Bibliography I-L

Subpage of Bibliography

1680. Iazzi, F., et al. Correlated Measurements of D2 Loading and 4He Production in Pd Lattice. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Iazzi, F.
All Authors: Iazzi, F., Botta, E., Bressani, T., Fanara, C., Tesio, A.
Keywords: electromigration, D2, Pd, loading, ICCF-7, Coehn, electrolysis

Abstract A series of measurements have been performed on a thin sheet of Pd in D2 gas atmo­sphere with an electric field applied across its length. The results in terms of correlation between the average loading ratio near the cathode and in the middle of the sheet are reported: they indicate that under particular conditions the application of the electric field succeeds to shorten the loading time and to obtain local D/Pd ratios higher than the average value.

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1681. ICCF19. Posters from conference. in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: ICCF19
All Authors: ICCF19
Keywords:

Posters displayed at ICCF19, courtesy F. Scholkmann

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1682. ICCF21. Abstracts. in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: ICCF21
All Authors: ICCF21
Keywords:

All of the abstracts from the ICCF-21 conference, combined into one file. The abstracts were downloaded from: https://www.iccf21.com/submit-abstract

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1683. Ichimaru, S., et al., Statistical-mechanical theory of cold nuclear fusion in metal hydrides. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1990. 59: p. 1333.

First Author: Ichimaru, S.
All Authors: Ichimaru, S., Nakano, A., Ogata, S., Tanaka, S., Iyetomi, H., Tajima, T.
Keywords: Theory, p-d

1684. Ichimaru, S., S. Ogata, and A. Nakano, Rates of nuclear fusion in metal hydrides. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1990. 59(11): p. 3904.

First Author: Ichimaru, S.
All Authors: Ichimaru, S., Ogata, S., Nakano, A.
Keywords: Theory, p-d, fusion

1685. Ichimaru, S., Cold nuclear fusion in pressurized liquid metals. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1991. 60: p. 1437.

First Author: Ichimaru, S.
All Authors: Ichimaru, S.
Keywords: Theory, p-d, p-Li, fusion

1686. Ichimaru, S. Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ichimaru, S.
All Authors: Ichimaru, S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

1687. Ichimaru, S., Nuclear fusion in dense plasmas. Rev. Mod. Phys., 1993. 65: p. 255.

First Author: Ichimaru, S.
All Authors: Ichimaru, S.
Keywords: Theory, review, astronomy, screening

1688. Iguchi, T., Measurement of a very small yield of neutron using a moderating-type (3)He gas counter. Ioniz. Radiat. (Tokyo), 1990. 16(3): p. 22 (in Japanese).

First Author: Iguchi, T.
All Authors: Iguchi, T.
Keywords: neutron, method

1689. Iida, T., et al. Deuteron Fusion Experiment with Ti and Pd Foils Implanted with Deuterium Beams. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Iida, T.
All Authors: Iida, T., Fukuhara, M., Miyazaki, H., Sueyoshi, Y., Sunarno, Datemichi, J., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: D, ion implantation, Pd, Ti, Particle emission, ICCF-3, theory, three body, He

In order to examine the “cold” deuteron fusion reaction, we have tried making deuteron implantation experiments on Ti and Pd foils. A 20 cm diam. x 24 cm cylinder-type vacuum chamber was installed at the end section of a 240 keV deuteron accelerator. In the center of the chamber, a Ti or Pd foil sample was set to face toward 3 nsec pulsed deuteron beams collimated with a 3 mm diam. aperture. A Si-SSD was placed behind the foil sample for the measurement of high energy charged particles emitted from the foil by the supposed deuteron fusion reactions.

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1690. Iida, T., et al. Deuteron Fusion Experiments with Ti and Pd Foils Implanted with Deuteron Beams II. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Iida, T.
All Authors: Iida, T., Fukuhara, M., Sunarno, Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Ti, Pd, ion implantation, D2 helium ICCF-4

Deuteron implantation experiments on Ti and Pd foils have been made for the examination of the “cold” deuteron fusion reaction. In the center of a target chamber fitted to a 300 keV deuteron accelerator, a Ti or Pd foil sample was set to face toward 3 nsec pulsed deuteron beams collimated with a 3 mm diameter aperture. A Si-SSD was placed behind the foil to detect high energy charged particles emitted from the foil by the supposed deuteron fusion reactions.In the 243 keV deuteron implantation experiments for 3-20 μm Ti and 5-22 μm Pd foils, unusual counts and peaks were measured in the energy region higher than the proton peak due to the well-known D-D reaction. And from the energy loss measurement with the screen foil in front of the Si-SSD, some of the unusual high energy peaks were found to be helium, though the original reactions are not identified. These helium peaks and unnatural counts are difficult to explain and might have something to do with the multibody fusion reactions proposed by A. Takahashi. More elaborate experiments with more detailed measurement such as correlated particle measurement should be necessary for confirmation of the multibody fusion reaction.

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1691. Iida, T., Deuteron fusion experiments with some foils implanted with deuteron beams. Genshikaku Kenkyu, 1995. 40(5): p. 77.

First Author: Iida, T.
All Authors: Iida, T.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Pd, Zr, particle emission

1692. Iizumi, K., et al. Heat Measurement During Plasma Electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Iizumi, K.
All Authors: Iizumi, K., Fujii, M., Mitsushima, S., Kamiya, N., Ota, K.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, glow discharge, hydrogen generation, heat

1693. Ikegami, H. Cold Fusion Researches in Japan. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords: review, Japan, ICCF-2

1694. Ikegami, H., Present and future of cold fusion. Nuclear products from cold fusion. Oyo Butsuri, 1991. 60: p. 212 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords: Review

1695. Ikegami, H., ed. Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion” (Part 1). 1992, Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan: Nagoya Japan. 698.

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, October 21 – 25, 1992 Nagoya, Japan.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 1, title page to page 252.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large. Some individual papers from the proceedings have been uploaded separately after being completely converted to text Acrobat format, which is cleaner and smaller. In some cases the separate papers have been re-edited by the authors and improved.

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1696. Ikegami, H., ed. Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion” (Part 2). 1992, Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan: Nagoya Japan. 698.

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, October 21 – 25, 1992 Nagoya, Japan.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 2, page 253 to page 698.

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1697. Ikegami, H., Next step to promote cold fusion research. Oyo Butsuri, 1993. 62: p. 717 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords: Discussion, history

1698. Ikegami, H., Buffer Energy Nuclear Fusion, in Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40. 2001. p. 6092-6098.

First Author: Ikegami, H.
All Authors: Ikegami, H.
Keywords: ionbombardment, Li, D, cross-section

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:A compact scheme of non-thermonuclear fusion is presented. Hydrogen ions are implanted directly from nonthermal discharge plasma or ion source into a surface of liquid Li metal at a buffer energy of a few tens keV where nuclear stopping occurs. The ions interact with Li atoms or mixed element atoms which are not being internally excited and tend towards the formation of united atoms at the minimum Gibbs free energy point. This leads to the enhanced rate of non-thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen ions due to cohesion in the liquid metal.

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1699. Ikeya, M. and H. Miyamaru, Chemical heat production of palladium electrode electrolytically charged with deuterium and hydrogen. Chem. Express, 1989. 4: p. 563.

First Author: Ikeya, M.
All Authors: Ikeya, M., Miyamaru, H.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, decomposition, neutron, tritium

1700. Ilic, R., et al., A search for neutrons, protons, tritons, (3)He ions, gamma- and x-rays from deuterium-deuterium nuclear reaction in electrochemically charged palladium. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1990. 17: p. 483.

First Author: Ilic, R.
All Authors: Ilic, R., Rant, J., Sutej, T., Kristof, E., Skvarc, J., Kozelj, M., Najzer, M., Humar, M., Cercek, M., Glumac, B., Cvikl, B., Fajgelj, A., Gyergyek, T., Trkov, A., Loose, A., Peternelj, J., Remec, I., Ravnik, M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, neutron, particle emission, tritium Helium, gamma emission, x-ray, heat-, negative

1701. Ilic, R., et al., Investigation of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction in cast, annealed, and cold-rolled palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 505.

First Author: Ilic, R.
All Authors: Ilic, R., Rant, J., Sutej, T., Dobersek, M., Kristov, E., Skvarc, J., Kozelj, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, particle emission, neutron gamma emission, x-ray, negative

1702. Ilic, R. and J. Rant, The search for cold nuclear fusion with track-etch and bubble damage detectors. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1991. 19: p. 619.

First Author: Ilic, R.
All Authors: Ilic, R., Rant, J.
Keywords: neutron, method

1703. Iller, C., Hadronic Circuit Diagrams and the secrets of Cold Nuclear Chemistry. Alchemy Today, 1994. 2: p. 149.

First Author: Iller, C.
All Authors: Iller, C.
Keywords: theory, superconductor, muon

1704. Indech, R. and R. Karshenboym. Optimization of Output in a Cold Fusion Generator. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Indech, R.
All Authors: Indech, R., Karshenboym, R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

Progress has been made in the production of excess heat from a cold fusion generator based upon the combination of deuterium ions within a metallic matrix. Drawing from fundamental considerations, this paper identifies for optimization those quantities and methods which would tend to increase the heat production. An analogy to hot fusion is presented, followed by theory of the PONS cell. Methods to increase fusion output are introduced with a detailed theoretical analysis of the effective kinetic temperature generated for deuterium ion under an electric field in a porous material.

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1705. Irvine, J.M. and S. Riley, Cold fusion doubts and controls. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 515 (15-Jun).

First Author: Irvine, J. M.
All Authors: Irvine, J. M., Riley, S.
Keywords: theory, cosmology, history

1706. Isagawa, S., Y. Kanada, and T. Suzuki. Search for Excess Heat, Neutron Emission and Tritium Yield from Electrochemically Charged Palladium in D2O. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Isagawa, S.
All Authors: Isagawa, S., Kanada, Y., Suzuki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, tritium, H2O contamination, ICCF-3, electrolysis

The electrolysis of heavy water is being investigated with two types of open calorimetric systems. Pd cathodes, Pt anodes and D2O/0.1 M LiOD electrolytes have been used. Until now no clear-cut heat bursts as reported have been observed. One exceptional phenomenon showing abnormal power imbalance without neutron and tritium anomalies was found, but has not been repeated under the similar experimental conditions. Neutron emission, on the other hand, as a very rare case showed an abnormal increase for only short term during one of another series of experiments. The increase of about 3.8 sigma above the background level lasted for 9 hours on the 20th day after starting the electrolysis. The emission rate amounts to about 27.2 Ѡ11.2 neutrons s^-l, which is equivalent to about 700 times as much as the background level. Neither excess heat nor tritium anomalies were, however, observed. The reason for the lack of repeatability of these experimental results is discussed.

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1707. Isagawa, S., Y. Kanda, and T. Suzuki. Heat Production and Trial to Detect Nuclear Products from Palladium-Deuterium Electrolysis Cells. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Isagawa, S.
All Authors: Isagawa, S., Kanda, Y., Suzuki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis heat+, tritium, neutron gamma emission ICCF-5

A burst-like excess heat release, equivalent to 1 10% of the input electric power, was clearly observed for the fIrst time in our newly built open type electrolysis cell using Pd/0.1 M LiOD/Pt. After being precharged, the cell was driven to boiling three times the last of which continued for about 1 6 hours to almost dryness. The burst occurred just during the calm period about 6 hours after the fIrst boiling. The temperature of the cell, about 100 ml in volume, increased by 7.5 K in 13 minutes . A palladium cathode, 2mmq, x 7.0Smm, was a heat s ource, although the mechanism of the heat generation is still uncertain. During the whole period of this run, however, the phenomenon took place only once. Neither increase of neutron emission nor that of tritium concentration has been detected. Mass analysis showed that any traces of D2 as well as 4He have not remained in the Pd s ample u sed. Detection of gamma ray emission as well as 3He and 4He in off gas during or just after release of excess power should be yet to be pursued further.

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1708. Isagawa, S. and Y. Kanda. Mass Spectroscopic Search for Helium in Effluent Gas and Palladium Cathodes of D2O Electrolysis Cells Involving Excess Power. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Isagawa, S.
All Authors: Isagawa, S., Kanda, Y.
Keywords: He, electrolysis, D20, heat+, Pd, ICCF-6

1709. Isagawa, S., Mass spectroscopic means for determining 4He in the presence of large amounts of D2. Vacuum, 1996. 47: p. 497.

First Author: Isagawa, S.
All Authors: Isagawa, S.
Keywords: helium electrolysis, Pd, D2O

1710. Isagawa, S., Y. Kanda, and T. Suzuki, Present status of cold fusion experiment at KEK”. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 65(1): p. 60.

First Author: Isagawa, S.
All Authors: Isagawa, S., Kanda, Y., Suzuki, T.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, electrolysis, neutron+, D2O, x-ray, Pd

1711. Ishida, T., Study of the anomalous nuclear effects in solid deuterium systems. 1992, Tokyo University. p. 131.

First Author: Ishida, T.
All Authors: Ishida, T.
Keywords: particle emission

1712. Isobe, Y., H. Fukuoka, and A. Takahashi. Simultaneous Measurements of Neutrons, X-rays, Excess Heat and D-Loading Ratio Using Open D2O Electrolysis System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Isobe, Y.
All Authors: Isobe, Y., Fukuoka, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: neutron, loading, Pd, D2O, heat, x-ray, resistivity, electrolysis, ICCF-7, negative

1713. Isobe, Y., et al. Search for Coherent Deuteron Fusion by Beam and Electrolysis Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Isobe, Y.
All Authors: Isobe, Y., Uneme, S., Yabuta, K., Mori, H., Omote, T., Ueda, S., Ochiai, K., Miyadera, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, ion bombardment, Ti, particle emission, 3 body, He, neutron, X-ray, ICCF-8

[Abstract] Procedures and results of three kinds of experiments i.e., closed type D2O/Pd electrolysis, electron beam irradiation and ion-beam bombardment on titanium-deuteride (TiDx) have been introduced in this paper. In the electrolysis experiment, upper gas of the electrolysis cell was analyzed using a Quadrupole Mass Analysis System (Q-MAS). Significant amount of helium-4 was detected without neutron emission in several experiments and in one of these experiments, the amount of helium-4 atom in the released gas from the palladium cathode was 8.1 x 10^16 atoms. Under electron beam irradiation to highly D-loaded palladium, anomalous spectra were taken in X-ray measurement. In the experiments using deuteron beam and TiDx, responses which suggested 3D multi-body fusion were taken and the reaction rate of which was increased compared to the D(d,p)T reaction rate, below 100 keV. This result may reflect the coherent effect of the solid state in the reactions. From the results of the experiments using proton beam and TiDx, peaks which suggested 3D multi-body reaction were detected with high reproducibility. Moreover, high energetic protons having 17-20 MeV emitted kinetic energy which suggested H-D-D three-body coherent fusion were also detected.

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1714. Isobe, Y., et al., Search for multibody nuclear reactions in metal deuteride induced with ion beam and electrolysis methods. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2002. 41(part 1): p. 1546.

