O-cell and H2O-cell are constructed with the same Double Structure Cathode (DS-cathode) and connected in series as a “Double-cell” to examine the energy generation under the same electrolytic current. D20-cell generates tremendously excess energy during a long period such as over several thousand hours, but any energy is never generated in H2O-cell when the chemical energy is subtracted in both cells.Furthermore, “Mixed-cell” blended with D2O and H2O electrolytes (D2O /H2O=2 in weight) also generates an excess energy, but with the considerably different characteristics from D2O-cell.

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127. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Observation of Anomalous Heat Release and Helium-4 Production from Highly Deuterated Fine Particles. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1999. 38: p. L774.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+ D2O, H2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Observations were made of the anomalous production of 4He atoms as well as the anomalous heat release when Pd fine particles are highly deuterated inside an enclosed Pd metal vessel used as a cathode in electrolysis of D2O. A mass analysis of the remnant Pd powders after the 2000-hr heat production revealed substantial production of 4He atoms.

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128. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Anomalous production of gaseous 4He at the inside of ‘DS cathode’ during D2O-electrolysis. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75: p. 281.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, helium Pd-black, D2O

Abstract: Observations were made of the abundant production of gaseous 4He inside a double-struc­ture Pd cathode (“DS-cathode”) which continuously had released excess heat of about 5~ 10 W over 2,000 hrs in the electrolysis of D2O. These 4He atoms were found from the inner atmosphere within the DS-cath­ode included the highly deuterated Pd fine powders.

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129. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Definitive difference between [DS-D2O] and [Bulk-D2O] cells in ‘deuterium-reaction’. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75 Ser. B: p. 71.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Helium, D2O

130. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Critical condition to induce ‘excess energy’ within [DS-H2O] cell. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 1999. 75 Ser. B: p. 76.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Helium D2O

131. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Sono Implantation of Hydrogen and Deuterium from Water into Metallic Fine Powders. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: cavitation , powder, Ti, Fe, Pd, Ag, Ta, Pt, Au, loading, method. ICCF-8

132. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Definite Difference amoung [DS-D2O], [DS-H2O] and [Bulk-D2O] Cells in the Deuterization and Deuterium-reaction. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: heat+ Pd-black D2, H2, Helium ICCF-8 particle

133. Arata, Y., Developmental challenge in new energy source. ‘Solid state plasma fusion'”. Kotai Butsuri, 2000. 35(1): p. 67 [in Japanese].

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: Review

134. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang. Picnonuclear fusion generated in “lattice-reactor” of metallic deuterium lattice within metal atom-clusters. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: gas loading, sonofusion, heat, D2, He, nanoparticle, loading, ICCF-9

135. Arata, Y. and Y.C. Zhang, Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and Nuclear Fusion. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 2002. 78(Ser. B): p. 57.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y. C.
Keywords: PdD D2 Pd structure particle composition ZrO2

Abstract: It was confirmed that nanometer-sized metal powder (atom clusters or simply clusters) can absorb an extremely large amount of deuterium/hydrogen atoms more than 300% against the number density of host metal. Within such clusters, the bonding potential widely changes from the center region to peripheral ones, so that the zig-zag atom-chains are always formed dynamically around the average position of atoms and the degree of filling up of the constituent atoms for the fcc type metal reduces to about 0.64 from 0.74 in bulk metal, i.e., vacant space increases to 0.36 from 0.26. As a result, a large amount of deuterium/hydrogen atoms are instantly dissolved into such host-clusters at room temperature. . . .

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136. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang. Development of Compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor Using Solid Pycnodeuterium as Nuclear Fuel. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: Palladium Black, pressure

Based on the functioning of Pd black inside a DS-Cathode, which has produced irrefutable evidence for the existence of solid nuclear fusion, new materials were developed to absorb abundant D/H atoms, up to levels as high as 300% of Pd number. These absorbed atoms were solidified densely inside each unit cell of the host lattice as solid-state “Pycnodeuterium” or “Pycnohydrogen.” Stimulation energy with Pycnodeuterium easily caused intense solid-statenuclear fusion, whereas with Pycnohydrogen no reaction occurred. As the result, it was clarified that Pycnodeuterium is by far the best nuclear fuel compared to all other nuclear fuels.

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137. Arata, Y., The Formation Of “Solid Deuterium'” Solidified Inside Crystal Lattice And Intense Solid-State Nuclear Fusion (“Cold Fusion'”). Il Nuovo Saggiatore, 2004.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles,

138. Arata, Y. Development of “DS-Reactor” as the practical reactor of “Cold Fusion” based on the “DS-Cell” with “DS-Cathode”. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y.
Keywords: heat

Lecture slides describing a gas-loaded version of Arata’s double-structured cathode.

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139. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang. Establishment of the “Solid Fusion” Reactor. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat,

140. Arata, Y. and Y. Zhang, The Establishment of Solid Nuclear Fusion Reactor. J. High Temp. Soc., 2008. 34(2): p. 85.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y.
Keywords: Excess heat

141. Arata, Y., Y. Zhang, and X. Wang. Production of Helium and Energy in the “Solid Fusion” (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X.
Keywords: heat, helium

Conclusion:(1) Either excess energy or helium of the ZrNiPd powder is always about ten times higher than that of the ZrPd powder.(2) By using the weight 16 [g] of the ZrNiPd powder, the excess power 4 [watt] lasted stably for one hour, only less than one gram palladium was consumed. Its cost is lower than the ZrPd powder. We choose the ZrNiPd powder as a good material for the solid fusion.(3) The concentration of helium was very successful. These results indicate that the reacted gas of “solid nuclear fusion” can serve as a source of helium production.

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142. Arata, Y., Y. Zhang, and X.F. Wang. Production of Helium and Energy in the “Solid Fusion”. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Arata, Y.
All Authors: Arata, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, X. F.
Keywords:

In this paper, a new type “Solid Fusion Reacto-ݠhas been developed to test the existence of solid state nuclear fusion (“Solid Fusion”): reproducible experiments have been made at room temperature and without external power input. (Both of the energy and helium generation affected by the reactor structure, gas flow rate, powder weight, and cooling condition were studied.) Deuterium gas loading processes of two types of nano material (ZrO2Pd35 and ZrO2Ni30Pd5) were studied respectively in this paper. The results showed the energy produced in ZrNiPd powder is higher than in ZrPd powder. Helium as an important evidence of solid-state fusion was detected by mass analyzer “QMS”. As results, “Solid Fusion” has been confirmed by the helium existence.

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143. Arista, N.R., A. Gras-Marti, and R.A. Baragiola, Screening effects in nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes in dense media. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 6873.

First Author: Arista, N. R.
All Authors: Arista, N. R., Gras-Marti, A., Baragiola, R. A.
Keywords: Theory screening

144. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, The Decrease of Lattice Parameter of Thin Films Caused by Cathodic Charging of Hydrogen. Scr. Metall., 1985. 19: p. 525.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, H2, Ti

The phenomena that take place when some b.c.c, metals are cathodically charged with hydrogen are being studied by x-ray diffraction, and some preliminary results and a plausible explanation have been reported (i). Briefly, the lattice parmeter calculated from Bragg peaks obtained from diffraction by metal near the surface of the sheet opposite the charging surface increases at a rate that is extremely low in view of the known diffusivity of hydrogen in the metal. In addition, different Bragg reflections lead to different values of lattice parameters and to different time dependencies; also, grain rotation occurs. The suggested mechanism for these phenomena involves large amounts of plastic deformation caused by stress generation caused by hydrogen concentration gradients. We report here an additional phenomenon that occurs in thin metal films sputtered upon a much thicker metal substrata when the latter is cathodically charged with hydrogen. A provisional explanation is offered.

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145. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Anomalies Accompanying the Cathodic Charging of Some bcc Metals. Corrosion, 1985. 41: p. 287.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H2, lattice Parameter, loading, Ti

146. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Plastic Deformation in B.C.C. Alloys Induced by Hydrogen Concentration Gradients. Mater. Sci. and Eng., 1987. 91: p. 143.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H, dislocation, Ti-Mo, crack, lattice parameter, Ti

Electrolytic charging of hydrogen in to one side of polycrystalline b.c.c. Ti-30Mo plates (where the composition is given in approximate weight per cent) is found to generate dislocations at which the hydrogen atoms are trapped during their diffusion across the metal thickness. The defect generation is a result of stresses arising from the hydrogen concentration gradient at the entry surface. The generation of dislocations occurs on initiating the charging and persists thereafter with emission of dislocations towards the far side of the plate. As a consequence, slip lines and subgrains are formed at the entry and far sides. . . .

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147. Armacanqui, M.E. and R.A. Oriani, Lattice Expansion and Contraction in Sputtered Metal Films due to Hydrogen Charging. Mater. Sci. and Eng., 1987. 92: p. 127.

First Author: Armacanqui, M. E.
All Authors: Armacanqui, M. E., Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, H2, Ti

Hydrogen charging of Ti-3OMo plates (where the composition is in approximate weight per cent) sputtered with thin films of iron, tantalum or titanium results in an increase or decrease in the film lattice parameter, depending on the circumstances. Films thinner than 200 nm show continuous decreases in lattice parameter during charging, whereas relatively thick films show positive changes in the lattice parameter. The decrease in the lattice parameter of the film metal is a consequence of fine-scale plastic deformation caused by the hydrogen charging. . . .

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148. Armstrong, R.D., Editorial:The Cold Fusion Debate. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1287.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D.
Keywords: history, critique

149. Armstrong, R.D., et al., Some aspects of thermal energy generation during the electrolysis of D2O using a palladium cathode. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1319.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D., Charles, E. A., Fells, I., Molyneux, L., Todd, M.
Keywords: heat, electrolysis, Pd D2O method

150. Armstrong, R.D., et al., A long-term calorimetric study of the electrolysis of D2O using palladium cube cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 272: p. 293.

First Author: Armstrong, R. D.
All Authors: Armstrong, R. D., Charles, E. A., Fells, I., Molyneux, L., Todd, M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, heat-, review, D2O

151. Arnikar, H.J., ‘Cold fusion’ – a misnomer. Indian J. Chem. Sci., 1990. 4: p. 65.

First Author: Arnikar, H. J.
All Authors: Arnikar, H. J.
Keywords: Polemic, review, theory

152. Arnold, W.R., et al., Cross Sections for the Reactions D-T, D-He ,T-He, He-He below 120 kev. Phys. Rev., 1954. 93: p. 483.

First Author: Arnold, W. R.
All Authors: Arnold, W. R., Phillips, J. A., Sawyer, G. A., Stovall, E. J., Tuck, J. L.
Keywords: fusion cross Section tritium D2, Helium, branching ratio

153. Arnoult, W. and R.B. McLellan, The Solubility of Carbon in Rhodium, Ruthenium, Iridium and Rhenium. Scr. Metall., 1972. 6: p. 1013.

First Author: Arnoult, W.
All Authors: Arnoult, W., McLellan, R. B.
Keywords: C, Rh, Ru, Ir, Rh, Pd, solubility

154. Arzhannikov, A.V. and G.Y. Kezerashvili, First observation of neutron emission from chemical reactions. Phys. Lett., 1991. A156: p. 514.

First Author: Arzhannikov, A. V.
All Authors: Arzhannikov, A. V., Kezerashvili, G. Ya
Keywords: LiD, fractofusion, neutron chemical reaction

155. Asami, N. and K. Matsui, Research and development for new hydrogen energy. Mater. Adv. Energy Systems & Fission and Fusion Eng., 1994. 7: p. 119.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Matsui, K.
Keywords: NHE

156. Asami, N., K. Matsui, and F. Hasegawa. Present Status and the Perspective of New Hydrogen Energy Project. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Matsui, K., Hasegawa, F.
Keywords: review, NHE ICCF-5

A research and development project, named as ‘New Hydrogen Energy’, has started in Japan in November, 1993, to confirm the excess heat generation during electrolysis with Pd-LiOD system as the first priority objective. The project has been supported by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) and major industries in Japan, and new laboratory was established in Sapporo.Present status and the perspectives of the project will be reported together with main technical results. Two types of electrolysis cells, namely, open type cell system from IMRA- Europe, Inc. and the fuel cell type cell systems from IMRA- Japan, Inc. , were installed in NHE Sapporo laboratory and the experiments have started from February 1994 to demonstrate the NHE-phenomena.Correlationships among maximum attainable DlPd ratio, deuterium absorption and desorption and the characteristics of various palladium sources and treatments have been studied and analysed based on the resultsof the material observations and instrumentational analysis such as O/M , SEM , XRD, AES , SIMS and EPMA.The laboratory will be reinforced by introducing of mass flow calorimetry systems, and reaction products detection systems towards an interim review scheduled in late 1995.This R&D program has been conducted under the consignment of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization(NEDO).

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157. Asami, N., et al., Material characteristics and behavior of highly deuterated loaded palladium by electrolysis. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 185.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Sumi, M., Kennel, E., Sakai, T., Mori, K., Watanabe, H., Matsui, K.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdD, electrolysis, surface, single-crystal, D2O, electrolysis

158. Asami, N., et al. Material Behaviour of Highly Deuterium Loaded Palladium by Electrolysis. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Sumi, M., Kennel, E., Sakai, T., Mori, K., Watanabe, H., Matsui, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, single crystal, ICCF-6, electrolysis

Abstract We have presumed that achieving high reproducibility of the anomalous effect may depend upon reproducible high loading ratios of deuterium in the Palladium. By modification of the working process, heat treatment, surface treatment, and the electrolysis conditions, the deuterium loading up to 0.9~0.96 was achieved with relatively high reproducibility. Detail features of the loading and deloading process were observed by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis and by in-situ optical micrographs during electrolysis. Crystal phase and lattice parameter changes were also measured to find any new phase by the in-situ X-ray diffraction system which was newly developed at the NHE-Lab. The phase transition of α-β during the loading and unloading process was well identified, however no new phase was observed up to a loading ratio of about 0.90.

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159. Asami, N., et al. Material Behavior of Highly Deuterated Palladium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Miyashita, S., Matsui, K.
Keywords: loading, PdD, anneal, phase change, ICCF-7

160. Asami, N., et al. Material Behavior of Highly Deuterated Palladium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Asami, N.
All Authors: Asami, N., Senjuh, T., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Miyashita, S., Matsui, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2, PdD, loading, composition lattice parameter structure, ICCF-9

161. Asami, T., Study on the Phenomenon Reported “Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas”. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 7-16.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T.
Keywords: Crystal lattice, Deuterium, Neutron generation, Octahedron cage, Tetrahedoron cage, Titanium

This paper describes the analysis and study of the neutron generation experiment performed under pressurized and/or evacuated conditions between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature, using titanium shavings and deuterium gas packed in a cylinder. To clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, the author has studied the experiment taking into account the characteristics of the phase equilibrium, the metal crystal construction, the theory of chemical bond and the first principle molecular orbital calculation. From the result of this study, it seems that the same phenomenon will happen in a similar experiment performed using another electron deficient metal with a suitable crystal construction.

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162. Asami, T. and N. Sano, Study on the Phenomenon Reported “Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas” (2). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 1-9.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T., Sano, N.
Keywords: Deuterium, Neutron generation, Proposed apparatus, Tetrahedron cage, Titanium

Following the previous study of the state of deuterium atoms in the titanium crystal (J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 5 ( 2011 ) 7), in this paper, the authors have analyzed the state of the deuterium atom in a tetrahedron cage, using the first principle molecular orbital calculation. In the simulation analysis of the tetrahedron cage, it is indicated that the titanium pair causes the deuterium atom to have ligancy 2 in the cage with two hydrogen atoms. If neutron generation occurs, we can deduce from the past experimental results that it occurs after a small increase of kinetic energy of deuterium atoms. This suggests that the quantity of neutron generated may increase if we can give kinetic energy to the adsorbed deuterium atoms in the titanium crystal by another means other than a temperature rise, at a suitable temperature and pressure. The authors propose a new experimental apparatus which appears to promote and increase the neutron generation.

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163. Asami, T., et al., Study on the Phenomenon Reported “Neutron Generation at Room Temperature in a Cylinder Packed with Titanium Shavings and Pressurized Deuterium Gas”. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Asami, T.
All Authors: Asami, T., Giorgi, G., Yamashita, K., Balanzoni, P.
Keywords: Adsorption, Coulomb force, Desorption, Deuterium, Nuclear force, Titanium

In this paper, the authors have intended to ascertain the driving force for an adsorbed deuterium atom or a deuteron to collide in titanium crystal. Recent simulation analysis results, related to the predicted cluster or cell models of deuterium atoms adsorbed in titanium crystal, together with the related calculations by Coulomb formula and Yukawa formula were investigated. Coulomb force working between deuteron-deuteron (d-d) particles is compared with the nuclear force working between them. The change of the force to each of them is evaluated in accordance with the distance between them, near the surface of the atomic nucleus. Taking into account the results of previous studies, it seems that nuclear fusion will occur occasionally without adding any specified energy. We think that there is a possibility of a collision of free deuterons through the medium of a negative charge in a deuterium atom in ligancy 2. On the other hand, we think that if a suitable amount of energy, which is far smaller than that of high temperature nuclear fusion, such as the irradiation of the alternative electromagnetic wave, for example, is supplied to adsorbed deuterium atoms and desorbed deuterons in the titanium (Ti) shavings packed in the experimental cylinder under a pressurized or evacuation condition with a suitable temperature rise, then there also will be a higher probability of nuclear fusion being achieved.

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164. Asaoka, Y., et al. Simultaneous Measurement Device of Heat and Neutron of Heavy Water Electrolysis with Palladium Cathode. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Asaoka, Y.
All Authors: Asaoka, Y., Ichiji, T., Fujita, T., Matsumura, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat-, electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-5

An experimental device of cold fusion phenomena has been developed. Feature of the device is precise calorimetry and simultaneous measurement of excess heat, neutron and gamma-ray emitted from the electrolysis cell. The deuterium loading ratio of the palladium cathode can be measured simultaneously.The galvanostatic electrolysis of heavy water with Pd cathode and Pt anode has been carried out in a closed cell with recombination catalyst. For precise excess heat measurement, the flow calorimetry method were adopted. Obtained accuracy of the calorimetry system was Ѱ.2W at up to 10W of applied power. The electrolysis cell wasset in shielding and neutron emission was detected by an NE-213 liquid scintillation counter and a He-3 proportional detector. Gamma-ray emission was measured with the Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. Electric resistance of the palladium cathode and pressure of the gas phase in the electrolytic cell were measured simultaneously to evaluate the deuterium loading ratio. D/Pd ratio evaluated by each method has reached approximately 0.87.With these in-situ measurements of heat, neutron and gamma-ray, no remarkable cold fusion phenomena have been observed up to the present time.

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165. Aspden, H., Refrigeration and electrical power generation. 1993: UK GB 2283361A.

First Author: Aspden, H.
All Authors: Aspden, H.
Keywords: thermoelectric, energy Conversion, patent,

166. Assenbaum, H.J., K. Langanke, and C. Rolfs, Effects of Electron Screening on Low-Energy Fusion Cross Sections. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1987. 327: p. 461.

First Author: Assenbaum, H. J.
All Authors: Assenbaum, H. J., Langanke, K., Rolfs, C.
Keywords: theory screening, cross section

167. Astakhov, I.I., et al., An attempt to detect neutron and gamma radiations in heavy water electrolysis with a palladium cathode. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36(7): p. 1127.

First Author: Astakhov, I. I.
All Authors: Astakhov, I. I., Davydov, A. D., Katargin, N. V., Kazarinov, V. E., Kiseleva, I. G., Kriksunov, L. B., Kudryavtsev, D. Yu., Lebedev, I. A., Myasoedov, B. F., Shcheglov, O. P., Teplitskaya, G. L., Tsionskii, V. M.
Keywords: neutron gamma emission, Pd, electrolysis, Li, D2O, H2O, surface analysis

168. Astakhov, I.I., et al., Diffusion of hydrogen isotopes in palladium hydride and deuteride in the presence of lithium. Russ. J. Electrochem., 1994. 30: p. 1379.

First Author: Astakhov, I. I.
All Authors: Astakhov, I. I., Kazarinov, V. E., Reznikova, L. A., Teplitskaya, G. L.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, PdD, Li, PdLiH

169. Attas, E.M., et al., Solar flares and ‘cold fusion’. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 390.

First Author: Attas, E. M.
All Authors: Attas, E. M., Chambers, K. W., Dueck, W., Dutton, R., McIlwain, A. K.
Keywords: Polemic, solar flares, neutron, critique

170. Augustynski, J., Commentaire: Pourquoi les experiences de ‘fusion froide’ de deuterium sont-elles si difficiles a reproduire. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 99 (in French).

First Author: Augustynski, J.
All Authors: Augustynski, J.
Keywords: Li, surface analysis, layer, theory, OCV

171. Augustynski, J., M. Ulmann, and J. Liu, Electrochemical measurements on palladium cathodes in LiOD/D2O solutions related to the ‘cold fusion experiments’. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 355.

First Author: Augustynski, J.
All Authors: Augustynski, J., Ulmann, M., Liu, J.
Keywords: surface deposition, electrolysis, surface analysis, layer

172. Ault, M.R., Cold fusion: the story behind the headlines. Radiat. Prot. Manage., 1990. 8((3)): p. 49.

First Author: Ault, M. R.
All Authors: Ault, M. R.
Keywords: review

173. Avino, P., et al. Impurity measurements by instrumental neutron activation analysis on palladium, nickel and copper thin-films (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Avino, P.
All Authors: Avino, P., Rosada, A., Santoro, E., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, contamination

AIM OF THE WORK Series of experiments analyzing the materials and substances with the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for both choosing the purest materials and discarding the others, and checking the blanks, and investigating elements present in electrodes after the test.Preliminarily, some candidate materials to be used in the experiments were analyzed by INAA; after, electrode blanks and electrolyte solutions were analyzed, and finally, the electrodes used and the electrolyte solutions exhausted as well.Electrolysis experiments on mono- and multi-layered thin films of Pd and Ni; possibility of observation of new atomic species; some species could be produced by nuclear transmutation in condensed matter.

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174. Azbel, M.Y., Possibility of cold fusion. Solid State Commun., 1990. 76(2): p. 127.

First Author: Azbel, M. Ya.
All Authors: Azbel, M. Ya.
Keywords: review theory

175. Azizi, O., et al., Progress towards understanding anomalous heat effect in metal deuterides. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Azizi, O.
All Authors: Azizi, O., El-Boher, A., He, J., Hubler, G. K., Pease, D., Isaacson, W., Violante, V., Gangopadhyay, S.
Keywords:

176. Azizi, O., et al., Effect of Cathode Pretreatment and Chemical Additives on H/D Absorption into Palladium via Electrochemical Permeation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Azizi, O.
All Authors: Azizi, O., He, J., Paterson, D., El-Boher, A., Pease, D., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Absorption, Deuterium, Impedance spectroscopy, Palladium, Permeation

In this study, we applied a variety of palladium pretreatment methods, including nitric acid etching, Aqua regia etching and electrochemical oxidation/reduction to determine the effect of cathode initial condition on hydrogen absorption into palladium during the loading process. The electrochemical behavior of palladium was characterized using electrochemical permeation, electrochemical desorption, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The hydrogen diffusion coefficient in palladium membrane was obtained using the time-lag method. The lattice diffusivity of hydrogen as well as the amounts and distribution of the diffused and trapped hydrogen were analyzed using the desorption rate of hydrogen. We also investigated the effect of pyridine, a permeation promoter on hydrogen absorption in palladium membranes. Electrochemical parameters of double layer capacitance, charge transfer resistance and surface roughness were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy for both treated and untreated cathodes. This study shows that the ability to load Pd with hydrogen is only mildly affected by surface pretreatment and the chemical additives, and therefore, we consider the pretreatments a second order effect regarding the ability to load.

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177. Azumi, K., et al., Acoustic emission from a palladium electrode during hydrogen charging and its release in a LiOH electrolyte. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 347: p. 111.

First Author: Azumi, K.
All Authors: Azumi, K., Ishiguro, S., Mizuno, T., Seo, M.
Keywords: acoustic emission, electrolysis, fractofusion, Pd

178. Azzarone, D., F. Fontana, and D. Garbelli. Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading in Thin Palladium Wires. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Azzarone, D.
All Authors: Azzarone, D., Fontana, F., Garbelli, D.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, method. ICCF-8

179. Babu, K.S.C., et al., On the formation of palladium deuteride and its relationship to suspected cold fusion. Adv. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 8 Hydrogen Energy Prog. VIII, Vol. 2): p. 1051.

First Author: Babu, K. S. C.
All Authors: Babu, K. S. C., Lalla, N. P., Pandey, R. N., Tiwari, R. S., Srivastava, O. N.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O H2O, p-d fusion, heat+ Pd

180. Bacchi, S., Coletanea de artigos sobre o aparelho de fusao a frio Rossi. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bacchi, S.
All Authors: Bacchi, S.
Keywords: Review

Some articles and papers about the Rossi device translated into Portuguese.

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181. Badurek, G., H. Rauch, and E. Seidl, Search for cold fusion in palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium. Kerntechnik, 1989. 54: p. 178.

First Author: Badurek, G.
All Authors: Badurek, G., Rauch, H., Seidl, E.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, titanium, D2

182. Bae, Y.K., D.D. Lorents, and S.E. Young, Experimental confirmation of cluster-impact fusion. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1991. 44: p. R4091.

First Author: Bae, Y. K.
All Authors: Bae, Y. K., Lorents, D. D., Young, S. E.
Keywords: cluster, ion bombardment

183. Bagnulo, L.H. Crack-fusion: a Plausible Explanation of Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bagnulo, L. H.
All Authors: Bagnulo, L. H.
Keywords: fractofusion, theory, ICCF-2

184. Bailan, R., J.P. Blaizot, and P. Bonche, Cold Fusion in a Dense Electron Gas. J. Phys. France, 1989. 50: p. 2307.

First Author: Bailan, R.
All Authors: Bailan, R., Blaizot, J. P., Bonche, P.
Keywords: theory, screening

185. Bailey, D.C., Gammas from Cold Nuclear Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Bailey, D. C.
All Authors: Bailey, D. C.
Keywords: neutron, gamma, theory

186. Baird, J.K., Isotope effect in hydrogen atom diffusion in metals. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1994. submitted.

First Author: Baird, J. K.
All Authors: Baird, J. K.
Keywords: diffusion, PdD, PdH

187. Balabanov, N.P., Hypothesis to explain electrochemically induced nuclear fusion. Nauchni Tr., Plovdivski Univ., 1989. 26(4): p. 247 (in Bulgarian).

First Author: Balabanov, N. P.
All Authors: Balabanov, N. P.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

188. Balbaa, I.S., et al., The Effect of Lattice Distortions on the X-Ray Measurement of Lattice Parameters for PdHx: I. Empirical Relationships. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1987. 17: p. 2041.

First Author: Balbaa, I. S.
All Authors: Balbaa, I. S., Hardy, P. A., San-Martin, A., Coulter, P. G., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: Lattice Parameter, PdH, stress

189. Baldo, M., R. Pucci, and P.F. Bortignon, Relaxation toward equilibrium in plasmon-enhanced fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 347.

First Author: Baldo, M.
All Authors: Baldo, M., Pucci, R., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: review, theory

190. Baldo, M. Enhancement of Fusion Rate Induced by the Collective Electron Excitations. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Baldo, M.
All Authors: Baldo, M.
Keywords: theory, electron, excitation screening, ICCF-2

191. Balej, J. and J. Divisek, Energy balance of D2O electrolysis with a palladium cathode, Part I. Theoretical relations. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 278: p. 85.

First Author: Balej, J.
All Authors: Balej, J., Divisek, J.
Keywords: heat, method, thermodynamnic, PdD, electrolysis

192. Balescu, R., Some like it cool. Phys. Mag, 1989. 11: p. 3 (French).

First Author: Balescu, R.
All Authors: Balescu, R.
Keywords: Review

193. Balian, R., J.P. Blaizot, and P. Bonche, Cold fusion in a dense electron gas. J. Phys. France, 1989. 50: p. 2307.

First Author: Balian, R.
All Authors: Balian, R., Blaizot, J. P., Bonche, P.
Keywords: theory, screening, Born-Oppenheimer

194. Balin, D.V., et al., Experimental Investigation of the Muon Catalyzed d-d Fusion. Phys. Lett. B, 1984. 141(3/4): p. 173.

First Author: Balin, D. V.
All Authors: Balin, D. V., Maev, E. M., Medvedev, V. I., Semenchuk, G. G., Smirenin, Yu. V., Vorobyov, A. A., Zalite, Y. K.
Keywords: muon

195. Balke, B., et al., Limits on neutron emission from ‘cold fusion’ in metal hydrides. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. C42: p. 30.

First Author: Balke, B.
All Authors: Balke, B., Cox, L., Fackler, O., Mugge, M., Souers, P. C., Tsugawa, R. T., White, R. M.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2, HD, DT

196. Ban, M. Tunnel Resonance Of Electron Wave And Force Of Fluctuation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Ban, M.
All Authors: Ban, M.
Keywords: theory,

197. Banas, J., et al., Geophysical aspects of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nucl. Geophys., 1989. 3: p. 321.

First Author: Banas, J.
All Authors: Banas, J., Ciechanowski, M., Dulinski, M., Kreft, A., Molenda, J., Morstin, K., Stoklosa, A., Wozniak, J.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, cosmic ray, electrolysis, D2O

198. Baranov, D., et al. Experimental Testing of the Erzion Model by Reacting of Electron Flux on the Target. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Baranov, D.
All Authors: Baranov, D., Bazhutov, Y., Khokhov, N., Koretsky, V. P., Kuznetsov, A. B., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Sukovatkin, N.
Keywords: La-Sm, Li-Sn, La-Nd, electron bombardment gamma emission, transmutation, erzion ICCF-4

199. Baranov, D., et al. Investigation of the Erzion-Nuclear Transformation by Ion Beams. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Baranov, D.
All Authors: Baranov, D., Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P., Plets, Y., Pohil, G., Sakharov, E.
Keywords: erzion, transmutation, theory, ICCF-4

200. Baranova, R.V., et al., Crystal Structure of Pd Hydride with Primitive Cubic Lattice. Sov. Phys. Crystallogr., 1980. 25: p. 736.

First Author: Baranova, R. V.
All Authors: Baranova, R. V., Khodyrev, Yu. P., Imamov, R. M., Semiletov, S. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, lattice Parameter, structure, PdH

201. Baranowski, B. and R. Wisniewski, The Electrical Resistance of Palladium and Palladium-Gold Alloy (50 wt% Au and Pd) in Gaseous Hydrogen up to 24000 at at 25Ã… C. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1969. 35: p. 593.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistivity, PdH, H/Pd

202. Baranowski, B. and R. Wisniewski, The Electrical Resistance of Palladium and Palladium-Gold Alloy (50 wt% Au and Pd) in Gaseous Hydrogen up to 24000 at at 25 C. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1969. 35: p. 593.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistivity, PdH, H/Pd

203. Baranowski, B., High Pressure Research on Palladium-Hydrogen Systems. Pt. Met. Rev., 1972. 16-17: p. 10.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, pressure, resistivity, PdH

204. Baranowski, B., S. Majchrzak, and T.B. Flanagan, A High-Pressure Investigation of the Rhodium/Palladium/Hydrogen System. J. Phys. Chem., 1973. 77: p. 35.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Majchrzak, S., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, Rh, H, phase Diagram, Pd-Rh

205. Baranowski, B., T. Skoskiewicz, and A.W. Szafranski, The Metallic Behavior of Hydrogen in Palladium. Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys., 1975. 1: p. 296.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Skoskiewicz, T., Szafranski, A. W.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, density Of States, Heat Capacity, superconductivity

206. Baranowski, B. and S. Majorowski, Activation Volume for Hydrogen Diffusion in Palladium Hydride. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 98: p. L27.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Majorowski, S.
Keywords: PdH, diffusion,

207. Baranowski, B., S.M. Filipek, and W. Raczynski, Investigation of Some Metal-Hydrogen Systems in the High Pressure Region. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 101: p. 115.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Raczynski, W.
Keywords: Pd, D2, diffusion, pressure, Al, H2, thermodynamic, loading

208. Baranowski, B., et al., Search for ‘cold fusion’ in some Me-D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium. J. Less-Common Met., 1990. 158: p. 347.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Szustakowski, M., Farny, J., Woryna, W.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, heat-, electrolysis, D2O, D2, CR-39, high pressure, Ni, negative

209. Baranowski, B., S.M. Filipek, and W. Raczynski, Electrolytic charging of palladium by deuterium at normal and high pressure conditions. Pol. J. Chem., 1994. 68: p. 845.

First Author: Baranowski, B.
All Authors: Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M., Raczynski, W.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, pressure, loading, D2, D2O

210. Barbieri, G., A. Caravella, and E. Drioli. Concentration Polarization in hydrogen permeation through self-supported Pd-based membranes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Barbieri, G.
All Authors: Barbieri, G., Caravella, A., Drioli, E.
Keywords: materials, permeation

Concentration polarization present in any membrane separation affects the system performance depending on the membrane permeance, i.e., a higher permeance leads to a higher polarization. Hydrogen transport in Pd-based supported membranes was described by means of a model [1] considering several elementary steps of the permeation process, improving what done by Ward and Dao for self-supported membranes. The model includes the external mass transfer in the multicomponent gaseous phases on both membrane sides, described by the Stefan-Maxwell equations. The transport of the multicomponent mixture in the multilayered porous support was also considered and described by means of the Dusty Gas Model, which takes into account Knudsen, Poiseuille and ordinary diffusion. . . .

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211. Bard, A., Comments on SRI RP-3170 Review Meeting. 1991, University of Texas: Austin, TX.

First Author: Bard, A.
All Authors: Bard, A.
Keywords: review

212. Barker, W.A., Electrostatic voltage excitation process and apparatus. 1990: US 4,961,880.

First Author: Barker, W. A.
All Authors: Barker, W. A.
Keywords: radioactivity, half-life, patent,

213. Barker, W.A., Method for enhancing alpha decay in radioactive materials. 1991: US 5,076,971.

First Author: Barker, W. A.
All Authors: Barker, W. A.
Keywords: radioactivity, half-life, patent,

214. Barnhart, B., et al., Technology Forecast: Worldwide Research on Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Increasing and Gaining Acceptance. 2009, Defense Intelligence Agency.

First Author: Barnhart, B.
All Authors: Barnhart, B., McDaniel, P., Mosier-Boss, P. A., McKubre, M. C. H., Forsley, L., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords: review

Scientists worldwide have been quietly investigating low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) for the past 20 years. Researchers in this controversial field are now claiming paradigm-shifting results, including generation of large amounts of excess heat, nuclear activity and transmutation of elements. Although no current theory exists to explain all the reported phenomena, some scientists now believe quantum-level nuclear reactions may be occurring. DIA assesses with high con fidence that if LENR can produce nuclear-origin energy at room temperatures, this disruptive technology could revolutionize energy production and storage, since nuclear reactions release millions of times more energy per unit mass than do any known chemical fuel.

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215. Barrowes, S.C. and H.E. Bergeson. Linear, High Precision, Redundant Calorimeter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Barrowes, S. C.
All Authors: Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method, ICCF-4

216. Bartolomeo, C., et al. Alfred Coehn and After: The Alpha, Beta and Gamma of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bartolomeo, C.
All Authors: Bartolomeo, C., Fleischmann, M., Larramona, G., Pons, S., Roulett, J., Sugiura, H., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen,, diffusion, phase diagram, Coehn, gamma phase ICCF-4 PdH

217. Barton, J.C. and F.A. Lewis, Interface Impedance and the Apparent Electrical Resistance of Palladium Hydrides in Aqueous Solutions. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1962. 58: p. 103.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: resistance, PdH, resistivity

218. Barton, J.C., F.A. Lewis, and I. Woodward, Hysteresis of the Relationships Between Electrical Resistance and Hydrogen Content of Palladium. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1963. 59: p. 1201.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Lewis, F. A., Woodward, I.
Keywords: Pd, H2, resistance, magnetic Susceptibility

219. Barton, J.C., J.A.S. Green, and F.A. Lewis, Changes of Electrode Potential and Electrical Resistance as a Function of the Hydrogen Content of some Pd+Ni and Pd+Rh alloys. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1965.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Green, J. A. S., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, Rh, Ni, H, overvoltage, resistance, solubility, phase Diagram

220. Barton, J.C., W.F.N. Leitch, and F.A. Lewis, Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladized Palladium Electrodes Following Immersion in Oxidizing Solutions. Electrochim. Acta, 1966. 11: p. 1171.

First Author: Barton, J. C.
All Authors: Barton, J. C., Leitch, W. F. N., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, loading

221. Barts, B.I., D.B. Barts, and A.A. Grinenko, Theory of nuclear reactions with the participation of slow charged particles in solids. Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. Originally Oin: Yad. Fiz. 55 [1992] 79., 1992. 55: p. 45.

First Author: Barts, B. I.
All Authors: Barts, B. I., Barts, D. B., Grinenko, A. A.
Keywords: theory, screening

222. Barut, A.O., Prediction of new tightly-bound states of H2+ (D2+) and ‘cold fusion’ experiments. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 15: p. 907.

First Author: Barut, A. O.
All Authors: Barut, A. O.
Keywords: Theory, screening

223. Barwick, S.W., et al., Search for 0.8 MeV (3)He nuclei emitted from Pd and Ti exposed to high pressure D2. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 273.

First Author: Barwick, S. W.
All Authors: Barwick, S. W., Price, P. B., Williams, W. T., Porter, J. D.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, Pd, D2, alpha, particle emission, CR-39, helium, negative

224. Bashkirov, Y.A., et al., Observation of neutron emission from electrolysis of heavy water. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(19): p. 51 (in Russian).

First Author: Bashkirov, Yu. A.
All Authors: Bashkirov, Yu. A., Baranova, R. Kh., Bazanin, B. G., Kazakova, V. M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, Ti, D2O, H2O, electrolysis

225. Bashko, V.A., et al., Study of the nuclear fusion reaction in palladium by the emission of neutrons upon electrolysis”. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1996. 2(56): p. 54.