First Author: Isobe, Y.
All Authors: Isobe, Y., Uneme, S., Yabuta, K., Katayama, Y., Mori, H., Omote, T., Ueda, S., Ochiai, K., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Experiment electrolysis, ion beam, Pd Ti D2O 4He+ thin film neutron heat multibody ion bombardment three body fusion

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:We report here the experimental results suggesting the occurrence of multibody nuclear reactions in metal deuterides under ion-beam irradiation and electrolysis. A meaningful increase of helium-4 was observed during electrolysis with the Pd-D2O system, while neutron emission was not observed. The D+D+D fusion, 3D→t+3He+9.5 MeV, has been observed repeatedly in deuteron-beam irradiation experiments with a TiDx target. On the other hand, in proton-beam experiments with TiDx, H+D+D-fusion: H+D+D→p+4He+23.8 MeV was observed. Considering this result, it seems that the 3D reaction occurred between two deuterons trapped closely in TiDx and an incident particle of deuteron. . . .

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1715. Ito, T., T. Kursawa, and T. Yaguchi, Concerning ‘cold fusion’. Meiji Daigaku Nogakubu Hokoku, 1994. 100: p. 1 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ito, T.
All Authors: Ito, T., Kursawa, T., Yaguchi, T.
Keywords: Review

1716. Itoh, T., et al. Observation of Nuclear Products Under Vacuum Conditions from Deuterated Palladium with High Loading Ratio. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Itoh, T.
All Authors: Itoh, T., Iwamura, Y., Gotoh, N., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: D2 Pd, neutron, x-ray, tritium, gamma emission, particle emission, loading ICCF-5

Gas release experiments with a method of heating highly deuterated palladium metals (DlPd=O.7 – 0.83) in a vacuum chamber to induce anomalous nuclear effects have been performed. Neutron emission and X-ray emission were observed in some cases, and DT gas breeding with high reproducibility. DT gas breeding was correlative withDlPd and degassing rate of deuterium gas. It shows that anomalous nuclear effects are related to DlPd and diffusion process of deuterium atoms in palladium metals.

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1717. Itoh, T., et al. Observation of Nuclear Products in Gas Release Experiments with Electrochemically Deuterated Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Itoh, T.
All Authors: Itoh, T., Iwamura, Y., Gotoh, N., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: Pd, deloading, tritium, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-6

1718. Itoh, T., et al., Anomalous Excess Heat Generated by the Interaction between Nano-structured Pd/Ni Surface and D2 Gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 179-190.

First Author: Itoh, T.
All Authors: Itoh, T., Iwamura, Y., Kasagi, J., Shishido, H.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, D2 gas absorption, Finite element method, Nano-structured material, Replication

A new experimental setup based on Mizuno’s work was introduced in our lab in order to investigate the anomalous heat generation phenomena. Following Mizuno’s procedures, we fabricated nano-structured material composed of Pd and Ni by glow discharge on a heater located in the center of a vacuum chamber. The nano-structured Pd/Ni was prepared with D2 before use. Then, we applied electrical power to the heater that was covered with the nano-structured Pd/Ni while evacuating the chamber, and we observed the heater temperature behavior. Next, we introduced D2 gas at about 250 Pa to the chamber while maintaining the heater input. As a result, in three experiments, we observed that heater temperature increases compared to the reference experiment (with no nano-structured Pd/Ni). In particular, in experiments with 7 W input, we observed a123◦C heater temperature increase compared to the reference experiment. It can be said that we replicated Mizuno’s experiment successfully. Since the heater was covered with nano-structured material, there was a concern that a change in emissivity affected the heater temperature measurement. Numerical calculation was conducted to evaluate the effect of the change of the surface emissivity. It was concluded that even if the emissivity drop dramatically from 0.7 to 0.3 due to the coating of the nano-structured Pd/Ni, the temperature rise would be only 70◦C at the most. The postulated emissivity change cannot explain the observed temperature increase of 123◦C. These experimental and numerical results suggest that anomalous excess heat was generated by the interaction between nano-structured Pd/Ni surface and D2 gas.

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1719. Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and I. Toyoda. Observation of Anomalous Nuclear Effects in D2-Pd System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, tritium, ICCF-4

1720. Iwamura, Y., et al. Characteristic X-ray and Neutron Emissions from Electrochemically Deuterated Palladium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Gotoh, N., Itoh, T., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: Pd, X-ray, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-5

Characteristic x-ray and neutron emissions have been observed during electrochemical loading of deuterium i nto pal ladium metal . It shows that anomalous phenomena occur i n deuteri um-palladium system as shown in our previous paper and the others on cold fusion.

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1721. Iwamura, Y., et al. Correlation between behavior of deuterium in palladium and occurance of nuclear reactions observed by simultaneous measurement of excess heat and nuclear products. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Gotoh, N., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, x-ray, neutron, ICCF-6, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

We developed a new type of experimental apparatus for simultaneous measurement of excess heat and nuclear products with intent to induce continuous nuclear reactions in D2   Pd system. It consists of two parts: an electrochemical cell for calorimetry, and a vacuum chamber for nuclear measurement. Deuterium atoms flow continuously from the electrochemical side to the vacuum side through a palladium plate, and we might expect that nuclear reactions last for a long term in the system, since it is considered that diffusion process of deuterium atoms in palladium is important to induce nuclear reactions.

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1722. Iwamura, Y., et al. Detection of Anomalous Elements, X-ray and Excess Heat Induced by Continous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multi-layer Cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Gotoh, N., Sakano, M., Toyoda, I., Sakata, H.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat+, transmutation, x-ray, neutron, layer, electrolysis, surface analysis, ICCF-7

Abstract A new type of experimental apparatus is developed to induce nuclear reactions by continuous diffusion of deuterium. Ti atoms, which cannot be explained by contamination, were detected on the surface where deuterium atoms passed through on Pd cathodes after electrolysis. A multi-layer cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd) is introduced based on an EINR (Electron Induced Nuclear Reaction) model. Excess heat generations and x-ray emissions were observed for all the cases we tried by the multi-layer cathodes. 57Fe/56Fe ratio of Fe atoms detected on the multi-layer cathodes is anomalously larger than natural 57Fe/56Fe.

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1723. Iwamura, Y., et al., Detection of anomalous elements, X-ray and excess heat induced by continuous diffusion of deuterium through multi-layer cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd). Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 56.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, H., Gotoh, N., Sakano, M., Toyoda, I., Sakata, H.
Keywords: heat, diffusion transmutation layer, surface

Abstract A new type of experimental apparatus is developed to induce nuclear reactions by continuous diffusion of deuterium. Ti atoms, which cannot be explained by contamination, were detected on the surface where deuterium atoms passed through on Pd cathodes after electrolysis. A multi-layer cathode (Pd/CaO/Pd) is introduced based on an EINR (Electron Induced Nuclear Reaction) model. Excess heat generations and x-ray emissions were observed for all the cases we tried by the multi-layer cathodes. 57Fe/56Fe ratio of Fe atoms detected on the multi-layer cathodes is anomalously larger than natural 57Fe/56Fe.

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1724. Iwamura, Y., et al., Detection of anomalous elements, x-ray, and excess heat in a D2-Pd system and its interpretation by the electron-induced nuclear reaction model. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 476.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Gotoh, N., Toyoda, I.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, layer, neutron, x-ray, heat, surface analysis

1725. Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and M. Sakano. Nuclear Products and Their Time Dependence Induced by Continuous Diffusion of Deuterium Through Multi-layer Palladium Containing Low Work Function Material. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M.
Keywords: diffusion, layer, Pd, surface analysis, transmutation, ICCF-8

Two kinds of experimental methods have been designed to induce nuclear reactions in the Pd-D system. One is the D2 gas diffusion method, and the other is the electrolysis diffusion method. A common feature of the methods is to cause continuous diffusion of deuterium through a multi-layer Pd that contains low work function material (CaO, TiC, YzOs, etc.). Time dependence of nuclear products (Mg, Si, S, F, Al) were observed by the D2 gas diffusion method, in which the products were analyzed WITHOUT taking the multi-layer Pd out of the apparatus. The time dependence of the products was reproduced qualitatively. The 33S/32S ratio of the products was one order larger than that of natural abundance. Fe isotope ratio anomaly of the multi-layer Pd obtained by the electrolysis diffusion method was confirmed by SIMS and TOF-SIMS. Si powder products detected after electrolysis amounted to 0.057g, and its isotopic composition was anomalous.

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1726. Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and M. Sakano, Nuclide Transmutation Device and Nuclide Transmutation Method. 2002, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.: U.S.A.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, Iwamura effect

PATENT ABSTRACT: The present invention produces nuclide transmutation using a relatively small-scale device. The device 10 that produces nuclide transmutation comprises a structure body 11 that is substantially plate shaped and made of palladium (Pd) or palladium alloy, or another metal that absorbs hydrogen (for example, Ti) or an alloy thereof, and a material 14 that undergoes nuclide transmutation laminated on one surface 11A among the two surfaces of this structure body 11. The one surface 11A side of the structure body 11, for example, is made a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is high due to pressure or electrolysis and the like, and the other surface 11B side, for example, is a region in which the pressure of the deuterium is low due to vacuum exhausting and the like, and thereby, a flow of deuterium in the structure body 11 is produced, and nuclide transmutation is carried out by a reaction between the deuterium and the material 14 that undergoes nuclide transmutation.

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1727. Iwamura, Y., et al. Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University.: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M., Sakai, S.
Keywords: transmutation, D2,, Pd,, ICCF-9

1728. Iwamura, Y., et al. Observation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M., Sakai, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, transmutation, films surface, ICCF-9

Observation of low energy nuclear reactions induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes, which consist of a thin Pd layer, alternating CaO and Pd layers and bulk Pd, is described.   The Pd complex was located in a vacuum chamber and the elemental analysis was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus mounted on the chamber.  When Cs was added on the surface of a Pd complex, Pr emerged on the surface while Cs decreased after the Pd complex was subjected to D2 gas permeation at 343K and 1atm for about one week.  In the case of adding Sr on the surface, Mo emerged on the surface while the added Sr decreased after D2 permeation for about two weeks.  All the phenomena were reproduced qualitatively.  The isotopic composition of the detected Mo exhibited characteristics indicating an isotopic abundance of Sr rather than the natural abundance of Mo.

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1729. Iwamura, Y., M. Sakano, and T. Itoh, Elemental Analysis of Pd Complexes: Effects of D2 Gas Permeation. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2002. 41: p. 4642.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Sakano, M., Itoh, T.
Keywords: transmutation,, D2,, Pd,, CaO,, gas

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. It is reprinted here with permission of the author. The abstract begins:Elemental analysis of Pd complexes, which consist of a thin Pd layer, alternating CaO and Pd layers and bulk Pd, is described, after subjecting the Pd complexes to D2 gas permeation. The Pd complex was located in a vacuum chamber and the elemental analysis was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus mounted on the chamber. . . .

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1730. Iwamura, Y., et al. Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation In Condensed Matter Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes: Correlation Between Deuterium Flux And Nuclear Products. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M., Sakai, S., Kuribayashi, S.
Keywords: gas loading, transmutation

Observations of low energy nuclear reactions induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes (Pd/CaO/Pd) were presented at ICCF-9 and in a paper published in the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (JJAP). When Cs was added on the surface of a Pd complex, Pr emerged on the surface while Cs decreased after the Pd complex was subjected to D2 gas permeation. When Sr was added to the surface, Mo emerged while the Sr decreased after D2 gas permeation. The isotopic composition of the detected Mo was different from the natural abundance.In this paper, recent progress of our research is described. The detected Pr was confirmed by various methods such as TOF-SIMS, XANES, X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and ICP-MS. Analysis of the depth profile of Pr indicated that a very thin surface region up to 100 angstroms was the active transmutation zone. Many experimental results showed that the quantity of Pr was proportional to the deuterium flux through Pd complex. The cross section of transmutation of Cs into Pr can be roughly estimated at 1 barn if we consider the deuterium flux as an ultra low energy deuteron beam.

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1731. Iwamura, Y. Observation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexes (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: Review

Transmutations of Ba into Sm were observed both when natural Ba was applied to the Pd complex samples, andwhen mass-137-enriched Ba (monoisotopic Ba) was applied. The mass distribution of Sm that we obtained depended on the starting isotopic distribution of Ba.

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1732. Iwamura, Y. Observation of Nuclear Transmutation Reactions induced by D2 Gas Permeation through Pd Complexes. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: gas loading, transmutation

We have been studying low energy nuclear transmutations induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd complexes (Pd/CaO/Pd). We presented experimental results at ICCF9 and ICCF101-3. In this paper, we report recent progress. Transmutations of Ba into Sm were observed in two cases: with natural Ba on Pd complex samples (a definite result), and with mass 137-enriched Ba (probable). In these experiments, the atomic mass increase was 12 and atomic number increase was 6. One of our experimental apparatuses was carried to SPring-8, which is the world’s largest synchrotron radiation facility, located at Hyogo prefecture in Japan. Pr was confirmed several times by XRF at SPring-8. Some experiments were done to explore physical structure of the CaO layer. According to a D+ ion beam bombardment experiment performed at Tohoku University, the deuterium density of our Pd complex is one order larger than normal Pd. When we replaced CaO with MgO, we did not obtain any positive results. These results shed light on the role of the CaO layer in the Pd complex.

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1733. Iwamura, Y. Consideration on the Role of CaO (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: Review,

1734. Iwamura, Y. Pd Complex (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: Transmutation,

1735. Iwamura, Y., et al. Observation Of Surface Distribution Of Products By X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry During D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Sakano, M., Yamazaki, N., Kuribayashi, S.
Keywords: transmutation

In-situ measurement of transmutation of Cs into Pr was performed, and the surface distribution of Pr was investigated using XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometry) at SPring-8, a large synchrotron x-ray facility. The in-situ measurement indicated that Pr emerged and Cs decreased at some points after D2 gas permeation, though any Pr cannot be observed before D2 gas permeation at all the points on the Pd complex surface. Using small size X-ray beam in 100- and 500-micrometer squares, we obtained 2 dimensional XRF spectra for three permeated samples, from which we detected Pr. Pr was detected again by the two small x-ray beams as expected. The amount of Pr varied greatly at different locations of the Pd surface, however, a clear correlation between surface structures and distribution of Pr has not seen up to now. Experimental results suggest that nuclear transmutations do not occur uniformly but some uncertain factors, presumably condensed matter effects in the present Pd/D/CaO system, have a large effect on the rate or the process of the reactions.

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1736. Iwamura, Y., et al., Observation of Low Energy Nuclear Transmutation Reactions Induced by Deuterium Permeation through Multilayer Pd and CaO thin Film. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 132-144.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Yamazaki, N., Kasagi, J., Terada, Y., Ishikawa, T., Sekiba, D., Yonemura, H., Fukutani, K.
Keywords: CaO, Deuterium, D2 gas, Multilayer, Nano-structure, Pd, Permeation, Thin film, Time of flight mass spectrometry, Transmutation, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry

Low energy nuclear transmutations in condensed matter have been observed in the nano-structured Pd multilayer complex, which are composed of Pd and CaO thin film and Pd substrate, induced by D2 gas permeation through Pd multilayer complexes. Permeation of deuterium is attained by exposing one side of the Pd complex to D2 gas while keeping the other side under vacuum conditions. Transmutation reactions of Cs into Pr, Ba into Sm were observed. Especially, transmutation of Cs into Pr has been confirmed by “in-situ” measurements using xray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) at SPring-8 in Japan. Similar experiments have been performed by some researchers and positive results have been obtained in some cases. However, more systematic experiments and theoretical approaches are required to make clear the nature of this phenomenon.

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1737. Iwamura, Y., et al., Recent Advances in Deuterium Permeation Transmutation Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 63-71.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Yamazaki, N., Yonemura, H., Fukutani, K., Sekiba, D.
Keywords: Deuterium, Multilayer, Nano-structure, Permeation, Pd, Transmutation

We have been investigating low-energy nuclear transmutation reactions observed in the nano-structured Pd/CaO multilayer complex induced by deuterium permeation through it. A micro-beam Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) system, by means of a resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N,alpha gamma )12C, has been developed for the purpose of the 3D mapping of the hydrogen distribution in the Pd multilayer complex. Using this system, we observed hydrogen density of Pd/CaO multilayer is higher than that of normal Pd. Preliminary experimental results were obtained, which suggested that implanted W was transmuted into Os or Pt.

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1738. Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and S. Tsuruga, Increase of Reaction Products in Deuterium Permeation-induced Transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Tsuruga, S.
Keywords: Deuterium permeation-induced transmutation, Increase of reaction products, Nano-structured Pd multilayer thin film, Transmutation

Low-energy nuclear transmutations have been observed in the nano-sized Pd complexes, which are composed of Pd and CaO thin film and Pd substrate, induced by D2 gas permeation. In order to increase the transmutation products, an electrochemical method was applied to increase deuterium density near the surface of the nano-structured Pd multilayer film. Transmutation products were successfully increased by this approach. Laser irradiation method was also applied to make surface Plasmon on the Pd multilayer, however, the effect of laser irradiation was not so prominent.

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1739. Iwamura, Y., T. Itoh, and S. Tsuruga, Transmutation reactions induced by deuterium permeation through nano-structured palladium multilayer thin film. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Tsuruga, S.
Keywords:

1740. Iwamura, Y., et al., The Launch of a New Plan on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science at Tohoku University. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Kasagi, J., Kikunaga, H., Yoshino, H., Itoh, T., Hattori, M., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Collaborative research division, Condensed matter nuclear reaction, Electron screening, Nano-structured Pd–CaO complex,, Permeation, Transmutation

A new division devoted to Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction (CMNR) was established at the Research Center for Electron Photon Science of Tohoku University in April 2015. This division consist of researchers from Tohoku University, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Clean Planet Inc., who have been actively engaged in the field of CMNR. In this division, fundamental research on condensed matter nuclear reaction, R&D on energy generation and nuclear waste decontamination will be performed.

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1741. Iwamura, Y., et al., Replication Experiments at Tohoku University on Anomalous Heat Generation Using Nickel-based Binary Nanocomposites and Hydrogen Isotope Gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 191-201.

First Author: Iwamura, Y.
All Authors: Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Kasagi, J., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Takahashi, K.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Deuterium gas, Gas loading, Hydrogen gas, Ni-based binary nano-composites, Replication

We built a new experimental system to replicate the anomalous heat generation experiments based on the papers by A. Kitamura and A. Takahashi. The system was developed in order to measure precisely heat generation using a flow-calorimetry method with liquid hydrocarbon coolant that enables us to measure at temperatures higher than 373 K. The Ni-based binary nano-composite samples were prepared by the melt spinning method. A fabricated material at Kobe University were separated into two samples. One sample was loaded and tested at Tohoku University and the other at Kobe University, in order to compare the experimental results at the two different places. Two experiments were performed up to now. One was the PNZ4s (Pd0:044Ni0:31Zr0:65) with D2 gas experiment and the other is the CNZ5s (Cu0:044Ni0:31Zr0:65) with H2 gas experiment. For the PNZ4s with D2 gas experiment, excess heat up to 10 W was observed. The amount of excess energy reached 2.5 MJ and it corresponded to 14.9 eV per absorbed D. CNZ5s (Cu0:044Ni0:31Zr0:65) with H2 gas experiment also showed anomalous excess heat ranging from 2 to 5 W. Coincident increase events of the pressure of reaction chamber and gas temperature, which suggested high temperature gas generation in the reactor chamber, was observed many times. The amount of excess energy amounted to 1.9 MJ and the generated energy per hydrogen atom was estimated as 67.8 eV/H. For the both samples subjected to the same fabrication process, results of the present work qualitatively agreed with those of the similar experiment performed at Kobe University. And these observations are supposed to be very difficult to explain by known chemical processes only.

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1742. Iyengar, P.K. Cold Fusion Results in BARC Experiments. in Fifth International Conf. on Emerging Nucl. Energy Ststems. 1989. Karlsruhe, Germany.

First Author: Iyengar, P. K.
All Authors: Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: review, neutron, tritium, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

Experiments were initiated at Trombay during the first week of April 1989 to verify the widely reported claims of the occurrence of cold fusion. A large burst of ≈ 2 × 10^7 neutrons was first detected on April 21st with a Pd-Ni electrolytic cell. The neutron counting rate, averaged over a 5 minute interval, was a couple of orders of magnitude larger than that of background count rates. In this experiment the tritium level in the D2O electrolyte jumped from the initial stock solution value of 2.6 Bq/ml to a 5.6 × 10^4 Bq/ml, an increase by over four orders of magnitude. The total quantity of tritium generated corresponds to ≈ 10^16 atoms suggesting a neutron to tritium channel branching ratio of less than 10^-8 in cold fusion. Significant quantities of neutrons and tritium were also observed to be produced in gas loaded Ti and Pd samples. Autoradiography of D2 loaded Ti disc targets have shown a number of hot spots indicating uneven distribution of tritium production in the near-surface region. On the whole the Trombay experiments have unequivocally confirmed the occurrence of cold fusion reactions both in Pd and Ti metallic lattices loaded with deuterium.

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1743. Iyengar, P.K., Preface and Summary, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay.

First Author: Iyengar, P. K.
All Authors: Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: Review

The Preface and Summary of the book BARC Studies in Cold Fusion.

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1744. Iyengar, P.K. and M. Srinivasan, BARC studies in cold fusion. 1989, Government of India, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay.

First Author: Iyengar, P. K.
All Authors: Iyengar, P. K., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: review, Pd, Ti, D2O, D2, heat+, neutron, tritium

1745. Iyengar, P.K. and M. Srinivasan. Overview of BARC Studies in Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Iyengar, P. K.
All Authors: Iyengar, P. K., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

ABSTRACT A wide variety of experiments have been carried out by twelve independent teams employing both electrolytic and gas phase loading of deuterium in Pd and Ti metals to investigate the phenomenon of cold fusion first reported by Fleischmann and Pons in March 1989. The experiments were primarily devoted to the study of the emission of nuclear particles such as neutrons and tritium with a view to verify the “nuclear origin” of cold fusion. In 22 different electrolytic experiments whose cathode surface areas ranged from 0.1 to 300 cm^2, large bursts of neutrons and/or tritium were measured. Some of these gave clear evidence that these two nuclear particles were being generated simultaneously. The neutron-to-tritium yield ratios in the majority of these experiments was in the range of 10^-6 to 10^-9. The specific neutron and tritium yields expressed per cm^2 of cathode surface area also fitted into a systematic pattern. A unique feature of the BARC electrolysis results is that the first bursts of neutrons and tritium occurred (in 8 out of 11 cells) on the very first day of commencement of electrolysis, when hardly a few amp-hrs of charge had been passed.

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1746. Iyengar, P.K., et al., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre studies on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 32.

First Author: Iyengar, P. K.
All Authors: Iyengar, P. K., Srinivasan, M., Sikka, S. K., Shyam, A., Chitra, V., Kulkarni, L. V., Rout, R. K., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Sadhukhan, H. K., Nagvenkar, V. B., Nayar, M. G., Mitra, S. K., Raghunathan, P., Degwekar, S. B., Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Arunachalam, J., Raju, V. S., Kalyanaraman, R., Gangadharan, S., Venkateswaran, G., Moorthy, P. N., Venkateswarlu, K. S., Yuvaraju, B., Kishore, K., Guha, S. N., Panajkar, M. S., Rao, K. A., Raj, P., Suryanarayana, P., Sathyamoorthy, A., Datta, T., Bose, H., Prabhu, L. H., Sankaranarayanan, S., Shetiya, R. S., Veeraraghavan, N., Murthy, T. S., Sen, B. K., Joshi, P. V., Sharma, K. G. B., Joseph, T. B., Iyengar, T. S., Shrikhande, V. K., Mittal, K. C., Misra, S. C., Lal, M., Rao, P. S.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, D2O, D2, tritium, Pd, neutron, x-ray, radioactivity

1747. Izumida, T., et al., A search for neutron emission from cold nuclear fusion in a titanium-deuterium system. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 641.

First Author: Izumida, T.
All Authors: Izumida, T., Ozawa, Y., Ozawa, K., Izumi, S., Uchida, S., Miyamoto, T., Yamashita, H., Miyadera, H.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, fractofusion

1748. Izuyama, T., Anomalous susceptibility due to paramagnetic impurities. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1964. 133: p. 851.

First Author: Izuyama, T.
All Authors: Izuyama, T.
Keywords: susceptibility

1749. Jabon, V.D.D., G.V. Fedorovich, and N.V. Samsonenko, Catalitically induced d-d fusion in ferroelectrics. Braz. J. Phys., 1997. 27: p. 515.

First Author: Jabon, V. D. D.
All Authors: Jabon, V. D. D., Fedorovich, G. V., Samsonenko, N. V.
Keywords: fractofusion, theory, LiTaO3, (BaSr)Nb2O6, D2, neutron

1750. Jackson, J.C., Cold fusion results still unexplained. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 345 (1-Jun).

First Author: Jackson, J. C.
All Authors: Jackson, J. C.
Keywords: theory, neutron

1751. Jaeger, F.G. A Model for Commercialization Utilizing Patents. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Jaeger, F. G.
All Authors: Jaeger, F. G.
Keywords: Commercialization

The bigg est impediment to commercial development today is lack of widespread demonstration devices and firm scientific understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for variously reported cold fusion and enhanced energy effects. With scientific understanding, the possibility of commercial amplification and replication could rapidly occur, which would quickly spawn a wide variety of initial commercial products.

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1752. Jaendel, M., Cold fusion in a confining phase of quantum electrodynamics. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 493.

First Author: Jaendel, M.
All Authors: Jaendel, M.
Keywords: Theory, QED

1753. Jaendel, M., The fusion rate in the transmission resonance model. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 176.

First Author: Jaendel, M.
All Authors: Jaendel, M.
Keywords: Theory, critique, resonance

1754. Jaksch, D., et al., Cold Bosonic in Optical Lattices. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1998. 81: p. 3108.

First Author: Jaksch, D.
All Authors: Jaksch, D., Bruder, C., Cirac, J. I., Gardiner, C. W., Zoller, P.
Keywords: boson, theory

1755. Jamieson, H.C., G.C. Weathrely, and F.D. Manchester, The b-a Phase Transformation in Palladium-Hydrogen Alloys. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 56: p. 85.

First Author: Jamieson, H. C.
All Authors: Jamieson, H. C., Weathrely, G. C., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Phase Diagram, Excess Volume, Lattice Parameter

1756. Jaminon, M., La fusion froide [in French]. Bull. Soc. Roy. Sci. Liege, 2002. 70(3): p. 119.

First Author: Jaminon, M.
All Authors: Jaminon, M.
Keywords: Review, no FPH/Jones refs

1757. Jandel, M. and J. Sahrling. Pressure Enhanced Fusion Rates in Lattice Channels. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: S. E. Jones, Brigham Young Univ.

First Author: Jandel, M.
All Authors: Jandel, M., Sahrling, J.
Keywords: theory, pressure

1758. Jandel, M., Cold Fusion in a Confining Phase of Quantum Electrodynamics. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 493.

First Author: Jandel, M.
All Authors: Jandel, M.
Keywords: theory, electrodynamics, gamma phase

1759. Jandel, M., The Fusion Rate in the Transmission Resonance Model. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 176.

First Author: Jandel, M.
All Authors: Jandel, M.
Keywords: theory, resonance

1760. Jarmie, N. and N.E. Brown, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions with Hydrogen Isotopes. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1985. B10/11: p. 405.

First Author: Jarmie, N.
All Authors: Jarmie, N., Brown, N. E.
Keywords: branching ratio

1761. Jaworski, W., Computation of the Electron Density of States in Non-Stoichiometric PdHx by the Recursion Method. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1987. 17: p. 373.

First Author: Jaworski, W
All Authors: Jaworski, W
Keywords: PdH, Density Of States

1762. Jayaraman, K.S., Cold fusion hot again. Nature India, 2008.

First Author: Jayaraman, K. S.
All Authors: Jayaraman, K. S.
Keywords:

The Indian government, which abandoned cold fusion research 16 years ago, is now being advised by its top scientists to revive it.The recommendation stems from a meeting of a galaxy of leading nuclear physicists, metallurgists and electrochemists at the National Institute of Advanced Studies held in Bangalore on January 9. . . .

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1763. Jensen, L.C. and K.S. Mortensen, Beyond fusion, annihilation reactions of confined hydrogen. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 417.

First Author: Jensen, L. C.
All Authors: Jensen, L. C., Mortensen, K. S.
Keywords: Theory, antineutron

1764. Jiang, X.L., N. Xu, and L.J. Han. Point-Effect and Non-equilibrium Conditions in Electrolysis Experiments. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L., Xu, N., Han, L. J.
Keywords: theory

1765. Jiang, S., G. Yang, and S. Wang, Coulomb screening effect of deuterium-ion in metal – numerical solution of nonlinear Poisson equation. Lanzhou Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban [J. Lanzhou Univ. (Nat. Sci), 1993. 29(2): p. 70 (In Chinese).

First Author: Jiang, S.
All Authors: Jiang, S., Yang, G., Wang, S.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1766. Jiang, X. and L. Han, Non-equilibrium conditions of electrolysis and abnormal nuclear phenomena. Nucl. Phys. Rev. (China), 1997. 14: p. 111 (in Chinese).

First Author: Jiang, X.
All Authors: Jiang, X., Han, L
Keywords: Theory

1767. Jiang, X.L., et al. Tip Effect and Nuclear-Active Sites. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L., Chen, C. Y, Fu, D. F, Han, L. J., Kang, W.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, layer, neutron, x-ray, heat+, surface analysis, ICCF-7

1768. Jiang, X.L., L.J. Han, and W. Kang. Anomalous Element Production Induced by Carbon Arcing Under Water. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L., Han, L. J., Kang, W.
Keywords: transmutation, arc, H2O, carbon, ICCF-7

1769. Jiang, X.L., Channeling Effects and Nuclear Reactions in Electrochemical Systems. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(2/3): p. 84.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L.
Keywords: theory,

1770. Jiang, X.L. and L.J. Han, Dynamic Casimir Effect in an Electrochemical Systems. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 47.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L., Han, L. J.
Keywords: Casimir, theory

1771. Jiang, X.L., X.-W. Wen, and L.J. Han. Torsion field effect and axion model in electrical discharge systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Jiang, X. L.
All Authors: Jiang, X. L., Wen, X.-W., Han, L. J.
Keywords: ICCF-9, CR-39, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, theory,

1772. Jiang, X., et al. Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena Assocoated with Ultrafast Processes. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Jiang, X.
All Authors: Jiang, X., Zhou, X., Liu, C., Wang, L., Zhang, Z.
Keywords: theory

Quantum physics predicts the existence of an underlying sea of zero-point energy at every point in the universe. If the zero-point energy is real, there is the possibility that it can be tapped as a source of power or be harnessed to generate a propulsive force for space travel.In our previous papers, anomalous excess heat and localized nuclear reactions on the surface of electrodes in electrolysis cells have been observed. A physical model of transient vortex dynamics with torsion coherence with the zero point energy has been proposed by Xingliu Jiang based on the ultrafast processes of triple phases area of tip effect on the electrode surface. Considering the large equivalent capacitance of electrochemical double layer, it is presumed that the double layer can exhibit nonlinear electrical response with spatial and temporal variations confined to microscopic areas by tip effect.Experimental results of transient processes with ultrafast phenomena with nanosecond duration in electrical discharge systems including electrolysis cells have been presented.