First Author: Bashko, V. A.
All Authors: Bashko, V. A., Vit’ko, V. I., Goncharov, I. G., Zelenskii, V. F., Kovalenko, G. D., Krivoruchko, S. M., Ranyuk, Yu. N., Tarasov, I. K.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

226. Bass, R.W. On Empirical System ID, Possible External Electromagnetic/Electronuclear Stimulation/Actuation and Automatic Feedback Control of Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory ICCF-1

This paper reviews some basic results from modern systems theory, which may prove useful to experimenters researching the cold fusion phenomenon from the point of view of attempting to learn how to stimulate, initiate, regulate, control by command at will, and terminate excess enthalpy, rate of tritium production, neutron count, etc.

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227. Bass, R.W., QRT: Quantum Resonance Triggering Principle. 1991.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory, QRT

228. Bass, R.W. A Semi-Classical Quantized Theory of Lattice Induced Nuclear Transformations. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory

229. Bass, R.W. Is the Coulomb Fusion “Barrier” a Resonantly Transparent Mirror? Refutation of the Conventional Cold Fusion ‘QM-Impossibility’ “Proof”. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory

230. Bass, R.W., Experimental Evidence Favoring Brightsen’s Nucleon Cluster Model. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 59.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory Brightsen Cluster

Brightsen’s Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM) predicts that a relatively low-energy photon can stimulate a nuclear transmutation under certain specified conditions. Examination of an experiment by Lin & Bockris demonstrates that the transmutation of mercury-201 to gold-197 induced by a mere exothermic chemical reaction (burning gunpowder) is an actual concrete example of a novel process predicted by the NCM.

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231. Bass, R.W., A High School Level Expose of the Mistake Upon Which the ERAB Report is Based. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 22.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: ERAB, history

232. Bass, R.W., Parmenter’s Fundamental Breakthrough Contributions. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 45.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: theory

Noting Dr. Parmenter’s acknowledgment to me at the end of his seminal  paper, Dr. Mallove has asked me for a prefatory critique.  Frankly I feel like a kindergarten finger-painting dauber asked to appraise a Rembrandt!  In fact, in 1994 I applied seriously for a humble programmer’s job at the Univ. of Arizona in hopes that by moving to Tucson I might be able to audit some of Parmenter’s courses: I am awed by his mastery of the three-dimensional details, not only of Quantum Mechanics (QM) [which I know only as a 1-D point-particle theory] but of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), Nuclear Physics, and Solid-State Physics.  I accepted this assignment only in hopes of nudging people like Dr. Barry Merriman of UCLA and Dr. Jim Peebles of Princeton to consider Parmenter’s contributions with the serious care which they manifestly deserve.  I’d also hope that in the next issue of IE we receive comments on this milestone theoretical tour de force by all of the dozen other expert theoreticians mentioned below.

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233. Bass, R.W. and S.W. Gleeson. Recent Advances in LENT and Proposed CF via Deuterium Crystals. in INE/EEMF Conference on New Energy Conversion. 2000. INE/EEMF Conference on New Energy Conversion.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., Gleeson, S. W.
Keywords: theory

234. Bass, R.W., Five Frozen Needles CF Protocol. J. New Energy, 2002. 6(2): p. 30.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Helium

The following protocol is designed to be intuitively convincing to a layman who, if told that needles 2, 3 and 4 have been pulsed with constant-voltage DC-electricity for twice, thrice and quadruple the amount of time as needle 1, and then measured to contain twice, thrice and quadruple the amount of He4 as the first needle, will instantly reject any doubt that the electrical pulse was creating He4 from some form of nuclear-chemistry process whose action was directly proportional to the amount of DC electrical energy used. At the same time, the protocol is sufficiently statistically sophisticated in its rigorous application of Experiment Design theory as to satisfy the most skeptical and informed critic.

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235. Bass, R.W. Optimal laser wavelength for resonant transmission through the coulomb barrier. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

The 1993 point-particle, 1-D semi-classical quantum-mechanical theory of resonant transparency of the Coulomb barrier [1], though admittedly crude, has some plausibility as to relevance and adequacy because it predicts quantitatively different results for lattices of protons versus deuterons embedded in host lattices of palladium versus nickel. Specifically it predicts that cold fusion is likely with Ni cathodes and electrolysis with either ordinary or heavy water, whereas it is likely only for heavy-water electrolysis with Pd cathodes. The question of whether or not this 1993 theory has any predictive power regarding the 2003 Letts-Cravens effect is considered and answered as: “partially.” That is, the “optimal” range of wavelengths includes that discovered by Letts and Cravens, but because of the possibility of multi-photon reactions it does not uniquely single out their 680 nm as best, which would require a more detailed model (including e.g. cathode temperature) than provided by the simplified 1993 theory.

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236. Bass, R.W. and M.C.H. McKubre. Generalized cause and effect demonstration protocol. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Theory

It is universally accepted, even by nonscientists, that if the measured output from a physical system is double, triple, or quadruple that obtained when the measured stimulus/input is doubled, tripled, or quadrupled then there is a “cause and effect relationship” between the input and output (e.g. total energy input versus excess energy [or nuclear ash] output in a cold fusion experiment). How does one quantify this scientifically, when random process disturbances and random measurement noises preclude perfect linearity? This question is answered under the assumption of Gaussian (or “normal”) departures from ideal linearity regarding t hetwo mentioned statistical aspects. This is a generalization of the protocol propose dby Bass [1], which is more realistically flexible in several respects. An arbitrary number N >= 3 of similarly prepared samples is allowed, and neither the voltage nor the current is required to be constant. However, the previous protocol may be recovered as a special case when N = 5.

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237. Bass, R.W., Do Conjectures/Concepts of Schwinger, Turner, Chubb, R. Bush, Lamb & Parmenter, et al. Resolve the Chief Challenge to Cold Fusion Theory? (PowerPoint slides), in MIT Cold Fusion Colloquium. 2005.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

Cold Fusion: experimental “facts” assumed herein:* Deuteronsin Palladium and Nickel lattices can fuse to create Helium nuclei and heat in the form of lattice vibrations * Protons in Nickel lattices can fuse to create Deuterium nuclei and heat in the form of lattice vibrations

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238. Bass, R.W., 3 Untried ‘Optimal’ Hot & Cold Fusion Reactors (PowerPoint slides), in 7th Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. 2007.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

TOPOLOTRON CHALLENGE # 1 * Bass published words “kidney-bean” & “bean-shaped cross-section” on page 1,239 of November, 1971, Bulletin of American Physical Society (APS) . . .

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239. Bass, R.W. and M.R. Swartz. Empirical System Identification (ESID) and Optimal Control of Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactors. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W., Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Theory

240. Bass, R.W., The only conventionally viable Cold Nuclear Fusion theory?, in Amercian Chemical Society. 2010.

First Author: Bass, R. W.
All Authors: Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

What is meant in this context by “conventionally viable”?1. Every concept & technique used is found in standard works on Quantum Mechanics and Solid State Physics & Nuclear Physics. 2. A practitioner of accepted scientific usages will find nothing legitimately objectionable. 3. Straightforward calculations actually PREDICT that under appropriate conditions Cold Fusion must occur despite Huizenga’s alleged requirement of ‘3 miracles’ that are required.

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241. Basteev, A.V. and L.A. Nechiporenko, Activation of solid-phase deflagration of hydrogen-containing energy-storing substances. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1994. 19: p. 739.

First Author: Basteev, A. V.
All Authors: Basteev, A. V., Nechiporenko, L. A.
Keywords: review, fractofusion

242. Batalla, E., E.G. Zwartz, and B.A. Judd, In-situ X-ray diffraction of palladium cathodes in electrolytic cells. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 805.

First Author: Batalla, E.
All Authors: Batalla, E., Zwartz, E. G., Judd, B. A.
Keywords: tetrahedral structure, gamma phase lattice parameter

243. Battaglia, A., et al., Neutron emission in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 921.

First Author: Battaglia, A.
All Authors: Battaglia, A., Daddi, L., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Sona, P. G., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, neutron

244. Bauer, H., Science in the 21st Century: Knowledge Monopolies and Research Cartels. J. Sci. Expl., 2004. 18(4): p. 643â€â€Ţ660.

First Author: Bauer, H.
All Authors: Bauer, H.
Keywords: review

245. Baurichter, A., et al., Search for cold fusion in palladium. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1989. 76: p. 1.

First Author: Baurichter, A.
All Authors: Baurichter, A., Eyrich, W., Frank, M., Goehr, H., Kreische, W., Ortner, H., Roeseler, B., Schiller, C. A., Weeske, G., Witthun, W.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission Pd D2O, electrolysis

246. Bazhutov, Y., B.A. Khrenov, and G.B. Khristiansen, About one opportunity of second shower spectrum interpretation observed at small depth underground. Isv. Akad. Nauk USSR, ser. phys., 1982. 46(9): p. 2425.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Khrenov, B. A., Khristiansen, G. B.
Keywords: theory new particle erzion

247. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Interpretation of cold nuclear fusion by means of erzion catalysis. in Fiz. Plazmy Nekotor. Vopr. Obshch. Fiz. M. 1990.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Vereshkov, G. M., Kuz’min, R. N., Frolov, A. M.
Keywords: theory, erzion new particle

248. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Study of the possibility of a cold nuclear fusion reaction by electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium electrode. in Teo. Eksp. Issled. Vopr. Obshch. Fiz., Min. Obshch. Mashin. SSSR. 1991.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Kuznetsov, A. B., Surova, T. D., Chertov, Yu. P.
Keywords: Ti, tritium, x-ray, electrolysis, D2O

249. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Excess Heat Observation During Electrolysis of Cs2CO3 Solution in Light Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Chertov, Yu. P., Krivoshein, A. A., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Khokhlov, N. I.
Keywords: Cs2CO3, Ni, H2O, heat+, tritium, ICCF-4

250. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Model of Catalytic Nuclear Transmutation and Its Interpretation of Ball-Lightning and Other Anomalous Geophysical Phenomena. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, new particle, ICCF-6

251. Bazhutov, Y. and V.P. Koretsky. Possibility of Radioactive Waste Utilization in Terms of the Erzion Model. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, new particle, ICCF-6

252. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Tritium, Neutron, and Radicarbon Registration with the Yusmar Hydrofacility Running. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P., Kuznetsov, A. B., Potapov, Yu. S., Nikitsky, V. P., Nevezhin, N. Ya., Saunin, E. I., Kordukevich, V. O., Titenkov, A. F.
Keywords: theory, Erzion, caviation, tritium, neutron, particle emission, ICCF-6

High statistical (>30) and systematic confidence levels have been reached in recording the nuclear products (tritium, neutron emission, and radiocarbon) that occurred in the Yusmar hydrofacility working fluid as predicted by the Erzion model for catalyzed transmutation of nuclei. The pending extension of the Erzion model research is expected to improve the Yusmar properties relevant to energy.

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253. Bazhutov, Y. Influence of Spin and Parity Preservation Lows on Erzion Model Predictions in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory, Ezrion, ICCF-7

254. Bazhutov, Y. and V.P. Koretsky. Neutron Generation at Ultrasonic Cavitation of Some Liquids. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Koretsky, V. P.
Keywords: neutron, cavitation, Ti, ultrasound ICCF-7

255. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Discovery in Cosmic Rays and its Possible Great Role in Nature in Framework of Erzion Model of Cold Nuclear Transmutation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: erzion, transmutation cosmic ray, theory new particle, ICCF-8

256. Bazhutov, Y., et al. Calorimetric And Neutron Diagnostics Of Liquids During Laser Irradiation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Bazhutova, S., Dyadkin, A., Nekrasov, V., Sharkov, V.
Keywords:

257. Bazhutov, Y. and E. Pletnikov. Search For Erzion Nuclear Catalysis Chains From Cosmic Ray Erzions Stopping In Organic Scintillator. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Pletnikov, E.
Keywords: theory

258. Bazhutov, Y. Erzion Model Features In Cold Nuclear Transmutation Experiments. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: theory

I describe the history of Erzion Model from its appearance in Cosmic Rays in 1982 and its development to explain the main features of Cold Fusion Experiments.Erzion Model can explain in principle many problems in Astrophysics and Geophysics, such as: 1) Dark matter in Universe; 2) Solar neutrino problem; 3) Jupiter energetic unbalance; 4) Tritium & He3 abundance in volcano products; 5) Ball-lightning & forest fire nature amongst others. . . .

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259. Bazhutov, Y. Role of Russian Scientists in CMNS – Conference Proceedings 1991-2007. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: Theory,

260. Bazhutov, Y., Erzion model interpretation of the experiments with hydrogen loading of various metals. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: Theory

The short review of Cold Nuclear Transmutation investigation for 22 years after its discovery is presented. It is shown the main physical results of Rossi-Focardi and our experiment with the hydrogen loading of various metals. It is proposed the Erzion Model of Catalytic Nuclear Transmutation for theoretical explanation of the generation of excess heat, new chemical elements and isotopes, X-ray and neutron bursts radiation in these experiments.

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261. Bazhutov, Y., et al., Investigation of Radiation Effects at Loading Ni, Be and LaNi5 by Hydrogen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Belousova, E., Koretsky, V. P., Parkhomov, A.
Keywords: gamma radiation.

The installation permitting to investigate gamma, x-ray and neutron radiations emitted by metals loaded with protium-deuterium mixture at temperature up to 750ÂÂу and pressure up to 100 bars is created. It was discovered that LaNi5 powder, nickel and beryllium are radiated presumably X-rays and neutrons. Radiation emission occurs in the form of short bursts or series of bursts lasting up to several tens minutes.

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262. Bazhutov, Y., et al., Calorimetric and Radiation Diagnostics ofWater Solutions Under Intense Light Irradiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Bazhutov, Y.
All Authors: Bazhutov, Y., Gerasimove, A., Evmenenko, V., Koretskiy, V., Parkhomov, A., Sapozhnikov, Y.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Erzion model, Gamma-ray, Neutrons, Red light irradiation, Tritium,Water solutions, X-ray

A series of experiments with light irradiation of saltwater solutions and alkalis in special vessels was performed. The sources of irradiation were: a Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamp, a matrix of LEDs, and a laser. All of them were in the red wavelength. Possible calorimetric diagnostics and nuclear radiation (gamma rays, X-rays, and neutrons) were monitored. Liquid scintillation diagnostics of tritium were used. Gamma-ray radiation detection with an NaI scintillation detector, and X-ray radiation detection with Geiger counters was performed. No such radiation was observed. Excess heat was not detected in any experiment. Neutrons were measured with help of 3He counters placed in a paraffin barrel. Small neutron emissions (up to 100 neutrons) was observed in the form of a series of short bursts (lasting a few milliseconds) during some minutes at the background level. The generation of tritium after LED lamp and matrix of LEDs irradiation of water solutions LiOH and Na2CO3has been demonstrated in some experiments.

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263. Bearden, T.E., Use of Asymmetrical Regauging and Multivalued Potentials to Achieve Over-Unity Electromagnetic Engines. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 60.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, theory

264. Bearden, T.E., Purported Over-Unity Results by Hewlett Packard. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 98.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, history

265. Bearden, T.E., EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(2/3): p. 12.

First Author: Bearden, T. E.
All Authors: Bearden, T. E.
Keywords: ZPE,, theory

266. Beaudette, C.G., Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed. 2002, Concord, NH: Oak Grove Press.

First Author: Beaudette, C. G.
All Authors: Beaudette, C. G.
Keywords: history book

This document contains extracts from the book, and the autho-ڳ description of the book: This book tells the history of the strangest event in modern science. In 1989 the University of Utah announced a new experiment by electrochemists Professors Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that demonstrates table top nuclear fusion at extremely low levels, and substantial anomalous (unexplained, excess) heat energy (power) with no dangerous radiation. This story, written for the college reader without scientific training, presents the abundant replication of excess heat results by many laboratories in several countries. Excess heat research, referred to as cold fusion research, is presently an empirical science known as low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). While the book illustrates much progress, the specific reactions that produce the heat energy still await discovery. . .

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267. Beaudette, C.G., Response to the DOE/2004 Review of Cold-Fusion Research. 2005, Oak Grove Press: South Bristol, ME.

First Author: Beaudette, C. G.
All Authors: Beaudette, C. G.
Keywords: Review

During 2004, the Office of Science of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE/OS) initiated and completed a peer-review of the field in science known as cold-fusion research (CFR). The DOE/OS selected eighteen Reviewers for their expertise in the relevant scientific specialties. Remaining largely anonymous, they studied a collection of papers about the field selected and prepared by several of the scientists who have been active in CFR for the past sixteen y ears. Those scientists also presented selected accomplishments to some of the Reviewers during a one day meeting. The following three questions (paraphrased) were asked of the Reviewers: (1) Is there evidence of low-energy-nuclear-reactions (LENR), (2) do such reactions really occur, and (3) should research efforts be continued?

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268. Becker, E.W., Triple collision reaction of deuterons as a possible explanation of cold nuclear fusion. Naturwiss., 1989. 76: p. 214.

First Author: Becker, E. W.
All Authors: Becker, E. W.
Keywords: nuclear reaction Li D2 Helium

269. Beddingfield, D.H., et al. Characterization of Charged Particle Bursts from Deuterium Loaded Thin Titanium Foils. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Beddingfield, D. H.
All Authors: Beddingfield, D. H., Cecil, F. E., Galovich, C. S., Liu, H., Asher, S.
Keywords: Ti, D2, particle emission, lattice parameter, metallurgy, loading, ICCF-2

270. Beene, J., Critique of “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View”. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Beene, J.
All Authors: Beene, J.
Keywords: theory, critique

The following critique of Dr. Edmund Storms’ recent observations and theory, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View,” can be called un-critical, in the sense that his arguments appear to be fully defensible, at least within a narrow focus. There is little to dispute within what Storms presents — but the problem, if there is one, goes to the validity of any underlying premise of simplification, which can be called “parsimony” or “Ockham’s razor.”

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271. Begley, S., et al., The Race for Fusion, and The Follies of Science, in Newsweek. 1989. p. 49.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S., Hurt, H., Murr, A., Rogers, M.
Keywords: history, newspaper

272. Begley, S., E. Jones, and T. Waldorf, A Sun in a Test Tube?, in Newsweek. 1989. p. 58.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S., Jones, E., Waldorf, T.
Keywords: history

273. Begley, S., Cold Fusion Isn’t Dead, It’s Just Withering From Scientific Neglect, in Wall Street Journal. 2003. p. B1.

First Author: Begley, S.
All Authors: Begley, S.
Keywords: Review

274. Behrisch, R., et al., Search for fusion reactions between deuterium atoms implanted into titanium. Nucl. Fusion, 1989. 29(7): p. 1187.

First Author: Behrisch, R.
All Authors: Behrisch, R., Moeller, W., Roth, J., Scherzer, B. M. U.
Keywords: Ti, ion implantation, D2, particle emission

275. Behrisch, R., Comment on: H. Gentsch, DD-fusion reactions at a PdAg(D) target in a minireactor, Ber. Bunsenges, Phys. Chem. 95, 1283 [1991]. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1992. 96: p. 733 (in German).

First Author: Behrisch, R.
All Authors: Behrisch, R.
Keywords: neutron, D+, Pd.

276. Beiting, E., Investigation of the nickel-hydrogen anomalous heat effect. 2017, Report No. ATR-2017-01760: The Aerospace Corporation.

First Author: Beiting, E.
All Authors: Beiting, E.
Keywords: excess heat, calorimeter, nickel, palladium, zirconium

Experimental work was undertaken to reproduce a specific observation of the gas-phase Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE)*. This task required the production of a quantity of heat energy by a mass of material so small that the origin of the energy cannot be attributable to a chemical process. The gas-phase form of AHE is difficult to reproduce and hence lacks a measure of credibility. The goal is to enhance its credibility by reproducing results first demonstrated in Japan and later reproduced in the U.S. by a solitary investigator. The technique heated nanometer-sized Ni:Pd particles (20:1 molar ratio) embedded in micron-sized particles of an inert refractory of ZrO2. It was not within the purview of this work to investigate the physical origin of the AHE effect or speculate on its source.

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277. Bellanger, G., Embrittlement of Palladium and Palladium-Silver Alloy Cathode Membranes by Tritium. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 36.

First Author: Bellanger, G.
All Authors: Bellanger, G.
Keywords: Pd, Pd-Ag, embrittlement, tritium

278. Bellanger, G. and J.J. Rameau, Determination of tritium adsorption and diffusion parameters in a palladium-silver alloy by electrochemical impedance analysis. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 94.

First Author: Bellanger, G.
All Authors: Bellanger, G., Rameau, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, diffusion, Pd-Ag

279. Bellini, M., L. Casetti, and M. Rosa-Clot, Nuclear Fusion in Excited Hydrogen Molecules. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1990. 337: p. 207.

First Author: Bellini, M.
All Authors: Bellini, M., Casetti, L., Rosa-Clot, M.
Keywords: Theory

280. Belov, A.S., V.E. Kusik, and Y.V. Ryabov, The nuclear fusion for the reactions (2)H(d,n)(3)He,(2)H(d,gamma)(4)He at low deuterons energy and ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. A103: p. 1647.

First Author: Belov, A. S.
All Authors: Belov, A. S., Kusik, V. E., Ryabov, Yu. V.
Keywords: ion beam, Pd, neutron, D+

281. Beltyukov, I.L., et al., Laser-induced cold nuclear fusion in Ti-H2-D2-T2 compositions. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 234.

First Author: Beltyukov, I. L.
All Authors: Beltyukov, I. L., Bondarenko, N. B., Janelidze, A. A., Gapanov, M. Yu, Gribanov, K. G., Kondratov, S. V., Maltsev, A. G., Novikov, P. I., Tsvetkov, S. A., Zakharov, V. I.
Keywords: laser, titanium, fractofusion neutron, gamma emission

282. Belzner, A., et al., Two fast mixed-conductor systems: deuterium and hydrogen in palladium – thermal measurements and experimental considerations. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 219.

First Author: Belzner, A.
All Authors: Belzner, A., Bischler, U., Crouch-Baker, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, method, Pd, D2O effect of H2O

283. Belzner, A., et al., Recent results on mixed conductors containing hydrogen or deuterium. Solid State Ionics, 1990. 40/41: p. 519.

First Author: Belzner, A.
All Authors: Belzner, A., Bischler, U., Crouch-Baker, S., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Schreiber, M., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat+

284. Bemporad, E., et al. Integrated Approach for High Resolution Surface Characterisation: Coupling Focused Ion Beam with Micro and Nano Mechanical Tests (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bemporad, E.
All Authors: Bemporad, E., Sebastiani, M., Palmieri, V., Deambrosis, S.
Keywords: materials

At present, mechanical characterisation of engineered surfaces is gaining more and more interest for the growing industrial application of surface modification and coating techniques, which are usually applied to improve either surface mechanical or functional performances (i.e hardness, load bearing capacity, wear resistance, surface free energy and chemical reactivity, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, . . .).Furthermore, it has to be considered that the development of nanostructured materials and the growing use and application of nano-systems and nano-structures make the use of advanced procedures for nano-scale mechanical characterisation strictly necessary; in other cases, mechanical behaviour can be strongly influenced by microstructural and size effects (grain size, defects, interfaces, porosity,…), so multi-scale characterisation procedures are strongly needed for a determination of the correct correlation function among process parameters, surface properties and in-service performances.

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285. Bemporad, E., et al. Integrated approach for high resolution surface characterization: coupling focused ion beam with micro and nano mechanical tests. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bemporad, E.
All Authors: Bemporad, E., Sebastiani, M., Palmieri, V., Deambrosis, S.
Keywords:

In the present paper, we will give a brief overview about the synergic use of two high resolution techniques with focus on applications on thin coatings: Focused Ion Beam (coupled with electron beam) imaging, milling and deposition technique (briefly called FIB) and Nanoindentation. After a basic description of both techniques (architecture, probe-sample interaction basics and operation modes), we will demonstrate effectiveness of this approach for microstructural investigation on very small samples without any sample preparation or preprocessing by presenting two case studies:(i) Analysis of residual stresses of engineered surfaces by coupling focused ion beam controlled material removal and nanoindentation testing, and(ii) Nano-mechanical characterization of sputtered niobium thin films for application in accelerating cavities.

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286. Benedek, G. and P.F. Bortignon, Cold nuclear fusion: viewpoints of solid-state physics. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(8): p. 1227.

First Author: Benedek, G.
All Authors: Benedek, G., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: theory, screening

287. Benesh, C.J. and J.P. Vary, Fusion rates of squeezed and screened hydrogenic nuclei. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(2): p. R495.

First Author: Benesh, C. J.
All Authors: Benesh, C. J., Vary, J. P.
Keywords: theory, screening distance

288. Benetskii, B.A., A.V. Klyachko, and A.I. Rozantsev, An attempt to observe cold thermonuclear fusion in a condensed medium. Ratk. Soobshch. Fiz., 1989(6): p. 58 (In Russian).

First Author: Benetskii, B. A.
All Authors: Benetskii, B. A., Klyachko, A. V., Rozantsev, A. I.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron

289. Benford, M.S., Biological Nuclear Reactions: Empirical Data Describes Unexplained SHC Phenomenon. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 19.

First Author: Benford, M. S.
All Authors: Benford, M. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, biological

290. Bennington, S.M., et al., A search for the emission of x-rays from electrolytically charged palladium-deuterium. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1323.

First Author: Bennington, S. M.
All Authors: Bennington, S. M., Sokhi, R. S., Stonadge, P. R., Ross, D. K., Benham, M. J., Beynon, T. D., Whithey, P., Harris, I. R., Farr, J. P. G.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, Pd-Li, negative

291. Bennington, S.M., et al., In-situ measurements of deuterium uptake into a palladium electrode using time-of-flight neutron diffractometry. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 281: p. 323.

First Author: Bennington, S. M.
All Authors: Bennington, S. M., Benham, M. J., Stonadge, P. R., Fairclough, J. P. A., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: neutron diffraction, loading, PdD, composition, method, structure

292. Benson, T., A “Micro-fusion” reactor: Nuclear reactions in “the cold” by ultrasonic cavitation. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 33.

First Author: Benson, T.
All Authors: Benson, T.
Keywords: ultrasonic, heat+, He

293. Benson, T. and T.O. Passell. Calorimetry of Energy-Efficient Glow Discharge – Apparatus Design and Calibration. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Benson, T.
All Authors: Benson, T., Passell, T. O.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry

IntroductionThis work aims to develop a “family” of low-powered calorimetrically-accurate glow discharge units, similar to that reported by Dardik, et al. at ICCF-10, and to use these to test a wide range of cathode materials, electrode coatings, gas types, gas pressures, and power input levels.  We will describe the design and calibration of these units.The strategy is to use a large number of very similar units so that the calorimetric response does not vary significantly for a given power level.  The design is metal or sealed glass cylindrical tubes, charged with 0.4 to 50 torr mixtures of deuterium, hydrogen, argon, or helium gases.  Units operate from 0.2 watt to >2 watt power input.  The units have low mass (<400 grams) to enhance their sensitivity to excess heat, and they are designed to allow visual observation of the discharge, on-line spectroscopic analysis of the gas to follow any changes in composition, and replication of the geometry and thermal mass during numerous changes in electrode composition. . . .

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294. Berkem, A.R., Nuclear fusion. Hot fusion – cold fusion. Kim. Sanayi, 1989. 31: p. 7 (in Turkish).

First Author: Berkem, A. R.
All Authors: Berkem, A. R.
Keywords: Review

295. Berkheimer, G.D. and R.E. Buxbaum., Hydrogen Pumping with Palladium Membranes. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1985. 3: p. 413.

First Author: Berkheimer, G. D.
All Authors: Berkheimer, G. D., Buxbaum., R. E.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, Pd-Ag, H2, Ag

296. Berlouis, L.E.A., et al., The decomposition of electrochemically loaded palladium hydride: a thermal analysis study. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 207.

First Author: Berlouis, L. E. A.
All Authors: Berlouis, L. E. A., Hall, P. J., MacKinnon, A. J., Wark, A. W., Manuelli, D., Gervais, V., Robertson, J. E.
Keywords: PdH, loading, thermodynamic

297. Bernabei, R., et al., Neutron monitoring during evolution of deuteride precipitation in Nb, Ta and Ti. Solid State Commun., 1990. 76: p. 815.

First Author: Bernabei, R.
All Authors: Bernabei, R., Gannelli, G., Cantelli, R., Cordero, d’Angelo, S., Iucci, N., Picozza, P. G., Villoresi, G.
Keywords: neutron, cracks, fractofusion, loading, Pd, PdD, D2

298. Bernardini, M., et al. Anomalous Effects Induced by D2O Electrolysis of Titanium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bernardini, M.
All Authors: Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Mengoli, G., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, electrolysis, heat, transmutation, ICCF-8

This investigation emphasizes the heat output (~1 W) measured at open circuit after the electrolysis of 0.6 M K2CO3 in D2O on titanium. This thermal phenomenon decayed slowly over the course of several days. “Post-mortem” γ-spectroscopy analysis of the Ti samples cathodized in D2O evidenced transient γ-emissions which cannot be attributed to impurities of the electrolytic system.

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299. Bernstein, L.A., Destruction of Radioactivity by Stimulation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 8-14.

First Author: Bernstein, L. A.
All Authors: Bernstein, L. A.
Keywords: Destruction of radioactivity, Nuclear transmutation reactions, Radioactive waste disposal, Thermal desorption, Tritium

Modern science considers properties of radioactive decay as intrinsic characteristics of each isotope that cannot be affected by changes in the surroundings. Here, we present an approach for stimulation of nuclear transmutation reactions leading to accelerated destruction of radioactive isotopes that allows expedited disposal of radioactive materials.

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300. Berrondo, M. Computer Simulation of D Atoms in a Pd Lattice. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Berrondo, M.
All Authors: Berrondo, M.
Keywords: theory distance Lattice Parameter PdD2

301. Bertalot, L., et al. Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells With Pd Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., Bettinali, L., De Marco, F., Violante, V., De Logu, P., Dikonimos, T., La Barbera, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, tritium-, neutron-, electrolysis, pulse loading, ICCF-2, negative

INTRODUCTION The origin of the excess heat [1,2] developed during the electrolysis of heavy water in “Cold Fusion” cells is up to now open to question. The necessary presence of deuterium suggests that fusion reactions can be partially or totally responsible for the generation of excess heat. Experience has shown neutron emission to be sporadic and very weak; on the other hand tritium was found in small but detectable amounts [3,4]. Moreover if tritium accumulates in the solution it can be comfortably measured postmortem.

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302. Bertalot, L., et al. Study of Deuterium Charging in Palladium by the Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Search for Heat Excess and Nuclear Ashes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+., electrolysis, oneside electrolysis, ICCF-3, D2

The production of heat excess (HE) in electrolytic cells with heavy water and palladium cathodes is, in cold fusion, the experiment that has had more confirmations, even though still doubts are cast on its nuclear origin. Furthermore, the correlation of HE with some features of the experiment seemed to be well established, the most convincing of which is the threshold of the D/Pd ratio. What is yet not quite clear is how to obtain a high D/Pd ratio, since this feature seems to depend both on the material and on the procedures adopted for the electrolysis. In this paper we will propose a novel approach to this problem, which permits us to correlate HE with other features of the experiment. In particular, we try to study the transport of matter across the palladium lattice during the electrolysis. A model proposed by two of us (ADN and VV), and presented at this Conference, helps to interpret the experimental results, and gives interesting hints for future research.

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303. Bertalot, L., et al. Deuterium Charging in Palladium by Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Measurement of Lattice Parameter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., Felici, R., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, lattice parameter, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-4, PdD

304. Bertalot, L., et al., Study of deuterium charging in palladium by the electrolysis of heavy water: heat excess production. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1993. 15 D: p. 1435.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, loading, heat+, Pd, D2O, OCV, diffusion

305. Bertalot, L., et al. Power Excess Production in Electrolysis Experiments at ENEA Frascati. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Bertalot, L.
All Authors: Bertalot, L., De Ninno, A., De Marco, F., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat+ surface effect gamma phase ICCF-5 phase diagram

Continuing the research activity on heat excess detection during the electrolysis of heavy water with palladium (Pd) cathodes, previously reported at ICCF3 and ICCF4, new experiments have been performed with success. In one of them it was also possible to correlate the power excess production with other parameters of the experiment: its description will be the subject of this communication.

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306. Bertin, A., et al., Experimental evidence of cold nuclear fusion in a measurement under the Gran Sasso Massif. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101A: p. 997.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Marconi, U., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Trombini, A., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Jones, S. E., Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Palmer, E. P.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2O, electrolysis

307. Bertin, A., et al., First experimental results at the Gran Sasso Laboratory on cold nuclear fusion in titanium electrodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 209.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Marconi, U., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Semprini-Cesari, N., Trombini, A., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P.
Keywords: Ti, electrolysis, neutron, D2O

308. Bertin, A., et al., Negative result of an experiment aimed at verifying the hypothesis that cold and hot nuclear fusion occurs in Ti/(D-T) and ZrNbV/(D-T) systems. Phys. At. Nucl., 1996. 59: p. 744.

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Cereda, B., Dugar-Zhabon, V. D., Ferretti, A., Galli, D., Giacobbe, B., Kirpal, V. I., Knyazev, A. I., Kravchenko, I. M., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Merzlyakov, S. I., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poly, M., Rivkis, L. A., Samsonenko, N. V., Semprini-Cesari, N., Shvetsov, V. N., Sidorov, V. T., Smirnov, V. N., Sorokin, S. I., Spighi, R., Starshin, E. P., Stolupin, V. A., Strelkov, A. V., Vecchi, S., Vezzani, A., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Wozniak, J., Zavattini, G., Zhuravlev, N. I., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, Zr-Nb-V, tritium, fractofusion

309. Bertin, A., et al., Absence of tritium yield in metal-deuterium systems”. Phys. At. Nucl., 1996. 59: p. 934 (orig. Yad. Fiz. 59 [1996] 976).

First Author: Bertin, A.
All Authors: Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Bystritsky, V. M., Capponi, M., De Castro, S., Cereda, B., Ferretti, A., Florkowski, T., Galli, D., Giacobbe, B., Gushchin, V. V., Marconi, U., Massa, I., Moroni, C., Piccinini, M., Poly, M., Rivkis, L. A., Sakharov, V. I., Semprini-Cesari, N., Spighi, R., Stolupin, V. A., Tebus, V. N., Vecchi, S., Vezzani, A., Villa, M., Vitale, A., Wozniak, J., Zavattini, G., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: Ti, D2, tritium, Zr, Nb, La, Ni, Al

310. Bertolotti, M., et al. Nondestructive Evaluation of the Thermal Properties of Palladium-Hydrogen Compounds by Photothermal Techniques. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bertolotti, M.
All Authors: Bertolotti, M., Liakhou, G. L., Li Voti, R., Paoloni, S., Sibilia, C., Violante, V.
Keywords: thermal conductivity, PdH, resistivity ICCF-7

311. Bertulani, C.A. and L.F. Canto, Semiclassical calculation of Coulomb break-up of weakly bound nuclei. Nucl. Phys. A, 1992. 539: p. 163.

First Author: Bertulani, C. A.
All Authors: Bertulani, C. A., Canto, L. F.
Keywords: theory

312. Besenbacher, F., et al., Search for cold fusion in plasma-charged Pd-D and Ti-D systems. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 315.

First Author: Besenbacher, F.
All Authors: Besenbacher, F., Bech, N. B., Hornshoej, P., Laesgaard, E., Rud, N.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, Pd, Ti, layer, Cu, ion implantation

313. Besenbacher, F., et al., Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with metals: deuterium trapped at lattice defects in palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 257.

First Author: Besenbacher, F.
All Authors: Besenbacher, F., Bech, N. B., Noerskov, J. K., Myers, S. M., Nordlander, P.
Keywords: Theory, implantation, H2 defect

314. Betteridge, W. and J. Hope, The separation of hydrogen from gas mixtures:a process of absorption and desorption by palladium. Pt. Met. Rev., 1974. 18-19: p. 50.

First Author: Betteridge, W.
All Authors: Betteridge, W., Hope, J.
Keywords: Pd, H, loading, absorption

315. Beuhler, R.J., G. Friedlander, and L. Friedman, Cluster-Impact Fusion. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 63: p. 1292.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L.
Keywords: cluster Impact, ion bombardment, Ti,

316. Beuhler, R.J., et al., Deuteron-Deuteron Fusion by Impact of Heavy-Water Clusters on Deuterated Surfaces. J. Phys. Chem., 1991. 94: p. 7665.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Chu, Y. Y., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L., Kunnmann, W.
Keywords: cluster Impact, ion bombardment, Ti Zr,

317. Beuhler, R.J., G. Friedlander, and L. Friedman, Cluster-impact Fusion [Erratum]. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1992. 88: p. 2108.

First Author: Beuhler, R. J.
All Authors: Beuhler, R. J., Friedlander, G., Friedman, L.
Keywords: Cluster Impact

318. Bhadkamkar, A. and H. Fox, Electron Charge Cluster Sparking in Aqueous Solutions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 62.

First Author: Bhadkamkar, A.
All Authors: Bhadkamkar, A., Fox, H.
Keywords: charge cluster, discharge

319. Bharadwaj, S.R., et al., The Palladium-Platinum Phase Diagram. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 169: p. 167.

First Author: Bharadwaj, S. R.
All Authors: Bharadwaj, S. R., Kerkar, A. S., Tripathi, S. N., Dharwadkar, S. R.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, phase diagram

320. Bhattacharjee, J.K., L. Satpathy, and Y.R. Waghmare, A possible mechanism of cold fusion. Pramana, 1989. 32: p. L841.

First Author: Bhattacharjee, J. K.
All Authors: Bhattacharjee, J. K., Satpathy, L., Waghmare, Y. R.
Keywords: Theory, screening

321. Biberian, J.P. Excess Heat Measurement in AlLaO3 Doped with Deuterium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat

We show evidence that solid state electrolytes can be used successfully in “cold fusion” experiments. We describe in this work that LaAI03 single crystals loaded with deuterium produce excess heat up to 10 times the amount of electrical power applied. No significant amount of neutrons has been detected.

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322. Biberian, J.P., Rapport sur L’International Conference on Cold Fusion ICCF9 Pekin, Chine, 20-24 mai 2002. 2002, CRMC2-CNRS.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Trip Report, ICCF9, history

1 – Introduction La neuvieme conference internationale sur la fusion froide ICCF9 s’est tenue a Pekin en Chine, du 20 au 24 mai. Une centaine de personnes de 15 nationalites differentes y ont participe. Elle etait organisee par le Professeur Xing Z. Li, de l’Universite de Tsinghua. Ce fut l’occasion de prendre connaissance des derniers developpements sur le sujet. . . .

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323. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Deuterium Gas Loading of Palladium Using a Solid State Electrolyte. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: Pd, D2, heat loading, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT A palladium foil cathode, 50 mm in diameter, 100 µm thick is placed between two anodic palladium foils of same dimensions. A proton conductor layer (poly-ethyleneoxide) (PEO) and phosphoric acid) is deposited between the cathode and the two anodes. The system is placed in a chamber filled with deuterium gas, at a temperature of 75у. At first, deuterium fills the two anodes up to D/Pd = 0.48 measured by pressure decrease. Then a voltage is applied between cathode and anodes, and the cathode gets loaded by D+ electrochemical migration through the solid state electrolyte. Correspondingly, the pressure decreases. Loadings of up to 0.73 have been obtained. When voltages are reversed, the cathode deloads, and the pressure in the chamber increases. This method is well suited to measure over-potentials and absolute loadings. The input power is very low, since the production of D+ ions entering the cathode is close to 100% whereas in liquid electrolyte cells, a small fraction of the ions produced is absorbed by the cathode. Therefore excess heat measurement is easily detected.

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324. Biberian, J.P., Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Cold Fusion. Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie, 2004. 29(3): p. 1095.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: review

The discovery of “Cold Fusion” has been announced officially by a press conference on March 23rd 1989 at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. The shock wave produced by the Pons and Fleischmann announcement is probably unique in history, due to the fact that emails and fax machines helped propagate the good and the bad news altogether at light speed. Hundreds laboratories around the world immediately tried to replicate the experiment. However, details of it were not well known and doing electrochemistry and calorimetry altogether is a difficult art and takes time to master. Therefore most nuclear scientists tried to detect the assumed accompanying radiations produced by the well known reaction D+D producing either He-3 and a neutron or tritium and a proton with equal probability.

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325. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Excess heat observed during electrolysis of deuterated phosphoric acid with palladium electrodes and a solid state electrolyte in deuterium gas. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat

326. Biberian, J.P. and G. Lonchampt. Excess heat observed during electrolysis of deuterated phosphoric acid with palladium electrodes and a solid state electrolyte in deuterium gas (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Lonchampt, G.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat

327. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet. Excess Heat Production During Diffusion Of Deuterium Through Palladium Tubes. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat

Abstract: We have developed a mass flow calorimeter enabling us to measure accurately excess heat production during deuterium diffusion through the walls of palladium tubes. The experiment consists usually of a palladium tube 10 cm long, 2mm outer diameter with 200 μm thick walls, and closed at one end. Deuterium gas is introduced in the tube at various pressures, and temperatures and diffuses out through the walls of the tube. The tube, heated by a resistor, is positioned inside a reactor cell which is a small vacuum chamber. The reactor cell is positioned inside a second vacuum chamber. The outer walls of the vacuum chamber are water cooled. Thermal energy is determined by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures and water mass flow. The energy yield of this calorimeter is 95-98 % depending on input power.

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328. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet. Excess Heat During Diffusion of Deuterium Through Palladium. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat

Following the work by several researchers we have undertaken experiments with deuterium gas flowing through the walls of a palladium tube. Tubes were heated at various temperatures and either filled with palladium powder or palladium compounds or empty. Our mass flow calorimeter enables us to accurately measure excess heat production. We usually used palladium tubes 10 cm long, 2 mm outer diameter with 200 µm thick walls, and closed at one end. Deuterium gas is introduced in the tube at various pressures, and temperatures and diffuses out through the walls of the tube. Thermal energy is determined by measuring inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water and its mass flow. The energy yield of this calorimeter is 95-98% depending on input power. Our best result so far is an excess heat of 3 W with an input power of 47 W using an oxidized palladium tube filled with palladium powder. In addition to these results we describe an experiment where temperature oscillations have been measured, indicating the importance of temperature in excess heat production.

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329. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 1. 2007.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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330. Biberian, J.P., Condensed matter nuclear science (cold fusion): an update. Int. J. Nucl. Energy Sci. Technol., 2007. 3(1): p. 31.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: cold fusion, condensed matter nuclear science, low-energy nuclear reaction, excess heat, transmutations

Seventeen years after the announcement by Professors Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann of the discovery of cold fusion in March 1989, the scientific community does not acknowledge this field as a genuine scientific research theme. However, the scientific demonstration of cold fusion was made long ago by showing the evidence of excess heat production in electrolytic cells and other devices. Also, nuclear ashes have been observed, mainly the formation of helium-4 along with the production of excess heat. What makes this field difficult to accept is the lack of the usual particle emission observed in nuclear science or high-energy physics. In some instances low-level neutron production, X-ray emission and transmutation of elements have been measured. At this point there is no satisfactory theory explaining the unique characteristics of condensed matter nuclear science. Many models have been proposed, several of them using textbook physics.

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331. Biberian, J.P. Cold Fusion by Gas Loading: A Review. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: gas loading,

332. Biberian, J.P. and N. Armanet, An update on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (cold fusion). Ann. Fond. Louis de Broglie, 2008. 33(1).

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Armanet, N.
Keywords: review

ABSTRACT. The discovery of Cold Fusion was announced on March 23, 1989 at a press conference at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. The two discoverers: Stan Pons and Martin Fleischmann described their electrochemical device that produces more heat than the electric energy used to run it. Since then lot of progress has been made, and it is more and more obvious that this phenomenon now named Condensed Matter Nuclear Science is a genuine scientific research field with many important potential applications. It is the purpose of this paper to present an update of the worldwide research.

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333. Biberian, J.P., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Gas Phase: A Comprehensive Review, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 9-34.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

334. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 2. 2009.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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335. Biberian, J.P., Unexplained Explosion During an Electrolysis Experiment in an Open Cell Mass Flow Calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: explosion, Pd, D2O

While running an electrochemical cell designed to measure excess heat with a hollow palladium cathode and a platinum wire anode in heavy water, an explosion occurred. The Dewar that contained the experiment shattered. It is unlikely that the explosion was due to a deuterium oxygen recombination explosive reaction, since the cell was open, the amount of deuterium and oxygen gas was very limited in the cell and any pressure created by recombination should have escaped through the unsealed open end of the cell. It is very likely that under some not yet understood conditions, chain reactions occur in highly loaded palladium samples giving rise to an explosion. Several experimentalists before have already observed this same phenomenon.

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336. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 3. 2010.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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337. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 4. 2011.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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338. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 5. 2011.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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339. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 6. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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340. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 7. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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341. Biberian, J.P., Biological Transmutations: Historical Perspective. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Biological transmutations, Cold fusion, History, LENR

In this review paper, it is shown that in biological systems, chemical elements can be transmuted into other elements. These facts have been established since the early 19th century, but they have been ignored by established science ever since. The purpose of this work is to show how during the past two centuries, a number of experimentalists have questioned the mass conservation law established by Antoine Lavoisier [1] for chemical reactions. They have proved experimentally in plants, bacteria and other living organisms, some elements are transmuted into other elements.

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342. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 8. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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343. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 9. 2012.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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344. Biberian, J.P., Comments Regarding the Storms Paper. Infinite Energy, 2013(108): p. 36.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: theory, critique

The paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View,” is divided in two parts. In the first part, Storms explains the difference between hot fusion and cold fusion. The mechanisms of hot fusion and cold fusion cannot be the same. For example, in fractofusion the mechanism is identical to hot fusion (it is not LENR), and the reaction products are the same as those of hot fusion. Cold fusion operates under a different mechanism. Storms assumes that hot fusion operates under the basic laws of thermodynamics which explain the data observed. On the other hand, cold fusion operates under the laws of statistics. This is the explanation of the different behaviors between hot and cold fusion. . . .

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345. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 10. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold FusionProceedings of the ICCF 16 Conference, February 6-11, 2011, Chennai, India

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346. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 11. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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347. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 12. 2013.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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348. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 13. 2014.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold FusionProceedings of the ICCF 17 Conference, August 12-17, 2012, Daejeon, Korea

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349. Biberian, J.P., Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Solid-State, electrochemistry, deuterium diffusion, plasma electrolysis.

This paper is a review of the work I have performed on the subject of Cold Fusion alone or in cooperation with other scientists. It covers a number of fields like solid-state electrolytes, electrolysis, gas diffusion. The experiments described below are the one having given positive results. However, many other attempts have failed.

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350. Biberian, J.P., I. Parchamazad, and M. Miles, Possible Role of Oxides in the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Parchamazad, I., Miles, M.
Keywords: excess heat

The mechanism of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is not yet fully understood. It appears that in many occasions an oxide layer, or an insulating one covers the surface of the active material. In this paper we list a number of experiments displaying such a situation, and suggest possible role of these layers.

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351. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 14. 2014.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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352. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 15. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold FusionProceedings of the ICCF18 Conference, July 21-27, 2013, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, U.S.A.

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353. Biberian, J.P., et al., Pressurized Plasma Electrolysis Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P., Valat, M., Sigaut, W., Clauzon, P., Fauvarque, J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Electrolysis, High pressure, Plasma

We have performed a plasma electrolysis experiment for the first time at a pressure of 5 x 10^5 Pa in a specially designed calorimeter. The cathode was a 2 mm tungsten rod, and the anode was a stainless-steel foil. The electrolyte was 0.6 mol K2CO3 in light water. In one instance, we observed excess heat of 20 W for 90 min.

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354. Biberian, J.P., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

I met John Bockris only once, in 2003, during the ICCF 10 conference in Boston. . . .

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355. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 16. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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356. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 17. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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357. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 18. 2015.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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358. Biberian, J.P., Biological transmutations. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Biological transmutations, cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions

359. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 19. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold FusionProceedings of the ICCF 19 Conference, April 13-17, 2015, Padua, Italy

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360. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 20. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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361. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 21. 2016.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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362. Biberian, J.P., A Tribute to Georges Lonchampt. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 1-6.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Boil-off, Cold fusion, Electrolysis, Lonchampt, Solid state electrolyte

Georges Lonchampt was one of the few French researchers who, from day one, worked on Cold Fusion. He started performing his own experiments, and later worked with Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons. He successfully reproduced the two scientists’ original experiment, and was the only one able to successfully replicate the boil-off experiment.

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363. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 22. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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364. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 23. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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365. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 24. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion.Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Sendai, Japan, October 02-07, 2016

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366. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 25. 2017.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

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367. Biberian, J.P., ed. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. Vol. 26. 2018.

First Author: Biberian, J. P.
All Authors: Biberian, J. P.
Keywords:

Experiments and Methods in Cold FusionProceedings of the Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, Asti, Italy, June 5-9, 2017

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368. Bigeleisen, J. and E.C. Kerr, Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Dilute Solutions of HT in e-H2 and DT in e-D2 from the Triple Points to the Critical Temperatures of the Solutions. J. Chem. Phys., 1963. 39: p. 763.

First Author: Bigeleisen, J.
All Authors: Bigeleisen, J., Kerr, E. C.
Keywords: H, tritium D, fractionation, separation

369. Bihl, V., O. Reifenschweiler, and G. van de Ligt, Experimente Zur Darstellung Von Temperaturfesten Metall-Tritium Systemen. 1965, Philips Corporation.

First Author: Bihl, V.
All Authors: Bihl, V., Reifenschweiler, O., van de Ligt, G.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:xxxx://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:7d20843d-41d4-424b-a52a-a5f312168d94/tn2014-00268.pdfThe paper is in German. It includes a Summary in English:The following experiments deal with the preparation of titanium-tritium and zirkonium-tritium systems, which are stable against heating. It could be shown that such systems suitable as priming agent in gas discharge tubes can be prepared by heating the fine dispersed metals in a tritium atmosphere.

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370. Birgul, O., et al., Electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium using surface modified palladium electrodes. J. Eng. Env. Sci., 1990. 14(3): p. 373.

First Author: Birgul, O.
All Authors: Birgul, O., Celebi, S., Ozdural, A., Pekmez, K., Yildiz, A., Yurum, Y., Doga-Turk
Keywords: gamma emission electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O heat

371. Biris, A., et al., Solubility of Deuterium in LaNi5. J. Less-Common Met., 1997. 49: p. 477.

First Author: Biris, A.
All Authors: Biris, A., Bucur, R. V., Ghete, P., Indrea, E., Lupu, D.
Keywords: D2, LaNi5, phase diagram, solubility, pressure

372. Birnbaum, H.K., et al., Hydrogen in aluminum. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 260.

First Author: Birnbaum, H. K.
All Authors: Birnbaum, H. K., Buckley, C., Zeides, F., Sirois, E., Rozenak, P., Spooner, S., Lin, J. S.
Keywords: H, Al, lattice parameter, AlH, loading

373. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Generating Lots of Heat, Little Light, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

374. Bishop, J.E., Cold Comfort on Cold Fusion Front, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

375. Bishop, J.E., Heat Source in Fusion Find May Be Mystery Reaction and Brigham Young Physicists Reveal Details of Second H-Fusion Discovery and Will New Energy Sources Soon Power U.S.?, in Wall Street Journal. 1989.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: newspaper, history

376. Bishop, J.E. and J.M. Schlesinger, Japan’s Cold Fusion Effort Produces Startling Claims of Bursts of Neutrons, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor. p. 3.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Schlesinger, J. M.
Keywords: history, newspaper

377. Bishop, J.E. and K. Wells, Taming H-Bombs? : Utah Scientists Claim Breakthrough in Quest for Fusion Energy, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Wells, K.
Keywords: history, newspaper

378. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion’ Chemists Reiterate Claim; Other Scientists Report Similar Results, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

379. Bishop, J.E., ‘Cold Fusion’ Gets Cold Shoulder From Many a Year After Findings, in The Wall Street Journal. 1990: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

380. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion’ May Keep Earth’s Core Molten, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

381. Bishop, J.E., Future of Hot Fusion is Boiling Down to the Behavior of a Few Helium Atoms, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B1.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

382. Bishop, J.E., Scientist Says `Cold Fusion’ Tests May Have Had Some Impure Rods, in Wall Street Journal. 1990: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

383. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Research Dispels Some Doubts, in The Wall Street Journal. 1990.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

384. Bishop, J.E., Utah Funds for Cold Fusion Run Low Just as Concept Gets Boost From Navy, in Wall Street Journal. 1991: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

385. Bishop, J.E., ‘Cold Fusion’ Researcher Asserts Dozens of Tests Can’t be ‘Ignored”, in The Wall Street Journal. 1991: NYEditor. p. 6.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

386. Bishop, J.E., Cold Fusion Verdict May Be Delivered Soon, in Wall Street Journal. 1991: NYEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

387. Bishop, J.E., Predictable Heat Source Reported from `Heavy’ Water Electrolysis, in Wall Street Journal. 1992: New YorkEditor. p. B12.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

388. Bishop, J.E. and J.M. Schlesinger, Researcher Claims to Replicate Japanese Experiments in `Cold Fusion’, in Wall Street Journal. 1992: New YorkEditor. p. B3.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E., Schlesinger, J. M.
Keywords: history, newspaper

389. Bishop, J.E., A Bottle Rekindles Scientific Debate About the Possibility of Cold Fusion, in Wall Street Journal. 1996: New YorkEditor.

First Author: Bishop, J. E.
All Authors: Bishop, J. E.
Keywords: history

390. Bittner, M., et al., Method for investigation of fusion reactions in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 120.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, neutron

391. Bittner, M., et al. Observation of D-D Fusion Neutrons During Degassing of Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Seeliger, D., Schwierz, R., Westner, P.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, fractofusion, ICCF-2

392. Bittner, M., et al., Evidence for the production of d-d fusion neutrons during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into a palladium cylinder. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2119.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Ludwig, G., Meister, A., Muller, J., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Stiehl, P., Wiesener, K., Wustner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, large current, neutron, D2O

393. Bittner, M., et al., Indication for the temporary production of deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into a massive palladium slab. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 334.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, electrolysis, theory, plasma screening PdD

394. Bittner, M., et al., Emission of DD-fusion neutrons from a massive palladium cyclinder during electrolytic infusion of deuterons into the metal”. Isotopenpraxis, 1991. 27: p. 274.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Ohms, D., Paffrath, E., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, large current, neutron

395. Bittner, M., et al., Observation of d-d fusion neutrons during degassing of deuterium-loaded palladium. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 346.

First Author: Bittner, M.
All Authors: Bittner, M., Meister, A., Seeliger, D., Schwierz, R., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, deloading, energy

396. Bjerklie, D., J.M. Nash, and D.T. Thompson, Fusion Illusion?, in Time. 1989. p. 72.

First Author: Bjerklie, D.
All Authors: Bjerklie, D., Nash, J. M., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: history

397. Blagus, S., et al., Search for neutron production during heavy water electrolysis on palladium electrodes. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 333: p. 321.

First Author: Blagus, S.
All Authors: Blagus, S., Bogovac, M., Hodko, D., Krcmar, M., Miljanic, D., Tomas, P., Vajic, M., Vukovic, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O, layer, surface

398. Blagus, S., et al., Evidence for neutron production during heavy water electrolysis on palladium electrode. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 105.

First Author: Blagus, S.
All Authors: Blagus, S., Bogovac, M., Drasner, A., Vukovic, M.
Keywords: sintered Pd, electrolysis, neutron, D2O

399. Blanchard, R., Fizzion a new process for low energy nuclear transformation and energy production. 1998.

First Author: Blanchard, R.
All Authors: Blanchard, R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

400. Blaschko, O., P. Fratzl, and R. Klemencic, Model for the Structural Changes at Low Temperatures in PdDx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1981. 24: p. 277.

First Author: Blaschko, O.
All Authors: Blaschko, O., Fratzl, P., Klemencic, R.
Keywords: PdD, structure, bonding

401. Blaser, J.P., et al., Experimental investigation of cold fusion phenomena in palladium. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 262.

First Author: Blaser, J. P.
All Authors: Blaser, J. P., Haas, O., Ptitjean, C., Barbero, C., Bertl, W., Lou, K., Mathias, M., Baumann, P., Daniel, H., Hartmann, J., Hechtl, E., Ackerbauer, P., Kammel, P., Scrinzi, A., Zmeskal, H., Kozlowski, T., Kipfer, R., Baur, H., Signr, P., Wieler, R.
Keywords: electrolysis heat-, neutron-, gamma emission, tritium, Helium, D2O, Pd, layer, surface, negative

402. Blencoe, J.G., et al., Tests for ‘cold fusion’ in the Pd-D2 and Ti-D2 systems at 40-380 MPa and -196-27 degC. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 149.

First Author: Blencoe, J. G.
All Authors: Blencoe, J. G., Naney, M. T., Wesolowski, D. J., Perey, F. G.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, heat-, neutron, D2

403. Bochler, S., et al., 3d Photoemission from Mixed Valent YbH2.6. J. de Physique, Colloque C9, Supp., 1987. 48(12): p. 947.

First Author: Bochler, S.
All Authors: Bochler, S., Schlapbach, L., Monnier, R., Degiorgi, L.
Keywords: photoemission, YbH

404. Bockris, J., J. McBreen, and L. Lewis, The Hydrogen Evolution Kinetics and Hydrogen Entry into a-Iron. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1965. 112: p. 1025.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., McBreen, J., Lewis, L.
Keywords: Fe, hydrogen, reaction, FeH

405. Bockris, J. and A.K.N. Reddy, Modern electrochemistry; an introduction to an interdisciplinary area. 1970, New York: Plenum Press.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Reddy, A. K. N.
Keywords:

406. Bockris, J. and P.K. Subramanyan, The equivalent pressure of molecular hydrogen in cavities within metals in terms of the overpotential developed during the evolution of hydrogen. Electrochim. Acta, 1971. 16: p. 2169.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Subramanyan, P. K.
Keywords: pressure, cracks, Pd, H2O, overvoltage

407. Bockris, J., About the alleged presence of tritium in some palladium electrodes and journalist Gary Taubes article in Science. 1990.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

408. Bockris, J., The Answer to the Conundrum at Texas A & M: Accusations of Fraud in an Article Published by “Science. 1990.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

409. Bockris, J. and D. Hodko. Is There Evidence for Fusion Under Solid State Confinement. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D.
Keywords: review, history

410. Bockris, J., et al. Does Tritium Form at Electrodes by Nuclear Reactions? in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Kainthla, R. C., Packham, N. J. C., Velev, O. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium ICCF-1

This paper reports tritium formed in LiOD D2O solutions in which Pd cathodes are used to evolve D2 . Electrolysis was carried out for up to 4½ months. Excess heat has been observed from 5 electrodes out of 28, tritium in 15 out of 53 but 9 out of 13 if the electrodes are limited to 1 mm diameter. Steady state tritium concentrations were 10^4-10^7 disintegrations min^-1 ml^-1. A weak correlation may exist between heat observed and tritium produced. The rate of production of tritium was c. 10^10 atoms cm^-2 sec-1. The branching ratio of tritium to neutrons was ~ 10^8.A theoretical dendrite enhanced fusion model is suggested. Growing gas layer breakdown occurs at sufficiently high surface potential dendrite tips and correspondingly fusion reactions occur. The model gives quantitative consistence with experiment, especially the sporadic nature and the observed branching ratio.

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411. Bockris, J., Addition to ‘A review of the investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons phenomena’. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 523.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: review, tritium

412. Bockris, J., G.H. Lin, and N.J.C. Packham, A review of the investigations of the Fleischmann-Pons phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 11.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Packham, N. J. C.
Keywords: Review

413. Bockris, J. and D. Hodko, Is there evidence for cold fusion? Chem. & Ind., 1990. 22: p. 688.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D.
Keywords: review

414. Bockris, J., D. Hodko, and Z. Minevski. Fugacity of hydrogen isotopes in metals: degradation, cracking and cold fusion. in Symp. Hydrogen Storage Materials, Batteries, Electrochemistry 1991. 1991.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Hydrogen, cracking, pressure

415. Bockris, J., D. Hodko, and Z. Minevski. The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked By Fluxing Deuterium Across the Interface. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, loading, pulse, overvoltage ICCF-2

416. Bockris, J., How Physicists and Chemists Differ. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1991. 4(4): p. 65-66.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

417. Bockris, J., Cold fusion II: The Story Continues. New Scientist, 1991. 19: p. 50.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

418. Bockris, J., et al. Tritium and Helium Production in Palladium Electrodes and the Fugacity of Deuterium Therein. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, helium, electrolysis, ICCF-3

An account is given of the massive production of tritium at a Pd electrode. Production continued for ~ 750 hours after which time it was arbitrarily curtailed. Production of T was found to cease every few days but could be resuscitated by increasing the overpotential of the electrode reaction. A logarithmic relation between the rate of tritium production and the overpotential of the electrode reaction was established. The Will-Cedzynska method of examining T contamination in specimens has shown that nothing above the background of T was detected if no D2O had been electrolytically evolved on the Pd specimens concerned. Helium production was found to accompany that of T. The He was analyzed by thermal expulsion and mass spectroscopy. No He3 was found but He4 was measured in nine specimens out of ten examined. Voids were also detected – 1 micron within the electrode. The excess tritium production on Pd co-deposited with deuterium was found. Cracking and spreading of cracks is shown. An attempt was made to calculate the amount of hydrogen trapped in cracks and to calculate the standard free energy of trapping.

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419. Bockris, J., et al., Cold fusion as a consequence of high fugacity among hydrogen isotopes. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1992. 17: p. 445.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: theory, fugacity, pressure, OCV

420. Bockris, J., Were the Seeds of the Decay of the West Sown in 1650? 1994.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history, review

421. Bockris, J. and R. Sundaresan, Electrochemistry, Tritium, and Transmutation. 1994.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, transmutation, Fe, review

422. Bockris, J. and R. Sundaresan. Electrochemistry, Tritium and Transmutation. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R.
Keywords: review

423. Bockris, J., et al. Triggering of Heat and Sub-Surface Changes in Pd-D Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Sundaresan, R., Letts, D., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, RF, magnet, overvoltage, theory, OCV, high frequency, theory, ICCF-4

I. INTRODUCTIONMore than four years after the first reports of chemically stimulated nuclear reactions, the triggering of heat evolution and the production of associated nuclear debris remains a highly uncertain matter. Both the duration of the switch-on time and, indeed, whether a given electrode will commence to show nuclear activity within 500 hours of the beginning of electrolysis, remain unclear.In the present study, three methods of triggering anomalous heat are described. The changes in the sub-surface of palladium during the evolution of D2 or H2 are described as a function of potential, temperature and time.Finally, these results are evaluated against the present theories of heat production in metals.

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424. Bockris, J., et al., Lattice assisted nuclear transformation (LANT). 1995.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Bush, R. T., Lin, G. H., Monti, R. A.
Keywords: review, transmutation

425. Bockris, J., The complex conditions needed to obtain nuclear heat from D-Pd systems. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 210.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: theory, Pd, Deuterium, electrolysis, D2O, crack

426. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, Two zones of “Impurities” observed after prolonged electrolysis of deuterium on palladium. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5/6): p. 67.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd, D2O

In experiments carried out recently in which hydrogen was electrolyzed from water in contact with a palladium electrode, the concentration and depth of impurities were measured as a function of electrolysis time. It was found that after 3 weeks, two different sets of impurities could be observed, one set within 50Å of the surface and another set different chemical spaces, about 1μ inside the metal.

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427. Bockris, J., G.H. Lin, and R.T. Bush, Do nuclear reactions take place under chemical stimulation? J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10: p. 245.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Lin, G. H., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: cold fusion, transmutation, theory

428. Bockris, J., Speculative interpretation of overunity experiments involving water electrolysis. 1998.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: review

429. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, First experimental establishment of high internal pressure of molecular hydrogen developed in palladium during water electrolysis. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1998. 23(12): p. 1079.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: PdH pressure H2 overvoltage electrolysis

430. Bockris, J., Some happenings at Texas A&M University when unexpected new results in research are obtained. 1999.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

431. Bockris, J., Early Contributions from Workers at Texas A&M University to (So-called) Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. New Energy, 1999. 4(2).

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

INTRODUCTION: THE SITUATION IN MARCH, 1989The firm opinion in respect to basic knowledge of the nucleus common among chemists and physicists in March, 1989, was that chemical effects (involving frequencies of ~ 10^14, could not affect the nucleus of atoms with frequencies ~ 10^6 times higher.  It was also believed in March, 1989, that high energy neutrons were the path towards atomic fission, as in nuclear reactors; and that collisions of H isotopes at extremely high temperatures similar to those in the sun, constituted the main path towards the fusion of nuclei. . . .

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432. Bockris, J. and E. Mallove, Is the Occurrence of Cold Nuclear Reactions Widespread Throughout Nature? Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(27): p. 29.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Mallove, E.
Keywords: transmutation

The generally accepted idea is that the paper of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins of 1989 gave the first evidence that nuclear reactions occur in the cold in a palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) electrolysis system. However, published accounts on elemental change in solids have been around since before the discovery of the nucleus. Thus, the earliest evidence for creation of new elements was that reported for reactions in biological systems. In view of the wave of negative opinion against the 1989 and thereafter work, it is interesting to note a U.S. Army report of 1978 which concluded that the evidence for nuclear reactions in biology was strongly positive. Even less well-known is that U.S. government labs in the 1970s experimented with neutron emission arising from the passage of very high currents through wires, conditions under which thermonuclear reactions should not have been occurring.

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433. Bockris, J., Nuclear Transmutation: The reality of cold fusion (Book Review). Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 1999. 19(5): p. 439.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

434. Bockris, J., Accountability and academic freedom: The battle concerning research on cold fusion at Texas A&M University. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 103.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: history

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FIELD OF LOW TEMPERATURE NUCLEAR REACTIONS FROM GROUPS AT TEXAS A&MDirectly after the March 1989 TV announcement by Fleischmann and Pons that they had achieved a nuclear reaction at electrodes in the cold, research began on the phenomenon at Texas A&M. The University was picked by EPRI as a recipient of funds to investigate the field. Thus, it possessed a Thermodynamic Research Center, a Cyclotron group, and three groups in Electrochemistry (Chemistry Department). In addition, there was the Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research in the Texas Engineering Experiment Center, housed in the university. All these groups received funds to explore “cold fusion.”

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435. Bockris, J. and Z. Minevski, The mechansim of the evolution of hydrogen on palladium and associated internal damage phenomena. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25: p. 747.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J., Minevski, Z.
Keywords: Pd, H, PdH, overvoltage surface cracking damage

436. Bockris, J. The History Of The Discovery Of Transmutation At Texas A&M University. in The Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, history

Until 1989 I had been a publisher of high temperature physical chemistry, electrochemical and environmental research papers.   I was a physical chemist and my contact with nuclear chemistry was only in using it in some tracer techniques. The Fleischmann and Pons announcement of March 1989 was of interest partly because of its radical nature, but also because I had known Martin Fleischmann since his days as a student at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. I had easy access to Fleischmann and I therefore could instruct my co-workers (about 20 at the time) about the technique used in the Fleischmann and Pons work.

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437. Bockris, J., Evidence Concerning the Mechanism of the Nuclear Reaction between Deuterium and Tritium. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Deuterium, Mechanism, Neutron, Nuclear, Tritium

Both hydrogen and deuterium in their electrolysis on palladium gave linear Tafel lines but each had a kink in it at about 0.35 V overpotential (η). At this value damage begins to be seen in the SEM photographs of the interior of the electrodes. Tritium formation became detectable at an overpotential (η) of about 0.4 V. The reaction occurs in two consecutive steps: the first is a Volmer-Tafel reaction which occurs when the overpotential is less than 0.3 V. But as the measured coverage θD approaches unity, the deuterons begin to discharge onto the adsorbed deuterium (Heyrovsky mechanism). The second (consecutive) step leads to the tritium formation via a neutron transfer from the electrode to the Pd-D bond which at this stage (near to full occupancy by D) is relatively weak. The ready availability of neutrons in the surface region of the metal catalyst is rationalized in terms of the high electron concentration associated with the surface and he presence of D arriving from D2O in the solution: e- + D+ = 2 neutrons + a neutrino. The model is applied to two anomalies which have troubled this reaction. One is irreproducibility and also the long time (100 h or more) before any nuclear activity is seen.

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438. Bockris, J., Priority in Nuclear Reactions in the Cold. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fieischmann, Nuclear reactions, Priority, Speri and Zorzi

Fleischman, Pons and Hawkins [1] have been thought to have published the first invitro (but unknown) nuclear reaction in the cold in March 23, 1989. Bockris and Mallove [2] published in 1999 a survey of earlier nuclear reactions in the cold (later condensed matter nuclear reactions). Included in their list was a publication by two Italian engineers Speri and Zorzi [3] which came out in 1989. Drawn by this latter fact, in 2011, I investigated further the Speri and Zorzi paper which Mallove and I had mentioned with only a publication date. I found the paper in an obscure medium and discovered upon being able to read it that Speri and Zorzi had been awarded an Italian patent in 1978. The patent was awarded for the discovery of the fusion of hydrogen isotopes to form helium. The original work was carried out in 1974.

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439. Bockris, J., Instrumentation Relevant to Electrochemical Measurements in Condensed Matter Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 10-20.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Anode, Cells, Cathode, IR Drop, Potentiostat,

The typical electrochemical cell consists of four potentials. One of these is spurious: it should be eliminated from the measurement. A method of doing this is described. The major recommendation is that a third or, so called reference electrode, should be involved in all measurements from which structural information is to be taken from the working electrode. This is then attached to the reference electrode and a high resistance volt meter measures the potential of the working electrode with respect to the reference electrode. Alternative reference electrodes are described.

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440. Bockris, J., On Martin Fleischmann: An Obituary and More. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 1-7.

First Author: Bockris, J.
All Authors: Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fleischmann, Eagerness, Ideas, Imperial College, Quantum electrodynamics, Royal Society

After receiving a Ph.D. Degree from Imperial College, Fleischmann (F) went to work in the University of Newcastle in the U.K. and spent productive years there (metal deposition, micro-electrodes, and electrochemical extraction from mixtures metals). His reputation grew at a time (1950-1960) when electrochemistry was a popular subject for university research. British Electricity saw their chance to get a star performer down to Southampton University as professor, so they paid for a chair for a person who could attract research support and found that F could fill the job, although it was open to other candidates. Fleischmann occupied the chair for only a few years, less than had been foreseen, and retired from university life some years before it is usual. By this time he already was a Fellow of the Royal Society and also a director of the Max Planck Institute in Berlin. Fleischmann made a colleague of Stanley Pons, head of the Chemistry Department in the University in Utah. Pons (P) was of independent means and could fund research which the two of them might think out together. Fusion means coming together and F saw in electrochemistry a high performance way whereby this might be done. What they found was that the heat evolved in a particular deuterium solution when they passed current through it was larger than it should have been according to known chemical theory. In addition to this they observed some neutrons. They suggested that the extra heat was due to an unknown nuclear reaction. What was unusual about the next step was that F&P got on the McNeil-Lehrer Hour and announced that they had been the first to carry out a nuclear reaction in the cold. After a short time, the nuclear chemists of the world turned against F&P and said that their claims must be all nonsense. The anti-Fleischmann opinion expressed at meetings was so great that they decided that it would be a good thing to escape to some other country. They had a friendship with a very wealthy man, Mr. Toyota, and he had already founded some laboratories in the South of France. He offered F and P laboratory space there and they could move their operation to it free of the negative atmosphere which reigned in America. At first the news which came from the laboratory in France was good. Alas, this was not maintained and after two years they split up and P retired to live in France whilst F retired to Tisbury in the U.K. But F’s creativity would not lie down and he was soon to apply something new, Quantum Electrodynamics. He made a colleagueship with a well-known Italian physicist Preparata. However, fate was not kind to F and he discovered that he was suffering from Parkinson’s disease. This is a slow disease but it’s incurable. However, for a couple of years F continued to attend meetings and make intelligent remarks at them. He died on 3 August 2012. Was F a brilliant theorist who did not have time to realize his true vision or had Jack the Flash, his nickname, flashed too much? The field that could have been his greatest is now called condensed matter nuclear reactions.

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441. Boes, N. and H. Zuchner, Electrochemical methods for studying diffusion, permeation and solubility of hydrogen in metals. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 49: p. 223.

First Author: Boes, N.
All Authors: Boes, N., Zuchner, H.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, diffusion

442. Bok, S., et al., Fluorescence-based Temperature Sensor for Anomalous Heat from Loaded Palladium Electrodes with Deuterium or Hydrogen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 25-31.

First Author: Bok, S.
All Authors: Bok, S., Mathai, C, Gangopadhyay, K., Gangopadhyay, S., Azizi, O., He, J., El-Boher, A., Hubler, G. K., Pease, D.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Fluorescence, Temperature sensor

Anomalous heat generation in palladium-based materials has been studied in various active research groups since M. Fleischmann, and S. Pons demonstrated an anomalous heat in 1989. There have been attempts to explain anomalous heat by deuteron-deuteron nuclear fusion in the Pd lattice while the search for radiation was unsuccessful which indicated that the origin of the excess heat is unknown. Despite the unknown origin of the excess heat, Pd system is in the core of the research for energy production. The excess heat has been demonstrated by using calorimeters that are well characterized. However, these measurements are not able to provide detailed information about a localized heat rather than a heat from a large area. A new method is demonstrated to investigate an excess heat from Pd electrode loaded with deuterium or hydrogen. It is capable of measuring a small amount of heat generated in a localized area with a sub-micrometer resolution by fluorescence imaging with temperature sensitive fluorescence dyes. Considering quantum yield, photostability, and thermal stability, rhodamine 6G (R6G) is selected for temperature sensor along with a polymer, Poly MethylSilsesquioxane (PMSSQ). The thermal quenching of fluorescence resulted in a decreased temperature over time with heat generation. We envisioned that this new method of the temperature measurement provided a novel diagnostic tool for localized excess heat which was not detectable by calorimetry due to intrinsic disability.

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443. Bonazzola, G.C., et al., A large-area neutron detector based on double scattering. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1990. A299: p. 25.

First Author: Bonazzola, G. C.
All Authors: Bonazzola, G. C., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Marcello, S., Agnello, M., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: neutron, method

444. Bond, R.A. and D.K. Ross, The Use of Monte Carlo Simulations in the Study of a Real Lattice Gas and its Application to the a’ Pd-D System. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1982. 12: p. 597.

First Author: Bond, R. A.
All Authors: Bond, R. A., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: PdD, Lattice Parameter, Phase Diagram

445. Boniszewski, T. and G.C. Smith, The influence of hydrogen on the plastic deformation ductility, and fracture of nickel in tension. Acta Metall., 1963. 11: p. 165.

First Author: Boniszewski, T.
All Authors: Boniszewski, T., Smith, G. C.
Keywords: H, Ni, diffusion, strength, dislocation

446. Borbely, L. and P. Doleschall, Nucleon Exchange Effects at Low Bombarding Energies for Deuteron-Neutron Scattering. Phys. Lett. B, 1992. 283: p. 10.

First Author: Borbely, L.
All Authors: Borbely, L., Doleschall, P.
Keywords: theory, d-n

447. Bosch, H.S., et al., Electrochemical Cold Fusion Trials at IPP Garching. 1989.

First Author: Bosch, H. S.
All Authors: Bosch, H. S., Wurden, G. A., Gernhardt, J., Karger, F., Perchermeier, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma, heat-, tritium, electrolysis, negative

448. Bosch, H.S., et al., Electrochemical cold fusion trials at IPP Garching. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 165.