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1773. Jiang, S., et al. Observation of 3He and 3H in the volcanic crater lakes: possible evidence for natural nuclear fusion in deep Earth. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Jiang, S.
All Authors: Jiang, S., He, M., Yue, W., Qi, B., Liu, J.
Keywords:

Mantle helium and other volatiles may be released to volcanic crater lakes. This paper presents the observation of 3H and mantle helium in the crater Lakes Nemrut (Turkey), Laacher (Germany) and Pavin (France). The presence of excess 3H in the lakes can be explained as material released from mantle sources because of the correlation of excess 3H with mantle 3He and 4He. The helium concentration was much higher in the bottom layers of the lakes. The 4He and 3He concentrations in Lakes Nemrut, Laacher, and Pavin were determined to be 25 and 190; 10 and 50; and 70 and 500 times larger than the atmospheric saturation value, respectively. The isotopic ratio of the excess helium, 3Heex/4Heex, in Lakes Nemrut, Laacher and Pavin was (1.032Ѱ.006)×10^-5, (7.42Ѱ.03)×10^-6 and (9.09Ѱ.01)×10^6 respectively. The ratios clearly indicate that large amounts of helium isotopes are released to the lakes from a mantle source. The excess 3H at the bottom of Lakes Nemrut, Laacher and Pavin is estimated to be 3.7ѱ.4 TU, ~1.4 TU and ~4 TU respectively. Detection of tritium in the Earth’s interior is key evidence for natural nuclear fusion in the Earth.

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1774. Jiang, S. New results of charged particle released from deuterium-loaded metal at low temperature. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Jiang, S.
All Authors: Jiang, S.
Keywords: Charged particle

We have suggested that the mantle 3He and 3H might have originated from natural nuclear fusion (d-d and d-p reaction, or other reactions) in deep Earth. Encouraged by this new idea, we tried to recreate nuclear fusion at low temperature in the laboratory. This paper describes charged particles emitted from the deuterium-loaded titanium foil and powder at low temperature. Although the counts are very low (about 0.13 counts/h), fortunately, broad and narrow peaks are observed for the deuterium-loaded titanium foil and TiD-Mo sample respectively. The charged particle is identified as proton having energy of about 2.8 MeV after exiting the sample. We suggest that the proton might originate from d‑d reaction in the samples. Then the d-d reaction rate is calculated to be 1.4 × 10^-24 fusion/d-d·sec for the deuterium-loaded titanium foil sample. On the other hand, no charged particles were observed above the background level for deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample. Therefore, this work provides a positive result of nuclear fusion for the metal foil samples, but a negative result for the powder samples. The negative result of the deuterium-loaded titanium powder sample suggests that the reaction yield might be correlated with deuterium density, or it may be correlated with microscopic variations in the deuterium-loaded titanium materials. The negative result also indicates that d-d reaction catalyzed by μ-meson from cosmic ray can be excluded in this experiment. The present work may be helpful to the further study on the physical mechanism of nuclear fusion in deuterium (hydrogen)-loaded metals and also helpful to the study of origin of 3He in the deep Earth.

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1775. Jiang, X., Y. Zhang, and Z. Zhang. Nuclear Transmutation in Non- equilibrium Systems by Ultra-closed Range Casimir Effect. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Jiang, X.
All Authors: Jiang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, Z.
Keywords:

Quantum physics predicts the existence of an underlying sea of zero-point energy at every point in the universe. The breakthrough of seeing, understanding and devising a converter of the energy available in quantum oscillation might be the opening point of an energy filled 21st century for humanity.It is well known that phenomena of electrical discharge always bring on transient energy concentration temporally and spatially. Highly localized nuclear activation in electrochemical systems and other electrical discharge processes had been observed at many laboratories in the world. Based on the theory of vortex dynamics, the strange phenomena of “cold fusion”, such as the excess heat, anomalous nuclear transmutation and so forth, are considered to be interpretable by torsion coherence with the zero-point energy induced by localized intense field emission of micro-protrusion of the cathode, and the dynamic Casimir effect of transient evolution of triple region of gas, liquid solution, and electrode protrusion. . . .

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1776. Jiang, S.-S., et al., Anomalous Neutron Burst Emissions in Deuterium-Loaded Metals: Nuclear Reaction at Normal Temperature. Chin. Phys. Lett., 2012. 29(11).

First Author: Jiang, S.-S.
All Authors: Jiang, S.-S., Xu, X.-M., Zhu, L., Gu, S.-G., Ruan, X., He, M., Qui, B.
Keywords: neutron

1777. Jiang, S., et al., Neutron burst emissions from uranium deuteride and deuterium-loaded titanium. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Jiang, S.
All Authors: Jiang, S., Xu, X., Zhu, L., Gu, S., Ruan, X., He, M., Qui, B., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: neutron

This paper reports a new result of anomalous neutron emission, or called cascade neutron bust emission, from deuterium-loaded titanium and uranium deuterium samples at room temperature. The number of neutron in the large bursts was measured up to 2800 in less than 64-µs interval. After accidental artifact noise and cosmic-ray source are ruled out, we suggest that the anomalous cascade neutron bursts are correlated with deuterium-loaded metals and probably is the result of nuclear reaction occurring in the samples.

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1778. Jianyu, H., et al. Experimental Study on Anomalous Neutron Production in Deuterium/Solid System. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Jianyu, H.
All Authors: Jianyu, H., Rongbao, Z., Xiaozhong, W., Feng, L., Longjun, L., Hengjun, L., Jincai, J., Baosheng, T., Guoan, C., Yuan, Y., Baiting, D., Liucheng, Y., Shengzhong, Q., Guoan, Y., Hua, G., Dazhao, D., Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, D neutron

1779. Jin, S., et al., The possibilities of cold nuclear fusion of deuterium. Chin. Phys. Lett., 1990. 7: p. 28.

First Author: Jin, S.
All Authors: Jin, S., Ding, Y., Liu, Y., Wu, B., Yao, D.
Keywords: Theory, plasma

1780. Jin, S., et al., Anomalous nuclear effects in palladium-deuterium systems during the gas discharge process. Gaojishu Tongxun, 1991. 1(5): p. 25 (In Chinese).

First Author: Jin, S.
All Authors: Jin, S., Zhang, F., Yao, D., Wang, Q., Wu, B., Feng, Y., Chen, M.
Keywords: Ion bombardment, D2, particle emission, CR-39, PdD

1781. Jin, S., et al. Anomalous Nuclear Events in Deuterium Palladium Systems. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Jin, S.
All Authors: Jin, S., Zhang, F., Yao, D., Wu, B.
Keywords: Pd, particle emission, D2, deloading, CR-39, gas diacharge, ICCF-2

1782. Jin, S.X., et al., The possibilities of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Science in China A, 1991. 34: p. 697.

First Author: Jin, S. X.
All Authors: Jin, S. X., Ding, Y. B., Wu, B. L., Liu, Y. Z., Yao, D. C.
Keywords: theory

1783. Jin, S., F. Zhan, and Y. Liu. Deuterium Absorbability and Anomalous Nuclear Effect of YBCO High Temperature Superconductor. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Jin, S.
All Authors: Jin, S., Zhan, F., Liu, Y.
Keywords: YBCO, superconductor, D, particle emission, ICCF-4

1784. Jin, S.X., et al., Deuterium absorbability and anomalous nuclear effect of YBCO high temperature superconductors. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1994. 39(2): p. 101.

First Author: Jin, S. X.
All Authors: Jin, S. X., Zhang, F. X., Liu, Y. Z., Shi, W. Q., Ou, W., Liu, S. X., Liu, X. J.
Keywords: superconductor, CR-39, D2, particle emission, YBa2Cu3O7

1785. Jin, S.X. and H. Fox, Possible palladium-related nuclear reactions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 192.

First Author: Jin, S. X.
All Authors: Jin, S. X., Fox, H.
Keywords: transmutation, theory, Pd

1786. Jin, S.X. and H. Fox, Characteristics of High-Density Charge Clusters: A Theoretical Model. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 192.

First Author: Jin, S. X.
All Authors: Jin, S. X., Fox, H.
Keywords: theory,, charge cluster

1787. Johnson, K.H. and D.P. Clougherty, Hydrogen-hydrogen/deuterium-deuterium bonding in palladium and the superconducting/electrochemical properties of PdHx/PdDx. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 795.

First Author: Johnson, K. H.
All Authors: Johnson, K. H., Clougherty, D. P.
Keywords: Theory, Jahn-Teller

1788. Johnson, K.H. Jahn-Teller Symmetry Breaking and Hydrogen Energy in g-PdD “Cold Fusion” as Storage of Latent Heat of Water. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Johnson, K. H.
All Authors: Johnson, K. H.
Keywords: theory

1789. Johnson, K.H., Jahn-Teller Symmetry Breaking and Hydrogen Energy in g-PdD “Cold Fusion”. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 427.

First Author: Johnson, K. H.
All Authors: Johnson, K. H.
Keywords: theory, Jahn-Teller

1790. Johnson, R. and M.E. Melich. Weight of Evidence for the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Johnson, R.
All Authors: Johnson, R., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: review

D. Cravens and D. Letts have analyzed a portion (167 papers) of the published literature reporting on D2O electrolysis experiments such as Fleischmann and Pons’s (FP). They identify four criteria for what constitutes a “proper” FP experiment and state that experiments that satisfy all four criteria are likely to succeed in producing excess heat, while those that do not are likely to fail. This paper presents results of using a Bayesian network for probabilistic analysis of this claim. Consideration of a small subset of the papers (eight) is sufficient to give a likelihood ratio of about 10 to 1 in favor, and this number appears to grow generally rapidly, though not monotonically, as more papers are added to the set.

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1791. Johnson, R. and M.E. Melich, Weight of Evidence for the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 225-240.

First Author: Johnson, R.
All Authors: Johnson, R., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: Bayesian networks, Cold fusion, Fleischmann-Pons effect,Weight of evidence

Cravens and Letts [1] have analyzed a portion (167 papers) of the published literature reporting on D2O electrolysis experiments such as Fleischmann and Pons’s (FP). They identify four criteria for what constitutes a “prope-ݠFP experiment and state that experiments that satisfy all four criteria are likely to succeed in producing excess heat, while those that do not are likely to fail. This paper presents results of using a Bayesian network for probabilistic analysis of this claim. Consideration of a small subset of the papers (12) is sufficient to give a likelihood ratio of about 28 to 1 in favor, and this number appears to grow generally rapidly, though not monotonically, as more papers are added to the set.

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1792. Joncich, M.J. and N. Hackerman, The Reaction of Hydrogen and Oxygen on Submerged Platinum Electrode Catalysts. I. Effect of Stirring, Temperarture and Electric Polarization. J. Phys. Chem., 1953. 57: p. 674.

First Author: Joncich, M. J.
All Authors: Joncich, M. J., Hackerman, N.
Keywords: H2, O2, recombination, Pt

1793. Jones, S.E., Muon-Catalysed Fusion Revisited. Nature (London), 1986. 321: p. 327.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E.
Keywords: muon, theory

1794. Jones, S., Bibliography. 1989.

First Author: Jones, S.
All Authors: Jones, S.
Keywords: neutron review

1795. Jones, S.E. Anomalous Neutron Emission in Metal- Deuterium Systems. in Riken Conference on Muon-Catalyzed and Cold Fusion. 1989. Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2O

1796. Jones, S.E., et al., Observation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 737.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P., Czirr, J. B., Decker, D. L., Jensen, G. L., Thorne, J. M., Taylor, S. F., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O

1797. Jones, S.E., et al. Preliminary Results from the BYU Charged-Particle Spectrometer. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Bartlett, T. K., Buehler, D. B., Czirr, J. B., Jensen, G. L., Wang, J. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2, particle emission, method

1798. Jones, S.E., et al. In Quest of a Trigger Mechanism for Neutron Emissions from Deuterium/Solid Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Bennion, D., Buehler, D. B., Czirr, J. B., Decker, D. L., Harb, J., Hunter, R., Jensen, G. L., Palmer, E. P., Pitt, W. G., Taylor, S. F., Thorne, J. M., Tolley, D., Wang, C., Menlove, H. O., Paciotti, M. A., Jeschovnig, P., Wolf, K. L., Cecil, E., Totsuka, Y., Anderson, D. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron

1799. Jones, S.E., et al., Anomalous nuclear reactions in condensed matter: recent results and open questions. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 199.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Palmer, E. P., Czirr, J. B., Decker, D. L., Jensen, G. L., Thorne, J. M., Taylor, S. F., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: review, critique, neutron

1800. Jones, S.E., D.L. Decker, and H.D. Tolley, (No title) (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 703.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Decker, D. L., Tolley, H. D.
Keywords: critique, Jones

1801. Jones, S.E., Nuclear reactions in deuterated solids versus excess heat claims. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 915.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E.
Keywords: review

1802. Jones, S.E., Current issues in cold fusion research: heat, helium, tritium, and energetic particles. Surf. Coatings Technol., 1992. 51: p. 283.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E.
Keywords: theory, review, critique

1803. Jones, S.E., et al. Search for Neutron, Gamma, and X-ray Emissions from Pd/LiOD Electrolytic Cells: A Null Result. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Jones, D., Shelden, D., Taylor, S. F.
Keywords: Pd D2O, neutron, gamma emission, electrolysis ICCF-4

1804. Jones, S.E., et al., Search for Neutron, Gamma, and X-Ray Emissions From Pd/LiOD Electrolytic Cells: A Null Result. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 143.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Jones, D., Shelton, D. S., Taylor, S. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, x-ray, electrolysis, negative

1805. Jones, J.E., et al., Faradaic efficiencies less than 100% during electrolysis of water can account for reports of excess heat in ‘cold fusion’ cells. J. Phys. Chem., 1995. 99: p. 6973.

First Author: Jones, J. E.
All Authors: Jones, J. E., Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Shelton, D. S., Thorne, J. M.
Keywords: recombination, critique

1806. Jones, S.E. and L.D. Hansen, Examination of claims of Miles et al in Pons-Fleischmann-Type cold fusion experiments. J. Phys. Chem., 1995. 99: p. 6966.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Hansen, L. D.
Keywords: critique, Miles heat He

1807. Jones, S.E., L.D. Hansen, and D.S. Shelton, An assessment of claims of excess heat in cold fusion calorimetry. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3647.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Hansen, L. D., Shelton, D. S.
Keywords: critique, Miles heat 4He

1808. Jones, S.E., Chasing anomalous signals: the cold fusion question. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 55.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E.
Keywords: neutron

What should a scientist do with an anomalous experimental result (one which flies in the face of prevailing theories), which is statistically significant (at the five sigma + level), yet which cannot be repeated at will?  This is the problem which plagued us early on in our non-plasma or “cold” fusion experiments which began in spring 1986 at Brigham Young University, 2.5 years before we heard of the ostensibly-related work of Drs. Pons and Fleischmann.  It is a question which haunts us still. I invite the reader to seriously consider the question posed above: what would you do with such data?  If you walk away from an anomalous result, you could miss something important.  Indeed, is it scientifically honest to ignore such data?  One can argue that scientific instruments often show “glitches,” and this is probably just one of these . . .