First Author: Bosch, H. S.
All Authors: Bosch, H. S., Wurden, G. A., Gernhardt, J., Karger, F., Perchermeier, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat- neutron-, tritium-, gamma emission, D2O, negative

449. Boscoli, R., Method and machine for producing energy by nuclear fusion reactions. 1998.

First Author: Boscoli, R.
All Authors: Boscoli, R.
Keywords: heat, method, patent,

450. Bose, H., et al., Verification Studies in Electrochemically Induced Fusion of Deuterons in Palladium Cathodes, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 8.

First Author: Bose, H.
All Authors: Bose, H., Prabhu, L. H., Sankaranarayanan, M., Shetiya, R. S., Veeraraghavan, N., Joshi, P. V., Murthy, T. S., Sen, B. K., Sharma, K. G. B.
Keywords: heat, tritium, neutron,

451. Botta, E., et al., Measurement of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from Ti/D and Pd/D systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105A: p. 1663.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Gianotti, P., Lamberti, C., Agnello, M., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Zecchina, A.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, neutron, D2

452. Botta, E., et al. Search for 4He Production from Pd/D2 Systems in Gas Phase. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bracco, R., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Cela, V., Fanara, C., Ferracin, U., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: helium Pd, electromigration, D2, neutron, loading ICCF-5

We describe the performance of an apparatus consisting of a cell containing a Pd sheet loaded with D2 in gas phase coupled to a high resolution Q-mass spectrometer. The loading ratio α = D/Pd is increased by applying a constant electric field along the Pd sheet, α is carefully measured by means of the electric resistance variation and of the thermodynamic parameters. In one experiment a signal corresponding to 4He production was observed.

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453. Botta, E., et al. Measurement of 4He Production from D2 Gas-Loaded Pd Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Fanara, C., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: helium Pd, D2, layer, Au Coehn ICCF-6 electrolysis

A Pd sheet gold plated at both ends was loaded with D2 in a Cold Fusion cell operating on the basis of the Coehn effect. The procedure was the same followed in a previous experiment. The gas has been analyzed by means of a high resolution mass spectrometer before the absorption into Pd and after desorption: a significant presence of 4He after desorption has been measured, in agreement with the previous results.

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454. Botta, E., et al., On the neutron emission from the Ti/D system. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 607.

First Author: Botta, E.
All Authors: Botta, E., Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Fanara, C., Iazzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

455. Botter, F., et al., Search for emission of neutrons from a palladium-deuterium system. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 232: p. 536.

First Author: Botter, F.
All Authors: Botter, F., Bouchez, J., Collot, J., Kajfasz, E., Lefievre, B., Lesquoy, E., Stutz, A., Tistchenko, S., Zylberajch, S.
Keywords: Pd-black, heat-, neutron, D2

456. Bottollier-Curtet, H., et al., Search for Isotopic Anomalies in Alchemical Silver Coins from the Germanischen National Museum in Nuremberg. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 148-154.

First Author: Bottollier-Curtet, H.
All Authors: Bottollier-Curtet, H., Koberl, O., Combarieu, R., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Alchemy, Cold fusion, Isotopic anomalies, Museum, Silver, Transmutation

We analyzed six silver coins of supposedly alchemical origin. They were manufactured during the 17th and 18th centuries, and kept in the Germanischen National Museum in Nuremberg in Germany. We did both nondestructive chemical and isotopic analysis. Silver has two stable isotopes, and our measurements indicate that the silver of all the coins have natural isotopic composition. We conclude that the silver contained in these coins is not of artificial origin. This does not prove that alchemists did not succeed in transmuting metals, but we have shown that the silver of these six coins is most likely of natural origin.

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457. Boucher, G.R., F.E. Collins, and R.L. Matlock, Separation factors for hydrogen isotopes on palladium. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 200.

First Author: Boucher, G. R.
All Authors: Boucher, G. R., Collins, F. E., Matlock, R. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, tritium, separation factor, Pd, H2O, D2O

458. Boudard, A., M. Garcon, and S. Platchkov, What shape has the deuteron? Recherche, 1991. 22(235): p. 1094.

First Author: Boudard, A.
All Authors: Boudard, A., Garcon, M., Platchkov, S.
Keywords: theory

459. Bower, B., Peer Review Under Fire. Science News, 1991. 139: p. 394.

First Author: Bower, B.
All Authors: Bower, B.
Keywords: history

460. Bowker, J. and G.R. Piercy, The use of palladium to obtain reproducible boundary conditions for permeability measurements using galvanostatic charging. Metal. Trans. A, 1985. 16: p. 715.

First Author: Bowker, J.
All Authors: Bowker, J., Piercy, G. R.
Keywords: loading, thin films, electroplating, diffusion, Pd

461. Bowman, M.G., A Proposed Pathway for Cold Fusion Reactions. 1990: Letter.

First Author: Bowman, M. G.
All Authors: Bowman, M. G.
Keywords: theory, dineutron,

462. Boya, L.J., Possible mechanisms for cold fusion in deuterated palladium. An. Fis., Ser. B, 1990. 86(2): p. 221.

First Author: Boya, L. J.
All Authors: Boya, L. J.
Keywords: theory

463. Bracci, L., G. Fiorentini, and G. Mezzorani, Nuclear fusion in molecular systems. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1990. 16: p. 83.

First Author: Bracci, L.
All Authors: Bracci, L., Fiorentini, G., Mezzorani, G.
Keywords: Theory, fusion, screening, effective mass

464. Bracci, L., G. Fiorentini, and G. Mezzorani, A Dynamical Calculation of the Electron Shielding for d-d Fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146(3): p. 128.

First Author: Bracci, L.
All Authors: Bracci, L., Fiorentini, G., Mezzorani, G.
Keywords: theory

465. Braun, T., A Selective, Annotated Bibliography. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1989. 136(3).

First Author: Braun, T.
All Authors: Braun, T.
Keywords: review, history

466. Braun, T., World Flash on Cold Fusion No. 10. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1991. 154(1): p. 1.

First Author: Braun, T.
All Authors: Braun, T.
Keywords: history

467. Breed, B. Can Established Physical Principles Explain Solid-State Fusion? in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Breed, B.
All Authors: Breed, B.
Keywords: Review, theory,

468. Bressani, T., E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, First steps toward an understanding of ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101: p. 845.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Del Giudice, E., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Theory, collective effects, p-d fusion, He

469. Bressani, T., et al. A Study of the Neutron Emission from Ti Loaded With D in Gas Phase by Means of a Time-of-Flight Spectrometer. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Lamberti, C., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, energy, ICCF-2

470. Bressani, T., et al., Observation of 2.5 MeV neutrons emitted from a titanium-deuterium system. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 104(9): p. 1413.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Calvo, D., Feliciello, A., Lamberti, C., Iazzi, F., Minetti, B., Cherubini, R., Haque, A. M. I., Ricci, R. A.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

471. Bressani, T. and G. Preparata, What Makes a Crystal Stiff Enough for the Mossbauer Effect? Il Nuovo Cimento, Note Brevi, 1992. 14D(3): p. 345-349.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Mossbauer, theory

472. Bressani, T. Nuclear Physics Aspects of Cold Fusion Experiments, Scientific Summary after ICCF-7. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords: review, ICCF-7

1 Introduction The circumstance that I made the scientific summary on Nuclear Products in Cold Fusion Experiments also after ICCF-6 gives to me the opportunity of combining the comparison of the results from two subsequent conferences and of discussing globally the impressive achievements gained in these last three years. The major achievement at ICCF-6 was, to my opinion, the evidence of the corre­lation between Excess Heat, when measured, and the production of 4He, observed in quantities of the same order of magnitude of what expected form the hypothe­sis that the reaction d + d → 4He + (energy) is the main source of energy in Cold Fusion experiments. This conclusion was reached by several experiments.

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473. Bressani, T. Exotic Nuclear Physics: from Cold Fusion to Antikaonic Nuclear Clusters (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords: Theory

One of the more controversial recent issues in Hadronic and Nuclear Physics is the possible existence of the so-called AntiKaonic Nuclear Clusters (AKNC). They are strange (S=-1, -2) nuclear systems composed by nucleons strongly bound to one or two AntiKaons: This topic is connected with the possible existence of exotic nucleon bound states like pp or ppp, with the possibility that a high-density nuclear medium will be created around the AntiKaon, that could be seed for the understanding of the dense nuclear matter in the neutron stars.In 2002 Akaishi and Yamazaki (1) predicted the appearance of discrete, narrow bound states of Kbar in few-body nuclear systems. The search for such systems started quite soon with nondedicated experiments at Laboratories of KEK (Japan), Frascati (Italy) , CERN (Switzerland), Saclay (France)

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474. Bressani, T. Exotic Nuclear Physics: From Cold Fusion To Antikaonic Nuclear Clusters. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Bressani, T.
All Authors: Bressani, T.
Keywords:

A short review of the status of the experimental searches and theoretical speculations on the possible existence of the AntiKaonic Nuclear Clusters is given. There are no scientific relationships with the possible Cold Fusion phenomena, but some similarities and differences in the perception and acceptance by other communities of physicists.

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475. Briand, J.P., et al., Cold fusion: an alternative diagnostic. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1989. A285: p. 547.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Dewynck, J., Chevallier, P., Bobin, J. L.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, ion bombardment, negative

476. Briand, J.P. Is There Any Deuterium in Dr. Jone’s Titanium Foils? in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P.
Keywords: Ti, D, critique, history

477. Briand, J.P. and M. Froment, La fusion ‘froide’ dix-huit mois apres” (Cold fusion, 18 months later). Recherche, 1990. 21: p. 1282.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Froment, M.
Keywords: review

478. Briand, J.P., et al., Cold fusion rates in titanium foils. Phys. Lett., 1990. A145(4): p. 187.

First Author: Briand, J. P.
All Authors: Briand, J. P., Ban, G., Froment, M., Keddam, M., Abel, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, electrolysis, D2O, fractofusion, surface, x-ray, negative

479. Bridge, M.E., D.R. Lloyd, and J.M.D. Coey, Cold fusion ideas” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 105.

First Author: Bridge, M. E.
All Authors: Bridge, M. E., Lloyd, D. R., Coey, J. M. D.
Keywords: history, critique

480. Brightsen, R.A. and E. Mallove, Explanation of Cold Fusion Reactions Based on the Nucleon Cluster Model (NCM). 1992.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A., Mallove, E.
Keywords: theory, cluster

481. Brightsen, R.A., Application of the Nucleon Cluster Model to Experimental Results. 1995.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster

482. Brightsen, R.A., The Nucleon Cluster Model and the Periodic Table of Beta-Stable Nuclides. 1995.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: Theory, cluster

483. Brightsen, R.A., Correspondence of the Periodic Table of Beta-Stable Nuclides with the Classical Periodic Table of Elements. 1996.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory

484. Brightsen, R.A., Correspondence of the nucleon cluster model with the periodic table of elements. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5 & 6): p. 73.

First Author: Brightsen, R. A.
All Authors: Brightsen, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster

485. Brightson, R., Cluster Theory. 1994: Clustron Sciences Corp.

First Author: Brightson, R.
All Authors: Brightson, R.
Keywords: theory, clustron,

486. Brillas, E., et al. Product Analysis From D2O Electrolysis With Palladium and Titanium Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez, J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-2

487. Brillas, E., et al. Product Analysis From D2O Electrolysis With Palladium and Titanium Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez, J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-2

488. Brillas, E., et al., Product analysis from D2O electrolysis with Pd and Ti cathodes. Electrochim. Acta, 1992. 37(2): p. 215.

First Author: Brillas, E.
All Authors: Brillas, E., Esteve, J., Sardin, G., Casado, J., Domenech, X., Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, tritium, Li, D2O, H2O, surface analysis, negative

489. Brind, J., letter. Science News, 1990: p. 163.

First Author: Brind, J.
All Authors: Brind, J.
Keywords: Theory

490. Britz, D., Cold fusion: an historical parallel. Centaurus, 1990. 33: p. 368.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: Discussion, history, review

491. Britz, D., Parameter correlations in cold fusion measurements. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 155(6): p. 377.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: discussion, gamma emission, Birgul, critique

492. Britz, D., Book Review – The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations about Cold Fusion. J. Sci. Expl., 2007. 21: p. 801.

First Author: Britz, D.
All Authors: Britz, D.
Keywords: Review,

493. Broad, W.J., Science Times: Despite Scorn , Some Scientists Still Seek Cold Fusion Clues, in The New York Times. 1989: NYEditor. p. 5.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: HISTORY, newspaper

494. Broad, W.J., Signs of ‘Cold’ Fusion are Cited Cautiously, in The New York Times. 1989: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history

495. Broad, W.J., M.W. Browne, and W.E. Schmidt, A Frenzy Over Fusion in Hundreds of Labs, in New York Times. 1989.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J., Browne, M. W., Schmidt, W. E.
Keywords: history

496. Broad, W.J., Cold Fusion Claimants Review Puzzling Results, in The New York Times. 1990: NYEditor. p. 8.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper

497. Broad, W.J., Cold Fusion Still Escapes Usual Checks of Science, in New York Times. 1990: New YorkEditor. p. B5 and B9.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, history

498. Broad, W.J., Scientist Defends Cold Fusion Work, in The New York Times. 1990: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper

499. Broad, W.J., Cold-Fusion Claim is Faulted on Ethics as Well as Science, in The New York Times. 1991: NYEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history, newspaper

500. Broad, W.J., U.S. Plans to Hire Russian Scientists in Fusion Research, in New York Times. 1992. p. A1-A4.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, history

501. Broad, W.J., New Class of Lightning Found High Above Clouds, in New York Times. 1995: New YorkEditor. p. 9.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: newspaper, lightning

502. Broad, W.J., A tempest in a test tube, 10 years later, in New York Times. 1999: NYEditor.

First Author: Broad, W. J.
All Authors: Broad, W. J.
Keywords: history

503. Broer, M.M., et al., Search for neutrons from deuterium-deuterium nuclear reactions in electrochemically charged Palladium. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(4): p. R1559.

First Author: Broer, M. M.
All Authors: Broer, M. M., Feldman, L. C., James, A. C. W. P., Kraus, J. S., Raghavan, R. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O

504. Brown, N.E. and N. Jarmie, Differential Cross Sections at Low Energies for 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 41(4): p. 1391.

First Author: Brown, N. E.
All Authors: Brown, N. E., Jarmie, N.
Keywords: cross Section, D-D, fusion, energy, branching ratio

505. Brown, T., A Selective, Annotated Bibliography No. 7. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., Lett., 1990. 145: p. 385-388.

First Author: Brown, T.
All Authors: Brown, T.
Keywords: Review

506. Brown, B. Lithium Fission to Fuse Deuterium? in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Brown, B.
All Authors: Brown, B.
Keywords: theory

507. Brown, J. Collective dipole oscillations in hydrogenated metals. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: theory,

508. Brown, J., Enhanced low energy fusion rate in metal deuterides due to vibrational deuteron dipole-dipole interactions and associated resonant tunneling between neighbouring sites, in arXiv.org. 2007.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: theory

It is observed that interstitial hydrogen nucleii on a metallic lattice are strongly coupled to their near neighbours by the unscreened electromagnetic field mediating transitions between low-lying states. It is shown that the dominant interaction is of dipole-dipole character. By means of numerical calculations based upon published data, it is then shown that in stoichiometric PdD, in which essentially all interstitial sites are occupied by a deuteron, certain specific superpositions of many-site product states exist that are lower in energy than the single-site ground state, suggesting the existence of a new low temperature phase. Finally, the modified behaviour of the two-particle wavefunction at small separations is investigated and prelimary results suggesting a radical narrowing of the effective Coulomb barrier are presented.

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509. Brown, J., Enhanced Low Energy Fusion Rate in Metal Deuterides Due to Vibrational Deuteron Dipole-Dipole Interactions and Associated Resonant Tunneling Between Neighbouring Sites. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Brown, J.
All Authors: Brown, J.
Keywords: RDDI, Phase transition, Protons, Deuterons, Metal, Interference, Entanglement, Fusion, Theory

It is observed that interstitial hydrogen nucleii on a metallic lattice are strongly coupled to their near neighbours by the unscreened electromagnetic field mediating transitions between low-lying states. It is shown that the dominant interaction is of dipole-dipole character. By means of numerical calculations based upon published data, it is then shown that in stoichiometric PdD, in which essentially all interstitial sites are occupied by a deuteron, certain specific superpositions of many-site product states exist that are lower in energy than the single-site ground state, suggesting the existence of a new low temperature phase. Finally, the modified behaviour of the two-particle wavefunction at small separations is investigated and prelimary results suggesting a radical narrowing of the effective Coulomb barrier are presented.

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510. Browne, M.W., New Shot at Cold Fusion by Pumping Sound Waves into Tiny Bubbles, in New York Times. 1994: NYEditor. p. 5.

First Author: Browne, M. W.
All Authors: Browne, M. W.
Keywords: sonoluminescence, accustic, Hot Fusion, newspaper

511. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Does cold nuclear fusion exist? Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146: p. 347.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritskii, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Shamsutdinov, S. G., Shyshkin, A. L., Stolupin, V. A., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, D2, x-ray, negative

512. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Once more about cold nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 146: p. 351.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritskii, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Shamsutdinov, S. G., Shyshkin, A. L., Stolupin, V. A., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Ti, neutron, D2

513. Brudanin, V.B., et al., Search for the cold fusion d(d,(4)He) in electrolysis of D2O. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 151(9): p. 543.

First Author: Brudanin, V. B.
All Authors: Brudanin, V. B., Bystritsky, V. M., Egorov, V. G., Stetsenko, S. G., Yutlandov, I. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, foil, helium, He, alpha, CR-39, particle emission, X-ray, negative

514. Bruggeman, A., et al., Studiecentrum Voor Kernenenergie. 1989.

First Author: Bruggeman, A.
All Authors: Bruggeman, A., Loos, M., Van der Poorten, C., Craps, R., Leysen, R., Poortmans, F., Verstappen, G., Snykers, M.
Keywords: heat, error, Pd, D, critique, AC

515. Bruschi, L., et al., Search for neutron emission from a deuterium-titanium system”. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10(4): p. 303.

First Author: Bruschi, L.
All Authors: Bruschi, L., Santini, M., Torzo, G., Nardelli, G.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

516. Bruschi, M., U. Marconi, and A. Zoccoli. The neutron spectrometer of the cold fusion experiment under the Gran Sasso Laboratory. in Hadronic Phys., Winter Course 8th 1993. 1994. World Sci., Singapore.

First Author: Bruschi, M.
All Authors: Bruschi, M., Marconi, U., Zoccoli, A.
Keywords: neutron, method.

517. Bryan, S.R. and J.H. Gibson, Comments on ‘Nuclear energy release in metals’. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 95.

First Author: Bryan, S. R.
All Authors: Bryan, S. R., Gibson, J. H.
Keywords: critique, Mayer, theory

518. Bu, F.S., et al. Loading ratio study in a gas-loading system. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bu, F. S.
All Authors: Bu, F. S., Li, X. Z., Gao, L., Shgi, H., Huang, G. S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, ICCF-6, gas discharge

Using the tungsten wire, the deuterium gas is loaded into a palladium wire with the loading ratio higher than 0.75 under the pressure less than 1 atm. at the room temperature. The metallography shows that its grain size is greater than 100 micra. This study facilitates the combination of a gas- loading system with a calorimetric system.

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519. Buchachenko, A.L., Chemistry on the border of two centuries – achievements and prospects. Russ. Chem. Rev., 1999. 68((2)): p. 85.

First Author: Buchachenko, A. L.
All Authors: Buchachenko, A. L.
Keywords: review, fractofusion, theory

520. Buchachenko, A.L. and V.V. Chaikovskii, Contraction of electronic shells and a new strategy for cold fusion. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1999. 73: p. 1614.

First Author: Buchachenko, A. L.
All Authors: Buchachenko, A. L., Chaikovskii, V. V
Keywords: Theory

521. Bucur, R. and F.A. Lewis, The Establishment of Equilibria in the Isotopic Distribution of Hydrogen and Deuterium Between Palladium and Aqueous Solutions. Z. Phys. Chem. Neue Folge, 1971. 75: p. 207.

First Author: Bucur, R.
All Authors: Bucur, R., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Separation Factor, H2O, D2O, PdH, PdD

522. Budko, K. and A. Korshunov, Calorimetric Investigation of Anomalous Heat Production in Ni-H Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 85-90.

First Author: Budko, K.
All Authors: Budko, K., Korshunov, A.
Keywords: Calorimeter, Cold fusion, Hydrogen, LENR, LiAlH4, Nickel

It has been claimed that Ni-H systems produce excess heat for long periods of time. We have performed experimental calorimetric investigations of this phenomenon. The experimental setup consisted of a ceramic reactor with nickel powder inside it, a heater, hydrogen loading system and calorimeter. Nickel powders with different grain size were used because of their large surface area. Hydrogen pressure varied from 0.5 to 2.5 atm. Temperature varied from 25 to 800◦C. Different methods of input power were used in order to investigate possible effects of high amplitude magnetic pulses. The experimental runs lasted from 4 to 50 h. Experiments did not show any evidence of excess heat within the accuracy of measurement.

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523. Budnikov, A.T., et al., Study of gases evolving from palladium, nickel and copper, bombarded with D+ ions, from palladium saturated with gases by heavy water electrolysis and by heating in deuterium. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990(1): p. 81 (in Russian).

First Author: Budnikov, A. T.
All Authors: Budnikov, A. T., Danilov, P. A., Kartamyshev, G. A., Katrich, N. P., Seminozhenko, V. P.
Keywords: Pd, Ni, Cu, electrolysis, mass spectrometer, tritium, ion bombardment, D+, D2, negative

524. Buehler, D.B., Possible Gamma Bursts From Gas Loaded Ti Chips. 1992.

First Author: Buehler, D. B.
All Authors: Buehler, D. B.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2

525. Buehler, D.B., et al. Is Reported “Excess Heat” Due to Nuclear Reactions? in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Buehler, D. B.
All Authors: Buehler, D. B., Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Rees, L. B.
Keywords: heat, method, critique, X-ray, radiation, ICCF-3

A portable X-ray detector has been developed to complement “cold fusion” studies. Our reasoning is that any set of nuclear reactions which produce measurable heat must also produce abundant secondary X-rays. However, at the Nagoya meeting and elsewhere, we found that errors and uncertainties in current experiments prevent unambiguous interpretation of claims of excess-heat generation . Hence, this paper also outlines criteria for establishing calorimeter performance for definitive measurements of “excess heat” in cold-fusion experiments.

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526. Bullock, J.S., G.L. Powell, and D.P. Hutchinson, Electrochemical factors in cold fusion experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 275.

First Author: Bullock, J. S.
All Authors: Bullock, J. S., Powell, G. L., Hutchinson, D. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, thermodynamic, overvoltage, method

527. Bunch, K.J. and R.W. Grow. Electric Field Distribution of the Palladium Crystal Lattice. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bunch, K. J.
All Authors: Bunch, K. J., Grow, R. W.
Keywords: Pd, lattice parameter, theory, ICCF-1

528. Bunch, K.J. and R.W. Grow, Self-consistent field calculations on diatomic hydrogen in a potential well. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2131.

First Author: Bunch, K. J.
All Authors: Bunch, K. J., Grow, R. W.
Keywords: Theory

529. Burch, R., On the role of silver atoms in the absorption of hydrogen by palladium-silver alloys. Solid State Commun., 1969. 7: p. 1313.

First Author: Burch, R.
All Authors: Burch, R.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, Pd-Ag, phase Diagram, pressure, H2

530. Burger, J.P., et al., Electrical Resistivity of Pd-Hx: Residual Resistivity. Solid State Commun., 1975. 17: p. 227.

First Author: Burger, J. P.
All Authors: Burger, J. P., MacLachlan, D. S., Mailfert, R., Souffache, B.
Keywords: resistivity, Pd, PdH

531. Burke, L.D. and J.K. Casey, An examination of the electrochemical behavior of palladium electrodes in acid. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1993. 140(5): p. 1284.

First Author: Burke, L. D.
All Authors: Burke, L. D., Casey, J. K.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, loading, overvoltage

532. Burke, L.D. and J.K. Casey, An examination of the electrochemical behavior of palladium in base. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1993. 140(5): p. 1292.

First Author: Burke, L. D.
All Authors: Burke, L. D., Casey, J. K.
Keywords: PdH, Pd, loading, overvoltage

533. Burrows, A., Enhancement of cold fusion in metal ‘hydrides’ by screening of proton and deuteron charges. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. 3405.

First Author: Burrows, A.
All Authors: Burrows, A.
Keywords: Theory, screening

534. Busch, M.P., Nucear Fusion Reactor and Method, Patent Disclosure. 1990: US.

First Author: Busch, M. P.
All Authors: Busch, M. P.
Keywords: patent, disclosure, apparatus,

535. Bush, R.T. A Transmission resonance Model for Cold Fusion. in Winter Annual Meeting of Am. Soc. Mechan. Eng. 1989. San Francisco.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory

536. Bush, R.T. The TRM (Transmission Resonance Model) for Cold Fusion Fits Calorimetric Data on the Pons-Fleischmann Effect and Suggests Solutions to Nuclear “Anomalies”. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory

537. Bush, R.T. Isotopic Mass Shifts in Cathodically-Driven Palladium Via Neutron Transfer Suggested by the Transmission Resonance Model to Explicate Enhanced Fusion Phenomena (Hot and Cold) Within a Deuterared Metrix. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, current density, Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-1

538. Bush, R.T. Production of Tritium, Neutrons, and Heat Based Upon the Transmission Resonance Model (TRM) for Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, D/Pd, heat+, T/n

539. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, A Cold Fusion Model that Matches Experimental Data. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1990. 3(3): p. 21, 62.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: theory, history

540. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, ‘Cold nuclear fusion’: A hypothetical model to probe an elusive phenomenon. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 397.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Theory, bosons

541. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. A Calorimetric Study of the Excess Heat Effect in Thin Films of Palladium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, thin layer, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-2

542. Bush, R.T., Cold ‘fusion’. The transmission resonance model fits data on excess heat, predicts optimal trigger points, and suggests nuclear reaction scenarios. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 313.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, transmission resonance, current density, heat+, D2O, Pd

543. Bush, B.F., et al., Helium production during the electrolysis of D2O in cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 304: p. 271.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J., Miles, M., Ostrom, G. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, He+, heat+, Pd, D2O, H2O, film radiation

INTRODUCTION Our interest in the “cold fusion” process [1,2] was piqued by the apparent lack of systematic investigation into the composition of the gaseous products produced during the electrolysis of D2O. A critical issue in determining whether or not the cold fusion process exists is the quality of the evidence concerning the composition of the gaseous products. The low intensity of neutrons has prompted proposals of other fusion processes such as d + d → 4He + γ [3] and p + d → 3He [4,5]. Accord­ingly, we report the results of experiments designed to detect helium in the effluent gases from electrolysis reactions at palladium cathodes while rigorously excluding possible helium contamination from other sources. The calorimetric electrolysis experiments reported here were performed at China Lake, and the analyses designed to establish the composition of the effluent gases were performed in Austin.

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544. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Experimental Studies Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for Cold Fusion in Light Water: I. Correlation of Isotopic and Elemental Evidence with Excess Heat. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, heat+, transmutation, Rb2CO3, electrolysis Radioactivity, ICCF-3

The experimental evidence cited here (Part I) in support of the Bush TRM Model was originally reported by Bush in his paper, “A Light Water Excess Heat Reaction Suggests That ‘Cold Fusion’ May Be ‘Alkali-Hydrogen Fusion.'” Excess heat production in electrolytic light water experiments was experimentally correlated with a shift not only in elemental abundance but also with an isotopic reversal in the case of a light water-based RbzCD3 cell found to produce strontium. Part II reports on more recent work correlating x-ray emissions with excess power for both a heavy water excess heat reaction and a light water excess heat reaction.

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545. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Experimental Studies Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for Cold Fusion in Light Water: II. Correlation of X-Ray Emission With Excess Power. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: heat+, H2O, Ni, x-ray, radiation, ICCF-3

ABSTRACT: Part I presented evidence in support of Bush’s TRM Model and, in particular, his hypothesis of “alkali-hydrogen fusion” in a lattice as a prototype for cold fusion with both light and heavy water. In Part II preliminary evidence is presented for x-ray emission accompanying both the heavy and light water excess heat effects in the form of both characteristic x-rays and bremmstrahlung. These studies had the unsatisfactory feature of low signal-to-noise, but the satisfactory features of reasonable statistics and excellent correlation. An interesting feature was that x-ray emission decreased somewhat after a cell was switched off, but then spiked upward to decay exponentially to the background level over a period of days. This emission was apparently associated with the desorption of hydrogen from the cathode. With the cell turned off it was also possible to study xray emission accompanying the thermal desorption of hydrogen by changing the cell temperature and studying x-ray emission as a function of cathode surface temperature. When this effect of x-rays accompanying desorption was factored in, Bush’s TRM Model appears to account for the correlation between x-ray emission and excess power.

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546. Bush, R.T., A light water excess heat reaction suggests that ‘cold fusion’ may be ‘alkali-hydrogen fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 301.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, H2O, electrolysis, Ni, Rb, K, transmutation

547. Bush, R.T., Is It Possible That Anomalies Associated with the Excess Heat Effect Were Observed in the 1950’s?: The Transmission Resonance Model (TRM) Answers Affirmatively. 1993.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, heat Capacity, Pd

548. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Calorimetric Studies for Several Light Water Electrolytic Cells With Nickel Fibrex Cathodes and Electrolytes with Alkali Salts of Potassium, Rubidium, and Cesium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, Rb, K, Cs, transmutation, ICCF-4, electrolysis

549. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton. Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells With Light Water Rubidium Salt Electrolytes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, Rb, transmutation, radioactive, ICCF-4, electrolysis

550. Bush, B.F. and M. Miles. Practical Aspects of Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Miles, M.
Keywords: heat+, He+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

551. Bush, R.T. An Interpretation of the Piantelli Effect Based Upon the LANT Hypothesis and ECFM Model for Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory

552. Bush, R.T. Evidence for an electrolytically induced shift in the abundance ratio of Sr-88 and Sr-86. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Pd, Sr, D2O, isotope ratio

553. Bush, R.T., A Unifying Model for Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 431.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory screening

554. Bush, R.T. and R.D. Eagleton, Evidence for Electrolytically Induced Transmutation and Radioactivity Correlated with Excess Heat in Electrolytic Cells with Light Water Rubidium Salt Electrolytes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 334.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T., Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Rb, transmutation H2O, Ni, heat+ radioactivity

555. Bush, R.T. The Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model (ECFM) Reconsidered with Special Emphasis Upon the Production of Tritium and Neutrons. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The author’s ECFM (“Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model”) first presented at the ICCF-4 is re-examined with special reference to the production of tritium and neutrons. The model is of some interest in that it is the first model to fit excess power-vs-Ioading fraction data of McKubre et al. (SRI Intemational/EPRI) and, independently, that of Kunimatsu et al. (IMRA). Of special note is that the peak of the theoretical curve of tritium production versus loading frachon, which is related to that for neutrons by a branchin8 ratio scaling factor, is found to be at a fractional DlPd loading of approximately 0.825, whlch is in go.od agreement with the empirical value of 0.83 announced at the ICCF-5 by Iwamura et al.(Mitsuoishi) for both tritlUm and neutrons. It is of interest then that this theoretical ECFM tritium production curve arises essentially from purely statistical mechanical considerations involving the deuteron occupation of the three-dimensional interstitial lattice, rather than arising from the details of a specific nuclear mechanism. The model shows why tritium is ordinarily not observed when excess heat is being observed. For the neutron-to-triton branching ratio a theoretical lower limit (rlR) 1 results (r is tee protonic charge radius and R is the deuteronic charge radius.) yielding a value of 2 x 10^-9 in agreement with the empirical value of 2 x 10^-9 for the neutron-to-triton branching ratio.

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556. Bush, R.T. A Model for the Impurity Promotion and Inhibition of the Excess Heat Effects of Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: Monte-Carlo, Monaco.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

A theoretica12 model describes impurity promotion and inhibition of the heavy water1 and light water3,4 excess heat effects of cold fusion based upon the infl uence on the magnetic properties of Pd and Ni, respectively, of al loying with different metal s. For Ni (light water case), promoters, in increasing order of efficiency, are predicted to be Cu, Zn, AI, and S n . Inhibitors, in increasing order of efficiency, are predicted to be Co, Fe, and M n . Ag, Au, and Cu are indicated as promoters in the case of Pd (heavy water case). Empirical evidence impacting the model will be presented in another paper (ref. 5) in these Proceedings.

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557. Bush, R.T., Electrolytically Simulated Cold Nuclear Synthesis of Strontium from Rubidium. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 28.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: transmutation,, electrolysis,, H2O,, Sr, Rb

558. Bush, R.T., Can the Electron Catalyzed Fusion Model (ECFM) Account for Light Water Fusion? J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 63.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory,, H2O

559. Bush, R.T., Consequences of lattice occupational symmetry. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 34.

First Author: Bush, R. T.
All Authors: Bush, R. T.
Keywords: theory

560. Bush, B.F., Data for 4He measurement. 1998.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F.
Keywords: 4He

561. Bush, B.F. and J.J. Lagowski. Methods of Generating Excess Heat with the Pons and Fleischmann Effect: Rigorous and Cost Effective Calorimetry, Nuclear Products Analysis of the Cathode and Helium Analysis. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: He+, heat+, PdD, method, Al Seebeck, ICCF-7, electrolysis

Abstract: The results from a growing number of laboratories suggest that the Pons and Fleischmann effect (the production of “excess heat” during the electrolysis of D2O at palladium electrodes) is real. More over data from these laboratories indicate that excess heat events are accompanied by 4He production. Excess heat generation appears to depend on a number of factors: the quality – nature – of the cathode, chemical species present in the D2O / LiOD electrolyte, the conditions surrounding the electrolysis process – current density, potential, time, and the previous history of the cathode. Methods for obtaining useful cathodes will be described.

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562. Bush, B.F. and J.J. Lagowski, Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Electrolysis in Heavy Water. 1999, EPRI: Palo Alto, CA.

First Author: Bush, B. F.
All Authors: Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: Transmutation

Palladium samples taken from the center section of a 2-mm diameter cylindrical heat-producing cathode and similar material from the original stock palladium rod adjacent to that used for the cathode have been analyzed by neutron activation analysis for trace element impurity differences. The focus was on all elements for which NAA is appropriate and sensitive. Although it is known that electrolysis deposits impurity metals on cathodic surfaces from the electrolyte (lithium deuteroxide in this case), this occurs only at the external surface of the rod. The samples were cut diametrally to minimize the surface relative to the bulk or interior portion of the cathode. Large increases in iron and zinc of a factor of 56 and 12 respectively were observed in the active cathode relative to the virgin material. Smaller but significant increases were observed for chromium, cobalt, and cesium. In addition, the Pd-110/Pd-108 ratios were determined. Preliminarily, it appears that Pd-108 was depleted in the active cathode relative to Pd-110 as compared with that ratio in the virgin material. Possible sources of these changes in addition to the conventional explanations are discussed.

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563. Bushnell, D. LENR and NASA (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Bushnell, D.
All Authors: Bushnell, D.
Keywords: Review

Outline* What * Status * Why * Plans

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564. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Some results obtained by detecting nuclear radiation during heavy-water electrolysis. Sov. Phys. Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(5): p. 57.

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd neutron, gamma emission D2O D2SO4

565. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Experiments in the recording of nuclear emissions by electrolysis of heavy water. Trud. Ord. Lenin. Ord. Oktyab. Revol. Fiz. Inst. im. P.N. Lebedeva, Ross. Akad. Nauk, 1992. 220: p. 89 (in Russian).

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Ginodman, V. B., Zherikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tskhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission, D2O

566. Bushuev, V.S., et al., Some results obtained by detecting nuclear radiation during heavy-water electrolysis. J. Opt. Res., 1996. 4(5): p. 171.

First Author: Bushuev, V. S.
All Authors: Bushuev, V. S., Genodman, V. B., Jerikhina, L. N., Kuznetsov, S. P., Lapushkin, Yu. A., Matviyenko, I. P., Nikitenko, A. I., Perekrestenko, A. D., Saposhnikov, N. P., Tolokonnikov, S. M., Tzkhovrebov, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission, Pd, D2O

567. Bussard, R.W., Virtual-state internal nuclear fusion in metal lattices. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 231.

First Author: Bussard, R. W.
All Authors: Bussard, R. W.
Keywords: Theory, loading

568. Butler, M.A., et al., High-sensitivity search for neutrons during electrochemical reactions. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 388.

First Author: Butler, M. A.
All Authors: Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Schirber, J. E., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O

569. Buxerolle, M. and J. Kurkdjian, An Historical Experiment of Neutron Detection Near an Electrolytic Cell. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 7-12.

First Author: Buxerolle, M.
All Authors: Buxerolle, M., Kurkdjian, J.
Keywords: Chain, Deuterium, Electrolysis, Neutron, Palladium, Reaction

An electrolysis experiment performed in April 1989, with a hollow palladium cathode in heavy water showed neutrons production. The results were sufficiently reliable to exclude any experimental error. Unfortunately a similar experiment has never been attempted since then. The presence of neutrons is the signature of nuclear reactions.

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570. Bylinsky, G., Cold Fusion Heats up Again. Fortune Magazine, 1991. 124(1): p. 18.

First Author: Bylinsky, G.
All Authors: Bylinsky, G.
Keywords: history

571. Byung, J.H., Cold nuclear fusion. Hwahak Kwa Kongop Ui Chinbo, 1990. 30: p. 86 (in Korean).

First Author: Byung, J. H.
All Authors: Byung, J. H.
Keywords: review

572. Cage, K., Memorandum: Cold Fusion Applications. 1989, U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark office: Washington, DC.

First Author: Cage, K.
All Authors: Cage, K.
Keywords: patent

Although the media attention relating to cold fusion has dimishecl, we are Just now beginning to see a large number of applications relating to this subjects Although we are attempting to identify an of these applications in the pre-examination screening process, there is a possibility that a few applications may slip through without being identified. . . .

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573. Cain, B.L., et al. Thermal Power Produced Using Thin-Film Palladium Cathodes in Concentrated Lithium Salt Electrolyte. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Cain, B. L.
All Authors: Cain, B. L., Cheney, A. B., Rigsbee, J. M., Cain, R. W., McMillian, L. S.
Keywords: thin-film, Pd, heat+, Li2CO3, ICCF-7

574. Calaon, A., Yet Another LENR Theory: Electron-mediated Nuclear Reactions (EMNR). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Calaon, A.
All Authors: Calaon, A.
Keywords: EMNR theory, Extreme ultra violet, Hydronion, Magnetic attraction, Strange radiation, Zitterbewegung

An attempt is made to build an LENR theory that does not contradict any basic principle of physics and gives a relatively simple explanation to the plethora of experimental results. A single unconventional assumption is made, namely that nuclei are kept together by a magnetic attraction mechanism, as proposed in the 1980s of the past century by Valerio Dallacasa and Norman Cook. This assumption contradicts a non-proven detail of the standard model, which instead attributes the nuclear force to a residual effect of the strong interaction. The theory is based also on a property of the electron which has been known for long, but has rarely been used: the Zitterbewegung (ZB). This property should allow the magnetic attraction mechanism that binds nucleons together, to manifest also between the electron and any isotope of hydrogen, leading to the formation of three neutral pseudo-particles (the component particles remain separate entities), collectively named here Hydronions (or Hyd). These pseudo-particles can then couple with other nuclei and lead to a fusion reaction “inside” the electron. The Coulomb barrier is not overcome kinetically, but through what could be interpreted as a range extension of the nuclear force itself, realized by the electron when some specific conditions are satisfied. The most important of these necessary conditions is that the electron has to “orbit” the hydrogen nucleus at a frequency of 2.055  1016Hz. This frequency corresponds to photons with an energy of about 85 eV or equivalently a wavelength of 14.6 nm in the Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV). So the large quanta of nuclear energy fractionate into EUV photons during the formation of the Hydronions and during the coupling of Hydronions to other nuclei. The formation of Hydronions requires the so called Nuclear Active Environment (NAE), which is what makes LENR so rare and difficult to reproduce. The numbers suggest that the NAE forms when an unshielded atomic core electron orbital that has an “orbital frequency” near to the coupling frequency is stricken by a naked Hydrogen Nucleus (HNu). This theory therefore implies that the NAE is not inside the metal matrix, but in its immediate neighbourhood. The best candidate atoms for a NAE are listed, based on the energy of their ionization energies. The coincidence with the most common LENR materials appears noteworthy. The Electron Mediated Nuclear Reactions (EMNR) theory can explain also very rapid runaway conditions, radio emissions, biological NAE, and the so called “strange radiation”.

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575. Cali, G.J., et al., Electrochemical Regeneration of Clean and Well-Ordered Pd(111) Surface. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 297: p. 523.

First Author: Cali, G. J.
All Authors: Cali, G. J., Berry, G. M., Bothwell, M. E., Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, LEED, order, surface

576. Cammarota, G., et al. A flow calorimeter study of the Ni/H system. in Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1997.

First Author: Cammarota, G
All Authors: Cammarota, G, Collis, W. J. M. F., Rizzo, A., Stremmenos, C.
Keywords:

This paper documents the continuing calorimetric study of the nickel natural hydrogen system at Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Bologna, Italy. Our previous unpublished work had already verified anomalous increase in temperature of a nickel sample loaded with sub-atmospheric hydrogen first noted by Piantelli and co-workers. To ensure that such temperature anomalies were not the result of changes in heat transmission, it was decided to investigate the system using a flow calorimeter.

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577. Camp, W.J., Helium Detrapping and Release from Metal Tritides. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1977. 14: p. 514.

First Author: Camp, W. J.
All Authors: Camp, W. J.
Keywords: helium tritium, release, PdT

578. Campari, E.G., et al. Ni-H Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Porcu, E., Tosti, E., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen, heat+, gamma emission neutron, transmutation, particle emission

579. Campari, E.G., et al. Photon and particle emission, heat production and surface transformation in Ni-H system. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Fasano, G., Focardi, S., Lorusso, G., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

The results obtained in several experiments on Ni-H system are presented here. Photon emission during the preliminary phases of activation and 1H isotope absorption are shown; their correlation with the kind of surfaces (Ni and its alloys) and with neutron and other particle emission in the excitation progress and in large heat production is also presented. Finally the SEM-EDAX analysis of the sample surfaces after same months of heat production is shown; new elements (not present in the initial analysis) appeared. The concentrations of these elements with atomic number between C and Zn, is compared to the unmodified parts of same samples that remained inside the cell, outside of the activated region.

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580. Campari, E.G., et al. Surface Analysis of hydrogen loaded nickel alloys. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

We present a surface analysis of nickel alloy rods loaded with hydrogen. By comparing these with a blank (unused) metal rod, morphological differences and a different composition of the surface are observed. These surface modifications follow a spatial distribution along the rod. These results are compared with a previous analysis of similar samples.

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581. Campari, E.G., et al. Overview Of H-Ni Systems: Old Experiments And New Setup. in 5th Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2004. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Campari, E. G.
All Authors: Campari, E. G., Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat+, neutron, gamma emission transmutation

This is an overview of our experimental activity during the last twelve years. We have been studying the Ni-H system at temperatures of about 700 K. Our investigations have revealed several interesting effects:a) energy production for long timeb) neutron emissionc) gamma-ray emissiond) charged particles emissione) appearance of elements other than Ni on the surfaces of Ni samples.These experiments were performed in several laboratories: the greatest part in Siena but also in Bologna, Colleferro and Pavia. A new laboratory in Colle Val d’Elsa (Siena) will become operative in the summer 2004.

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582. Campbell, R.B. and L.J. Perkins, A study of ‘cold fusion’ in deuterated titanium subjected to high-current densities. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 383.

First Author: Campbell, R. B.
All Authors: Campbell, R. B., Perkins, L. J.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, current density, loading

583. Campbell, C. The Cold Fusion Phenomenon: A Hypothesis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Campbell, C.
All Authors: Campbell, C.
Keywords: theory

584. Caneve, L. Characterization of Materials by Means of Laser-Based Techniques (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caneve, L.
All Authors: Caneve, L.
Keywords: materials

Laser-based techniques are more and more used in the field of materials processing and analysis.In particular, laser spectroscopic techniques as the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been applied to investigate the chemical-physical properties and the morphological structure of several kinds of materials.Some results in different fields of application are reported.

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585. Caneve, L. Characterization of materials by means of laser-based techniques. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caneve, L.
All Authors: Caneve, L.
Keywords:

Laser-based techniques are more and more used in the field of materials processing and analysis. In particular, laser spectroscopic techniques as the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) have been applied to investigate the chemical-physical properties and the morphological structure of several kinds of materials. Some results in different fields of application are reported.

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586. Cannizzaro, F., et al., Search for neutrons as evidence of cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 86.

First Author: Cannizzaro, F.
All Authors: Cannizzaro, F., Greco, G., Raneli, M., Spitale, M. C., Tomarchio, E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O

587. Cantwell, R. Update on results as Coolescence, LLC (PowerPoint slides). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry

Update on results at Coolescence, Inc., in calorimetry, glow discharge and gas flow initiated LENR.

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588. Cantwell, R. and M. McConnell. Partial Replication of Storms/Scanlan Glow Discharge Radiation. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: glow diacharge

The Storms/Scanlan paper1 presented at the 8th international workshop in Catania described two types of radiation produced in a deuterium glow discharge. One type was thought to be mono energetic electrons in the 0.8 MeV range. A second type of emission, obtained when oxygen was added to the D2, was also described by Storms/Scanlan.We have produced radiation with similar characteristics to this second type of emission. This radiation has been characterized with GM tubes, absorbers, silicon diode detector, and magnetic deflection. We propose that conventional low energy x-rays would produce behavior consistent with our observations.

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589. Cantwell, R. and M. McConnell. Search for charged particle emissions resulting from Pd-D Co-Deposition (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Neutron, cr-39

We have attempted to replicate Pd-D Co-Deposition charged particle results reported by Mosier-Boss et al. CR-39 pits similar to those reported by Mosier-Boss et al. were found using both in-situ CR-39 and Mylar-protected CR-39. However, CR-39 protected by a combination of Mylar and a small air gap did not show any pits. The electrolyte, as its chemistry changes during the electrolysis, is shown to damage the acrylic cell containing the experiment and to damage an aluminum foil separated from the electrolyte by a Mylar film. This damage together with the absence of pits when a small air gap is added to the Mylar protection suggests chemical reactions may be the source of the observed CR-39 pits.

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590. Cantwell, R., D. McConnell, and T.N. Claytor, Search for excess heat in metal cathodes exposed to pulsed hydrogen plasma (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Cantwell, R.
All Authors: Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Claytor, T. N.
Keywords: tritium, excess heat

Claytor tritium since early 90’s    High current, high pressure    This work in this pressure/current/voltage regimeKarabut variety of effects since ‘92    Low pressure, lower current    Reference only – this work does not attempt to replicate Karabut

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591. Capek, V. and J. Czech, Tunnelling efficiency and the problem of cold fusion. Phys., 1989. B39: p. 793.

First Author: Capek, V.
All Authors: Capek, V., Czech, J.
Keywords: Theory, tunnelling

592. Caravella, A., G. Barbieri, and E. Drioli. Concentration polarization in Pd-based membranes for hydrogen separation: modeling and simulation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Caravella, A.
All Authors: Caravella, A., Barbieri, G., Drioli, E.
Keywords:

In this study, a new hydrogen permeation model through Pd-based membranes is developed and used to analyze the role of the concentration polarization. According to this new model, the entire hydrogen permeation process is divided into several elementary steps: multicomponent mass transport in the feed and permeate side, adsorption and desorption on/from the membrane surface, absorption and de-absorption into/from the metal lattice, diffusion through the Pd-based bulk and multicomponent mass transport through an asymmetric multilayered porous support. Each of these steps is modeled by means of some equations whose solution provides as result the value of transmembrane flux and the hydrogen partial pressure profile through the membrane. The influence of each step is evaluated as a function of several operating conditions (membrane thickness, temperature, fluid-dynamic conditions, hydrogen partial pressure on feed and permeate side). The effect of the mass transfer in the feed and permeate side is evaluated in terms of concentration polarization effect by defining an opportune coefficient and analyzing its behaviour in different conditions. As results, the investigation shows that the influence of the polarization can be appreciable even for not so thin membranes and provides some “polarization maps”, which are diagrams where the polarization level (in terms of CPC) can be directly visualized and simply estimated once knowing the external operating conditions. Hence, these maps can be very useful in order to predict better the membrane performances and, consequently, reduce the uncertainness during the design step of the membrane modules.

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593. Cardone, F., A. Petrucci, and R. Mignani, Piezonuclear Neutrons from Iron. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8: p. 198-207.

First Author: Cardone, F.
All Authors: Cardone, F., Petrucci, A., Mignani, R.
Keywords: Iron bars, Neutron spectrum, Nuclear transmutations, Piezonuclear reactions, Ultrasounds

We report the results of neutron measurements carried out during the application of ultrasounds to bars of iron and Steel. Like in our previous similar works with cavitated solutions of iron, neutrons were emitted in bursts and the spectrum of this peculiar emission was measured for the first time. A further and very interesting outcome of these experiments was the unexpected appearance of circular, macroscopical and regular damages on the lateral surface of the bars which was not directly in contact with the sonotrode. The superficial elemental micro-analysis on these spots showed some interesting and macroscopic departures of the concentration of chemical elements from that of the undamaged surface, which may suggest that, along with the emission of neutrons, some transmutations occurred as well.

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594. Carey, J., et al., Fusion in a Bottle: Miracle or Mistake?, in Business Week. 1989. p. 100.

First Author: Carey, J.
All Authors: Carey, J., Marbach, W. D., Gross, N., Symonds, W.
Keywords: newspaper, history

595. Carpenter, J.M., Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Carpenter, J. M.
All Authors: Carpenter, J. M.
Keywords: critique, Jones

596. Carpinteri, A. and G. Lacidogna. Piezonuclear Reactions in Inert Solids: Neutron Emissions from Brittle Fracture (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna, G.
Keywords: fractofusion

Neutron emission measurements by means of helium-3 neutron detectors were performed on solid test specimens during crushing failure.The materials used were marble and granite, selected in that they present a different behaviour in compression failure (i.e., a different brittleness index) and a different iron content. All the test specimens were of the same size and shape.Neutron emissions from the granite test specimens were found to be about one order of magnitude larger than the natural background level at the time of failure. These neutron emissions were caused by piezonuclear reactions that occurred in the granite, but did not occur in the marble.

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597. Carpinteri, A., et al. Piezonuclear reactions in inert solids revealed by neutron emissions from brittle fracture. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Cardone, F., Lacidogna, G., Manuello, A., Boria, O.
Keywords:

Neutron emission measurements by means of 3He neutron detectors were performed on solid test specimens during crushing failure. The tests were carried out at the Laboratory of Fracture Mechanics of the Politecnico di Torino. The materials used were marble and granite, selected in that they present a different behaviour in compression failure (i.e., a different brittleness index) and a different iron content. All the test specimens were of the same size and shape. Neutron emissions from the granite test specimens were found to be of about one order of magnitude higher than the natural background level at the time of failure. These neutron emissions should be caused by nucleolysis or piezonuclear “fissions” that occurred in the granite, but did not occur in the marble: Fe 2Al14 2 neutrons. . . .

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598. Carpinteri, A., et al., Piezonuclear Fission Reactions Simulated by the Lattice Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Manuello, A., Veneziano, D., Cook, N.
Keywords: Earth crust composition, Lattice model, Nuclear cold fusion, Piezonuclear fission reactions

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599. Carpinteri, A., et al., Hydrogen Embrittlement and Piezonuclear Reactions in Electrolysis Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Carpinteri, A.
All Authors: Carpinteri, A., Borla, O., Manuello, A., Veneziano, D., Goi, A.
Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion, Electrolysis, Hydrogen embrittlement, Piezonuclear fissions

Several evidences of anomalous nuclear reactions occurring in condensed matter have been observed in the phenomena of electrolysis, fracture (solids), and cavitation (liquids). Despite the great amount of experimental results coming from the so-called Cold Nuclear Fusion and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions research activities, the comprehension of these phenomena still remains unanswered. On the other hand, as reported by most of the articles devoted to Cold Nuclear Fusion, one of the principal features is the appearance of micro-cracks on the electrode surfaces after the experiments. In the present paper, a mechanical explanation is proposed considering a new kind of nuclear reactions, the piezonuclear fissions, which are a consequence of hydrogen embrittlement of the electrodes during electrolysis. The experimental activity was conducted using a Ni-Fe anode and a Co-Cr cathode immersed in a potassium carbonate solution. Emissions of neutrons and alpha particles were measured during the experiments and the electrode compositions were analyzed both before and after the electrolysis, recognizing the effects of piezonuclear fissions occurring in the host lattices. The symmetrical fission of Ni appears to be the main and most evident feature. Such reaction would produce two Si atoms or two Mg atoms with additional fragments as alpha particles.

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600. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Electrode Potentials and Compound Formation in the Palladium-Platinum-Hydrogen System. Nature (London), 1959. 183: p. 39.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd-Pt, phase Diagram, overvoltage, H2O

601. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Proton Transfer Between Pd/H and Pd/Pt/H Electrodes. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1960. 56: p. 1324.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Overvoltage, Pd, Pt, H2

602. Carson, A.W., T.B. Flanagan, and F.A. Lewis, Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium/Platinum Alloys. Faraday Soc., 1960. 56: p. 363.

First Author: Carson, A. W.
All Authors: Carson, A. W., Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, H, overvoltage, resistivity

603. Carstens, D.H.W. and W.R. David, Equilibrium Measurements in the Beta Region of Palladium Protide and Palladium Deuteride. 1989: Los Alamos.

First Author: Carstens, D. H. W.
All Authors: Carstens, D. H. W., David, W. R.
Keywords: PdD, D2, H2, phase Diagram, pressure, PdH

604. Carstens, D.H.W., An Apparatus for Studies of Hydrogen Isotope Exchange over Metals Using Laser-Raman Spectroscopy. 1990: Los Alamos.

First Author: Carstens, D. H. W.
All Authors: Carstens, D. H. W.
Keywords: PdD, deuterium, hydrogen, Raman,

605. Case, M. and R. Boehm. Assessment of thermal energy output from electrochemical cells – a critical review. in HDT (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.) 151 (Heat Transfer Adv. Energy Syst.). 1990.

First Author: Case, M.
All Authors: Case, M., Boehm, R.
Keywords: review, heat, method

606. Case, L.C., The reality of ‘cold fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 478.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: theory, d-t, fusion

607. Case, L.C. Catalytic Fusion of Deuterium into Helium-4. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: Pd-black He+, heat+, D2, catalyst, ICCF-7, particle

Long empirical study has defined one specific set of experimental conditions under which D2 reproducibly undergoes nuclear fusion under mild laboratory conditions. Gaseous D2 is contacted with a supported metallic catalyst at superatmospheric pressure, and about 130-300РC. The catalyst is a platinum-group metal, at about 1/2% to 1% by weight, on activated carbon. Pd, Pt, Ir and Rh all work, and Ru has not been carefully studied yet. (Pd is preferred). This type of PGM on activated carbon is one of the standard hetero­geneous catalysts employed in the chemical industry, but the useful range of PGM content is much narrower than is known to be generally useful. . . .

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608. Case, L.C. There is a Fleischmann-Pons effect. The process is electrolytic, but the effect is catalytic. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Case, L. C.
All Authors: Case, L. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, ICCF-9, D2O, H2O, case catalyst, heat

609. Castagna, E., et al. Surface plasmons and low-energy nuclear reactions triggering. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Sibilia, C., Paoloni, S., Violante, V., Sarto, F.
Keywords: theory, plasmons,

610. Castagna, E., et al. Metallurgical characterization of Pd electrodes employed in calorimetric experiments under electrochemical deuterium loading. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Rufoloni, A., Sarto, F., Violante, V., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: metallurgy

A systematic approach has been followed in the production and characterization of Pd foils to be used in excess heat production experiments. Starting with a metal foil as supplied, palladium samples have been fabricated and characterized in a step by step process, and then subjected to electrolysis deuterium loading. The characterized metallurgical properties include the main grain size, the grain boundary, the material Vickers hardness, and the crystal grain orientation. Electrochemical properties that are recorded include the D/Pd loading ratio and the D/Pd low current loading ratio. A suitable correlation parameter has been defined and correlations have been found between excess heat production and individual properties; i.e. the mean grain size, grain boundary, material hardness, crystal grain orientation, deuterium loading and low-current deuterium loading level.

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611. Castagna, E., et al. Interaction Of The Electromagnetic Radiation With The Surface Of Palladium Hydride Cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: materials

The change of the electronic density of metallic Pd due to the hydride formation and to the build-up of the double layer, rising at the metal-dielectric interface when an electric field is  applied, is involved in the variation of the metal dielectric function. A model including also metal surface roughness has been developed to take into account such modifications.

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612. Castagna, E., et al. Interaction of the Electromagnetic Radiation with the Surface of Palladium Hydride Cathodes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords:

The change of the electronic density of metallic Pd due to the hydride formation and to the build-up of the double layer, rising at the metal-dielectric interface when an electric field is applied, is involved in the variation of the metal dielectric function. A model including also metal surface roughness has been developed to take into account such modifications.

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613. Castagna, E., et al., Correlation Between Surface Properties and Anomalous Effects in F&P Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8: p. 49-59.

First Author: Castagna, E.
All Authors: Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: Atomic force microscopes, Electron states at surfaces and interfaces, Optical properties of surfaces

The reproducibility of anomalous excess heat production during electro-chemical deuterium permeation of Pd cathodes has been recently observed1 to be strongly correlated with the palladium surface properties (easy loading at low current, crystal grain distribution, crystallographic orientation, and surface morphology). The understanding of the physical mechanism that is responsible for such observed correlation is very challenging and it is complicated further by the fact that the different features are not, in principle, independent each from the other. In this work, the experimental results concerning the correlation of the excess heat production with the cathode surface properties are reviewed and some possible connections of the observed effects with the deuterium kinetics inside the palladium and the electromagnetic interactions at the metal/electrolyte interface are discussed.

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614. Castano, C.H., et al. In-Situ Charactorization of Sputtered Pd Thin-Films Undergoing Electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Castano, C. H.
All Authors: Castano, C. H., Kim, S-O., Lipson, A. G., Woo, T., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

615. Castano, C.H., et al. Calorimetric Measurements During Pd-Ni Thin Film-cathodes Electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O Solution. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Castano, C. H.
All Authors: Castano, C. H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

A sensitive open-type calorimeter was used to measure excess heat production during electrolysis in Li2SO4/H2O solution with Pt-anode and Pd-Ni thin film cathodes 9000 Å thick, sputtered on Al2O3 substrate. In order to estimate the actual performance and possible measurement errors during electrolysis in the calorimeter used, including heat convection, bubbling and possible H2+O2 recombination, smooth Pt sheets were used as cathodes in special reference runs. It is shown that the Alumina/ Pd-Ni sample that survived during electrolysis achieved excess heat production of 20-25 % of the input power              (equivalent to 300 Ѡ30 mW).

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616. Castellan, G.W., J.P. Hoare, and S. Schuldiner, Electrochemical behavior of the palladium-hydrogen system.(II). Thermodynamic considerations. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 20.

First Author: Castellan, G. W.
All Authors: Castellan, G. W., Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S.
Keywords: Pd, H2, phase Diagram, thermodynamic

617. Castellano, et al. Nuclear Transmutation in Deutered Pd Films Irradiated by an UV Laser. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Castellano
All Authors: Castellano, Di Giulio, M., Dinescu, M., Nassisi, V., Conte, A., Pompa, P. P.
Keywords: laser, Pd, layer, D2, transmutation, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Nuclear transmutation results in palladium films loaded with deuterium gas and processed by an excimer laser are reported. Vacuum evaporation was utilised to obtain palladium films on Si wafers. The films were inserted in chambers with deuterium gas at a variable pressure up to 5 bar. During the UV laser processing the maximum irradiating energy density was lower than 50 mJ/cm in order to avoid the ablation of the palladium films. The samples were analysed by a scanning electron microscope and an electron probe microanalyzer. After the experiments, we found that the Pd films was modified. They presented many cracks and bubbles with very sharp edges. In the bubbles the transmutation of elements was observed.

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618. Catlett, D.S., J.N. Spencer, and G.J. Vogt, Hydrogen Transport in Lithium Hydride as a Function of Pressure. J. Chem. Phys., 1973. 58: p. 3432.

First Author: Catlett, D. S.
All Authors: Catlett, D. S., Spencer, J. N., Vogt, G. J.
Keywords: pressure, diffusion, LiH

619. Cau, A., Natural nuclear synthesis of superheavy elements (SHE). J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 155.

First Author: Cau, A.
All Authors: Cau, A.
Keywords: alchemy, theory, transmutation

620. CBS, 60 Minutes, Cold Fusion is Hot Again. 2009.

First Author: CBS
All Authors: CBS
Keywords: review,

621. Cecil, F.E., et al., Measurement and Application of DD-gamma, DT-gamma and D He -gamma Reactions at Low Energy. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1985. 10-11: p. 411.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Cole, D. M., Wilkinson, F. J., Medley, S. S.
Keywords: gamma emission branching Ratio

622. Cecil, F.E., D.M. Cole, and F.J. Wilkinson, Measurement and Application of DDg, DTg and D3Heg Reactions at Low Energy. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1985. 10/11: p. 411.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Cole, D. M., Wilkinson, F. J.
Keywords: fusion, gamma emission, deuterium, Branching Ratio D-D

623. Cecil, F.E., et al. Observation of Charged-Particle Bursts from Deuterium-Loaded Thin-Titanium Foils. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Beddingfield, D. H., Galovich, C. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Ti, D2

624. Cecil, F.E., et al., Study of energetic charged particles emitted from thin deuterated palladium foils subject to high current densities. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 195.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Ferg, D., Furtak, T. E., Mader, C., McNeil, J. A., Williamson, D. L.
Keywords: Pd, ion implantation, D+, H+, particle emission

625. Cecil, F.E. and G.M. Hale. Measurement of D-D and D-Li6 Nuclear Reactions at Very Low Energies. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Hale, G. M.
Keywords: fusion, T/n, rate, cross section, low energy, ion bombardment, ICCF-2, branching ratio

The nuclear reactions of very low energy deuterons (down to center-of-mass energies of 2 keV) with deuterons and 6Li have been measured. The measured D-D reactions are in good with agreement recent R-matrix calculations. The reaction ratios D(d,p)T/D(d,n)3He and 6Li(d,p)7Li/6Li(d,α)4He in particular were examined for possible evidence of an Oppenheimer-Phillips type enhancement. No significant enhancement was found in either ratio or in the absolute yields of the reactions. The radiative capture reactions D(d,γ)4He and 6Li(d,γ)8Be were likewise measured. The branching ratios of these radiative capture reactions to the nucleonic branches of the reactions appear roughly independent of energy. The role of these reactions in the production of heat in cold-fusion experiments is evaluated.

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626. Cecil, F.E., H. Liu, and J.S. Yan, Measurements of branching ratios of low energy deuteron-induced nuclear reactions on 2H, 6Li, and 10B. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1993. 47: p. 1178.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Yan, J. S.
Keywords: branching ratio, ion beam, Oppenheimer-Phillips, theory

627. Cecil, F.E., H. Liu, and C.S. Galovich. Energetic Charged Particles from Deuterium Metal Systems. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cecil, F. E.
All Authors: Cecil, F. E., Liu, H., Galovich, C. S.
Keywords: Charged particle

We report on measurements made a number of years ago of energetic charged particles which were emitted from deuterium metal systems subject to non-equilibrium conditions of temperatures and electric currents. These measurements include (i) thin Titanium foils deuterated at moderately high temperatures in a deuterium atmosphere and then monitored as they were cycled from LN2 to room temperatures; (ii) charged particle detection of Ti foils exposed to a deuterium glow discharge; and (iii) observation of charged particles from Ti foils following bombardment with energetic deuterium ions.

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628. Cedzynska, K., et al. Tritium Analysis in Palladium With an Open System Analytical Procedure. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E., Knight, L. C., Will, F. G.
Keywords: tritium, analysis, Pd, method

629. Cedzynska, K., et al., Tritium analysis in palladium with an open system analytical procedure. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 108.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Barrowes, S. C., Bergeson, H. E., Knight, L. C., Will, F. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, analysis, method

630. Cedzynska, K. and F.G. Will, Closed-system analysis of tritium in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 156.

First Author: Cedzynska, K.
All Authors: Cedzynska, K., Will, F. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, method, analysis

631. Celani, F., et al., Preliminary Measurements on Electrolytic Cold Fusion at Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory. 1989.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Bianco, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, Ti, gamma, neutron, chargedParticle

632. Celani, F., et al. Measurements in the Grans Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for Nuclear Effects in Electrolysis With Pd/Ti and Different Tests with Deuterium Hight-Temperature Superconductors. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Stella, B., Ferrarotto, F., Corradi, M., Marini, P., Fortunati, S., Tului, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, Ti, D, D2O, superconductor

633. Celani, F., et al., Further measurements on electrolytic cold fusion with D2O and palladium at Gran Sasso Laboratory. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 718.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Pace, S., Polichetti, B., Saggese, A., Di Liberatori, L., Di Stefano, V., Marini, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission D2O

634. Celani, F., et al. Search for Neutron Emission from Deuterided High Temperature Superconductors in a Very Low Background Environment. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Croce, F., Storelli, L., Fortunati, S., Tului, M., Sparvieri, N.
Keywords: superconductor, neutron, D2, ICCF-2, YBaCuO

635. Celani, F., et al. Measurement of Excess Heat and Tritium During Self-Biased Pulsed Electrolysis of Pd-D2O. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Nuvoli, A.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, Pd, D2O, pulse, ICCF-3, electrolysis

After Takahashi reported large excess heat with pulsed electrolysis, we built a gas-closed flow calorimeter to perform pulsed current electrolysis. Blank tests using Au plate cathodes were carried out to characterize the system. Four cold-worked Pd sheets were tested, and two of them produced 7.5% and 6% mean excess heat for many weeks. The others Pd sheets did not produce excess heat in most tests, although one of them, after deuterium reloading, produced up to 25% excess heat, but only for few hours. Tritium analysis was carried out and some coincidence between tritium production and excess heat was found.

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636. Celani, F., et al., Search for enhancement of neutron emission from neutron-irradiated, deuterated, high-temperature superconductors in a very low background environment. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 181.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Liberatori, L., Croce, F., Storelli, L., Fortunati, S., Tului, M., Sparvieri, N.
Keywords: neutron, superconductivity, theory, D2

637. Celani, F., et al. High Power µs Pulsed Electrolysis for Large Deuterium Loading on Pd Plates. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Nuvoli, A., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, heat+, overvoltage, resistance, hardness, ICCF-4, electrolysis

An high peak current (up to 100 A) and a very short pulse (1 microsecond) generator was used to perform electrolysis in D2O-LiOD solution using a Pd sheet as a cathode and a Pt net as an anode. This high power pulse (up to 50 KW) can be rated up to 20 KHz.Very high D/Pd values (up to about 1:1) has been reached with any cold-worked Pd sheets used. A very hard sheet (about 300 Hv) has generated an excess heat of the order of 15% for a long time (some weeks).Some considerations about the metallurgy of electrodes are performed and an effort is made to correlate the excess heat with metallurgical parameters, over-voltage and surface resistance.

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638. Celani, F., et al. D/Pd Loading Ratio up to 1.2:1 by High Power µS Pulsed Electrolysis in Pd Plates. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, pulse loading

639. Celani, F., et al. Numerical Simulation of Deuterium Loading Profile in Palladium and Palladium Alloy Plates From Experimental Data Obtained Using µs Pulsed Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Petrocchi, A., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Nakamura, M., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Preparata, G., Verpelli, M.
Keywords: Pd, loading, Ag-Pd, Ce-Pd, Pd-V, diffusion, pulsed loading, ICCF-5, electrolysis

Various palladium cathodes hav e been studied to determine the i nfluence of metallurgy and surface treatment o n deuterium loading. In this paper we apply a numerical solution to the appropriate differential equation to calculate the time dependent local deuterium concentration i n side the plates. We use experimentally determined deuterium coefficients for the alpha, beta and gamma phases.We find the highest concentration gradient in the case of oxidized samples.

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640. Celani, F., et al. Study of Deuterium Charging Behavior in Palladium and Palladium Alloy Plates, Charging Surface Treatments, by µs Pulsed Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Diociaiuti, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, pulse, D2, surface, oxidation, electrolysis, ICCF-5

A systematic study about deuterium loading in palladium has been performed. Palladium cold worked plates and palladium alloy plates have been used as comparison. A proper plate surface oxidation has been performed and anomalous absorption rates have been measured. A high peak current (15 A), short width pulse (duration 1 μs) electrolysis technique has been used to test all cathode plates and it is visible that this technique permits to reach very high D/Pd loading values (around 1/1 or even more for palladium). At the beginning of the loading, in close relation with the anomalous absorption rate, a bump of excess heat has been measured in two similar oxidized surface palladium plates. All these tests show that the loading is completely reproducible.

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641. Celani, F., et al. High Power µs Pulsed Electrolysis Using Palladium Wires: Evidence for a Possible “Phase” Transition Under Deuterium Overloaded Conditions and Related Excess Heat. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Mancini, A.
Keywords: D2O, heat+, electrolysis, Pd, pulse, electromigration, resistivity, ICCF-5

Abstract In this paper we describe an electrolytic experiment aimed at reaching high deuterium concentration gradients in palladium wires, using the electromigration effect.We will describe the selection criteria of experimental parameters and we will show results of our loading and c alorimetric measurements. These tests reveal that a high mean value of D/Pd has been reached in a short time and that there is a correlation between an anomalous heat emissio n and an electric resistivity ‘transition” of the overloaded palladium.

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642. Celani, F., et al. New Kinds of Electrolytic Regimes and Geometrical Configurations to Obtain Anomalous Results in Pd(M)-D Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Mancini, A., Pace, S.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, Coehn, electromigration. D2O, ICCF-6

643. Celani, F., et al. Observations of strong resistivity reduction in a palladium thin long wire using ultra-high frequency pulse electrolysis at D/Pd>1. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Mancini, A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, resistivity, pulsed electrolysis, ICCF-6

We performed an ultra-short width high voltage pulse electrolysis using a Pd thin wire cathode; a diluted electrolytic solution of D2P+LiOD was used in a peculiar wire-turned electrodes geometry.The deuterated Pd loading was evaluated by the D/Pd normalized electric resistance curve (R/Ro). After a long time of electrolysis a very high D/Pd loading (1:1 or more) was reached.Very low R/Ro (<0.1) Pd wire was measured after switching of electrolysis and this effect lasted for several minutes. The deuterium deloading occurred in several typologies (fast and slow terms) showed as a resistance transition on the Pd wire. This effect can be related to a peculiar surface structural condition.

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644. Celani, F., et al., Reproducible D/Pd ratio > 1 and excess heat correlation by 1-microsec-pulse, high-current electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 398.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Boutet, A.
Keywords: pulsed electrolysis, heat+, D2O, loading

A high-current (up to 100 A), short-pulse (1-μs du­ration) electrolysis technique is presented that permits high loading (D/Pd up to 1.2) of deuterium in palla­dium cathodes. Several different cold-worked palladium plates were used as cathodes, and some underwent sur­face treatments (oxidation or addition of intermetallic compounds). The surface-treated plates showed atypical deuterium absorption dynamics, and the D/Pd loading ratio exceeded 1. Moreover, during initial loading, these cathodes showed anomalous excess heat (up to 80%) far greater than the absorption enthalpy. The pure pal­ladium surface plates did not show this effect.

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645. Celani, F., et al., Deuterium overloading of palladium wires by means of high power microsecond pulsed electrolysis and electromigration: suggestions of a “phase transition” and related excess heat. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 214: p. 1.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Petrocchi, A., Di Gioacchino, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Pace, S., Mancini, A.
Keywords: pulsed electrolysis, loading, heat+, Coehn Pd, D2O, superconductivity

BBBBBBBBBB We describe room-temperature hydrogen and deuterium loading of palladium wires by means of pulsed electrolysis and the electromigration effect. The D/Pd atomic ratio has been measured by means of the dependence of the resistivity upon the D/Pd ratio. Values of the D/Pd ratio up to 0.95 or even higher have been reached in short times. A correlation between an anomalous temperature rise and a resistivity “transition” of the overloaded palladium clearly appears.

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646. Celani, F. Ultra high (over 1:1) H/Pd loading ratio using thin wires in acidic solution with addition of very low concentration impurities. in Italian Physical Soc. 1998. Salerno, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis

647. Celani, F., et al. Preliminary Results with “Cincinnati Group Cell” on Thorium “Transmutation” under 50 Hz AC Excitation. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Achilli, M., Battaglia, A., Cattaneo, C., Buzzanca, C., Sona, P. G., Mancini, A.
Keywords: transmutation, Th, plasma, ICCF-7

648. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of g-b Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading PdD, gamma phase ICCF-7 phase diagram

It will be shown, using long and thin wires of Pd, that the Electromigration is a powerful tool to increase the H(D) loading in Pd only, and only if, some proper experimental set-up and conditions are fulfilled. Some of key interrelated parameters are: wire diameter, effective  wire temperature, strong barriers at most and less cathodic side, anode-cathode and intercathodic voltages, current densities, proper impurities on the Pd surface, ageing effects.

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649. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of Gamma-Beta Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase

650. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of Gamma-Bet Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase

651. Celani, F., A study on the electrochemistry parameters to achieve reproducible high H/Pd and D/Pd vlues in relation to anomalous excess heat: proteobacteria contamination problematics. 1999.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: loading, bacteria

652. Celani, F., et al. High Hydrogen Loading into Thin Palladium Wires through Precipitate of Alkaline-Earth Carbonate on the Surface of Cathode: Evidence of New Phases in the Pd-H System and Unexpected Problems Due to Bacteria Contamination in the Heavy-Water. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., Pace, S., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Catena, C., D’Agostaro, G., Petraroli, R., Quercia, P., Righi, E., Trenta, G.
Keywords: loading, Pd, bacteria, heat, H2O, D2O, ICCF-8

A new procedure has been developed at INFN Frascati Laboratory in order to achieve a very high Hydrogen or Deuterium electrolytic loading into a long and thin Palladium wire. This technique consists in the addition of a very small amount of alkaline-earth elements into a very diluted acidic solution. Because of enhancing pH values around the cathode, during the electrolysis, carbonates are able to precipitate onto the cathode’s surface forming a thin layer which strongly increases the Pd loading; a computer simulation has been developed to find out the proper working conditions for the carbonates precipitation. Loading results of Hydrogen were excellent (H/Pd1). The evidence of a new phase in the Pd-H system was inferred from the basis of the variation of the thermal resistivity coefficient of the Pd wire as a function of the H/Pd ratio. . . .

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653. Celani, F., et al. Unexpected Detection Of New Elements In Electrolytic Experiments With Deuterated Ethyl-Alcohol, Pd Wire, Sr And Hg Salts. in JCF-4. 2002. Morioka, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D’Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C., Andreassi, V., Fontana, F., Garbelli, D., Gamberale, L., Azzarone, D., Celia, E., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, thin-wire

Abstract The insoluble powder recovered at the bottom of our electrolytic cell, after several electrolytic deuterium loading/deloading cycles, was analysed by an ICP-MS analyser. The electrolyte was constituted of a deuterated hydro-alcoholic solution; Sr and Hg salts were added to such a solution at micromolar concentration; the cathode was a long and thin Pd  wire. The ICP-MS analyses of the insoluble powder were motivated from the recent results of Y. Iwamura and collaborators at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-Research Center (Yokohama, Japan) showing reproducible “transmutation” of Sr into Mo (isotopic composition different from natural one) and Cs into Pr, when a special multilayer Pd sheet was subjected to a prolonged Deuterium gas flowing. Some of our results look partially in agreement with Y. Iwamura report. Other unexpected elements were also detected with an isotopic distribution close to the natural one. The production of stable isotopes by Selective Channel Photofission, according to the model of A.Takahashi (Osaka University, Japan), can help for  nderstanding. Further works, hopefully also from other Laboratories, are needed to clarify these kinds of results.