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1809. Jones, S.E. and J. Ellsworth. Geo-fusion and Cold Nucleosynthesis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Ellsworth, J.
Keywords: geology

BBBBBBBBBB In our 1986 and 1989 papers, we discussed the hypothesis of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter and particularly in the planets. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on geo-fusion research, then to consider an important extension of the cold-fusion idea: “cold nucleosynthesis” in condensed matter.  Cold nucleosynthesis experiments are underway at Brigham Young University.

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1810. Jones, S.E., et al. Neutron Emissions from Metal Deuterides. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Keeney, F., Johnson, A., Buehler, D. B., Cecil, F. E., Hubler, G. K., Hagelstein, P. L., Ellsworth, J., Scott, M.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2

Abstract           We present evidence for neutrons emanating from partially-deuterided titanium foils (TiDx) subjected to non-equilibrium conditions.1 A previous paper presented data for complementary charged-particle emissions.   Metal processing and establishing non-equilibrium conditions appear to be important keys to achieving significant nuclear-particle yields and repeatability.

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1811. Jones, S.E., et al. Charged-particle Emissions from Metal Deuterides. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Jones, S. E.
All Authors: Jones, S. E., Keeney, F., Johnson, A., Buehler, D. B., Cecil, F. E., Hubler, G. K., Hagelstein, P. L., Ellsworth, J., Scott, M.
Keywords: charged particle, titanium

Abstract           We present evidence for energetic charged particles emanating from partially-deuterided titanium foils (TiDx) subjected to non-equilibrium conditions. To scrutinize emerging evidence for low-temperature nuclear reactions, we investigated particle yields employing three independent types of highly-sensitive, segmented particle detectors over a six-year period.  One experiment measuring neutron emission from TiDx foils showed a background-subtracted yield of 57 Ѡ13 counts per hour.  (The neutron experiments will be discussed in a separate paper.)  A second experiment, using a photo-multiplier tube with plastic and glass scintillators and TiDx registered charged particle emissions at 2,171 Ѡ93 counts/hour, over 400 times the background rate.   Moreover, these particles were identified as protons having 2.6 MeV after ex-iting the TiDx foil array.  In a third experiment, coincident charged particles consistent with protons and tritons were observed with high reproducibility in two energy-dispersive ion-implanted detectors located on either side of 25-micron thick Ti foils loaded with deuterium.  Our overall data therefore strongly sug-gest low-level nuclear fusion in deuterided metals under these conditions according to the fusion reactions d + d ? n(2.45 MeV) + 3He(0.82 MeV)  and  d + d ? p(3.02 MeV) + t(1.01 MeV), with other nuclear reactions being possible also.  Important advances were particle identifications, and repeatability exceed-ing 70% for coincident charged particle emissions. Metal processing and establishing non-equilibrium conditions appear to be important keys to achieving significant nuclear-particle yields and repeatability.

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1812. Jones, R.L., Unconventional Science (PowerPoint slides). 2005, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Ministry of Defence.

First Author: Jones, R. L.
All Authors: Jones, R. L.
Keywords: review,

1813. Jordan, K.C., B.C. Blanke, and W.A. Dudley, Half-Life of Tritium. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 1967. 29: p. 2129.

First Author: Jordan, K. C.
All Authors: Jordan, K. C., Blanke, B. C., Dudley, W. A.
Keywords: tritium, half-life

1814. Jorgensen, C.K. Chemistry of Unsaturated Quarks. in Molecular Structures and Energetics. 1989. VCH Publishers, NY.

First Author: Jorgensen, C. K.
All Authors: Jorgensen, C. K.
Keywords: quarks, theory

1815. Jorgensen, C.K., Scenarios for nuclear fusion in palladium-deuterium alloys at ambient temperatures. Chimia, 1989. 43: p. 142.

First Author: Jorgensen, C. K.
All Authors: Jorgensen, C. K.
Keywords: theory

1816. Jorne, J. Stress-Induced Uphill Diffusion of Deuterium in Palladium. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York1.

First Author: Jorne, J
All Authors: Jorne, J
Keywords: Pd, D, diffusion, stress, theory

1817. Jorne, J., Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium: the existence of negatively charged deuteride ions. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 519.

First Author: Jorne, J.
All Authors: Jorne, J.
Keywords: Theory, D-, lithium PdD structure

1818. Jorne, J., Unsteady diffusion reaction of electrochemically produced deuterium in palladium rod. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1990. 137: p. 369.

First Author: Jorne, J.
All Authors: Jorne, J.
Keywords: Theory, loading, diffusion, PdD

1819. Jorne, J., Neutron and gamma-ray emission from palladium deuteride under supercritical conditions. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 371.

First Author: Jorne, J.
All Authors: Jorne, J.
Keywords: Pd D2, nonequilibrium, neutron gamma emission

1820. Jorne, J., Neutron emission studies during the electrolysis of deuterium by using BaCeO3 solid electrolyte and palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 244.

First Author: Jorne, J.
All Authors: Jorne, J.
Keywords: Solid electrolyte, D2, BaCeO3, proton conductor neutron

1821. Jorne, J., Ultrasonic irradiation of deuterium-loaded palladium particles suspended in heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 83.

First Author: Jorne, J.
All Authors: Jorne, J.
Keywords: ultrasonic, Pd, neutron, D2, accustic

1822. Josephs, H.C., Nuclear Processes in Palladium Deuteride. 1998.

First Author: Josephs, H. C.
All Authors: Josephs, H. C.
Keywords: theory

1823. Josephson, B. Pathological Disbelief. in Nobel Laureates meeting. 2004. Lindau.

First Author: Josephson, B.
All Authors: Josephson, B.
Keywords: critique

The ‘generally accepted view’ regarding a phenomenon can be wrong in two ways:(a) a non-existent phenomenon is considered real (e.g. N-rays, polywater); or(b) a real phenomenon is considered nonexistent (e.g. continental drift, meteorites)Langmui-ڳ much-quoted lecture on Pathological Science dealt with case (a); the interest here is in case (b). What makes the scientific establishment, in some cases, vehemently deny phenomena for which there is strong evidence?

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1824. Josephson, B. Good and Bad Ways to do Science (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Josephson, B.
All Authors: Josephson, B.
Keywords: Review,

1825. Josephson, B. Abstract for “Pathological Disbelief”. in Nobel Laureates meeting. 2004. Lindau.

First Author: Josephson, B.
All Authors: Josephson, B.
Keywords: critique

This document comes from the web site for the lecture series Meetings of Nobel Laureates in Lindau. See: xxxx://www.lindau-nobel.de/content/view/19/32/This introduces Josephson’s talk delivered in 2004. The PowerPoint slides from that presentation are listed below.

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1826. Jow, T.R., et al., Calorimetric studies of deuterated Pd electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1990. 137(8): p. 2473.

First Author: Jow, T. R.
All Authors: Jow, T. R., Plichta, E., Walker, C., Slane, S., Gilman, S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat-, D2O, H2O

1827. Joyce, C., Unlucky Break for the Friends of Cold Fusion. New Scientist, 1989: p. 34.

First Author: Joyce, C.
All Authors: Joyce, C.
Keywords: history

1828. Julin, P. and L.A. Bursill, Dendritic surface morphology of palladium hydride produced by electrolytic deposition. J. Solid State Chem., 1991. 93: p. 403.

First Author: Julin, P.
All Authors: Julin, P., Bursill, L. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, H2O, TEM, surface, dendrite, particle

1829. Jung, P., Fundamental Aspects of Inert Gasses in Solids Diffusion and Clustering of Helium in Noble Metals, ed. S.E. Donnelly and J.H. Evans. 1991: Plenum Press, NYJung, P. 59.

First Author: Jung, P.
All Authors: Jung, P.
Keywords: 4He, diffusion, Au, Ag, Cu

1830. Kainthla, R.C., et al., Eight chemical explanations of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1989. 14(11): p. 771.

First Author: Kainthla, R. C.
All Authors: Kainthla, R. C., Szklarczyk, M., Kaba, L., Lin, G. H., Velev, O. A., Packham, N. J. C., Wass, J. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: theory, chemical, critique

1831. Kainthla, R.C., et al., Sporadic observation of the Fleischmann-Pons heat effect. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1315.

First Author: Kainthla, R. C.
All Authors: Kainthla, R. C., Velev, O. A., Kaba, L., Lin, G. H., Packham, N. J. C., Szklarczyk, M., Wass, J. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, Pd, heat+, current density

An examination has been made of the heat production at ten palladium electrodes, each prepared in a different way. Seven of these produced heat during D2 evolution in a D2 -O2 electrolysis cell (no recombination attempted) which coincided precisely with the prediction of classical electrochemical theory, and thus eliminated the suspicion of heat through unintended D2 -O2 recombination. Three electrodes clearly produced an excess heat of ~2-5 watts-cm^-3. The heat was observed for periods of 10-33 hrs. In one electrode the excess heat production “shut off” (after 33 hrs) with no apparent cause: it did not return in five days of further electrolysis.

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1832. Kalff, P.J., O. Reifenschweiler, and G. van de Ligt, Enkele Experimenten Aan Metaal-Zuurstof-Tritiumsystemen. 1961, Philips Corporation.

First Author: Kalff, P. J.
All Authors: Kalff, P. J., Reifenschweiler, O., van de Ligt, G.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:xxxx://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:9ce8ae9a-8ff7-4c94-9e6b-e67841c4e9ab/tn2014-00267.pdfThis paper is in Dutch. It includes a Summary in English:The investigations by van de Vate, Reifenschweiler and van de Ligt into the temperature-resistant properties of finely dispersed metal-tritium systems have been supplemented by experiments on titanium-oxygen-tritium systems, mainly intended for the purposes of orientation. In these experiments both the tritium and the oxygen pressure were varied and the influence of these variations on the composition of the temperature-resistant residue was ascertained. A further experiment was carried out with neodynium powder.

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1833. Kaliev, K., et al. Reproducible Nuclear Reactions during Interaction of Deuterium with Oxide Tungsten Bronze. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kaliev, K.
All Authors: Kaliev, K., Baraboshkin, A. N., Samgin, A. L., Golikov, E., Shalyapin, A., Andreev, V. S., Golubnichii, P. I.
Keywords: neutron+, NaWO3, tungsten bronze, D2, ICCF-3

The possibility of essential increase of rate of carring out nuclear reactions with participance of deuterium in solids representing solid electrolytes with cation-electronic conductivity has been shown in the paper. It is found out that strict maintenance of experiment parameters leads to completely qualitatively reproduced results: generation of neutrons and heat at introduction of deuterium into the system.

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1834. Kaliev, K., et al. The Initiation of Reproductive Nuclear Reactions in the Structures of the Oxide Tungsten Bronze. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Kaliev, K.
All Authors: Kaliev, K., Sverdlov, N., Istomin, Y., Golikov, E., Butrimov, V., Babaeva, D., Vasnin, G., Fyoferov, V.
Keywords: KWO3, D20, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-4

1835. Kaliev, K.A., et al., Reproducible nuclear reactions during interaction of deuterium with oxide tungsten bronze. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 172: p. 199.

First Author: Kaliev, K. A.
All Authors: Kaliev, K. A., Baraboshkin, A. N., Samgin, A. L., Golikov, E., Shalyapin, A., Andreev, V. S., Golubnichii, P. I.
Keywords: ion bombardment, neutron, NaWO3

1836. Kaliev, K.A., et al., Reproducible nuclear reactions by interaction of deuterium with tungsten oxide bronze. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1993. 330(2): p. 214 (in Russian).

First Author: Kaliev, K. A.
All Authors: Kaliev, K. A., Baraboshkin, A. N., Samgin, A. L., Golikov, E., Shalyapin, A., Andreev, V. S., Golubnichii, P. I.
Keywords: tungsten bronze, ion bombardment, neutron, D2

1837. Kalinin, V.B., On the question of the possibility of cold nuclear fusion at the point of ferroelectric phase transition in K2DPO4. Neorg. Mater., 1993. 29(5): p. 656 (in Russian).

First Author: Kalinin, V. B.
All Authors: Kalinin, V. B.
Keywords: review, theory, ferroelectrics

1838. Kalinin, V.B., Dipole ordering, ionic conductivity, and cold nuclear fusion: three types of cation mobility in the orthophosphates KTiOPO4, Na3M2(PO4)3 (M = Sc, Fe, Cr), NaTh2(PO4)3, KD2PO4, and related compounds. Inorg. Mater., 1995. 31: p. 558.

First Author: Kalinin, V. B.
All Authors: Kalinin, V. B.
Keywords: theory, proton conductor fractofusion ferroelectric

1839. Kalman, P. and T. Keszthelyi, Cooperative Internal Conversion Process. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 129-141.

First Author: Kalman, P.
All Authors: Kalman, P., Keszthelyi, T.
Keywords: Internal conversion and extranuclear effects, Other topics of nuclear reactions: specific reactions, Other topics in nuclear engineering and nuclear power studies, Radioactive wastes, Waste disposal

This paper presents a theoretical discussion of a new phenomenon, called the `cooperative internal conversion process’, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron (or proton) transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction, which permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron (or proton) exchange if that is allowed by energy conservation. General expressions of the cross section of the processes are reported in the case of one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well as in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. As numerical examples, the cooperative internal conversion process by neutron exchange in Ne and by proton exchange in Al are dealt with. The processes may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production. As a generalization, cooperative internal conversion process by heavy charged particle exchange is discussed, and as an example of it, the cooperative internal conversion process by triton exchange is also discussed.

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1840. Kalman, P. and T. Keszthelyi, Recoil Assisted Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25.

First Author: Kalman, P.
All Authors: Kalman, P., Keszthelyi, T.
Keywords: Fusion and fusion–fission reactions, 2H-induced nuclear reactions, Nucleon induced reactions

Low energy nuclear processes, which are strongly hindered by Coulomb repulsion between the reacting nuclei, are investigated in solid environment. It is shown that this hindering effect may be essentially weakened (it practically disappears) if one takes into account the Coulomb interaction of one of the reacting particles with the surroundings. It is obtained that if the modification of the wave function due to Coulomb interaction with charged constituents of the environment is taken into account applying standard perturbation calculation of quantum mechanics then waves of high momentum with small amplitude are mixed to the initial wave of small momentum. This may be interpreted as the slow, quasi-free heavy particle of positive charge pushes a heavy particle of the environment and they can obtain (virtually) such a great magnitude of momentum (of opposite direction) in the intermediate state in that the probability of nuclear reaction with another positively charged, slow, heavy particle significantly increases. This magnitude of (virtual) momentum is determined by energy and momentum conservation between initial and final states. The mechanism (called recoil assistance) opens the door to a great variety of nuclear processes that are now thought to have negligible rate at low energies. The recoil assisted nuclear $pd$ reaction is investigated like a sample reaction numerically. A partial overview of low energy nuclear reactions allowed by recoil assistance and leading to nuclear transmutations is presented. A critical analysis of Fleischmann-Pons type low energy nuclear reaction experiments is also presented.

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1841. Kamada, K. Electron Impact H-H and D-D Fusions in Molecules Embedded in Al. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K.
Keywords: particle emission D, H2, Al, CR-39, electron bombardment ICCF-3, helium

Both H-H and D-D fusion reactions, detected via high energy particle emission on CR-39, are shown to occur when 200 and 400 keV electrons are bombarded onto H+ or D+ ion implanted Al thin crystals. Roughly 1-2×103 particle emissions, including both hydrogen and helium isotopes, in whole space were observed in each case. Collisions between recoilled D atoms due to the high energy electron impact give only 10-12 to 10-26 times smaller fusion rates than the experimental results. The present observations suggest the presence of a new kind of fusion reaction which occurs with negligible kinetic energy of the reacting nuclei.