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654. Celani, F., et al., Evidence of anomalous tritium excess in D/Pd overloading experiments. 2002, Laboratori Nazionali Di Frascati.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Mancini, A., D’Agostaro, G., Catena, C., Sandri, S., Nobili, C., Andressi, V.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9, alcohol

Measurements of Tritium have been performed, using a very low background and accurate instrumentation, on electrolytes before and after Deuterium absorption in Palladium wires. Tritium was always present in the electrolytic cells, having long and thin Palladium wires (carefully degassed) as cathode and Platinum wire as anode, because  “normal contamination” of deuterated liquids.Two different kinds of electrolytes were used (unusual, for several aspects, to conventional ones adopted in Cold Fusion experiments): the first one was composed by heavy water in DCl acidic environment (pH=4.5) with the addition of Strontium (and Mercury) salts at micro-molar concentration, the second one was composed by heavy ethyl alcohol–heavy water solution (concentration ratio about 11:1), acidic environment (DCl+D2SO4), with the addition of Strontium and Mercury concentrated as before.We have found anomalous Tritium production (at large statistical significance) only when the achieved loading ratio (D/Pd) was quite large (about 0.95) and several loading/deloading cycles had been performed.

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655. Celani, F., et al. Electrochemical D loading of palladium wires by heavy ethyl-alcohol and water electrolyte, related to Ralstonia bacteria problematics. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D’Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, alcohol, Pd, wires, loading, ICCF-9, D2O

656. Celani, F., et al. Electrochemical D loading of palladium wires by heavy ethyl-alcohol and water electrolyte, related to Ralstonia bacteria problematics. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., D’Agostaro, G., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Catena, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, alcohol, Pd, wires, loading, ICCF-9, D2O

Taking in considerations the several effects of new kinds of bacteria living in heavy water (discovered by us in 1999), from the point of view of Deuterium (D) overloading inside Palladium (Pd), it was developed (since June 2001) a new kind of electrolyte based on mixture of alcohol and water (both heavy) with proper addition of Strontium (Sr) and Mercury (Hg) salts in an acidic environment (DCl, D2SO4): all these procedure according to what developed from our group since 1996 for H2O solutions (without H2SO4) and, since 2000, for light water-alcohol (with H2SO4). It was found excess heat (by high accuracy flow calorimeter) and excess Tritium (T) production (by low background T measurement instrumentation) only when the loading ratio was quite high and some movements to D inside Pd was performed.Efforts will be done to increase the absolute values of such experimental results, in the near future.

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657. Celani, F., et al. Evidence of anomalous tritium excess in D/Pd overloading experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Quercia, P., Mancini, A., D’Agostaro, G., Catena, C., Sandri, S., Nobili, C., Andressi, V.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9, alcohol

Measurements of Tritium have been performed, using a very low background and accurate instrumentation, on electrolytes before and after Deuterium absorption in Palladium wires. Tritium was always present in the electrolytic cells, having long and thin Palladium wires (carefully degassed) as cathode and Platinum wire as anode, because “normal contamination” of deuterated liquids.Two different kinds of electrolytes were used (unusual, for several aspects, to conventional ones adopted in Cold Fusion experiments): the first one was composed by heavy water in DCl acidic environment (pH=4.5) with the addition of Strontium (and Mercury) salts at micro-molar concentration, the second one was composed by heavy ethyl alcohol–heavy water solution (concentration ratio about 11:1), acidic environment (DCl+D2SO4), with the addition of Strontium and Mercury concentrated as before.We have found anomalous Tritium production (at large statistical significance) only when the achieved loading ratio (D/Pd) was quite large (about 0.95) and several loading/deloading cycles had been performed.

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658. Celani, F., et al. Thermal and Isotopic Anomalies when Pd Cathodes are Electrolysed in Electrolytes Containing Th-Hg Salts Dissolved at Micromolar Concentration in C2H5OD/D2O Mixtures. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Catena, C., D’Agostaro, G., Quercia, P., Andreassi, V., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Excess heat, transmutation

Discussed in this paper is the evolution of work that started by using the M. Fleischmann and S. Pons method and ended by using thin palladium wires electrolyzed in an electrolyte consisting of slightly acidic heavy alcohol-water solution containing thorium (Th) and mercury (Hg) salts at micromolar concentrations. The resulting large and dynamic loading of the Pd wires was studied. The recent use of thorium instead of strontium resulted in thermal anomalies and detection of new elements in larger amounts. The results with Sr are qualitatively in agreement with what was found by Y. Iwamura (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries) using multilayers of Pd-CaO-Pd-Sr in flowing deuterium gas. Most  results seem to be in agreement with a “multi-body resonance fusion of deuterons” model recently developed by A.Takahashi (Osaka University).

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659. Celani, F., et al. New Procedures to Make Active, Fractal-like Surfaces on Thin Pd Wires. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., D’Agostaro, G., Quercia, P., Andreassi, V., Giacinti, O., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Todarello, E., Purchi, E., Mancini, A., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Celia, E., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Novaro, E., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: loading, nanoparticles

660. Celani, F., et al. The Effect of -Phase on H(D)/Pd Overloading. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Pace, S., Selvaggi, G., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Mancini, A.
Keywords: electromigration, loading, PdD, gamma phase,

661. Celani, F. Toward the use of nanoparticles for stable excess heat in Pd-D system: progress report at INFN-LNF. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F.
Keywords: theory

Since 2003, we suspected and later get evidence that nanostructures (or fractals) at the surface of  Pd make a key role in obtaining anomalous effects in Pd-D system, both of nuclear (like transmutations) and/or thermal origin.We presented several papers, at JCF, Asti and ICCF Conferences which aim was to explore the role of nanometric Palladium. We developed a (complex) procedure to oxidise-produce fractals/holes at Pd wire surface, during electrolysis. . . .

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662. Celani, F., et al. Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated With Nano-Particles: Evidence for Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Andreassi, V., Marmigi, A., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Todarello, F., Purchi, E., Mastromatteo, U., Mancini, A., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Di Biagio, P., Martini, U., Sona, P. G., Fontana, F., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Calamai, O. M.
Keywords: electromigration, heat

Large excess heat is measured in a Pd wire coated with nano-particles. A long (65 cm) and thin (50 μm) Pd wire is coated with thin layers of Pd nano-particles, stabilized against self-sintering by the addition of selected chemical elements: the coating is adhered to the wire surface by heating it in air up to about 800у. The wire is then heated with up to 1 A of direct current in a pressurized D2 gas atmosphere. The D+ deuterons in the Pd lattice are forced to move toward the cathodic end of the wire because of the voltage drop along the wire (the Cohn effect). Large excess power density (about 400 W/g of Pd), at high temperatures (up to 400-500у), is then measured using isoperibolic calorimetry. The reference experiment is made, in situ and without opening the cell, using a Pt wire of same dimensions as the Pd wire, to which was applied the same electrical power. . . .

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663. Celani, F., et al. Towards a high temperature CMNS reactor: nano-coated Pd wires with D2 at high pressures (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Purchi, E., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Piastra, F., Nuvoli, A.
Keywords: Excess heat

1) Improved measurements on “Washington type” reactor (P<10bar; max wires temp. 500у; reactor SS wall temperature <;40у): main results of ICCF14 confirmed (i.e. anomalous excess power, stable over time, up to 400W/g Pd).2) Experiments on HP (60bar)-HT (600у) reactor wall are still in progress: experienced heavy problems coming out because degassing impurities (especially S, P) from SS (304, 316) used in the reactor wall. The scavenger effect of H2 (and D2) on SS makes the impurities problem quite difficult to be overcome. For such reasons we designed and build a new, multilayer (SS/Cu 3N), reactor that is now under the stage of final test.

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664. Celani, F., et al. Towards a High Temperature CMNS Reactor: Nano-Coated Pd Wires with D2 at High Pressures. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Purchi, E., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Cappuccio, G., Hampai, D., Piastra, F., Nuvoli, A., Mastromatteo, U., Mancini, A., Falcioni, F., Marchesini, M., Di Biagio, P., Martini, U., Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D.
Keywords:

There were improved measurements on our reactor presented at ICCF14 (2008): long-thin Pd wires with surfaces nano-coated by multi-layers of several elements, D2 at P<10bar; wires temp. <500у; SS reactor wall temperature <100у; longitudinal current density up to 45 kA/cm2 (voltage drop up to 70V); transversal electric field up to 700V/cm. Previous ICCF14 results confirmed: anomalous excess power, stable over time and power cycling, up to 400 W/g of Pd. Made a new experiment with D2-Ar mixture: demonstrated the role of high temperatures (into “nano” Pd-D) to enhance production of anomalous thermal effects. The combined effects of high concentration and mobility of D inside Pd seem the key points to get them: models based on High Temperature BEC Nuclear Fusion (Kim, Premuda) fits several of our experimental results. Experiments on the planned (new) High Pressure (60 bar) High Temperature (>600 у) reactor wall are still in progress: experienced heavy problems coming out because degassing of impurities (specially S, P) from SS (304, 316) used in the reactor wall. The scavenger effect of H2 (and D2) on SS and other materials makes the impurities problem quite difficult to be overcome: designed and build a new, multiple layer wall (SS/Cu 3N), reactor that is now under the stage of final test.

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665. Celani, F., et al. Sviluppo di catalizzatore ternario, skeleton type, per studi su anomalie termiche nei sistemi Metallo-Idrogeno ad alta temperatura (PowerPoint slides). in Coherence 2011. 2011. Ministero dell’Aereonautica, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Nakamura, M., Zangari, G., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Marano, E., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: Excess heat

Nell’ambito degli studi volti ad evidenziare eventuali anomalie di tipo termico (e/o nucleare) nei sistemi Metallo-Idrogeno (e/o Deuterio), studi che rientrano nella fenomenologia nota (dal 2002) con la sigla CMNS (Condensed Matter Nuclear Science), è divenuta sempre più palese l’importanza che ricoprono sistemi nanostrutturati per poter ottenere, in opportune condizioni di temperatura e pressione, fenomeni anomali riconducibili a processi NON di origine chimica e fisica convenzionale.

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666. Celani, F., et al. Experimental results on sub-micro structured Cu-Ni alloys under high temperatures Hydrogen/Deuterium interactions (PowerPoint slides). in X International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012. Siena, Italy.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Ortenzi, B., Nakamura, K., Purchi, E, Zangari, G., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Bartalucci, S., Cupellini, S., Mancini, A., Maggiore, F.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

In the framework of studies devoted to detect thermal and/or nuclear anomalies during the  close interactions of H2 and/or D2 with Hydrogen-absorbing materials (e.g. Pd, Ni, Ti, Th, U, Fe, rare-earths, pure and their alloys), since March 2011, we made several experiments with a specific commercial alloy (ISOTAN 44  from Isabellenhutte, Germany) with nominal composition: Cu55-Ni44-Mn1.

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667. Celani, F., et al., Development of a High Temperature Hybrid CMNS Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 24-33.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Calamai, O. M., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Andreassi, V., Ortenzi, F., Piastra, F., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Marano, E., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Nakamura, M., Purchi, E
Keywords: Anomalous effects, Deloading, Hybrid, Isoperibolic calorimetry, Nano-particles

We presents some improvements on the reactor presented at ICCF14 (Washington DC, August 2008): use of long-thin Pd wires with nano-coated surfaces by multi-layers of several elements, loading with D2 at pressure <10 bar; wires temperatures >500у; Stainless Steel (SS) reactor wall temperature <100у; current density along Pd up to 45 kA/cm2; voltage drop along the Pd wire up to 70 V. Mainly, the Pd wire temperature was increased up to 750у and was improved the temperature detection of anomalous excess heat, if any, using a SS shielded type-K thermocouple: it was put inside a small Cu tube, used as thermal equalizer, where, at the outer surface, both the “active” Pd wire and the “reference” Pt were twisted. The overall results were in agreement with that obtained in 2008 experiments and they confirm the positive effect of high temperatures in increasing the amount of anomalous energy gain. In both the experiments the fast and simple isoperibolic calorimetry was used. Main gas adopted were: He and He (60%)-Ar(40%) mixture, both for calibration purposes; D2 and D2(60%)-Ar(40%) as potentially active gas.

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668. Celani, F., et al. Further progress/developments, on surface/bulk treated Constantan wires, for anomalous heat generation by H2/D2 interaction. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Vassallo, G., Purchi, E, Nuvoli, A., Spallone, A., Nakamura, M., Marano, E., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Ovidi, A., Bartalucci, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Santandrea, F., Cirilli, P., Grotta, A.
Keywords: excess heat, nickel, wire

Outline and motivations1) Path of HT anomalies: from Langmuir (W&H2) to nano-Constantan.2) Proof, by calibration experiments with Pt wires (different diameters, gases, pressures, power), that main results obtained on 2012 with surface-treated Constant wires, were right. Focused on not-dependence of Anomalous Heat Effects (AHE) on pressure variations inside the transparent glass reactor: reconfirmed and reinforced previous calibration data (June 2012) using He.3) Evidence of unexpected water splitting phenomena, under vacuum, by “nanodiamandoids-coated” Constantan. . . .

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669. Celani, F., et al., Experimental Results on Sub-Micro structured Cu-Ni Alloys under High Temperature Hydrogen/Deuterium Interaction. Chemistry and Materials Research, 2013. 3(3).

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Bartalucci, S., Nakamura, K., Purchi, E, Zangari, G., Cupellini, S., Mancini, A., Maggiore, F., Ovidi, A.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

This study shows in detail how even a low cost material, like commercial Cu-Ni-Mn alloy (named Konstantan or ISOTAN 44), as far its surface is properly modified from the point of view of dimensionality, can be used as material able to produce anomalous heat effects due to close interaction with Hydrogen (or Deuterium, but at lower intensity) at high temperature. This work is supported by Enel Engineering and Innovation SpA, Via Andrea Pisano 120, 56122, Pisa (Italy), ORIM SpA, Via Concordia 65, 62100 Macerata (Italy) and Kresenn Ltd, 5a Frascati Way, SL6 4UY, Maidenhead (United Kingdom).

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670. Celani, F., et al., Improved understanding of self-sustained, sub-micrometric multicomposition surface Constantan wires interacting with H2 at high temperatures: experimental evidence of Anomalous Heat Effects. Chemistry and Materials Research, 2013. 3(12).

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, M., Pella, S., Ortenzi, B., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Ovidi, A., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S., Vassallo, G.
Keywords: calorimeter, LENR, Nickel based alloys, sub-micrometric surfaces

This article is an extension of what presented by our team at 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion, ICCF-17, in Daejon, Korea, in 2012 [1]. It documents the improvements on Constantan-related experiments, started in 2011, in order to study the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb proper amounts of Hydrogen (H2) and/or Deuterium (D2) and that have, in principle, some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100у. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use also H2 instead of expensive D2. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using H2 instead of D2 can be made and could help the understanding of the phenomena involved (atomic, nuclear, super-chemical origin?) due to the use of such isotopes.

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671. Celani, F., et al., Cu-Ni-Mn alloy wires, with improved submicrometric surfaces, used as LENR device by new transparent, dissipation-type, calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 56-67.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, K., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

Abstract — Starting in February 2011, we studied the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb  proper  amounts  of  Hydrogen  (H2)  and/or Deuterium  (D2)  and  that  have,  in  principle,  some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100у. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use H2 instead of expensive D2. Reports by F. Piantelli (since 1992), G. Miley (about 1995), M. Patterson, F. Celani (since 2010) and, overall, claims by A. Rossi and (later on) by Defkalion Company, could be further investigated. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using Hydrogen instead of Deuterium can be made and could help the understanding of the phenomena involved (nuclear origin?) because use of such isotopes.

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672. Celani, F., et al. Cu-Ni-Mn alloy wires, with improved submicrometric surfaces, used as LENR device by new transparent, dissipation-type, calorimeter (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF18 Conference. 2014. University of Missouri.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Marano, E., Spallone, A., Nuvoli, A., Purchi, E, Nakamura, K., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Righi, E., Trenta, G., Bartalucci, S., Zangari, G., Micciulla, F., Bellucci, S.
Keywords: excess heat, hydrogen, nickel

Abstract — Starting in February 2011, we studied the feasibility of new Nickel based alloys that are able to absorb  proper  amounts  of  Hydrogen  (H2)  and/or Deuterium  (D2)  and  that  have,  in  principle,  some possibility to generate anomalous thermal effects at temperatures >100у. The interest in Ni comes in part because there is the possibility to use H2 instead of expensive D2. Reports by F. Piantelli (since 1992), G. Miley (about 1995), M. Patterson, F. Celani (since 2010) and, overall,  claims by A. Rossi and (later on) by Defkalion Company, could be further investigated. Moreover, cross-comparison of results using Hydrogen instead of Deuterium can be  made  and  could  help  the  understanding  of  the phenomena involved (nuclear origin?) because use of such isotopes.

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673. Celani, F., et al., Observation of Macroscopic Current and Thermal Anomalies, at High Temperature, by Hetero-structures in Thin and Long Constantan Wires Under H2 Gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Spallone, A., Ortenzi, B., Pella, S., Purchi, E, Santandrea, F., Fiorilla, S., Nuvoli, A., Nakamura, M., Cirilli, P., Boccanera, P., Notargiacomo, L.
Keywords: Constantan sub-micrometric surfaces, H2 ad-/absorption, Iron, Rydberg Matter, Thermodynamic second law

Since 2011, we introduced into LENR field, the use of a Constantan (Cnst) alloy to absorb/adsorb proper amounts of H2 or D2 and to generate thermal anomalies even at low temperatures (>200◦C). We developed a reactor with a core of sub-micrometric layered Cnst wires that produced measurable excess power (almost reproducible). Subsequently, we used fiberglass sheaths as electrical insulation and found out that this material actually improves reactor performance. In the most recent configuration, we studied the effects of adding Fe nanolayers to the Cnst wires and of including several small knots along their extension, actions that resulted in a larger excess power that grew with increasing wire temperature. We detected a new electric effect: the generation of spontaneous voltage between the ends of a floating wire in the reactor. We performed tests to study results in agreement with Inverse Rydberg Matter model by L. Holmlid.

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674. Celani, F., A.O. Di Tommaso, and G. Vassallo, The Zitterbewegung Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics as Theoretical Framework for Ultra-dense Deuterium and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 32-41.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Di Tommaso, A. O., Vassallo, G.
Keywords: Clifford algebra, Compton scale aggregates, Dirac equation, Electric charge, Electron structure, Elementary particles, LENR, Lorenz gauge, Maxwell’s equations, Occam’s razor, Space–time algebra (STA), Ultra-dense deuterium, Vector potential, Weyl eq

This paper introduces a Zitterbewegung model of the electron by applying the principle of Occam’s razor to the Maxwell’s equations and by introducing a scalar component in the electromagnetic field. The aim is to explain, by using simple and intuitive concepts, the origin of the electric charge and the electromagnetic nature of mass and inertia. The Zitterbewegung model of the electron is also proposed as the best suited theoretical framework to study the structure of Ultra-Dense Deuterium (UDD), the origin of anomalous heat in metal-hydrogen systems and the possibility of existence of “super-chemical” aggregates at Compton scale.

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675. Celani, F., A. Tommaso, and G. Vassallo, The Electron and Occam’s Razor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 76-99.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Tommaso, A., Vassallo, G.
Keywords: Compton scale aggregates, Electric charge, Elementary particles, Electron structure, LENR, Lorenz gauge, Occam’s razor, Space–time algebra, Ultra-dense deuterium, Vector potential, Weyl equation, Zitterbewegung

This paper introduces a Zitterbewegung (ZBW) model of the electron by applying the principle of Occam’s razor to Maxwell’s equations and by introducing a scalar component in the electromagnetic field. The aim is to explain, by using simple and intuitive concepts, the origin of the electric charge and the electromagnetic nature of mass and inertia. A ZBW model of the electron is also proposed as the best suited theoretical framework to study the structure of Ultra-Dense Deuterium (UDD), the origin of anomalous heat in metal–hydrogen systems and the possibility of existence of “super-chemical” aggregates at Compton scale.

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676. Celani, F., A. Tommaso, and G. Vassallo, Maxwell’s Equations and Occam’s Razor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 100-128.

First Author: Celani, F.
All Authors: Celani, F., Tommaso, A., Vassallo, G.
Keywords: Coulomb gauge, Clifford algebra, Electric charge, Electron structure, Elementary particles, Maxwell’s equations, Lorenz gauge, Occam’s razor, Space–time algebra, Vector potential, Zitterbewegung

In this paper a straightforward application of Occam’s razor principle to Maxwell’s equation shows that only one entity, the electromagnetic four-potential, is at the origin of a plurality of concepts and entities in physics. The application of the so called “Lorenz gauge” in Maxwell’s equations \emph {denies the status of real physical entity} to a scalar field that has a gradient in space-time with clear physical meaning: the four-current density field. The mathematical formalism of space-time Clifford algebra is introduced and then used to encode Maxwell’s equations starting only from the electromagnetic four-potential. This approach suggests a particular \emph{Zitterbewegung} (ZBW) model for charged elementary particles.

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677. Cellucci, F., et al. X-Ray, Heat Excess and 4He in the Electrochemical Confinement of Deuterium in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cellucci, F.
All Authors: Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Gozzi, D., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: He, radiation, electrolysis, heat+, Pd, D2O, X-ray, ICCF-6

Abstract The energy balance between heat excess and 4He in the gas phase has been found reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of 4He found do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give 4He. In the melted cathode, whose data are reported here, 4He was not found at the achieved sensitivity. X-ray film, positioned at 50 mm from the cell, roughly gave the image of the cathode through spots. The energy of the radiation and the total energy associated to it have been, respectively, evaluated as (89ѱ) keV and (12.0 Ѡ0.4) kJ. This value is ≈ 0.5% of the energy measured by calorimetry in the same interval of time.

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678. Cerofolini, G.F., N. Re, and A.F. Para. (D+D+)2e- Binuclear Atoms as Activated Precursors in Cold Fusion and Warm Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Re, N., Para, A. F.
Keywords: theory, D-D, dineutron

679. Cerofolini, F., et al. Binuclear Atoms as Fusion Precursors in a Hot Cloud. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cerofolini, F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, F., Dierckx, R., Para, A. F., Ottaviani, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2

680. Cerofolini, C.F. and A.F. Para, Exotic Atoms in Condensed Matter Alternatives in Low Energy Fusion? 59 ed, ed. G. Benedek and H. Schneuwly. 1992: Springer Proc. in Phys.Cerofolini, C.F. 129.

First Author: Cerofolini, C. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, C. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: review,

681. Cerofolini, C.F. and A.F. Para, Alternatives in low energy fusion?”. Springer Proc. Phys., 1992. 59 (Exot. At. Condens. Matter): p. 129.

First Author: Cerofolini, C. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, C. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: Theory, Ti, cluster impact, D2

682. Cerofolini, G.F., et al., Giant Neutron Trapping by a Molecular Species Produced During the Reaction of D+ With H- in a Condensed Phase. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 465.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Boara, G., Agosteo, S., Para, A. F.
Keywords: theory, neutron, absorption

683. Cerofolini, G.F. and A.F. Para, Can binuclear atoms solve the cold fusion puzzle? Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 98.

First Author: Cerofolini, G. F.
All Authors: Cerofolini, G. F., Para, A. F.
Keywords: Theory, dineutron

684. Cerron-Zeballos, E., et al., Investigation of anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1996. 109A: p. 1645.

First Author: Cerron-Zeballos, E.
All Authors: Cerron-Zeballos, E., Crotty, I., Hatzifotiadou, D., Lamas Valverde, J., Williams, M. C. S., Zichichi, A.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat

Summary. — Anomalous heat production in a nickel rod loaded with hydrogen has been reported by Focardi et al. (Nuovo Cimento A, 107 (1994) 163). We have investigated this phenomenon by repeating the experiment. We found the results previously published to be consistent with our observations; namely we measured higher temperatures for the same input power when hydrogen is absorbed during a heating cycle. Nevertheless this temperature rise does not appear to correspond to an increase in heat production. We have added a temperature sensor to the container of the experiment. The temperature of the container follows the same temperature with input power curve irrespective of whether there is an anomalous absorption of hydrogen or not; therefore we have no evidence that this temperature increase corresponds to another source of heat. In conclusion, we have observed all the effects discovered by Focardi et al., but our results imply that there is no production of power associated with the absorption of hydrogen by nickel

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685. Chambaud, G., B. Levy, and J.G. Esteve, Estimate of Ti effects on D-D fusion. Phys. Lett., 1991. A156: p. 395.

First Author: Chambaud, G.
All Authors: Chambaud, G., Levy, B., Esteve, J. G.
Keywords: Theory, screening, Ti

686. Chambers, G.P., G.K. Hubler, and K.S. Grabowski. Search for Energetic Charged-Particle-Reaction Products During Deuterium-Charging of Metal Lattices. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Hubler, G. K., Grabowski, K. S.
Keywords: Ti, ion implantation, gas discharge, particle emission

687. Chambers, G.P., et al., Charged particle spectra of palladium thin films during low energy deuterium ion implantation. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 281.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Eridon, J. E., Grabowski, K. S., Sartwell, B. D., Chrisey, D. B.
Keywords: Pd, ion beam, particle emission, layer

688. Chambers, G.P., J.M. Eridon, and K.S. Grabowski, Upper limit on cold fusion in thin palladium films. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(8): p. 5388.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Eridon, J. M., Grabowski, K. S.
Keywords: Pd, ion beam, particle emission

689. Chambers, G.P., G.K. Hubler, and Y. Kucherov, Glow Discharge in Deuterium. 1995.

First Author: Chambers, G. P.
All Authors: Chambers, G. P., Hubler, G. K., Kucherov, Y.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, D2, ion bombardment, gamma

690. Champion, J., Explanation of Observed Nuclear Events Associated with Cold Fusion and Similar Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 1994.

First Author: Champion, J.
All Authors: Champion, J.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

691. Champion, J., History of Transmutation Research. 1994.

First Author: Champion, J.
All Authors: Champion, J.
Keywords: transmutation, theory

692. Chandler, D.L., et al., Fusion : Test Tube Yields More Questions Than Answers, in Boston Globe. 1989: BostonEditor. p. 29.

First Author: Chandler, D. L.
All Authors: Chandler, D. L., Saltus, R., Miller, W. G., Black, C.
Keywords: newspaper, history

693. Chang, C.P., et al., Hydrogen and deuterium in palladium. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1991. 16: p. 491.

First Author: Chang, C. P.
All Authors: Chang, C. P., Wu, J. K., Yao, Y. D., Wang, C. W., Lin, E. K.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, heat+, diffusion, lattice parameter, surface analysis

694. Chang, Y.F. and C.Z. Yu. The Physical-Chemical and Nuclear Multistage Reaction Mechanism and the Multistage Ignition Condition on Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Chang, Y. F.
All Authors: Chang, Y. F., Yu, C. Z.
Keywords: theory

695. Chang, K., U.S. Will Give Cold Fusion Second Look, After 15 Years, in New York Times. 2004.

First Author: Chang, K.
All Authors: Chang, K.
Keywords: history, newspaper

696. Chao, J., et al. Three Dimensional Computer Simulation of an Isoperibolic Calorimeter for Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Chao, J.
All Authors: Chao, J., Layman, W., Kang, C. M., Gur, T., Schreiber, M., Higgins, R., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J.
Keywords: heat, method, apparatus, ICCF-1

697. Chapnik, I.M., Possibility of induced beta radioactivity in PdD. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1990. 146: p. 273.

First Author: Chapnik, I. M.
All Authors: Chapnik, I. M.
Keywords: Theory

698. Chapnik, I.M., Possibility of electrochemically induced transmutation in PdD. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 161: p. 111.

First Author: Chapnik, I. M.
All Authors: Chapnik, I. M.
Keywords: Theory, Pd, Oppenheimer-Phillips

699. Chatterjee, L., Could spectator electrons legalize cold fusion? Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 683.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory

700. Chatterjee, L., On a weak flavor for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 358.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory, screening

701. Chatterjee, L., The two faces of the Coulomb barrier. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 365.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory

702. Chatterjee, L., A. Chakrabarty, and G. Das, Non-radiative exit channels in low energy d-d fusion. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1991. 29: p. 781.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Chakrabarty, A., Das, G.
Keywords: Theory

703. Chatterjee, L. and G. Das, Sub-barrier nuclear fusion of amuonic and muonic flavour. Phys. Lett., 1991. A154: p. 5.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Das, G.
Keywords: Theory, screening

704. Chatterjee, L., S. Mandal, and A. Chakrabarty, Electron accumulation and reproducibility of cold fusion. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 1993. 31: p. 131.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L., Mandal, S., Chakrabarty, A.
Keywords: Theory, screening, TiO2

705. Chatterjee, L., Electrolysis in thin-film nickel coatings: mimicking supernova physics? Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 147.

First Author: Chatterjee, L.
All Authors: Chatterjee, L.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron, virtual neutron

706. Chaudhary, I. and P.L. Hagelstein. Four-body RST General Nuclear Wavefunctions and Matrix Elements. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chaudhary, I.
All Authors: Chaudhary, I., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

The inclusion of phonon exchange in a nuclear reaction is accomplished most easily when the associated matrix elements are written explicitly as a function of the spatial coordinates. We report on the wavefunctions and matrix elements for the special case of a T = 0 4-body deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction.

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707. Chauvin, N. LENR Powered Electrict Vehicles. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Chauvin, N.
All Authors: Chauvin, N.
Keywords: Commercialization

Current electric vehicles (EV) and fuel cell vehicles (FCEV) suffer from several limitations that prevent them from becoming a true commercial success.When available, kilowatt class LENR generators combined with modern thermoelectric conversion technology could enable designing new type of automobiles, being low cost, maintenance free and zero emission at the same time.In the present talk, we will discuss what are to current limitations of electric vehicles and battery technology, how LENR technology can propose an alternative to large battery storage on EV, what are the available compact solutions for energy harvesting and thermoelectric conversion from LENR thermal energy, what are the longer term design alternatives and finally what is the expected timeline to develop prototypes and commercial products.

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708. Chechin, V.A., et al. Fracto-Acceleration Model of Cold Nuclear Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A., Golubnichyi, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

709. Chechin, V.A. and V.A. Tsarev, On the nonstationary quantum-mechanical origin of nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 469.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

710. Chechin, V.A., et al., Critical review of theoretical models for anomalous effects in deuterated metals. Int. J. Theo. Phys., 1994. 33: p. 617.

First Author: Chechin, V. A.
All Authors: Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A., Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Review, theory critique

We briefly summarize the reported anomalous effects in deuterated metals at ambient temperature, commonly known as “Cold Fusion” (CF), with an emphasis on important experiments as well as the theoretical basis for the opposition to interpreting them as cold fusion. Then we critically examine more than 25 theoretical models for CF, including unusual nuclear and exotic chemical hypotheses. We conclude that they do not explain the data.From: xxxx://arxiv1.library.cornell.edu/vc/nucl-th/papers/0303/0303057v1.pdf

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711. Cheek, G.T. and W.E. O’Grady, Measurement of hydrogen uptake by palladium using a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 277: p. 341.

First Author: Cheek, G. T.
All Authors: Cheek, G. T., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: loading, method, Pd

712. Cheek, G.T. and W.E. O’Grady, Measurement of H/D uptake characteristics at palladium using a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 133.

First Author: Cheek, G. T.
All Authors: Cheek, G. T., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: loading, method, D, H, diffusion, film

713. Chemla, M., J. Chevalet, and R. Bury, Heat evolution involved with the electrochemical discharge of hydrogen and deuterium on palladium. C. R. Acad. Sci., Ser. 2, 1989. 309: p. 987 (in French).

First Author: Chemla, M.
All Authors: Chemla, M., Chevalet, J., Bury, R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, D2O, H2O

714. Chemla, M., et al., Experimental investigation of thermal and radiation effects induced by deuterium discharge at the palladium electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 277: p. 93.

First Author: Chemla, M.
All Authors: Chemla, M., Chevalet, J., Bury, R., Perie, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat-, tritium-, D2O, H2O, method, loading, negative

715. Chen, M., et al., Measurements of neutron emission induced by muons stopped in metal deuteride targets. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 155.

First Author: Chen, M.
All Authors: Chen, M., Steadman, S. G., Gaudreau, M. P. J., Luckhardt, S. C., Parker, R. R., Albagli, D., Cammarata, V., Schloh, M., Wrighton, M. S., Kwok, K., Thiee, C., Lowenstein, D. I., Debbe, R., Reilly, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, Y, muon, D2, neutron, tritium

716. Chen, S.H., et al. The Sensitizing Phenomenon of X-ray Film in the Experiment of Metals Loaded with Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chen, S. H.
All Authors: Chen, S. H., Wang, D. L., Chen, W. J., Li, Y. J., Fu, Y. B., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: film, autoradiograph, method, ICCF-3

The sensitizing phenomenon of x-ray film was studied, in metals loaded with deuterium, by a cycle method of temperature and pressure (CMTP). The experimental results showed that the sensitizing and of x-ray film was derived from the chemical reaction and the anomalous effect of metals loaded with deuterium.

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717. Chen, X. and J. Yang, Studies on dineutron model of cold fusion (I). Hunan Shifan Daxue Ziran Kexue Xuebao, 1993. 16((1)): p. 42 (in Chinese, Eng. abstr).

First Author: Chen, X.
All Authors: Chen, X., Yang, J.
Keywords: Theory, dineutron, review

718. Chen, C.L. and J.K. Wu, Electrolytic hydrogen transport in palladium. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1994. 13: p. 84.

First Author: Chen, C. L.
All Authors: Chen, C. L., Wu, J. K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, electrolysis

719. Chen, Y.P. and S.D. Cai, Dynamic screening effect from acoustic plasmons. Science in China A, 1994. 37((1)): p. 62.

First Author: Chen, Y. P.
All Authors: Chen, Y. P., Cai, S. D.
Keywords: Theory, shielding

720. Chen, S., et al., X-ray diagnostics in gas discharge. Trends Nucl. Phys., 1995. 12((3)): p. 58 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Wang, D., Cui, G., Wang, M., Fu, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment

721. Chen, S.K., et al., The microstructure of electrocatalytically deuterium-loaded palladium rods”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 302.

First Author: Chen, S. K.
All Authors: Chen, S. K., Wan, C. M., Liu, E. H., Chu, S. B., Liang, C. Y.
Keywords: surface analysis, electrolysis, LiD, loading, structure, Pd, D2O, molten salt

722. Chen, B.R., et al., Theoretical studies of the effect of hydrogen-hydrogen interactions on the structural and dynamical properties of metal/hydrogen clusters. J. Chem. Phys., 1996. 105(21): p. 9686.

First Author: Chen, B. R.
All Authors: Chen, B. R., Gomez, M. A., Doll, J. D., Freeman, D. L.
Keywords: theory

723. Chen, S.K. and C.Y. Liaug. Observations of Cell Temperature Drops and High Vapor Temperatures in H2O Electrolysis of Ni and in D2O Electrolysis of Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chen, S. K.
All Authors: Chen, S. K., Liaug, C. Y.
Keywords: H2O, D2O, electrolysis, Pd, Ni, heat, ICCF-7

724. Chen, L., X. Qiu, and S. Song, Experimental research of excess heat under high pulse current. High Power Laser Part. Beams, 1998. 10(2): p. 312 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chen, L.
All Authors: Chen, L., Qiu, X., Song, S.
Keywords: Pd, gas discharge, neutron, heat

725. Chen, S. and X.Z. Li. Tritium production and selective resonant tunneling model. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: tritium, theory, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT             Two principles of the selective resonant tunneling model are recapitulated, and applied to the case of tritium production. The model can explain the tritium production in condensed matter nuclear reaction with no neutron and gamma radiation semi-quantitatively. A similar model may excess heat with no commensurate neutron and gamma radiation. Some experiments are suggested to test our explanation.

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726. Chen, S. and X.Z. Li. The Application Of Multiple Scattering Theory (Mst) In Calculating The Deuterium Flux Permeating The Pd Thin Film. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chen, S.
All Authors: Chen, S., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory

The multiple-scattering theory is applied to the de Broglie wave of deuterons inside the palladium film. The formalism for band structure calculation and the reflection and transmission calculations for finite slices is presented. The latter is based on a double-layer scheme which obtains the reflection and transmission matrix elements for the multiplayer slice from those of a single layer. With a relative simple model for the potential of palladium crystal lattice, we calculate the band structures of probability wave of deuterons propagating in the palladium, as well as the transmission coefficients through finite periodic slices. Selective resonant tunneling theory is adopted when obtaining the scattering matrix T. Our calculations consist with experimental results which can not be explained by diffusion theory.

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727. Chene, J. and A.M. Brass, Tritium production during the cathodic discharge of deuterium on palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 280: p. 199.

First Author: Chene, J.
All Authors: Chene, J., Brass, A. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O

728. Cheng, Y.C., W.Y.P. Hwang, and S.N. Yang. Thoughts on Warm Fusion Versus Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Cheng, Y. C.
All Authors: Cheng, Y. C., Hwang, W. Y. P., Yang, S. N.
Keywords: theory, cluster, ICCF-1

729. Chernov, I.P., et al. Charge Isotopic Composition of Metals at Deuterium Charge. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Nikitenkov, N. N., Puchkareva, L. N., Kolobov, Yu. R.
Keywords: diffusion, transmutation, theory, ICCF-7

730. Chernov, I.P., et al., Yield of nuclear reaction products from deuterium-saturated composite materials and layered structures. Russ. Phys. J., 1998. 41: p. 642.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Mel’nikova, T. N., Cherdantsev, Yu. P., Kreining, M., Baumbakh, Kh.
Keywords: Ni-WC, electrolysis, gamma emission, neutron Titanium, Pd layer, surface, fractofusion

731. Chernov, I.P., et al. Excitation of Hydrogen Subsystem in Metals by External Influence. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Chernov, I. P.
All Authors: Chernov, I. P., Koroteev, V., Silkin, V., Tyurin, Y.
Keywords: hydrogen exitation

Experimental results which point to the existence of a hydrogen subsystem in solids and the possibility of its excitation by external influence are described. Occupying the equivalent positions inside host metal, hydrogen forms its own subsystem inside a crystal lattice and has vibration frequencies lying outside the phonon spectrum of a crystal. Under external energy input (for instance by means of radiation) an excitation of vibrations occurs in the hydrogen subsystem. The following facts point to this: intensive migration, diffusion and release of hydrogen isotopes from metals at low temperature; superlinear dependence of H, D release from metals on the electron current density and H, D concentration; H and D release from the whole volume of samples during the irradiation process by focused electron beam; H and D release in both molecular and atomic forms.

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732. Chiba, M., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from LiNbO3 fracture process in D2 and H2 atmosphere. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1995. 108: p. 1277.

First Author: Chiba, M.
All Authors: Chiba, M., Shirakawa, T., Fujii, M., Ikebe, T., Yamaoka, S., Sueki, K., Nakahara, H., Hirose, T.
Keywords: fractofusion, superconductivity, neutron, D2, H2

733. Chicea, D. About nuclear coulomb barrier and electron over-concentration. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, electron, ICCF-6

734. Chicea, D., Electron Clusters- Possible Deuterium Fusion Catalyzers. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(1): p. 37.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, electron cluster

Abstract Simple calculations concerning the behaviour of the deuterons trapped in an electron cluster are presented. The kinetic energy achieved by a deuteron accelerated from the edge to the center of an electron cluster is sufficient for the coulomb barrier to be penetrated in the traditionally known manner. The results are discussed in connection with the published experimental data concerning the impact of the electron clusters on a metal target.

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735. Chicea, D. About Deuterium Nuclear Reaction Rate in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

Abstract The Coulomb barrier penetrability of two approaching nuclei is computed in the frame of the W.K.B approximation. A simple model for describing the screening effect of the Coulomb nuclear barrier by the high electron concentration in condensed matter is  presented. The nuclear reaction rate of the hydrogen isotope nuclei, trapped in a metallic lattice is assessed, both for the unscreened and for the screened Coulomb barrier, averaged by the Maxwell distribution. The model predicts that, in certain circumstances, for porous or grainy samples, which are subject to a negative electric potential and are heavily loaded with deuterium, very low nuclear radiation level might be detected. The results are discussed in connection with some of the very successful experiments like Miley’s metal-coated spheres.

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736. Chicea, D. The Role of the Energy Fluctuations in the Possibility of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

Abstract In many experimental papers concerning experiments of loading certain metals like nickel, palladium with hydrogen isotopes low radiation levels have been reported. A simple model to describe the energy fluctuation of a deuteron trapped in a lattice, considering elastic collisions in one dimension with the ions is presented. The energy fluctuations, combined with the increase of the Coulomb barrier penetration probability produced by the electron screening effect, might lead to a very small and unsteady rate of low energy nuclear reactions produced by the hydrogen isotopes in condensed matter.

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737. Chicea, D., A Note on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 30.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: theory,

738. Chicea, D., D. Lupu, and I. Cheregi, Experimental evidence of neutron emission from TiDx samples. Hadronic J., 1998. 21: p. 567.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Lupu, D., Cheregi, I.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

739. Chicea, D. and D. Stoicescu. Experimental Evidence of Nuclear Reactions in Deuterated Titanium Samples Under Non-Equilibrium Conditions Induced by Temperature Variation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Stoicescu, D.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Several experiments of loading Titanium samples with Deuterium from the gas phase, of changing the temperature of the samples over a wide range and of monitoring the neutron emission were done. Neutron emissions in very low intensity bursts, still significantly above the background were recorded, revealing that low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter can be produced with a very low rate, which occasionally can be high enough to become detectable.

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740. Chicea, D. and D. Lupu, Low-intensity neutron emission from TiDx samples under nonequilibrium conditions. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 108.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D., Lupu, D.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

ABSTRACT Several experiments of loading Titanium samples with Deuterium from the gas phase, of changing the temperature of the samples over a wide range and of monitoring the neutron emission were done. Neutron emissions in very low intensity bursts, still significantly  above the background were recorded, revealing that low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter can be produced with a very low rate, which occasionally can be high enough to become detectable.

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741. Chicea, D. On New Elements on Cathode Surface after Hydrogen Isotopes Absorption. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: neutron

Several experiments of loading Hydrogen and Deuterium into different metals foils and thin film metal layers by using them as cathodes in prolonged electrolysis experiments were performed. Before and after experiments the cathode surface was analyzed by the Scanning Electron Microscopy technique. Results reveal that different elements that were not present in the surface layer before the experiment could be identified in the system after the experiment, with an accuracy considerable above the experimental errors.

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742. Chicea, D. On Current Density and Excess Power Density in Electrolysis Experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: Excess heat, electrolysis

Abstract Results of a study of an electrolytic device that can produce excess power are presented. The power calibration procedure used for the experiments and the data analysis procedure is briefly described in this paper. Different combinations of cathode and electrolyte were investigated. Thin foils of different pure metals were and thin spattered layers of different pure metals on different substrates were used as cathodes. Excess power results, the power density and details on the combinations of cathode and electrolyte are also presented. The results reveal that a higher excess power density was obtained using thin film metal cathodes than thin foils. Another interesting result is that the excess power density appears to be correlated with the current density along the cathode. Although the data points are in ranges that are different of each other with orders of magnitude, the slopes of the lines that are fitted on the data points comparable, within the experimental errors.

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743. Chicea, D. Comment On Carbon Production In Deuterium-Metal Systems. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chicea, D.
All Authors: Chicea, D.
Keywords: transmutation

Several electrolysis experiments of loading deuterium into different metals foils and thin film films are described. Before and after loading the cathode surface was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry. High magnification images of the surface of several metals were taken. A control experiment was conducted to make sure that the experimental setup is not accidentally contaminating the samples. A surprising amount of carbon was found on the cathode surface after each D loading experiment. The result is discussed in connection with other experimental results on low energy nuclear transmutations.

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744. Chidambaram, R. and V.C. Sahni, Materials Issues in the So-Called ‘Cold Fusion’ Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 1.

First Author: Chidambaram, R.
All Authors: Chidambaram, R., Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: theory,

745. Chidambaram, R. and V.C. Sahni, Materials issues in the so-called ‘cold fusion’ experiments. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 597.

First Author: Chidambaram, R.
All Authors: Chidambaram, R., Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: loading, thermodynamic, Pd, D2, H2, critique

746. Chien, C.C. and T.C. Huang, Tritium production by electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 391.

First Author: Chien, C. C.
All Authors: Chien, C. C., Huang, T. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, surface

747. Chien, C.C., et al., On an electrode producing massive quantities of tritium and helium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 338: p. 189.

First Author: Chien, C. C.
All Authors: Chien, C. C., Hodko, D., Minevski, Z., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, tritium, Helium, D2O, surface analysis

A Pd electrode has been examined which produced a concentration of tritium in a 0.1 M LiOD solution around 10^3 times above background. Tritium production at a given potential ceased after a few days, but could be restarted by a small increase of the deuterium overpotential. Correspondingly, He4 was found in 9-10 pieces of the Pd electrode at 2-100 times background. Addition of fresh amounts of D2O quenched the T production which began again spontaneously after 1-2 days. If the T had come from contamination, 3He would have been found in the electrode: it was absent. Loss of charge by the nucleus lakes place when the fugacity of D in voids exceeds 10^17 atm (Lifshitz and Pitaevskii, 1963). Sporadicity of function arises from the state of the surface, which is difficult to reproduce. The surface state controls the mechanism of D- evolution: only some mechanisms give a fugacity high enough to cause fusion. Only one electrode out of four examined produced T and 4He. The surface of this electrode contained a Cu-mosaic structure, not seen on the inactive electrodes.

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748. Chindarkar, A.R., et al., Observation of Anomalous Emissions of High Energy (=1 MeV) Charged Particles When 5 keV Protons Impinge on Palladium and Titanium Foils. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 197.

First Author: Chindarkar, A. R.
All Authors: Chindarkar, A. R., Paithankar, A. S., Bhagwat, A. M., Naik, G. R., Iyyengar, S. K., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, H2, ion implantation, Ti

749. Cho, Y. and R.G. Leisure, Novel ultrasonic attenuation peak in a’-PdDx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1988. 38: p. 5748.

First Author: Cho, Y.
All Authors: Cho, Y., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: phonon, PdD, structure

750. Choi, E., H. Ejiri, and H. Ohsumi. Limit on Fast Neutrons from DD Fusion in Deuterized Pd by Means of Ge Detector. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-3 electrolysis

Search for fast neutrons from the electrochemistry loaded Pd-D system at room temperature was made in order to study the possible d-d fusion there. A low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers was used to investigate the fast (1 ~ 5 MwC neutrons. The neutron flux was obtained by measuring rates of the gamma rays following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from nuclei in the scatterers. The observed spectrum shows no significantly significant excess of gamma rays above background. . . .

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751. Choi, E., H. Ejiri, and H. Ohsumi, Application of a Ge detector to search for fast neutrons from DD fusion in deuterized Pd. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1993. 32A: p. 3964.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here.The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:A low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers was applied to investigate fast neutrons from the electrochemically loaded Pd-D system. The neutron flux was obtained by measuring the yields of the γ-rays following inelastic scattering of the fast neutrons from nuclei in the scatterers. The detector was shown to be very sensitive in the search for rare neutron events such as d-d fusion at room temperature. The observed spectrum shows no statistically significant excess of the γ-rays above the background. The upper limit on the fusion rate was obtained as λf<1.6·10^-24(ddn)fusions/(dd)pair/s.

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752. Choi, E., et al., Search for time-correlated fast neutrons from DD fusion at room temperature. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1996. 35: p. 2793.

First Author: Choi, E.
All Authors: Choi, E., Ejiri, H., Ohsumi, H., Kishimoto, T.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:A time-correlated spectrum of fast neutrons from the electrochemically loaded Pd-D system was measured by a low-background high-resolution Ge detector surrounded by neutron scatterers. Time correlation of fast neutrons was obtained by measuring the time correlation of γ-rays following inelastic scattering of fast neutrons. The measurement shows no evidence for neutron burst during the electrolysis of the Pd-D system at room temperature.

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753. Choi, C., News Scan: Back to Square One, in Scientific American. 2005. p. 21.

First Author: Choi, C.
All Authors: Choi, C.
Keywords:

754. Chon, A. and M. Rabinowitz, Classical Tunneling. International J. Theoret. Phys., 1990. 29(3): p. 215.

First Author: Chon, A.
All Authors: Chon, A., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory

755. Chou, I., Permeability of Precious Metals to Hydrogen at 2 KB Total Pressure and Elevated Temperatures. Am. J. Sci., 1986. 286: p. 638.

First Author: Chou, I
All Authors: Chou, I
Keywords: Pd-Ag, Pt, Ag, Au, H, diffusion

756. Chou, P. and M.A. Vannice, Calorimetric Heat of Adsorption Measurements on Palladium. I. Influence of Crystallite Size and Support on Hydrogen Adsorption. J. Catal., 1987. 104: p. 1.

First Author: Chou, P.
All Authors: Chou, P., Vannice, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, H2, thermodynamic, Pd-black, absorption

757. Christensen, O.B., et al., H-H Interactions in Pd. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(3): p. 1993.

First Author: Christensen, O. B.
All Authors: Christensen, O. B., Ditlevsen, P. D., Jacobsen, K. W., Stoltz, P., Nielsen, O. H., Norskov, J. K.
Keywords: Pd, H, interaction, theory, structure, distance

758. Christensen, O.B., et al., Effective-Medium Calculations for Hydrogen in Ni, Pd, and Pt. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41.

First Author: Christensen, O. B.
All Authors: Christensen, O. B., Stoltze, P., Jacobsen, K. W., Norskov, J. K.
Keywords: bonding, theory, PdH, NiH, PtH, thermodynamic

759. Christianto, V., Y. Umniyati, and V. Krasnoholovets, On Plausible Role of Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Submicroscopic Physics to understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Preliminary Review. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 27-34.

First Author: Christianto, V.
All Authors: Christianto, V., Umniyati, Y., Krasnoholovets, V.
Keywords: Classical electromagnetic theory, Coulomb barrier suppression, Electronuclear potential, Nuclear Van der Waals force, Ponderomotive force, Subdeuterium, Submicroscopic physics, Vortex sound theory

In this paper, we discussed how we can study some effects associated with LENR/CMNS from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory, and also from a very new approach based on a submicroscopic concept of physics. Perhaps our considerations have their own risks because the majority of mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion rather as a phenomenon associated with tunneling through a Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect. We will discuss that there are some aspects of classical electromagnetic theories which may have impact on our understanding on LENR/CMNS phenomena, including: (a) nonlinear electrostatic potential as proposed by Eugen Andreev, (b) vortex sound theory of Tsutomu Kambe, (c) nonlinear ponderomotive force, and (d) submicroscopic consideration.

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760. Christman, D.R., Cold fusion. Chem. Eng. News, 1990: p. 78.

First Author: Christman, D. R.
All Authors: Christman, D. R.
Keywords: tritium

761. Chrzan, D.C. and W.G. Wolfer, Helium Bubble Growth by the Dislocation Pipe Diffusion Mechanism. 1991.

First Author: Chrzan, D. C.
All Authors: Chrzan, D. C., Wolfer, W. G.
Keywords: 4He, PdT, bubble, swelling, dislocation,

762. Chu, C.W., et al., Search for the proposed cold fusion of D in Pd. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 753.

First Author: Chu, C. W.
All Authors: Chu, C. W., Xue, Y. Y., Meng, R. L., Hor, P. H., Huang, Z. J., Gao, L.
Keywords: heat-, neutron-, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

763. Chu, L.Y. and D.-H. Lu, The estimation of nuclear fusion rate in crystal. Commun. Theor. Phys. (China), 1990. 13: p. 33.

First Author: Chu, L. Y.
All Authors: Chu, L. Y., Lu, D-H.
Keywords: Theory, PdD, periodic field

764. Chu, S.Y. and B. Shen, Can the color force be used to achieve fusion? Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. A6: p. 237.

First Author: Chu, S. Y.
All Authors: Chu, S. Y., Shen, B.
Keywords: Theory, color force

765. Chu, L. and S. Wang, Coulomb screening of deuterium in metal crystal. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1992. 26(6): p. 80 (in Chinese).

First Author: Chu, L.
All Authors: Chu, L., Wang, S.
Keywords: Theory, screening

766. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Distributed bosonic states and condensed matter fusion. 1990, NRL: Washington.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

This paper presents a theory of condensed matter fusion in crystals based on the periodic potential provided by an ordered lattice and the approximate Bose statistics obeyed by bosons on length scales associated with electrostatic interactions. The resulting nuclear interaction proceeds in a manner that approximately preserves either the initial periodicity of the lattice or the periodicity of a commensurate lattice. Reaction reversibility over timescales associated with electrostatic interaction results in condensed matter fusion being dominated by interactions in which both the products and reactants obey Bose-Einstein statistics. As a result tritium release and 3He+ production should not appear as primary fusion products.

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767. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Nuclear Fusion in a Solid via a Bose Bloch Concentrate. 1990, NRL: Washington.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

We present a theory of solid state fusion based on the formation of a D+ bosonic Bloch condensate within a metal deuteride. The first step towards fusion is a coalescence reaction which converts a 4-fold occupation state of zero point motion size into a state of nuclear dimensions . Reaction rates for the coalescence reaction are calculated using the Fermi Golden Rule.

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768. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave

769. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Quantum Mechanics of “Cold and “Not-So-Cold” Fusion”. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1, Quantum Machanics

770. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Bloch-symmmetric fusion in PdD(x). Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 710.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory

771. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. An Explanation of Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion By-products, based on Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2

772. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Cold fusion as an interaction between ion band states. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 93.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory

A theory of solid-state fusion based on the interaction between D+ and 4He++ ion band states within a host lattice is presented. Formation of ion band-state deuterium is thermo-dynamically favored when lattice strain energy is greater than the incremental chemical potential of the band state. The key fusion step is a coalescence fluctuation that converts a twofold occupation state of electrostatic zero-point-motion size into a state of nuclear dimensions. Rates are calculated using the Fermi Golden Rule. Fusion energy is shared between band-state members and subsequently transferred to the lattice.

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773. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Ion Band State Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave, ICCF-3

Puska et al. and Astaldi et al. have provided experimental evidence for the existence of hydrogen ion band states in adsorption studies of H and D atoms on metallic surfaces. If a certain view of quantum reality is correct, an ion band state (IBS) D+ population has wave function overlap and will undergo cold fusion, unlike normal molecules and ionic and covalent solids. Arguments leading to this conclusion and a tabulation of likely IBS reactions are presented.

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774. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, Ion band state fusion: reactions, power density, and the quantum reality question. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 403.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: Theory

775. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Ion Band States: What They Are, and How They Affect Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

776. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb, The Role of Hydrogen Ion Band States in Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 414.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ion band, wave

777. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Wave function overlap and nuclear reactions in D+ ion band state matter. 1995.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, size, wave

778. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. The Ion Band State Theory. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, band state, ICCF-5

We have previously explained how the occupation of ion band states by hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) in palladium deuteride PdD and possibly Ni can result in radiationless fusion. The explanation includes a number of assumptions about the governing conditions associated with the process. As a consequence of these assumptions we predicted1-3 important excess heat phenomena (loading requirements, by-products, etc.) of Cold Fusion (CF) that were subsequently observed4,5. Although the governing ideas are based on mainstream solid state physics ideas, the underlying theory “seems” to have “evaded” a number of potential problems that have bothered many people concerning CF. As we have explained recently6,7, as a result of these solid state physics effects, discontinuous changes in momentum and singularities in the effective kinetic energies associated with H or D that may occur through the occupation of ion band states provide a means for eliminating the phenomena that seemingly are omitted by the theory. In this paper we clarify the origin of these effects and their relationship to questions that have been raised associated with our treatment of the Coulomb barrier.

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779. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Fusion Reactions in Deuterided Palladium. The Why of Cold Fusion Heat. 1996.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

780. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Hidden results of the ion band state theory. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, particle-wave, ion-band, ICCF-6

781. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Radiationless Cold Fusion: Why Small “Crystals” Are Better, N(cell) Requirement, and Energy Transfer to Lattice. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, particle-wave, ion-band, ICCF-6

The Ion Band State Theory describes Fleischmann and Pons cold fusion phenomena.  It is based on application of solid state band theory physics, many-body physics, and the known quantum behavior of hydrogen in metals.  Important assumptions are that charge neutrality exists in each unit cell and that the reactive quantum states, which are stationary Bloch states, are describable as symmetric sums over complete sets of non-stationary, particle-like Wannier states.  Consequences are that D+-D+ wave function overlap occurs for crystals possessing a sufficiently large number Ncell > ~10^4 of unit cells.  Once this condition is met, small crystals provide more power per cc than larger crystals.  Energy-transfer from the product state to the lattice electrons results from a change in the quantum of mass and resulting inelastic scattering due to charge distribution changes in the boundary region. The theory also predicts that the primary product is 4He, as observed.

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782. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Periodic Order, Symmetry, and Coherence in Cold Fusion. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

783. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Really Cold, Cold Fusion. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

784. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteride-Induced Strong Force Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

ND band state D+ ions are treated as a sum over pairs.  The wave functions of a D+ pair is assumed to be a product of a Bloch function in lattice space times a Bloch function in separation space.  Overlap allows a strong force fusion reaction to 4He++.  A coupling between the nuclear change and the ion charge distribution in the lattice is described.  The change in ion charge distribution scatters Bloch electrons in a multistep nuclear de-excitation process.

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785. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Theoretical Framework for Anomalous Heat and 4He in Transition Metal Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

Introduction Cold Fusion has been plagued with misconceptions about what is and is not possible, based on the “Laws” of Quantum Mechanics. An important reason for this is the seemingly impossibly large difference in length-scale between nuclear- and atomic- processes. In conventional fusion, these scales remain “so far apart” that they “effectively” don’t “talk” to each other, usually. However, electromagnetic interactions (EMI’s) have infinite range. For this reason, it is possible that EMI’s “can” “explain” how this “apparent” problem can be eliminated.

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786. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteron Fluxing and the Ion Band State Theory. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

Abstract In Cold Fusion, confusion exists as a result of conflicting intuitive pictures, one based on local physics, the other on non-local physics. The local picture, based on particle-particle interaction, has played a dominant role. The non-local “less-intuitive” picture, based on the known behavior of solids, places greater emphasis on the behavior of matter distributions and their interaction with the associated environment. The resulting description is consistent with the known laws of physics and the behavior of hydrogen, deuterium (D+) and tritons in transition metals. In the non-local picture, we examine consequences of fluxes of deuterons passing through the surfaces of transition metals as associated with the occupation of D+ ion band states and possible nuclear energy release.

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787. Chubb, S.R., Introduction to the Special Issue of Accountability in Research Dealing With “Cold Fusion”. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: history

Background During the 14th century, the noted theologian and philosopher William of Ockham identified and applied the “law of economy,” as a fundamental postulate of logical thought. Subsequently, Galileo and others used this “law” as justification for the notion of “scientific parsimony.” This idea, which is also often called “Ockham’s Razor,” states that simplicity should be the cornerstone of scientific logic: given a choice between competing theories of a particular phenomenon, the simpler explanation should be selected in preference to the more complicated ones.

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788. Chubb, T.A., Laboratory Evidence Demonstrating d-d Cold Fusion in Metals. 2002.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: d-d fusion

Since the initial announcement of the Fleischmann-Pons effect[1] there has been substantial laboratory progress in establishing the reality of excess heat produced by radiationless d-d nuclear reaction in the deuterium-palladium system.  Selected experimental achievements are listed below.

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789. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Deuteron Fluxing and the Ion Band State Theory. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory bandstate, ICCF-9

790. Chubb, S.R. and T.A. Chubb. Relationship between microscopic and macroscopic interactions in low energy nuclear reactions: Lessons learned from D + D = 4He. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R., Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory

For a long time, Cold Fusion (CF) seemed to be at odds with conventional Physics both experimentally and theoretically.  A key reason for this involved confusion about the possibility that processes involving characteristic length scales of nuclear- and atomic- size dimensions could couple to each other without releasing high momentum particles.  As experiments have improved, this situation has changed.  In the paper, we identify and contrast a number of common themes associated with the manner in which five of the more refined theories have addressed this problem.

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791. Chubb, T.A. Modeling the 3He concentration in a Clarke et al. gas sample from an Arata-style cathode. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Arata, review

The time history of 3He concentrations in gas samples collected and analyzed by Clarke et al. is modeled. A deficiency relative to expected helium suggests loss through microfractures identified by Farkas.

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792. Chubb, T.A. Production of excited surface states by reactant starved electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, fused salt

Starved reactant electrolysis can result in co-deposition of hydrogen and a higher voltage reactant. The hydrogen has the potential to be deposited in an excited state that is delocalized and wavelike. It is suggested that this occurred in the Liaw et al. study. Evidence for cathodic overpotential electrolysis in molten hydroxide electrolyte is presented.

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793. Chubb, T.A., Comments on ‘Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result’ and ‘Seaerch for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production’ (Lett. to Ed.). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 151.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: discussion, critique

794. Chubb, S.R. Nuts and Bolts of the Ion Band State Theory. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

The Nuts and Bolts of our Ion Band State theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR’s) in palladium-deuteride (PdD) and palladium-hydride (PdH) are the electrons that hold together or tear apart the bonds (or lack of bonds) between deuterons (d’s) or protons (p’s) and the host material.  In PdDx and PdHx, this bonding is strongly correlated with loading.  In ambient loading conditions (x<~0.6), bonding inhibits Ion Band State occupation. . . .

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795. Chubb, S.R. Impact of Boundary Effects Involving Broken Gauge Symmetry on LENR’s. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Surfaces have a huge impact on the physics and chemistry of solids. Changes in surfaces (or other boundaries of a solid), in particular, can be related to changes in the local (“chemical”) environment.  In the idealized limit, in which surfaces are defined as “boundaries” associated with a lack of, or accumulation of charge, dynamical effects at surfaces can be used and are required (by the associated coupling to external electromagnetic fields) to relate seemingly unrelated local and non-local effects.  Thus, counter-intuitive ideas about local and non-local effects can become dominant.  In particular, in PdH or PdD, provided external forces are applied uniformly, it is entirely possible for hydrogen (p) or deuterium (d) nuclei to acquire a common phase (a broken gauge symmetry1) and to “become wave-like” and interact coherently, through the electromagnetic field, simultaneously, but an-isotropically at the boundaries of a PdD or PdH substrate, or at isolated locations within either substrate.  Also, these effects can create coupling between localized and delocalized forms of interaction.  We use these and related effects as the basis for suggesting new experiments that have bearing on the findings of Iwamura et al, concerning the “apparent” transmutation of Cs to Pr.

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796. Chubb, T.A. The dd Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and 3-body nuclear particle reactions.   Reaction without radiation requires many-body D+Bloch periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies.  Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. . . .

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797. Chubb, T.A. LENR: Superfluids, Self-Trapping and Non-Self-Trapping States. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

LENR ion band state models involve deuteron many-body systems resembling superfluids.  The physics of atom Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices teaches that superfluid behavior occurs when the potential barriers between adjacent potential wells permit high tunneling rates and the well potentials are shallow. These superfluids have fractional occupation of individual wells. Well periodic symmetry is not affected by the presence of the atoms.  This behavior suggests that deuterons in a lattice should be in non-self-trapping sites, which may indicate that D+Bloch occupies the Pd tetrahedral sites.

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798. Chubb, S.R. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Conventional Condensed Matter physics provides a unifying framework for understanding Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR’s) in solids.  In the paper, standard many-body physics techniques are used to illustrate this fact.  Specifically, the paper shows that formally the theories by Schwinger, Hagelstein, and Chubb and Chubb (C&C), all can be related to a common set of equations, associated with reaction rate and energy transfer, through a standard many-body physics procedure (R-Matrix theory).  In each case, particular forms of coherence are used that implicitly provide a mechanism for understanding how LENR’s can proceed without the emission of high energy particles.  In addition, additional ideas, associated with Conventional Condensed Matter physics, are used to extend the earlier Ion Band State (IBS) model by C&C.  The general model clarifies the origin of coherent processes that initiate LENR’s, through the onset of ion conduction that can occur through ionic fluctuations in nanoscale crystals. In the case of PdDx , these fluctuations begin to occur as x -> 1 in sub-lattice structures with characteristic dimensions of 60 nm.  The resulting LENR’s are triggered by the polarization between injected d’s and electrons (immediately above the Fermi energy) that takes place in finite-size PdD crystals.  During the prolonged charging of PdDx , the applied, external electric field induces these fluctuations through a form of Zener tunneling that mimics the kind of tunneling, predicted by Zener, that is responsible for possible conduction (referred to as Zener-electric breakdown) in insulators.  But because the fluctuations are ionic, and they occur in PdD, nano-scale structures , a more appropriate characterization is Zener-ionic breakdown in nano-crystalline PdD.  Using the underlying dynamics, it is possible to relate triggering times that are required for the initiation of the effect, to crystal size and externally applied fields.

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799. Chubb, T.A. I. Bloch Ions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    A Bloch ion has periodic symmetry and is distributed in space in a lattice array form.  Its spatial density distribution is neutralized within each unit cell by a metal’s electrons.  The wave function repeats coherently modulo a Bravais lattice vector.  Paired Bloch deuterons partitioned over a sufficiently large number of unit cells become superposed and coherently mixed by coordinate exchange.  A Hamiltonian describing paired deuterons 2-D+Bloch is presented, and its nuclear self-interaction and coupling with the lattice are described.

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800. Chubb, T.A. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    This paper is the second of a set of 3 papers dealing with the role of coherent  partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes.  This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of 4 steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-alpha-addition surface transmutations.   Three concepts are examined:  salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

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801. Chubb, T.A. III. Bloch Nuclides, Iwamura Transmutations, and Oriani Showers. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

ABSTRACT    The Iwamura et al. 2-alpha addition transmutations1 and the Oriani-Fisher energetic particle showers2 demand an explanation.  They both depend on the same physics as responsible for cold fusion, namely the coherent partitioning of deuteron charge when the deuteron assumes a Bloch-like form and becomes distributed among a large number Nwell of potential wells.  As a result the work required to bring the 2 “nuclei” into contact is reduced by 1/Nwell.  In cold fusion 2 spin-zero paired deuterons fuse as per 2 D+Bloch –> 4He++Bloch + 23.8 MeV.   In the Iwamura process 2 4He++Bloch fuse as per 2 4He++Bloch –> 8Be4+Bloch + Enuc, in a Bloch-sensitive reaction where reaction energy Enuc is a function of Nwell. . . .

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802. Chubb, S.R. Why Particular Nano-Scale PdD Crystals Turn-on Faster. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Two persistent questions have been: 1. Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~< x→1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? 2. Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon? Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions. The new theory can explain these experimental results . . .

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803. Chubb, S.R. Context for understanding why particular nano-scale crystals turn-on faster and other LENR effects. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Two persistent questions have been:  1. Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~< x®1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? 2. Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon?   Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions.  The new theory can explain these experimental results but will be ignored by most scientists.  I suggest that this is expected:  The context of energy band and Ion Band State (IBS) theory is very different from the context of hot fusion theory. . . .

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804. Chubb, S.R. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Conventional Condensed Matter Physics (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory,

805. Chubb, T.A. Catalytic fusion and the Interface between Insulators and Transition Metals. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

806. Chubb, T.A. Bloch-Sensitive Nuclides (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory,

807. Chubb, T.A., Three Types of dd Fusion. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 2005. 93: p. 895.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

There seem to be 3 different processes by which deuterons can be made to fuse so as to release nuclear energy. The conventional approach is thermonuclear fusion, which uses collisions between energized deuterons to create a transient 4He nucleus that decays by energetic particle emission. Deuteron-deuteron (dd) fusion is modeled by scattering theory. Quantum wave mechanics uses wave functions to describe the colliding particles as plane waves.  The waves are treated as if arriving from infinity, and as going away to infinity after scattering or reaction.  Gamow factors calculating the probability of transmission through the dd Coulomb barrier are used in calculating fusion rates.

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808. Chubb, S.R. Roles of Approximate Symmetry and Finite Size in the Quantum Electrodynamics of d+d -> 4He in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Resonant electromagnetic interaction (EMI) in finite solids not only can be used to explain conventional, electron energy band theory (which explains charge and heat transport in solids), but also how, through finite size effects, it is possible to create many of the kinds of effects envisioned by Giuliano Preparata. Through a generalization of conventional energy band theory, it is also possible to explain how resonant EMI, as a function of time, can cause coherent effects, in which momentum can be transferred from external regions of a lattice to its center-ofmass. As a consequence, virtual processes can cause large changes in momentum between two, indistinguishable particles, without either particle acquiring large momentum or velocity. . . .

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809. Chubb, S.R. Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

I Background about the importance of EMI in d+d -> 4He+gamma

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810. Chubb, S.R. Resonant Electromagnetic-Dynamics Explains the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory,

811. Chubb, S.R., Resonant Electromagnetic Interaction in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 99-123.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords:

812. Chubb, T.A. D2 Fusion in Ionic Solid + Nanometal Composite (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

Interfaces between Ionic Solids and Nanometals • Provides 2-dimension lattice symmetry • Promotes Bloch deuterium • Deuterium quasiparticles undergo fusion . . .

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813. Chubb, T.A. Interface Model of Cold Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: theory

The interface theory of cold fusion is a variant of Ion Band State (IBS) Theory. It models Bloch symmetry deuterons in a 2-dimensional metal lattice instead of the 3-dimensional metal lattice first used. Both IBS variants recognize that the required lattice symmetry has limited extent, with the reactive deuterons being bound inside a closed volume like a box. The reactive deuterons are confined within classical turning point boundaries, while within the box their density distributions are modulated by a lattice array potential. Strictly speaking, the IBS fusion theory is a many-body theory. Nuclear dd fusion is one of several LENR processes. Some LENR processes do not require many-body ions and support room temperature nuclear reactions using light ions in single-particle Bloch geometry. For example, the decay of metastable single-body Bloch-function 8Be seems to be the source of MeV alphas in Oriani’s light/heavy water electrolysis, and in several co-deposition electrolysis CR39 studies, as described in ICCF14 Abstracts. The Oriani MeV alphas are side products of both light water and heavy water electrolysis, using either Pd or Ni cathodes, as shown in highly repeatable tests. Bloch 8Be is likely the nuclearly reactive component in the final step of the Iwamura et al. transmutation studies. Despite differences, all LENR systems seem to share some essential physics.

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814. Chubb, T.A. In Honor of Yoshiaki Arata. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords: review

This paper seeks to make readers aware that Arata and Zhang (A&Z) in 2007/8 demonstrated operation of an autonomous fusion “heater”. The heater generated a steady outflow flow of heat at slightly above room temperature throughout a run lasting hundreds of hours. The steady nuclear heat occurred after a brief burst of chemical heat during D2 absorption. No other energy input was present.

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815. Chubb, S.R., Overcoming the Coulomb Barrier and Related Effects Through Resonant Electrodynamics and Quantum Mechanics in the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 177-192.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords:

816. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb. Usefulness of Quasiparticle Ion Band States in Modeling LENR Processes (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Theory

Considerable confusion occurred from a speculative conjecture that we suggested in 1989, concerning the potential role of conventional energy band theory in the “cold fusion” claims suggested by Fleischmann and Pons. Two important reasons for this are related to: 1. Misconceptions about what was taking place in the experiments, and 2. Limitations of conventional energy band theory. In particular, we proposed the idea that deuterium nuclei (deuterons) could occupy energy band states (ion band states)–analogous to the kinds of energy band states that electrons occupy in ordered solids–with the possibility of nuclear fusion. But conventional energy band theory has limitations, associated with the underlying quantum mechanics. In particular, band theory involves single-particle quasi-particle wave functions.

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817. Chubb, T.A. Usefulness of Quasi-Particle Ion Band States in Modeling LENR Processes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A.
Keywords:

The density of atoms with 3 or more electrons is determined by Pauli exclusion. Conduction electrons in a metal and reactant deuterium atoms are in Bloch function form, in which corresponding positions in a lattice are equivalent. 2-dimensional symmetry D-atoms are thin, flat, and have reduced Coulomb repulsion between pairs. Fusion takes place inside an interface between an ionic crystal and an epitaxy metal layer. 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems are different. Both are real, benefit from shock stimulation, and are Bloch systems; but they require different environments.

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818. Chubb, T.A. and S.R. Chubb, Overcoming the Coulomb Barrier in Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Chubb, T. A.
All Authors: Chubb, T. A., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: theory

Schwinger pointed out that under some circumstances the Coulomb barrier between paired charged particles is replaced by a correlation factor in a two-body wave function. This paper shows how having two deuterons bound within a common volume having a multiplicity of potential wells can lead to an energy-minimized Schwinger form of wave equation with wave function overlap. Relevance to a situation in which a small number of deuterium atoms is forced into a fully loaded palladium deuteride (PdD) host is discussed.

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819. Chubb, S.R., The Rossi 10 kW Reactor. Infinite Energy, 2011(96): p. 31.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

Andrea Rossi and Sergio Focardi held a public demonstration on January 14, 2011 of Rossi’s ECat (energy catalyzer) boiler, a nickel-hydrogen fusion reactor, at the University of Bologna (Italy). A group of about 50 scientists from the university and the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, the Italian Institute of Nuclear Physics) were on hand to examine the device. The experiment was organized by Dr. Giuseppe Levi and other faculty at the University of Bologna/INFN.

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820. Chubb, S.R., O Reator Rossi de 10kW. Infinite Energy, 2011(96): p. 31.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

Andrea Rossi e Sergio Focardi realizaram uma demonstração pública em 14 de Janeiro de 2011 do ECat (catalisador de energia) aquecedor de água Rossi, um reator níquel-hidrogênio a fusão, na Universidade de Bolonha (Itália). Um groupo de cerca de 50 scientistas da  universidade e do Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, o Instituto de Física Nuclear Italiano) onde se examinou o dispositivo. O experimento foi organizado pelo Dr. Giuseppe Levi e outros docentes da Universidaede de Bolonha/INFN.

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821. Chubb, S.R., Conventional physics can explain cold fusion excess heat. Physics Procedia, 2011.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Cold Fusion; Ion Band States; Nuclear Fusion in Solids; Energy Band States

solid, a firestorm of controversy erupted. Beginning in 1991, the Office of Naval Research began a decade-long study of the FP excess heat effect. This effort documented the fact that the excess heat that FP observed is the result of a form of nuclear fusion that can occur in solids at reduced temperature, dynamically, through a deuteron (d)+d4He reaction, without high-energy particles or gamma rays. A key reason this fact has not been accepted is the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, justifying it. In the paper, this question is re-examined, based on a generalization of conventional energy band theory that applies to finite, periodic solids, in which d’s are allowed to occupy wave-like, ion band states, similar to the kinds of states that electrons occupy in ordinary metals. Prior to being experimentally observed, the Ion Band State Theory (IBST) of cold fusion predicted a potential d+d => 4He reaction, without high energy particles, would explain the excess heat, the 4He would be found in an unexpected place (outside heat-producing electrodes), and high-loading, x1, in PdDx, would be required.

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822. Chubb, S.R., Concerning the Role of Electromagnetism in Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 213-224.

First Author: Chubb, S. R.
All Authors: Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Energy band states, Ion band states, Quantum electrodynamics

Considerable confusion has resulted in the “debate” (and lack of “debate”) about whether or not Low-Energy Reactions (LENR) can take place. A key reason for this has involved the lack of a cogent argument, based on fundamental physical ideas, involving electromagnetism. In this paper, I re-examine this question. In fact, a cogent argument does exist, based on resonant electrodynamics, and its more general formulation, involving quantum electrodynamics. Lessons learned from this and their relevance are key to understanding the most salient effects, including the Infra-Red (IR) results from the SPAWAR experiments, and Mitchell Swartz’s experiments. The associated arguments suggest that magnetic effects that have only been indirectly applied may be used to trigger LENR in particular situations. A new experiment, based on this line of reasoning, is suggested.