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1842. Kamada, K., Electron impact H-H and D-D fusions in molecules embedded in Al. 1. Experimental results. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1992. 31(9): p. L1287.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K.
Keywords: Al, ion bombardment, D2, H2, CR-39, particle emission

This paper is similar to the ICCF3 paper from the same author: Kamada, K. Electron Impact H-H and D-D Fusions in Molecules Embedded in Al. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan, which can be found here:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/IkegamiHthirdintera.pdf#page=289This library has only the abstract and DOI of the paper. The full paper can be downloaded from the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics.Here is the Abstract:Both H-H and D-D fusion reactions, detected via high energy particle emission on CR-39, are shown to occur when 200 and 400 keV electrons are bombarded onto H+ or D+ ion implanted Al thin crystals. Roughly 1-2×103 particle emissions, including both hydrogen and helium isotopes, in whole space were observed in each case. Collisions between recoilled D atoms due to the high energy electron impact give only 10-12 to 10-26 times smaller fusion rates than the experimental results. The present observations suggest the presence of a new kind of fusion reaction which occurs with negligible kinetic energy of the reacting nuclei.

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1843. Kamada, K., H. Kinoshita, and H. Takahashi. Anomalous Heat Evolution of Deuteron Implanted Al on Electron Bombardment. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K., Kinoshita, H., Takahashi, H.
Keywords: Al, D2, ion implantation, heat+, electron bombardment, ICCF-5

Anomalous heat evolution was observed in deuteron imp lanted Al fol ls on 175 keV electron bombardment. Local regions with linear dimension of several 100 nm showed simultaneous transformation from single crystalline to polycrystalline structure instantaneously on the electron bombardment, indicating the temperature rise up to more than melting point of Al from room temperature. The amount of energy evolved was more than 180 MeV for each transformed region . The transformation was never observed in proton implanted Al foi ls. The heat evolution was presumed to be due to a nuclear reaction in D2 molecular collections.

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1844. Kamada, K., H. Kinoshita, and H. Takahashi, Anomalous heat evolution of deuterium-implanted Al upon electron bombardment. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1996. 35: p. 738.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K., Kinoshita, H., Takahashi, H.
Keywords: Al, ion bombardment, heat+, TEM, D2, H2

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Anomalous heat evolution was observed for the first time in deuteron-implanted Al foils upon 175 keV electron bombardment. Local regions with linear dimension of more than 100 nm showed simultaneous transformation from single-crystalline to polycrystalline structure within roughly one minute during the electron bombardment, indicating a temperature rise to above the melting point of Al from room temperature. The amount of energy evolved was estimated to be typically 160 MeV for each transformed region. The transformation was never observed in proton-implanted Al foils. Microstructures in the subsurface layer of the implanted Al, investigated by elastic recoil detection (ERD) method and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were presented for numerical discussions of the experimental results. . . .

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1845. Kamada, K., et al. Anomalous Heat Evolution of Deuteron Implanted Al upon Electron Bombardment IV. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K., Katano, Y., Ookubo, N., Yoshizawa, I.
Keywords: ion implanation, Al, electron bombardment, heat+, ICCF-8

1846. Kamada, K., Heating of deuteron implanted Al on electron bombardment and its possible relation to ‘cold fusion’ experiment. Fusion Eng. Des., 2001. 55: p. 541.

First Author: Kamada, K.
All Authors: Kamada, K.
Keywords: ion implanation, Al heat

1847. Kamimura, H., et al. Excess Heat in Fuel Cell Type Cells from Pure Pd Cathodes Annealed at High Temperatures. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kamimura, H.
All Authors: Kamimura, H., Senjuh, T., Miyashita, S., Asami, N.
Keywords: heat+, loading, electrolysis, Pd, D2O D/Pd, ICCF-6

1848. Kamiya, N., et al. Effect of cold work of palladium on electrolytic hydrogen absorption. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kamiya, N.
All Authors: Kamiya, N., Sakai, Y., Watanabe, Y., Yamazaki, O., Motohira, N., Ota, K., Mori, K.
Keywords: Pd, cold work, loading, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-6

1849. Kamm, G.N., et al., Search for neutrons from a titanium-deuterium system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 401.

First Author: Kamm, G. N.
All Authors: Kamm, G. N., Ehrlich, A. C., Gillespie, D. J., Powers, W J.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron

1850. Kandasmy, K., F.A. Lewis, and S.G. McKee, Hydrogen Chemical Potentials and Phase Transitions in Palladium Black Electrodeposits. Surf. Coatings Technol., 1998. 35: p. 93.

First Author: Kandasmy, K.
All Authors: Kandasmy, K., Lewis, F. A., McKee, S. G.
Keywords: Palladium Black, pressure

1851. Kaneko, K., Jouon kakuyuugou – gensyou no kaimei wa doko made susunda ka?, in Nikkei Ecology. 2008. p. 57.

First Author: Kaneko, K.
All Authors: Kaneko, K.
Keywords: Review,

1852. Kaneko, K., “Cold Fusion” in U.S. patent, successful replication, re-evaluation is accelerating (translation), in Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2016.

First Author: Kaneko, K.
All Authors: Kaneko, K.
Keywords: excess heat, review, conference

A description of the research projects at Tohoku U and Kobe U.

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1853. Kapali, V., et al., Comparison of electrochemical behaviour of the Pd-NaOD and Pd-NaOH systems”. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 264: p. 95.

First Author: Kapali, V.
All Authors: Kapali, V., Ganesan, M., Kulandainathan, M. A., Mideen, A. S., Sarangapani, K. B., Balaramachandran, V., Iyer, S. V., Muthuramalingam, B.
Keywords: electrolyusis, Pd, diffusion, cluster, D2O, H2O, loading, OCV, surface

1854. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova. Cold Fusion Observation at Gas-Discharge Device Cathode. in Anniversary Specialist Conf. on Nucl. Power Eng. in Space. 1990. Obninsk, Russia.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, Pd, heat+, neutron

1855. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Nuclear reactions at the cathode in a gas discharge. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1990. 16(6): p. 463.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, Pd, neutron, heat+

1856. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, The investigation of deuterium nuclei fusion at glow discharge cathode. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 924.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: ion bombardment D2, heat+ neutron gamma emission radioactivity

1857. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova. Possible Nuclear Reactions Mechanisms at Glow Discharge in Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Pd, Gas discharge, ion implantation, transmutation, D2, ICCF-3

Experimental results of impurity concentration measurements in palladium cathode by different methods before and after glow discharge in deuterium experiments are presented. Some very strange elements which we could not find in discharge environment can be seen. An attempt to understand this situation on the basis of fission and fusion in Pd-d system is presented.

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1858. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Nuclear product ratio for glow discharge in deuterium. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 170: p. 265.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Pd neutron, heat+, Helium, gamma emission particle emission, x-ray

New results for glow discharge in deuterium calorimetry are presented. In separate experiments a heat output five times exceeding the input electric power was observed. The result for the charged particle spectrum measurement is presented. Charged particles with energies up to 18 MeV and an average energy of 2-4 MeV were seen. Beams of gamma-rays with energies of about 200 keV and a characteristic X-ray radiation were registered. The summed energy of the registered products is three orders short of the values needed to explain the calorimetric results.

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1859. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova, Impurities in Cathode Material and Possible Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms in Glow Discharge. 1994.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, fusion, fission, Pd

1860. Karabut, A.B., S.A. Kolomeychenko, and I.B. Savvatimova. High Energy Phenomena in Glow Discharge Experiments. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kolomeychenko, S. A., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: gas discharge D2, Pd, Zr, Mo, Nb gamma emission neutron, ion bombardment, particle emission ICCF-5

The experimental results of the nuclear product registration are presented in this paper. In our previous experiments with glow discharge in deuterium excess heat release, neutrons, gamma and charged particle emission have been observed. New data on emission of radiation (neutrons, gamma and x-ray’s, heavy charged particles, fast electrons) and an electric processes near the cathode provide clear understanding of the specific nuclear processes involved into the reported observations. A possible mechanism for the initiation of these reactions is suggested.

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1861. Karabut, A.B., Y. Kucherov, and I.B. Savvatimova. Excess Heat Measurements in Glow Discharge Using Flow “Calorimeter-2”. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kucherov, Y., Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: gas discharge heat+, D2 Pd, gamma emission particle emission, radiation, surface analysis, ion bombardment ICCF-5

Experimental facts and results of heat and electric power measurements (including nuclear products) are presented.

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1862. Karabut, A.B., A.G. Lipson, and A.S. Roussetski. Correct Measurement of DD-Reaction Yield and X-ray in a High-Current Deuterium Glow Discharge Operating at 0.85-1.20 kV Voltage Applied. 2000.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords:

1863. Karabut, A.B. Analysis of Experimental Results on Excess Heat Power Production, Impurity Nuclides Yield in the Cathode Material and Penetrating Radiation in Experiments with High-Current Glow Discharge. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, D2, ion bombardment, gamma emission, transmutation, x-ray ICCF-8

AbstractSo far a considerable collection of results on Excess Heat registration, the cathode material impurity nuclides yield (with changed natural isotopes ratio) and generation of high-energy penetrating radiation (fast electrons, X-ray and gamma emissions) has been accumulated in experiments with high-current Glow Discharge.Analysis of these results allows one to assess possible basic processes going on in the cathode material exposed to high-current Glow Discharge (GD).

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1864. Karabut, A.B. Excess heat power, nuclear products and X-ray emission in relation to the high current glow discharge experimental parameters. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: ICCF-9, gas discharge, transmutation, heat, X-ray

Experimental results on Excess Heat power production (up to 10-15 W), stable impurity elements yield (13C, 40Ca, 44Ca, 48Ti, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd, up to 1013 atoms/sec), heavily charged particles emission (3 MeV protons and 14 MeV a-particles up to 10-15 sec  -1) and soft X-ray (up to 100 Roentgen/sec) obtained upon the glow discharge cathode in relation to the high-current glow discharge operating parameters (the discharge current up to 100 mA and voltage up to 2000 V) are reported. A possible mechanism of initiating non-equilibrium nuclear reactions producing excess heat power and impurity elements yield is discussed. The mechanism of initiating non-equilibrium nuclear reactions is supposed to be connected with forming the long term excited LM levels of the electronic shells (energy of 0.5-3.0keV) of the solid body ions when bombarding the cathode sample surface by the plasma ions of the glow discharge.

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1865. Karabut, A.B. X-ray emission in the high-current glow discharge experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: ICCF-9, gas discharge, D2, X-ray, laser

ABSTRACT X-ray emission with energy of 1.5 – 2 keV and intensity up to 100 R\sec was registered in the experiments with the high-current glow discharge in deuterium and hydrogen for cathodes made of Pd and other metals. The presence of two x-ray components: diffusion x-ray emission and x-ray emission in the form of laser beams were established by experiments. The laser x-ray emission was registered some msec later after turning off the current. The continuous mode of generating a laser x-ray beam with the diameter of 9mm and power of up to 10 W at the efficiency coefficient of electrical discharge power conversion into the x-ray laser emission up to 20% was obtained in some experiments.

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1866. Karabut, A.B. Experimental Research Into Secondary Penetrating Radiation When Interacting X-Ray Beams Of Solid Laser With Various Materials Targets. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow discharge, x-rays

We report the results of experiments on secondary penetrating radiation produced when primary x-ray beams from a solid-state cathode interact with targets made of various materials. The experiments were carried out in a high-current glow discharge device1 with various gases (H2, D2, Kr, Xe) and metal cathode samples (made of Al, Sc, Ti, Ni, Nb, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ta, W, or Pt). The targets are shields made of various foil materials (Al, Ti, Ni, Zr, Yb, Ta, and W) with a thickness of 10-30 μm. The target samples were mounted at a distance of 21cm, and 70 cm, from the cathode. A scintillation detector using a photomultiplier was used to record the secondary radiation. In these experiments, recording of the radiation time history was carried out just before, and after, the discharge current pulses (with no discharge current). It was shown that the secondary radiation consisted of fast electrons.

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1867. Karabut, A.B. Production Of Excess Heat, Impurity Elements And Unnatural Isotopic Ratios Formed At Excited Long-Lived Atomic Levels With Energy Of More Than 1 keV In A Solid Cathode Medium During High-Current Glow Discharge. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow discharge

ABSTRACT Results recorded for excess heat power in experiments with a high-current glow discharge in D2 , Xe and Kr, when using preliminary deuterated Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. The excess heat power up to 10-15W and efficiency up to 150 % was recorded for the experiments with Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. The excess heat power up to 5W and efficiency up to 150 % was recorded for the preliminary deuterated Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time the excess heat power was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe, Kr discharges.Production of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, 115In) at a rate of up to 10^13 atoms/s was recorded. . . .

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1868. Karabut, A.B. and S.A. Kolomeychenko. Experiments Charactorizing the X-ray Emission from a Solid-state Cathode using a High-current Glow Discharge. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Kolomeychenko, S. A.
Keywords: glow discharge, x-rays

X-ray emission (with intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s) was recorded in research on a possible mechanism of initiating nuclear transmutation reactions in a solid-state cathode medium in glow discharge experiments. The experiments were carried using a glow discharge1 with deuterium and hydrogen (at pressures up to 10Torr), and using various cathode metals (Al, Sc, Ti, Ni, Nb, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ta, W, Pt and Pb). The x-rays were recorded using thermoluminescent detectors, x-ray film, and scintillation detectors with photomultipliers. Two different modes of the emission were observed during these experiments:(1) Diffusion x-rays were observed as separate x-ray bursts (up to 10^5 bursts a second and up to 10^6 x-ray quanta in a burst) with an average x-rays energy (from measurements using thermoluminescent detectors) in the range of 1.3-1.8keV.(2) X-rays as laser microbeams (up to 10^4 beams a second and up to 10^9 x-ray quanta in a burst). The emission of the x-ray laser beams occurred during the discharge, and within 100ms after turning off the discharge current. The results obtained constitute a direct experimental proof for the existence of excited metastable energy levels with energies in the range 1.2-5.0keV, within the solid-state cathode sample.

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1869. Karabut, A.B. Excess Heat Production In Pd/D During Periodic Pulse Discharge Current Of Various Conditions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow diacharge, transmutation

Experimental data from low energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2 , Xe and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10 – 15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 atoms/s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides was quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2 , Ar, Xe and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2 – 2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered..

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1870. Karabut, A.B. Research Into Characteristics Of X-Ray Emission Laser Beams From Solid-State Cathode Medium Of High-Current Glow Discharge. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow discharge, x-rays

X-ray emissions ranging 1.2 – 3.0 keV with dose rate up to 1.0 Gy/s have been registered in experiments with high-current Glow Discharge. The emissions energy and intensity depend on the cathode material; the kind of plasma-forming gas; and the discharge parameters. The experiments were carried out on the high-current glow discharge device using D2 , H2, Kr and Xe at pressure up to 10 Torr, as well as cathode samples made from Al, Sc, Ti, Ni, Nb, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ta, W, Pt, at current up to 500 mA and discharge voltage of 500-2500 V. Two emission modes were revealed under the experiments: 1. Diffusion X-rays was observed as separate X-ray bursts (up to 5×10^5 bursts a second and up to 10^6 X-ray quanta in a burst); 2. X-rays in the form of laser microbeams (up to 10^4 beams a second and up to 1010 X-ray of quanta in a beam, angular divergence was up to 10^-4, the duration of the separate laser beams must be τ =3·10^-13 – 3·10^-14 s, the separate beam power must be 10^7 – 10^8 W). The emission of the X-ray laser beams occurred when the discharge occurred and within 100 ms after turning off the current. The results of experimental research into the characteristics of secondary penetrating radiation occurring when interacting primary X-ray beams from a solid-state cathode medium with targets made of various materials are reported. . . .