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823. Chukanov, K.B. New Pulsed Gas Loading Cold Fusion Technology. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Chukanov, K. B.
All Authors: Chukanov, K. B.
Keywords: theory, SmCo5, heat, gas, H2, ICCF-4

824. Chulick, G.S., Y.E. Kim, and R.A. Rice, Low Energy D-D Fusion Experimental Cross-Sections. 1989.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A.
Keywords: D2, fusion, Cross Section theory

825. Chulick, G.S., et al., Comment on “Cluster-Impact Fusion by P. M. Echenique et al. 1990.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, cluster,

826. Chulick, G.S., R.A. Rice, and Y.E. Kim. The Effect of Electron Screening and Velocity Distribution on Proton-Deuterium Fusion Rates in Jupiter. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Chulick, G. S.
All Authors: Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

827. Cirillo, D. and V. Iorio, Transmutation of metal to low energy in confined plasma in the water electrochemical plasma cell. 2004.

First Author: Cirillo, D.
All Authors: Cirillo, D., Iorio, V.
Keywords: Glow diacharge, transmutation

Abstract: Energetic emissions have been observed from an electrolytic cell when tungsten electrodes are used to generate a confined plasma close to the cathode immersed an alkaline solution. In addition, energy generation has been observed, always close to the cathode, along with the appearance of new chemical elements in the experimental apparatus. These elements were not present in the cell before the experiment. This observation is proof of nuclear transmutations occurring within the cell. The results of this research and a theoretical model of the phenomenon were shown for the first time on April 18, 2004 during the second Grottammare (Ap) ONNE meeting in Italy.

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828. Cirillo, D. and V. Iorio. Transmutation of metal at low energy in a confined plasma in water. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Cirillo, D.
All Authors: Cirillo, D., Iorio, V.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, glow discharge

829. Cisbani, E., et al., Neutron Detector for CF Experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 2001. 459: p. 247.

First Author: Cisbani, E.
All Authors: Cisbani, E., Urciuoli, G. M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Guiliani, F., Gozzi, D., Gricia, M, Iodice, M., Lucentini, M., Santavenere, F.
Keywords: neutron, method

Abstract This paper describes a neutron detector designed by INFN-Sanita` group of Rome. The detector fulfills all the requirements of cold fusion experiments and, on the other hand, can operate in several kind of experiments involving neutron detection, even when significant, variable and not taggable background is present. As a matter of fact, it is suitable to detect every source emitting multi-MeV neutrons, correlated or not correlated, in burst or constant rate, isotropic or directional. It is a low-noise detector. The detector was used in cold fusion experiments demonstrating, with high sensibility, the absence of neutron emission in these phenomena.

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830. Clark, R.W., What ever happened to cold fusion? J. Chem. Ed., 1991. 68: p. 277.

First Author: Clark, R. W.
All Authors: Clark, R. W.
Keywords: review

831. Clarke, W.B., W.J. Jenkins, and Z. Top, Determination of Tritium by Mass Spectrometric Measurement of 3He. Int. J. Appl. Radia. Isot., 1976. 27: p. 515.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B., Jenkins, W. J., Top, Z.
Keywords: tritium,, Helium,, method

832. Clarke, B.W. and R.M. Clarke, Search for (3)H, (3)He, and (4)He in D2-loaded titanium. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 170.

First Author: Clarke, B. W.
All Authors: Clarke, B. W., Clarke, R. M.
Keywords: Ti, helium tritium, D2

833. Clarke, A.C., Transcript of interview for ‘Cold Fusion, Fire from Water’. 1998.

First Author: Clarke, A. C.
All Authors: Clarke, A. C.
Keywords: History

Transcript of the interview shown in the video “Cold Fusion, Fire from Water”

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834. Clarke, A.C., 2001: The Coming Age of Hydrogen Power. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(22): p. 15.

First Author: Clarke, A. C.
All Authors: Clarke, A. C.
Keywords: Review

[F]our years ago, two scientists named Pons and Fleischmann claimed to have achieved “cold fusion” at room temperature in certain metals saturated with deuterium, the heavy isotope of hydrogen. Under these conditions, they reported that they were getting out more energy than they put into the system. This, of course, created a worldwide sensation, and many laboratories tried to repeat the experiments. They all failed, and Pons and Fleischmann were laughed out of court.That was the last anyone heard of them for a couple of years. But meanwhile, there had been an underground movement of scientists who believed that there might be something in all this business, and started experiments of their own-often in defiance of their employers . . .

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835. Clarke, B.W., et al., Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 152.

First Author: Clarke, B. W.
All Authors: Clarke, B. W., Oliver, B. M., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P.
Keywords: Helium, tritium Arata

836. Clarke, W.B., Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B.
Keywords: Helium Pd, Arata

837. Clarke, W.B., Response to “Comments on ‘Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes I: A Negative Result” (lett. to Ed.). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 152.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B.
Keywords: discussion,, critique

838. Clarke, W.B. and B.M. Oliver, Response to comments on ‘Search for 3He and 4He in Arata-Style Palladium Cathodes II: Evidence for Tritium Production” (Lett. to Ed;). Fusion Sci. Technol., 2002. 41: p. 153.

First Author: Clarke, W. B.
All Authors: Clarke, W. B., Oliver, B. M.
Keywords: critique, discussion

839. Clarke, T., Comment on the report “Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel” by Levi et al. 2015, Imperial College London.

First Author: Clarke, T.
All Authors: Clarke, T.
Keywords: Review, excess heat

In a recent report titled “Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel” and published by Bologna University, G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the performance of the so-called E-Cat of inventor Andrea Rossi. High and sustained levels of anomalous heat production are reported in extended tests of a reactor device. These results are based on a calculated temperature of 1400C from infrared camera thermography measurements that assumes gray-body radiation from an alumina surface. We show that when the varying spectral emissivity of alumina is taken into account the calculated temperature is much lower, and estimated power out matches power in to within the experimental error, so resolving this anomaly. Claimed isotopic shift results in the same report derive from material handled by the inventor, and therefore are not independent.

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840. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium and neutron measurements of a solid state cell. in NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Materials. 1989. Washington, DC.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Seeger, P., Rohwer, R. K., Tuggle, D. G., Doty, W. R.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Pd-Si, method, gas discharge

841. Claytor, T.N., et al., Solid State Fusion Update. 1990.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Seeger, P., Menlove, H. O., Rohwer, R. K., Doty, W. R.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, gas Discharge

842. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium and Neutron Measurements From Deuterated Pd-Si. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Menlove, H. O., Seeger, P., Doty, W. R., Rohwer, R. K.
Keywords: Pd, D, gas Discharge, neutron, tritium

843. Claytor, T.N., D.G. Tuggle, and H.O. Menlove. Tritium Generation and Neutron Measurements in Pd-Si Under High Deuterium Gas Pressure. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Ita: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Pd-Si, method, gas discharge, ICCF-2

INTRODUCTIONThis paper summarizes some of the methods applicable for low level tritium detection needed in the search for anomalous fusion in metal hydrides. It is also intended to further detail our tritium and neutron results that have been obtained with the Pd-Si-D system, originally presented at earlier workshops. A measure of reproducibility that was not evident in our previous work has been achieved partially due to the better detection sensitivity afforded by the use of low tritium deuterium and partially from the fact that the foil-wafer cells can be made with nearly identical electrical characteristics. This reproducibility has allowed us to narrow the optimum conditions for the experiment. While this experiment is rather different from the “standard” electrolytic cell or the Ti gas hydride experiment, similarities exist in that non equilibrium conditions are sought and the tritium generation levels are low and neutron emission is extremely weak. In contrast to many electrochemical cell experiments, the system used in these experiments is completely sealed during operation and uses no electrolyte.

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844. Claytor, T.N., D.G. Tuggle, and S.F. Taylor. Evolution of Tritium from Deuterided Palladium Subject to High Electrical Currents. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Taylor, S. F.
Keywords: Pd, tritium, D2, gas discharge, ICCF-3

An increase in the tritium level was detected in deuterium when various configurations of palladium foil or powder and silicon wafers or powder were subject to a high pulsed current. The deuterium, and over one atmosphere pressure, was circulated in a sealed loop containing the cell and an ionization chamber to measure the tritium increase as a function of time. After 4800 hours of data, spanning 10 cells (including deuterium and hydrogen controls), were collected with this system. Average tritium production has varied from 0.02 to 0.2 nCi/h. Due to experimental constraints we have not been able to measure neutron output with these cells while simultaneously measuring the tritium increase. The question of tritium contamination in the palladium has been primarily resolved by the development of techniques that allow the palladium powder or foil to be reused. Various methods for increasing the tritium production, such as, increased current density, surface modifiers, and higher deuterium loading, will be discussed.

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845. Claytor, T.N., Tritium Production from a Low Voltage Deuterium Discharge of Palladium and Other Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 118.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N.
Keywords: gas discharge,, tritium,, D2,, Pd

Over the past year we have been able to demonstrate that a plasma loading method produces an exciting and unexpected amount of tritium from small palladium wires. In contrast to electrochemical hydrogen or deuterium loading of palladium, this method yields a reproducible tritium generation rate when various electrical and physical conditions are met. Small diameter wires (100 – 250 microns) have been used with gas pressures above 200 torr at voltages and currents of about 2000 V at 3-5 A. By carefully controlling the sputtering rate of the wire, runs have been extended to hundreds of hours allowing a significant amount (>10’s nCi) of tritium to accumulate. We will show tritium generation rates for deuterium-palladium foreground runs that are up to 25 times larger than hydrogen-palladium control experiments using materials from the same batch. We will illustrate the difference between batches of annealed palladium and as received palladium from several batches as well as the effect of other metals (Pt, Ni, Nb, Zr, V, W, Hf) to demonstrate that the tritium generation rate can vary greatly from batch to batch.

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846. Claytor, T.N., D.D. Jackson, and D.G. Tuggle, Tritium production from low voltage deuterium discharge on palladium and other metals. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(7): p. 19.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Jackson, D. D., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, gas discharge, D2

847. Claytor, T.N., et al. Tritium Production from Palladium Alloys. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Schwab, M. J., Thoma, D. J., Teter, D. F., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: tritium, gas, D2, Pd, gas discharge, ICCF-7

ABSTRACT A number of palladium alloys have been loaded with deuterium or hydrogen under low energy plasma bombardment in a system that allows the continuous measurement of tritium. Long run times (up to 200 h) result in an integration of the tritium and this, coupled with the high intrinsic sensitivity of the system (~ 0.1nCi/l), enables the significance of the tritium measurement to be many sigma (>10). We will show the difference in tritium generation rates between batches of palladium alloys (Rh, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Be, B, Li, Hf, Hg and Fe) of various concentrations to illustrate that tritium generation rate is dependent on alloy type as well as within a specific alloy, dependent on concentration.

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848. Claytor, T.N., et al. Search for Excess Heat and Tritium in Nickel Alloys Exposed to Pulsed H/D Plasmas (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Claytor, T. N.
All Authors: Claytor, T. N., Fowler, M., Tuggle, D. G., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Nickel, tritium

ConclusionsNi Alloy is reproducible, (this is a big deal!)Tritium can be several sigma over backgroundEffect can be obtained in 1-2 daysExcess heat is small but not inconsistent with Helium dataIf X-ray effect can be increased then might serve as a “CB” demoParameter space, effects of pressure, electrical driving conditions, temperature, etc. have only been partially explored.

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849. Close, F., Cold Fusion I: The Discovery That Never Was. New Scientist, 1991. 1752: p. 46.

First Author: Close, F.
All Authors: Close, F.
Keywords: critique, history

850. Close, F., Too Hot to Handle. The Race for Cold Fusion. 1992, New York: Penguin, paperback.

First Author: Close, F.
All Authors: Close, F.
Keywords: history, book,

851. Cohen, J.S. and J.D. Davies, The cold fusion family. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 705.

First Author: Cohen, J. S.
All Authors: Cohen, J. S., Davies, J. D.
Keywords: theory, muon

852. Cohen, J.S. and J.D. Davies, Is cold fusion hot? Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 487.

First Author: Cohen, J. S.
All Authors: Cohen, J. S., Davies, J. D.
Keywords: review, fractofusion

853. Cola, M., et al. A Simple Model of the “Coehn-Aharonov” Effect in a Peculiar Electrolytic Configuration. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Cola, M.
All Authors: Cola, M., Del Gindice, E., De Ninno, A., Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, gamma phase ICCF-8 Coehn

854. Collins, G.S., J.S. Walker, and J.W. Norbury, Deuteron tunnelling at electron-volt energies. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 409.

First Author: Collins, G. S.
All Authors: Collins, G. S., Walker, J. S., Norbury, J. W.
Keywords: Theory, tunnelling

855. Collins, G.S., et al., Electrolytic loading of hydrogen in metals studied by PAC. Hyperfine Interactions, 1990. 60: p. 663.

First Author: Collins, G. S.
All Authors: Collins, G. S., McGhee, G., Shropshire, S. L., Jang, H. J., Fan, J., Schuhmann, R. B.
Keywords: PtH, NiH, electrolysis, loading, structure

856. Collis, W.J.M.F., Oklo Isotope Anomalies and Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 525.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: Oklo

857. Collis, W.J.M.F. Nuclear Reactions of Cold Fusion-A Systematic Study. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: Nuclear Reaction, theory, energy, ICCF-5

A computer is used make an exhaustive search for simple nuclear reactions between naturally occurring isotopes with a view to identifying possible primary cold fusion reactions and materials which might support theoretical models. We discuss the difficulties in producing neutrons and tritium in light water expe rime nts.

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858. Collis, W.J.M.F. ENSAP Software Tool to Analyse Nuclear Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, energy, nuclear reaction, ICCF-7

859. Collis, W.J.M.F., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26.

First Author: Collis, W. J. M. F.
All Authors: Collis, W. J. M. F.
Keywords:

The 12th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals was held at the Hotel Langhe e Monferrato, Costigliole d’Asti in Italy, June 2017. This is a four-star hotel with 55 rooms which overflowed with some 72 participants and guests. The choice of province of Asti continued the tradition of the original Asti Workshops organized by Fiat in 1993 and 1995.

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860. Conte, E., A generalization of Schroedinger’s equation using biquaternions: the possibility of fusion for particles. Phys. Essays, 1995. 8: p. 52.

First Author: Conte, E.
All Authors: Conte, E.
Keywords: Theory, biquaternion, quantum mechanics

861. Conte, E., Theoretical indications of the possibility of nuclear reactions at low energy. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 49.

First Author: Conte, E.
All Authors: Conte, E.
Keywords: Theory neutron formation

862. Conway, B.E. and J.C. Currie, Significance of effects of pressure on electrode reactions.Part III.Equilibrium processes at reference electrodes and the volume of H in Pd. Canadian J. Chem., 1978. 56: p. 915.

First Author: Conway, B. E.
All Authors: Conway, B. E., Currie, J. C.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, molar volume

863. Conway, B.E. and J. Wojtowicz, Time-scales of electrochemical desorption and sorption of H in relation to dimensions and geometeies of host metal hydride electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 326: p. 277.

First Author: Conway, B. E.
All Authors: Conway, B. E., Wojtowicz, J.
Keywords: loading, Pd, diffusion

864. Cook, N. Toward an Explanation of Transmutation Products on Palladium Cathodes. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N.
Keywords: transmutation, theory,

865. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. The FCC Structure of the Nucleus and the Magnetic Interaction among Nucleons (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords: Theory

The strongest objection to “cold fusion” research since 1989 has been the assertion by nuclear theorists that low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) “violate everything known about nuclear physics.” We argue to the contrary that LENR are consistent with quantum mechanics (QM), and “violate” only various questionable assumptions of the 30+ established models of nuclear structure theory. In fact, these “models” are known to be mutually-contradictory (a liquid nuclear interior in the liquid-drop model [LDM], a gaseous-phase in the shell model; local cluster formations in the alpha-particle model, no local interactions in the Fermi-gas model; a short-range nuclear force in the LDM, a long-range “effective” force in the shell model; etc.) and clearly indicate that nuclear theory itself is unfinished business.

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866. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. The FCC Substructure of the Nucleus and the Magnetic Interaction among Nucleons. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords:

The FCC lattice model of nuclear structure unifies the liquid-phase, gaseous-phase and cluster models within a self-consistent theoretical framework. By discarding the completely fictitious longrange “effective” nuclear force employed by the shell model and yet maintaining the nucleon build-up procedure in the independent-particle model, the FCC model retains the principal strengths of both the liquid-drop and the shell models. In place of the effective nuclear force, we employ the short-range magnetic attraction between suitably aligned nucleons to obtain nuclear binding.

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867. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa. Simulation of Palladium Transmutation Products. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords:

The build-up procedure for the Palladium isotopes is known from the independent-particle model and implies specific 3D structures for these isotopes in the nuclear lattice model [1]. Using those lattice structures, the favorable modes of fission have been simulated and the fission fragments compared with the transmutation products, as reported by Mizuno [2]. It is shown that (i) the changes in relative abundance of the Pd isotopes, and (ii) the main transmutation products in Mizuno-style LENR studies are consistent with the idea that the bulk of the energy released in such experiments is due to the fission of Palladium isotopes.

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868. Cook, N., Models of the Atomic Nucleus, Unification Through a Lattice of Nucleons. 2010: Springer.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N.
Keywords: Theory

Models of the Atomic Nucleus (2nd Edition, Springer, 2010) is an attempt to unify the diverse and mutually-contradictory models of traditional nuclear structure theory within the framework of a lattice of nucleons. At the level of nuclear “modeling”, the lattice is rather successful at reproducing the major features of the historical models. To wit, the binding energies and nuclear radii predictions of the liquid-drop model [LDM] are reproduced in a close-packed lattice because the lattice is dominated by near-neighbor, two-body, nucleon-nucleon interactions, as in the LDM. The alpha particle substructure of nuclei, as postulated in the cluster models, is reproduced in a nucleon lattice with spin- and isospin-layering because a close-packed lattice inherently contains He4-like, tetrahedral nucleon clusters. Most importantly, the shells, subshells and “magic” numbers of the independent-particle model [IPM] are reproduced in the lattice on a purely geometrical basis – a direct consequence of nucleon build-up from a central tetrahedron. That fact was noted (and illustrated in Physical Review!) by Eugene Wigner in 1937 – who later won the Nobel Prize in Physics explicitly “for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus […], particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles”. It is noteworthy that the exact same lattice described by Wigner achieves unification of the modern-day nuclear models using a realistic, short-range, nuclear potential – and not the purely-theoretical, quark-based fiction of a long-range, nuclear “mean field.”Models of the Atomic Nucleus goes beyond the traditional concerns of nuclear modeling in addressing the still-unexplained topics of the fragment asymmetry in fission, the millisecond instability of the so-called super-heavy nuclei, and the remarkable findings of transmutation of elements in low-energy nuclear reaction [LENR] studies. The book clearly illustrates the fact that, for resolution of any of these and other long-standing controversies in theoretical nuclear physics, it will be necessary to return to the many loose-ends and inconclusive qualitative arguments that have dominated nuclear structure theory since the 1930s.

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869. Cook, N. and V. Dallacasa, LENR and Nuclear Structure Theory. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N., Dallacasa, V.
Keywords: Theory

The significance of LENR research for understanding nuclear structure is discussed. In contrast to atomic-level Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), nuclear theory has remained a collection of mutually-exclusive “models” lacking a rigorous foundation. I argue that LENR indicates the way forward to a quantitative theory of nuclear structure, Quantum Nucleodynamics (QND).

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870. Cook, N., LENR Theory Requires a Proper Understanding of Nuclear Structure. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 60-74.

First Author: Cook, N.
All Authors: Cook, N.
Keywords: Lattice simulations, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear structure theory, Realistic nuclear potentials

Deciphering the many puzzles of low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) will require not only knowledge of the electromagnetic and chemical environment of the nuclear species that are susceptible to low-energy excitation, but also a detailed understanding of the many-body problem of the atomic nucleus itself. Today most LENR research focuses on the former issues, while nuclear structure theory remains the same conundrum that it has been for 80 years. The essence of the problem is that there has been no self-consistent spatiotemporal description of nuclear structure – and, as a consequence, no reliable framework within which to address the oldest and most outstanding problem in nuclear physics: the nuclear force. The unanswered question in traditional nuclear physics – and the new challenge in LENR – is how to reconcile the short-range nuclear force known from nucleon scattering experiments with the wealth of empirical data on nuclear structure. Despite problems due to the early rejection of spatiotemporal explanations in nuclear physics, 21st century computational power has opened the door to realistic “molecular dynamics”-style simulations of nuclear structure. Some implications both for LENR and for nuclear physics are discussed.

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871. Corey, J., Trip Report: ICCF11. 2005, Sandia National Laboratories.

First Author: Corey, J.
All Authors: Corey, J.
Keywords: Review

Introduction On March 23, 1989, at the University of Utah, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons announced that they had caused fusion reactions between deuterium nuclei to occur at room temperature, creating a potentially endless and benign source of energy for the world. Of course, this flew in the face of conventional physics, and scientists all over the world hurried to reproduce the effect. The major institutes in the US were unable to do so, and a US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Research Advisory Panel (ERAB) declared that the effect was not real and that government funding for further research would essentially constitute waste, fraud, and abuse. Thus died the hope of cheap, endless energy through “cold fusion,” at least as far as the regular scientific community was concerned.

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872. Corrigan, D.A. and E.W. Schneider, Tritium separation effects during heavy water electrolysis: implications for reported observations of cold fusion. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 281: p. 305.

First Author: Corrigan, D. A.
All Authors: Corrigan, D. A., Schneider, E. W.
Keywords: isotope separation, tritium, review, electrolysis, separation factor, T/D

873. Corrigan, D.A., B.K. Schwemmin, and E.W. Schneider, Radiochemical measurements of tritium during heavy water electrolysis at palladium cathodes in closed cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 312: p. 175.

First Author: Corrigan, D. A.
All Authors: Corrigan, D. A., Schwemmin, B. K., Schneider, E. W.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, negative

874. Cottingham, W.N. and D.A. Greenwood, The fusion rate of a confined deuteron pair. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1989. 15: p. L157.

First Author: Cottingham, W. N.
All Authors: Cottingham, W. N., Greenwood, D. A.
Keywords: Theory, distance

875. Coupland, D.R., et al. Some Observations Related to the Presence of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Coupland, D. R.
All Authors: Coupland, D. R., Doyle, M. L., Jenkins, J. W., Notton, J. H. F., Potter, R. J., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: Pd, analysis, surface, loading, overvoltage, ICCF-1

876. Coupland, D.R., et al. Some Observations Related to the Presence of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Coupland, D. R.
All Authors: Coupland, D. R., Doyle, M. L., Jenkins, J. W., Notton, J. H. F., Potter, R. J., Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, loading, ICCF-3, NaOH, electrolysis

Surface and bulk analytical work carried out on palladium rod samples returned to Johnson Matthey by Fleischmann and Pons indicates that a number of elements, including platinum and lithium were deposited on the surface during electrolysis in D2O. Surface analysis via time of flight SIMS indicates that the Li6/Li7 isotope ratio is unusually low but no original reference is available.

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877. Cowley, C.R., et al., On the possible presence of promethium in the spectra of HD 101065 (Przybylski’s star) and HD 965. A & A, 2004(419): p. 1087â€â€Ţ1093.

First Author: Cowley, C. R.
All Authors: Cowley, C. R., Bidelman, W. P., Hubrig, S., Mathys, G., Bord, D. J.
Keywords:

878. Cox, D.M., et al., Abnormally Large Deuterium Uptake on Small Transition Metal Clusters. Catalysis Lett, 1990. 4: p. 271.

First Author: Cox, D. M.
All Authors: Cox, D. M., Fayet, P., Brickman, R., Hahn, M. Y., Kaldor, A.
Keywords: PdD, absorption, loading

879. Cranberg, L., Cold fusion doubts and controls” (title given by section editor). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 515.

First Author: Cranberg, L.
All Authors: Cranberg, L.
Keywords: review

880. Cravens, D. Factors Affecting Success Rate of Heat Generation in CF Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: heat, method, Pd, D2O, ICCF-4, electrolysis

AbstractA series of low cost, low precision experiments were conducted to screen for factors which may affect the successful observation of heat from palladium/ heavy water electrolytic cells. Critical factors include the selection of the palladium and the experimental protocol during the initial loading to the beta phase. It was found that bubble patterns, volume expansion, and surface appearance can be used as early predictors of ultimate success. Since large scale defects are detrimental, methods of avoiding cracking are discussed. These include alloying, preparing a uniform surface, loading at a slow rate at low temperatures, delaying use of additives to the electrolyte, and uniform loading techniques. Methods of achieving the later and larger heat releases were found to include: rapid increase in the current density above a threshold value and raising the temperature. A reflux calorimeter design is presented that allows for continuous studies at boiling temperatures of the electrolyte. Unexpected and unexplained occurrences of heat bursts by magnetic fields and radio frequency fields are reported.

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881. Cravens, D., Cold Fusion Testing at CET. 1995.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, Patterson, test

882. Cravens, D. Flowing Electrolyte Calorimetry. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, beads, Li2SO4. ICCF-5, electrolysis

When the specific heat and flow rate of the electrolyte are known, the thennal output of cells using circulating electrolytes can be determined. An independent evaluation of the “Patterson Power Cell™” was conducted using the circulating electrolyte as a heat transfer medium. This allows for real time measurements and alteration of the electrolyte. The cell was found to give measurements consistent with claims of excess power. Suggestions for the improvement of the calorimetry are given. A simplified version of the system was demonstrated during the first 3 days o f the International Conference on Cold Fusion – 5 (ICCF-5) and made available to those requesting its examination.

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883. Cravens, D., A report on testing the patterson power cell. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 21.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: H2O, beads, heat+, Ni, CETI

884. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. Practical Techniques In CF Research – Triggering Methods. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

A collection of useful techniques for triggering CF events is presented which are gleaned from 14 years of CF research and thousands of experiments by the authors.  Special attention is give to those techniques that trigger excess heat by dynamic conditions that are imposed upon CF systems.  These triggering techniques include changes in cell temperature, pulsing the current to electrolytic systems, acoustical stimulation of gas systems, chemical triggering of electrolytic system, pressure changes, radio frequency excitation, magnetic field variations and laser stimulation. Laser stimulation is found to be a potentially fruitful technique to trigger heat events, to probe the cathode surface by scanning for active locations and to compare products from at active and inactive regions.

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885. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. Practical Techniques In CF Research – Triggering Methods (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

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886. Cravens, D. Search for Radiation Signals from Electrolytic Cells (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: radiation,

887. Cravens, D. and D. Letts. The Enabling Criteria Of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Letts, D.
Keywords: review

One hundred sixty seven papers from 1989 to 2007 concerning the generation of heat from electrochemical cells were collected, listed, and digitally posted to a CD for reference, review and study. A review showed four criteria that were required for successful experiments attempting replication of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. All published negative results can be traced to researchers not fulfilling one or more of these criteria. Statistical and Bayesian studies show that observation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is correlated with the criteria and that production of “excess heat” is a real physical effect “beyond a reasonable doubt.”

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888. Cravens, D., Inhibition of LENR by Hydrogen within Gas-loaded Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 282-290.

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D.
Keywords: Gas loading, Inhibition, Kinetics

This paper develops a model of reaction kinetics for Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) for gas loaded systems. The method is patterned after mathematics used in Michaelis-Menten kinetic models, which are standard in enzyme catalytic studies. Hydrogen is found to inhibit the deuterium reaction rates and can be explained by mixed inhibition kinetics where the hydrogen both competes with deuterium at the active sites requiring higher concentrations of deuterium for a given reaction rate and it also undergoes noncompetitive inhibition, which alters the maximum rate of the reaction. This kinetic model predicts that hydrogen contamination would require ligher loading ratios for similar reaction rates or heat production and also such contamination may lower ultimate heat production due to hydrogen active site complex productions.

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889. Cravens, D. and R. Gimpel, Cold Fusion at NI Week 2013. Infinite Energy, 2013(111).

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Gimpel, R.
Keywords: Excess heat

National Instruments’ annual NI Week hosts some of the most advanced electronic and instrumentation technologies on the planet. This yea-ڳ event, held in Austin, Texas from August 5-8, was no exception. Electronically controlled robots roamed the aisles. Next yea-ڳ auto electronics and advanced controls for cars, airplanes and missiles were displayed. There was even an 800 mph land speed car in the corner.However, in our humble opinion, the most unique booth displayed two golden spheres resting in a bed of silver beads. But the left sphere is 4у warmer than the right one and the bed it rests in. Why is it warmer? Cold fusion keeps it warm and it has been warm for 2½ months now. . . .

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890. Cravens, D., M.R. Swartz, and B.S. Ahern, Condensed matter nuclear reactions with metal particles in gases. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Cravens, D.
All Authors: Cravens, D., Swartz, M. R., Ahern, B. S.
Keywords:

891. Crawford, O.H., Examination of a proposed phonon-coupling mechanism for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 161.

First Author: Crawford, O. H.
All Authors: Crawford, O. H.
Keywords: Theory, Schwinger

892. Crespo, C.L., R.F.C. Carvalhal, and C.A.C. Sequeira, Anomalous effects during electrolysis of aqueous solutions. Cienc. Tecnol. Mater., 1998. 10((1/2)): p. 43 [in Portuguese].

First Author: Crespo, C. L.
All Authors: Crespo, C. L., Carvalhal, R. F. C., Sequeira, C. A. C.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis

893. Cribier, M., M. Spiro, and J. Favier, Conventional sources of fast neutrons in cold fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 228: p. 163.

First Author: Cribier, M.
All Authors: Cribier, M., Spiro, M., Favier, J.
Keywords: theory, neutron

894. Criddle, E.E. Implications ofIsoperibolic Electrode Calorimetry for Cold Fusion: The Silica Effect. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Criddle, E. E.
All Authors: Criddle, E. E.
Keywords: SiO2, heat, error, critique, ICCF-3

Isoperibolic electrode calorimetry has demonstrated that four times as much heat is generated at the anode then at the cathode in D2O. Experiments recognized that silica affected some results. Experiments in K2CO3 reported here identifies silica as both a contributor to excess heat generation and as a factor in modifying the cell calibration constant. Implications for cold fusion will be discussed.

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895. Criddle, E.E. Evidence of Agglomeration and Syneresis in Regular and Excess Heat Cells in Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Criddle, E. E.
All Authors: Criddle, E. E.
Keywords: Ni, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-4

896. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella. Some Thermodynamic Properties of the H(D)-Pd System. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: PdD, thermodynamic, enthalpy of formation, ICCF-5

In any discussion of the origin, measurement or description of the anomalous power prod ucing process which occurs in connection with the electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium, knowledge of the thermodynamic behaviour of the system is clearly of importance. More particularly, since the formation of highly l oaded palladium is implicated as a necessary (but itself insufficient) condition for the observation of anomalous power, thermodynamic considerations relating to the attainment of high l oadings are of interest. Here, it is intended to review, at a general level , those aspects of the thermodynamic nature of the H(D)-Pd system, both equilibrium and non-equilibrium, which appear to bear most directly,on the question of excess power producti on in relati o n to the attai nment of high loadings.

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897. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella, Calorimetric study of two metallic samples. 1996.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

898. Crouch-Baker, S., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella, Variation of Resistance with Composition in the beta-Phase of the H-Pd System at 298k. Z. fur Phys. Chemie, 1998. 204: p. 247.

First Author: Crouch-Baker, S.
All Authors: Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Hydrogen-palladium, Resistance ratio, Loading, Pressure-composition isotherm

Measurement of electrical resistance is a convenient method for the determination of composition in a number of metal-hydrogen systems. For the fi-phase of the H-Pd system, pertinent data from the literature are employed in order to construct a complete resistance-loading function at 298 K.

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899. Crowley, B.J.B., Nuclear Fusion in High Density Matter. Nucl. Fusion, 1989. 29(12): p. 2199.

First Author: Crowley, B. J. B.
All Authors: Crowley, B. J. B.
Keywords: theory

900. Crum, L. Sonoluminescence And Acoustic Inertial Confinement Fusion. in Fifth International Symposium on Cavitation (cav2003). 2003. Osaka, Japan.

First Author: Crum, L.
All Authors: Crum, L.
Keywords: Sonofusion

901. CSST, Hearing before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives. 1989: Washington, DC.

First Author: CSST
All Authors: CSST
Keywords: History

U.S. House of Representatives, Hearing before the Committee on Science, Space and Technology on cold fusion, April 1989.

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902. Cuevas, F., et al. An Experimental System for “Cold Fusion” Experiments with Self-Produced Iodide Titanium Films. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Algueru, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, layer, method, deposition, ICCF-5

An experimental system has been developed to grow pure titanium films on tungsten substrates. The physicochemical properties of these films have been widely studied and ad hoc samples can be used for Cold Fusion experiments avoiding their contact with atmosphere. Different Cold Fusion experiments are proposed in a new experimental setup that allows deuterium gas loading of the film whi le electrical current is applied through them. Thus, an experimental configuration similar to an electrochemical loading is attained.

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903. Cuevas, F., et al. An Experimental System for “Cold Fusion” Experiments with Self-Produced Iodide Titanium Films. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Algueru, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, layer, method, deposition, ICCF-5

904. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez. Search for Neutron Emissions Induced by Electric Currents and Phase Transitions in Titanium Deuteride Films. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2, layer, ICCF-6

905. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez. Search for Neutron Emissions Induced by Electric Currents and Phase Transitions in Titanium Deuteride Films. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2, layer, ICCF-6

906. Cuevas, F., J.F. Fernandez, and C. Sanchez, A search for nuclear reactions in deuterated fresh iodide-titanium films. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 644.

First Author: Cuevas, F.
All Authors: Cuevas, F., Fernandez, J. F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Titanium, D2, neutron, gamma emission, layer, loading

907. Cunnane, V.J., R.A. Scannell, and D.J. Schiffrin, H2 + O2 recombination in non-isothermal, non-adiabatic electrochemical calorimetry of water electrolysis in an undivided cell. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 269: p. 163.

First Author: Cunnane, V. J.
All Authors: Cunnane, V. J., Scannell, R. A., Schiffrin, D. J.
Keywords: heat, recombination, critique, method

908. Czerski, K., et al., Enhancement of the electron screening effect for d + d fusion reactions in metallic environments. Europhys. Lett., 2001. 54(4): p. 449-455.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Biller, A., Heide, P., Hoeft, M., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening

Abstract. — To study the electron screening of nuclear reactions in metallic environments, angular distributions and thick target yields of the fusion reactions 2H(d,p) 3H and 2H(d,n) 3He have been measured on deuterons implanted in three different metal targets (Al, Zr and Ta) for beam energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. The experimentally determined values of the screening energy are about one order of magnitude larger than the value achieved in a gas target experiment and significantly larger than the theoretical predictions. A clear target material dependence of the screening energy has been established.

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909. Czerski, K., P. Heide, and A. Huke. Electron Screening Constraints for Cold Fusion. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Heide, P., Huke, A.
Keywords: theory

910. Czerski, K., et al., The 2H(d,p)3H reaction in metallic media at very low energies. Europhys. Lett., 2004. 68(3): p. 363-369.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening

Abstract. — Based on our experimental studies of the electron screening effect in the 2H(d, p) 3H reaction for five deuteron-implanted solid targets (C, Al, Zr, Pd, Ta), theoretical calculations have been performed within an improved dielectric function theory. The theory describes correctly the observed target material dependence of the screening energies, underestimating, however, the absolute values by about a factor of 2. Applying an effective screening energy approach, the theoretical cross-sections, thick-target yields as well as nuclear reaction rates have been calculated down to the energies corresponding to the conditions of so-called cold-fusion experiments. This allows for a comparison of the experimental results at higher energies with those achieved in the heavy-water electrolysis experiments.

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911. Czerski, K., et al., Experimental and theoretical screening energies for the 2H(d, p)3H reaction in metallic environments. Eur. Phys. J. A, 2006. 27(s01): p. 83-88.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K., Huke, A., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: theory, electron screening,

912. Czerski, K. Enhanced Electron Screening and Nuclear Mechanism of Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Czerski, K.
All Authors: Czerski, K.
Keywords:

The enhanced electron screening effect observed in accelerator experiments for the 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He reaction in deuterized metallic targets may be a breakthrough in understanding the phenomenon of cold fusion. The dielectric function theory enables an extrapolation of experimental cross sections determined at higher energies down to room temperature, leading to an enhancement of the fusion reaction rates by a factor of 1040 compared to the value predicted for the deuterium molecule. An additional enhancement can be obtained due to a 0+ resonance which should exist in the compound nucleus 4He very close to the D-D reaction threshold. Combination of both processes offers a simple explanation of high penetration probability through the Coulomb barrier and the reaction branching ratio preferring the 4He channel in heavy-water electrolysis experiments.

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913. Czerwinski, A., R. Marassi, and S. Zamponi, The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part I. Acidic solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 316: p. 211.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: Pd, loading, layer, OCV

914. Czerwinski, A. and R. Marassi, The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part II: Basic solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 322: p. 373.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Marassi, R.
Keywords: Pd, loading, layer, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

915. Czerwinski, A., Influence of lithium cations on hydrogen and deuterium electrosorption in palladium. Electrochim. Acta, 1994. 39: p. 431.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Li, loading, surface analysis

916. Czerwinski, A., et al., The absorption of hydrogen and deuterium in thin palladium electrodes. Part III: The influence of solution composition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 386: p. 207.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Maruszczak, G., Zelazowska, M., Lancucka, M., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, H2O, electrolysis

917. Czerwinski, A., et al., Influence of cesium cations on hydrogen and deuterium electrosorption in palladium. Electrochim. Acta, 1997. 42(1): p. 81.

First Author: Czerwinski, A.
All Authors: Czerwinski, A., Czauderna, M., Maruszczak, G., Kiersztyn, I., Marassi, R., Zamponi, S.
Keywords: Cs, Pd, loading, H2O, electrolysis

918. Czirr, J.B., G.L. Jensen, and J.C. Wang. High-Efficiency Neutron and Charged-Particle Detector. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Czirr, J. B.
All Authors: Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Wang, J. C.
Keywords: neutron, particle emission, apparatus, method

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