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1871. Karabut, A.B. Research Into Low Energy Nuclear Reactions In Cathode Sample Solid With Production Of Excess Heat, Stable And Radioactive Impurity Nuclides. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow discharge, excess heat

Results on measurements of excess heat power, impurity nuclides yield, gamma and X-ray emission in experiments with high-current glow discharge (GD) in D2 , Xe and Kr are presented. The cathode samples used in the experiments were made of Pd, V, Nb, Ta. In experiments with Pd cathode samples in D2 GD, the recorded excess heat power amounted to 10 – 15 W and the estimated efficiency (the output thermal power in relation to the input electric power) was up to 130%. Excess heat power up to 5 W, and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for deuterium precharged Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. Production of impurity nuclides with atomic masses less than and more than that of the cathode material was registered. Considerable deviation from the natural isotopic ratio was observed for the registered elemental impurities. X-ray emission was measured in H2, D2 , Ar, Xe and Kr GD during the GD operation and after the GD current switch off (up to several hours afterwards) with the help of thermo-luminescent detectors (TLD), X-ray film and scintillator detectors with photomultipliers. The recorded energetic spectra of X-ray emission range 0.5 – 10 keV. Weak gamma-emission (up to 1,000 events per second) was registered in certain experimental conditions. The X-ray spectra include both (bands of) the continuum and multiple lines with energies ranging 0.1 – 3.0 MeV. The possible mechanism for production of the excess heat power, elemental impurities, gamma and X-ray emission is also considered.

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1872. Karabut, A.B. Study Of Energetic And Temporal Characteristics Of X-Ray Emission From Solid-State Cathode Medium Of High-Current Glow Discharge. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow discharge, x-rays

Experimental results on X-ray emission characteristics from the cathode material in the high-current Glow Discharge (GD) are presented. The X-ray emission ranging 0.6 – 6.0 keV and more with the dose rate up to 0.01 J/s has been registered. Two emission modes were obtained in the experiments: (1) diffusion X-rays were observed as separate X-ray bursts (up to 5 × 10^5 bursts a second and up to 10^6 X-ray quanta in a burst); (2) X-rays in the form of laser micro-beams were registered (up to 10^4 beams per second and up to 10^10 X-ray of quanta in a beam, angular divergence being up to 10^-4, the duration of separate laser beam about τ=3 × 10^-13 – 3 × 10^-14 s, the estimated separate beam power of 10^7 – 10^8 W). The emission of the X-ray laser beams occurred during the GD operation, and, after the GD current switch off.

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1873. Karabut, A.B. Experimental Research on 0.5 — 10 keV High-Energy Process Resulting from H2 and D2 Ions Flux Interaction with Cathode Solid in Electric Discharge. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow diacharge

X-ray emission ranging 0.5 – 10.0 keV with the dose power rate up to 0.01 J/s emanating from the cathode solid in the high-current Glow Discharge has been registered in earlier experiments. The X-rays were recorded during the Glow Discharge operation and after the Glow Discharge current switch off. Presumably the observed X-ray emission proceeds as a result of relaxation of excited energetic levels in the cathode solid medium. These excited levels are formed during the exposure of the cathode sample solid surface to the effect of the ions flux produced by plasma or electrolyte medium. The energetic and temporal characteristics of the X-ray emission have been studied with reference to the cathode material used, the kind of plasma-forming gas and the Glow Discharge operational parameters. . . .

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1874. Karabut, A.B. Scientific Research Project: Experimental Research And Development Of Heat Power Supply Prototype Based On High-Energy Processes In Solid Medium Interacting With Hydrogen Ions Flux. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: glow diacharge

Scientific investigation in the field of New Hydrogen Power Engineering aimed at finding new effective ways of energy production has been carried out for years by researchers of several countries. The concept of this investigation is based on phenomenon of interaction between deuterium and hydrogen ions, on one hand, and the solid medium (of Pd, Ti and other materials), on the other hand. The said interaction was studied in experiments with electrolysis, electric gas discharge and gas diffusion. At present a huge collection of stable 100%-reproduced results on Excess Heat power production has been accumulated. In most experiments the correlation of the relative output Excess Heat power to the input (electric) power does not exceed 10-20%. This scientific approach is now well recognized by the leading groups of researchers and scientific associations (such as the American Physical Society, the American Nuclear Society, the Los Alamos US National Laboratory, the US Livermore Lawrence National Laboratory and others.) despite the lack of widely familiar theoretical instrument for the description of the physical phenomena in question.

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1875. Karabut, A.B. and E.A. Karabut. Electric and Heat Measurements in High Voltage Electric Discharge System Experiments. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A.
Keywords: glow discharge,

1876. Karabut, A.B. and E.A. Karabut. Research into Energy Spectra of X-ray Emission from Solid Cathode Medium During High Current Glow Discharge Operation and after the Glow Discharge Current Switch Off. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A.
Keywords: glow discharge,

1877. Karabut, A.B. and E.A. Karabut, Experimental results on Excess Heat Power, Impurity Nuclides and X-ray Production in Experiments with a High-Voltage Electric Discharge System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 199-216.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A.
Keywords: Excess heat power, Glow discharge device, High voltage electrolysis cell, Long-range (resonant) nuclear reactions,, Transmutation, X-ray emission

We review results on low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) processes in a high-voltage (1000-4000 V) electric discharge system. The experimental results are divided into three sets: excess heat measurements; yield of impurity nuclides (nuclear ash); x-ray measurements. Up to 8Wof excess power was observed, with a power gain of up to 170% was seen in glow discharge experiments. Up to 300 W of excess power, with a power gain up to 340% was observed in experiments using a high-voltage electrolysis cell. The impurity nuclide yield showing a shift of up to a few per cent from natural isotopic abundances was detected by spark mass spectrometry, by secondary ionic mass spectrometry, and by secondary neutral mass spectrometry. X-ray emission in the range of 0.6-6.0 keV, and up to 0.1 W/cm2 has been observed. Based on these experimental results we propose a phenomenological model for LENR based on the interaction of an electric discharge with condensed matter (of the cathode).

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1878. Karabut, A.B., E.A. Karabut, and P.L. Hagelstein, Spectral and Temporal Characteristics of X-ray Emission from Metal Electrodes in a High-current Glow Discharge. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 217-240.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Collimated X-ray, Diffuse X-ray emission, Excited phonon mode, Glow discharge device, X-ray spectra

We have observed X-ray emission from metal cathodes in high-current (up to 500 mA) glow discharge experiments in the spectral range from 600 eV to 6 keV. The effect has been seen with a variety of different metal cathodes (including Al, Sc, Ti, V, Ni, Nb, Zr, Mo, Pd, Ta, W, and Pt), as well as with different gasses (including D2, H2, Kr, Ar, and Xe) at low pressure (10 torr). We have observed both diffuse and collimated X-ray emission. Diffuse emission occurs in bursts of X-rays; with up to 105 bursts per second, with up to 106 photons per burst. Collimated X-ray emission appears in the form of beamlets directed normal to the cathodes surface with a very small angular divergence; with up to 104 bursts per second, and up to 1013 photons overall. Switching off the glow discharge current produces substantial X-ray bursts in these experiments; and we see some bursts during the discharge, and up to 20 h after switch off. We present results from a variety of diagnostics, including: pinhole camera imaging; thermo-luminescent detector measurements; time-resolved scintillator measurements; and a curved mica spectrometer to register X-ray spectra. The spectra of the collimated X-rays shows a strong broad emission feature that is centered near 1.5 keV in many experiments. Line emission is sometimes observed in addition along with the broad feature.

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1879. Karabut, A.B. and E.A. Karabut, Experimental Results on Excess Power, Impurity Nuclides, and X-ray Production in Experiments with a High-voltage Electric Discharge System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A.
Keywords: Electrolysis, Excess heat, Impurity nuclides

We review results on low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) processes in a high-voltage (1000-4000 V) electric discharge system. The experimental results are divided into three sets: excess heat measurements; yield of impurity nuclides (nuclear ash); X-ray measurements. Up to 8Wof excess power was observed, with a power gain of up to 170% was seen in glow discharge experiments. Up to 300 W of excess power, with a power gain up to 340% was observed in experiments using a high voltage electrolysis cell. The impurity nuclide yield showing a shift of up to a few per cent from natural isotopic abundances was detected by spark mass spectrometry, by secondary ionic mass spectrometry, and by secondary neutral mass spectrometry. X-ray emission in the range of 0.6-6.0 keV, and up to 0.1 W/cm2 has been observed. Based on these experimental results we propose a phenomenological model for LENR based on the interaction of an electric discharge with condensed matter (of the cathode).

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1880. Karabut, A.B. and E.A. Karabut, Research into Excited 0.6-6.0 keV Energy Levels in the Cathode Solid Medium of Glow Discharge by X-ray Spectra Emission. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Karabut, A. B.
All Authors: Karabut, A. B., Karabut, E. A.
Keywords: Cathode, Glow discharge, X-ray spectra

The results of X-ray spectra registration are presented. The X-ray spectra were registered in film using a curved mica crystal X-ray spectrometer. The experiments were carried out using a high-current glow discharge device, which consisted of a water-cooling chamber, water-cooling cathode and anode units. X-ray emission was detected through a diagnostic window placed above the cathode. The discharge was performed in H2, D2, Ar, Kr and Xe at pressure ranging from 1 to 5 Torr, using cathode samples made of Al, Sc, V, Ti, Ni, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ta, and W. Current ranged from 50 up to 300 mA and discharge voltage was 1500-4300 V. A pulse-periodical power supply was used to generate the glow discharge. The X-ray spectrum were registered both as bands of the continuum with energies ranging 0.6-10.0 keV and as spots resulting from the emission of series of high-density monoenergetic X-ray beams (with energies of 0.6-10.0 keV) characterized by small angular divergence. The X-ray spectra were repeatedly recorded during the Glow Discharge operation and after the Glow Discharge current switch off (for up to 20 h afterwards). The obtained results were direct experimental evidence of excited long living energy levels with the energy of 0.6-6.0 keV in the solid cathode sample.

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1881. Karasevskii, A.I., D.V. Matyushov, and A. Gorodyskii, Possibility of the nuclear reaction between deuterium nuclei in electron shells of metal ions. Ukr. Khim. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1989. 55: p. 1036 (In Russian).

First Author: Karasevskii, A. I.
All Authors: Karasevskii, A. I., Matyushov, D. V., Gorodyskii, A. .
Keywords: Theory, screening

1882. Karpov, S.Y., et al., On the possibility of a mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(5): p. 91 (in Russian).

First Author: Karpov, S. Yu.
All Authors: Karpov, S. Yu., Koval’chuk, Yu. V., Myachin, V. E., Pogorel’skii, Yu. V.
Keywords: theory, chemical reaction, D2O, H2O, neutron

1883. Kasagi, J., et al. Observation of High Energy Protons Emitted in the TiDx+D Reaction at Ed=150 keV and Anomalous Concentration of 3He. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Ishii, K., Hiraga, M., Yoshihara, K.
Keywords: Helium, ion Bombardment Ti, D2, ion implantation,, Particle emission ICCF-3 tritium

Energetic protons were observed up to ~ 17.5 MeV i n the bombardment of 150-keV deuteron on highly deuterated Ti rods. It has been shown that these protons are originated from the D +3He reaction. The observed spectrum can be explained very well by the sequential reaction process, except for the three cases which requireanomalous concentration of 3H e in TiDx . The concentration, which is severely limited at some particular places i n TiDx and seldom occurs , is considered to occur before the bombardment.

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1884. Kasagi, J., Low Energy D+D Reactions in Metal. Genshikaku Kenkyu, 1995. 40(5): p. 37.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J.
Keywords: ion beam

D+D reactions in various metals were investigated for the deuteron bombardment with bombarding energies at around 150 keV and below 15 keV. Energetic protons and α-particles which can never be attained in the D+D reaction were observed in bombardments with higher energy deuterons. In order to explain the spectra, reaction processes in which three deuterons are involved are considered; sequential reaction and simultaneous three-body reaction. The sequential reaction can well explain the observed bump structure, and the three-body reaction can reproduce the continuum spectral shape of protons and α-particles, although an anomalously large enhancement factor is required. For the lower energy bombardment, thick target yields for the D+D reactions in Ti were measured down to 4.7 keV. They were well explained with the astrophysical S-factors deduced from gas target measurements. This indicates that the effect of the environment is not so much different for the deuterons in Ti and in gas phase.

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1885. Kasagi, J., et al., Measurements of the D + D Reaction in Ti Metal with Incident Energies between 4.7 and 18 keV. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1995. 64: p. 608-612.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Murakami, T., Yajima, T., Kobayashi, S., Ogawa, M.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section

The D+D reactions in Ti metal were investigated for the deuteron incident energies between 4.7 and 18 keV. Observed were protons, tritons and 3He particles emitted in the deuteron bombardment on TiDx. Thick target yields for the D(d, p)T and D(d, n)3He reactions were measured at bombarding energies down to 4.7 and 5.4 keV, respectively, for the first time. They were well explained with the reported astrophysical S-factors which were deduced from gas target measurements at Ed > 6 keV for the D(d, p)T reaction and Ed> 13.3 keV for the D(d, n)3He reaction. The cross section ratio σ(d, p)/σ(d, n) was obtained down to 6.4 keV, and was found to be constant at around 1.0 for Ed<20 keV.

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1886. Kasagi, J., et al. Anomalously Enhanced D(d,p)T Reaction in Pd and PdO Observed at Very Low Bombarding Energies. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Yuki, H., Itoh, T., Kasajima, N., Ohtsuki, T., Lipson, A. G.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section, ICCF-7

Abstract Yields of protons emitted in the D + D reaction in Pd and PdO thick targets were measured for bombarding energies between 2.5 and 10 keV. The obtained yields were compared with those predicted by using the parameterization of cross sections at higher energies. It was found that both of the yields for Pd and PdO are surprisingly larger than the prediction. The bombarding energy dependence of the yields are well described with screening potential parameters; Ue = 250 eV for Pd and 600 eV for PdO. The significance of a simple extrapolation of the observed enhancement is discussed.

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1887. Kasagi, J., et al., Energetic Protons and alpha Particles Emitted in 150-keV Deuteron Bombardment on Deuterated Ti. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1998. 64: p. 777-783.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Yuki, H., Baba, T., Noda, T., Taguchi, J., Galster, W.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section

Energetic charged particles have been measured in the bombardment of 150-keV deuterons on deuterated Ti. Protons and α particles were observed with energies up to ~17 and ~6.5 MeV, respectively, which can never be attained in the D+D reaction. A bump structure at around 14 MeV seen in the proton spectrum can be well explained as emitted in the sequential reaction involving three deuterons. However, protons and α particles distributed continuously up to the maximum energies can never be understood as products of the conceivable nuclear reactions.

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1888. Kasagi, J., et al., Strongly Enhanced DD Fusion Reaction in Metals Observed for keV D+ Bombardment. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1998. 71: p. 2881-2885.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Yuki, H., Baba, T., Noda, T., Ohtsuki, T., Lipson, A. G.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section

The excitation functions of the yield of protons emitted in the D(d,p)T reaction in Ti, Fe, Pd, PdO and Au were measured for bombarding energies between 2.5 and 10 keV. It was found that the reaction rate at lower energies varies greatly with the host materials. The most strongly enhanced DD reaction occurs in PdO. At Ed = 2.5 keV, it is enhanced by factor of fifty from the bare deuteron rate and the screening energy deduced from the excitation function amounts to 600 eV. An enhancement of this size cannot be explained by electron screening alone but suggests the existence of an additional and important mechanism of the screening in solids.

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1889. Kasagi, J., et al., Strongly Enhanced Li + D Reaction in Pd Observed in Deuteron Bombardment on PdLix with Energies between 30 and 75 keV. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1998. 73: p. 608-612.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Yuki, H., Baba, T., Noda, T., Taguchi, J., Galster, W.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section

Thick target yields of alpha particles emitted in the 6,7Li(d,alpha)4,5He reactions in PdLix and AuLix were measured as a function of the bombarding energy between 30 and 75 keV. It was found that the reaction rate in Pd at lower energies is enhanced strongly over the one predicted by the cross section for the reaction with bare nuclei, but no enhancement is observed in Au. A screening energy is introduced to reproduce the excitation function of the thick target yield for each metal. The deduced value for Pd amounts to 1500 Ѡ310 eV, whereas it is only 60 Ѡ150 eV for Au. The enhancement in the Pd case cannot be explained by electron screening alone but suggests the existence of an additional and important mechanism of screening in metal.

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1890. Kasagi, J., Medium effects: nuclear reactions in solids and nucleon resonances in nuclei. Front. Sci. Ser., 28 (Nuclear Responses and Medium Effects), 1999: p. 229-236.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J.
Keywords: ion bombardment, fusion rate, low energy cross section

1891. Kasagi, J., et al. Low Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Solids. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Yuki, H., Baba, T., Noda, T.
Keywords: theory screening, cross section, ICCF-8

The DD fusion reactions in various materials have been studied, and enhancements in the rate of the D(d,p)T fusion reaction over the Gamow function were clearly seen in the materials. Of particular interest is the fact that the reaction rate of the D+D reactions at 2.5 keV in PdO is 60 times (and in Pd 10 times) larger than in Ti, and the deduced screening energy amounts to 600 eV (300 eV). Furthermore, the subsequent study on the Li+d reactions showed large screening energy as 1.7 keV, again, in Pd metal. These cannot be explained by bound-electron screening which may give at most an energy of 20 eV for the DD reaction and of 0.3 keV for the Li+d reaction, but suggests the existence of an additional, and important, mechanism. Perhaps there is a fluidity of deuterons in metals that also reduces the Coulomb barrier between the fusing nulcei.

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1892. Kasagi, J. Screening Potential for nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J.
Keywords: theory

Screening for nuclear reactions in metal plays an important role in enhancing reaction cross sections in the ultra-low energy region. A simple extrapolation of the screening potential down to the thermal energy region from the keV beam experiment predicts the occurrence of “cold fusion” D+D reactions. In the present work, results so far obtained in low-energy beam experiments will be overviewed and the origin of the screening potential will be discussed: both electronic screening and ionic screening. For ionic screening we have studied nuclear reactions in liquid metal which can be regarded as a low-temperature dense plasma. In such a condition, the classical ions contribute to the screening more strongly than the quantum electrons do. Results on the 7Li+p and 6Li+d reactions with liquid Li target will be shown. The effects of the solid-liquid phase transition are clearly seen in these reactions. It can be concluded that the ionic Debye screening is much stronger than the electronic screening in low-temperature dense plasmas.

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1893. Kasagi, J. and Y. Iwamura. Country History of Japanese Work on Cold Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: History

We briefly summarize the history of Japanese work on cold fusion after 1989. Since the excellent work performed by Prof. Arata are introduced and discussed in the special session, we try to summarize other works in Japan. The history can be divided into three periods: the 1st period is from the announcement by Fleischmann and Pons to the ICCF3 Nagoya Conference (1989 – 1993); the 2nd period is during the New Hydrogen Energy (NHE) Project (1994 – 1998); and the 3rd after the NHE project (1999 – present). Characteristics of each period and the present situation are presented.

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1894. Kasagi, J. and Y. Honda, Screening Energy of the d+d Reaction in an Electron Plasma Deduced from Cooperative Colliding Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J., Honda, Y.
Keywords: Cooperative colliding mechanism, DD reaction in metal, Liquid metal, Low-energy deuteron beam, Screening potential

We have measured protons and tritons from the d (d,p) t reaction in liquid In, Sn, Pb and Bi during the D+3 molecular deuterium beam bombardment for 15 < E < 60 keV. Observed energy spectra and yield excitation functions are anomalous and suggest that the target deuteron is also in motion. It is found that the reaction mechanism is unique to the molecular beam in such a way that one deuteron in a molecule is elastically scattered by a host metal atom and then it collides with the other to cause the d+d reaction. We call it as the cooperative colliding mechanism (CCM). Experimental data are compared with the CCM calculation and values of the screening energy of the d+d reaction are deduced. They are 380  80, 570  80, 670  100 and 490  100 eV for In, Sn, Pb and Bi, respectively. It is concluded that the screening energy of the d+d reaction in an electron plasma in metal is really large: the averaged value of 530 eV is more than ten times larger than the simple Thomas-Fermi screening prediction.

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1895. Kasagi, J., Opening Address, ICCF20 Conference. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Kasagi, J.
All Authors: Kasagi, J.
Keywords:

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1896. Kashy, E., et al., Search for neutron emission from deuterium-loaded palladium. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(1): p. R1.

First Author: Kashy, E.
All Authors: Kashy, E., Bauer, W., Chen, Y., Galonsky, A., Gaudiello, J., Maier, M., Morrissey, D. J., Pelak, R. A., Tsang, M. B., Yurkon, J.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission

1897. Kaushik, T.C., M. Srinivasan, and A. Shyam, Fracture Phenomena in Crystalline Solids: A Brief Review in the Context of Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 5.

First Author: Kaushik, T. C.
All Authors: Kaushik, T. C., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A.
Keywords: theory,

1898. Kaushik, T.C., et al., Preliminary report on direct measurement of tritium in liquid nitrogen treated TiDx chips. Indian J. Technol., 1990. 28: p. 667.

First Author: Kaushik, T. C.
All Authors: Kaushik, T. C., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Rout, R. K., Kulkarni, L. V., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Nagvenkar, V. B.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, x-ray, tritium

1899. Kaushik, T.C., et al., Experimental investigations on neutron emission from projectile-impacted deuterated solids. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 232: p. 384.

First Author: Kaushik, T. C.
All Authors: Kaushik, T. C., Kulkarni, L. V., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiD, neutron, PdD, TiD

1900. Kawai, H., Profile of the cold nuclear fever. Kinki Daigaku Genshiryoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1990. 27: p. 19 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kawai, H.
All Authors: Kawai, H.
Keywords: Review

1901. Kawarabayashi, J., et al., Low level neutron detection system for cold-fusion. J. Facul. Eng., Univ. Tokyo B, 1992. 41: p. 595.

First Author: Kawarabayashi, J.
All Authors: Kawarabayashi, J., Takahashi, H., Iguchi, T., Nakazawa, M.
Keywords: neutron, method

1902. Kay, B.D., C.H. Peden, and D.W. Goodman, Kinetics of Hydrogen Absorption by Pd(110). Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1986. 34: p. 817.

First Author: Kay, B. D.
All Authors: Kay, B. D., Peden, C. H., Goodman, D. W.
Keywords: Pd, H2, absorption

1903. Kay, B.D., K.R. Lykke, and R.J. Buss, Problems with the mass spectrometric determination of tritium from cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 491.

First Author: Kay, B. D.
All Authors: Kay, B. D., Lykke, K. R., Buss, R. J.
Keywords: critique, tritium

1904. Kazachkovskii, O.D., A possible mechanism for cold fusion. At. Energy, 1996. 81: p. 749.

First Author: Kazachkovskii, O. D.
All Authors: Kazachkovskii, O. D.
Keywords: Theory, lattice defect

1905. Kazarinov, V.E., et al., Cathodic behaviour of palladium in electrolytic solutions containing alkali metal ions. Elektrokhimiya, 1991. 27: p. 9 (in Russian).

First Author: Kazarinov, V. E.
All Authors: Kazarinov, V. E., Astakhov, I. I., Teplitskaya, G. L., Kiseleva, I. G., Davydov, A. D., Nekrasova, N. V., Kudryavtsev, D. Yu., Zhukova, T. B.
Keywords: electrolysis, Li, surface analysis

1906. Keddam, M., Some comments on the calorimetric aspects of the electrochemical ‘cold fusion’ by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34(7): p. 995.

First Author: Keddam, M.
All Authors: Keddam, M.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

1907. Keesing, R.G., et al., Thermal, thermoelectric, and cathode poisoning effects in cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 375.

First Author: Keesing, R. G.
All Authors: Keesing, R. G., Greenhow, R. C., Cohler, M. D., McQuillan, A. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat- gamma emission, neutron, overvoltage, theory, Peltier

1908. Keesing, R.G. and A.J. Gadd, Thermoelectric heat pumping and the ‘cold fusion’ effect”. J. Phys.: Condens. Mater., 1993. 5: p. L537.

First Author: Keesing, R. G.
All Authors: Keesing, R. G., Gadd, A. J.
Keywords: theory, Peltier, critique

1909. Kendall, D.L., The Role of Imagination in Science:Two Modern Examples. 1990, Albuquerque: Keynote speech for the Twentieth Southwestern Jounior Science and Humanities Symposium, Albuquerque, 4/2/90.

First Author: Kendall, D. L.
All Authors: Kendall, D. L.
Keywords: history,

1910. Kendl, A., Zehn jahre danach: Was blieb von der ‘kalten Kernfusion’? (“Ten years after: what has become of ‘cold fusion’?”). Skeptiker, 1999. 12(1&2): p. 32 [in German].

First Author: Kendl, A.
All Authors: Kendl, A.
Keywords: review

1911. Kennel, E. and A.G. Kalandarachvili. Investigation of Deuterium Glow Discharge of the Kucherov Type. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Kennel, E.
All Authors: Kennel, E., Kalandarachvili, A. G.
Keywords: gas discharge, gamma emission, method, D2 ICCF-4

1912. Kennel, E., Proposals and biography. 1996.

First Author: Kennel, E.
All Authors: Kennel, E.
Keywords: biography, proposal

1913. Kenney, F., et al. Charged-particle Emissions from Deuterated Metals. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kenney, F.
All Authors: Kenney, F., Jones, S., Johnson, A., Hagelstein, P. L., Hubler, G. K., Buehler, D. B., Cecil, F. E., Scott, M., Ellsworth, J.
Keywords: Charged particle

We present evidence for energetic charged particles emanating from partially deuterided titanium foils (TiDx) subjected to non-equilibrium conditions. To scrutinize emerging evidence for low-temperature nuclear reactions, we investigated particle yields employing three independent types of highly-sensitive, segmented particle detectors over a six-year period. One experiment measuring neutron emission from TiDx foils showed a background-subtracted yield of 57 Ѡ13 counts per hour. (The neutron experiments are discussed in a separate paper in this proceedings.) A second experiment, using a photo-multiplier tube with plastic and glass scintillators and TiDx registered charged particle emissions at 2,171 Ѡ93 counts/hour, over 400 times the background rate. Moreover, these particles were identified as protons having 2.6 MeV after exiting the TiDx foil array. In a third experiment, coincident charged particles consistent with protons and tritons were observed with high reproducibility in two energy-dispersive ion-implanted detectors located on either side of 25-micron thick Ti foils loaded with deuterium.

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1914. Kenney, F., et al. Neutron Emissions from Deuterated Metals. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kenney, F.
All Authors: Kenney, F., Jones, S., Johnson, A., Hagelstein, P. L., Hubler, G. K., Buehler, D. B., Cecil, F. E., Scott, M., Ellsworth, J.
Keywords: neutron

Evidence is presented for neutrons emanating from partially deuterated titanium foils (TiDx) subjected to non-equilibrium conditions (charged particle results appear in a separate paper in this proceedings). Two types of deuteriding and varied currents were employed to produce the non-equilibrium conditions within the foils, and emissions lasted over long durations. Experiments were conducted in a deep underground tunnel having significant rock overburden to diminish cosmic backgrounds. Subtracting background rates and taking into account detector efficiency, we found the highest net yield to be 57 Ѡ13 counts/hour. Yields for all runs are reported and the theoretical fusion reaction defined. Totaling all experiments, reproducibility was 40%.

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1915. Kenny, J.P. and R. Schultz, “Hyper-gentle” (HGF) fusion at a few ev. 1989.

First Author: Kenny, J. P.
All Authors: Kenny, J. P., Schultz, R.
Keywords: theory

1916. Kenny, J.P., Electropionics and fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 547.

First Author: Kenny, J. P.
All Authors: Kenny, J. P.
Keywords: theory, pion

1917. Kepka, J.B. and E.W. Czaputowicz, Analysis of Some Results on Pd-H and Ni-H Systems Studied in High-Pressure-Hydrogen Conditions. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1979. 19: p. 2414.

First Author: Kepka, J. B.
All Authors: Kepka, J. B., Czaputowicz, E. W.
Keywords: Pd, H, Ni, pressure, Phase Diagram

1918. Kervran, C.L., Biological Transmutations. 1972: Swan House Publishing Co.

First Author: Kervran, C. L.
All Authors: Kervran, C. L.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, book,

1919. Kervran, C.L., Biological Transmutation. 1980: Beekman Publishers, Inc.

First Author: Kervran, C. L.
All Authors: Kervran, C. L.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, book,

1920. Kestenbaum, D., Cold Fusion-Science or Religion?, in R&D Maganzine. 1997. p. 51.

First Author: Kestenbaum, D.
All Authors: Kestenbaum, D.
Keywords: history,

1921. Khramtsov, P.P. and O.G. Martynenko, Peculiar processes of cathodic scattering by electrical discharge through the saturated heavy water – vapour interface. Inzh.-Fiz. Zh., 1996. 69(5): p. 721 [in Russian].

First Author: Khramtsov, P. P.
All Authors: Khramtsov, P. P., Martynenko, O. G.
Keywords: plasma discharge, neutron, D2O

1922. Kidwell, D. Trace Analysis of Elements in a Palladium Matrix. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kidwell, D.
All Authors: Kidwell, D.
Keywords: Surface analysis

Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a technique for trace elemental analysis and isotopic distribution determination at trace levels, but ICP-MS cannot handle directly high concentrations of ions. Dimethylglyoxime will selectively precipitate palladium from acid solutions leaving most of the impurities in solution and allowing their quantitation by ICP-MS without dilution. By avoiding dilution, the sensitivity and precision of the analysis can be increased to sub-PPM levels. A convenient method for controlled etching of palladium is also described.

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1923. Kidwell, D., et al. Does Gas Loading Produce Anomalous Heat? (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kidwell, D.
All Authors: Kidwell, D., Rogers, A., Grabowski, K. S., Knies, D.
Keywords: Excess heat

The original PowerPoint slides in this document are here:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/powerpoint/KidwellDdoesgasloa.pptThe PowerPoint slides include overlays and other features not available in Acrobat format.Simple pressurization of nanosized palladium with deuterium appears to be a simpler and more rapid method to generate anomalous heat compared to electrolytic systems. A survey of the literature indicates that palladium particles less than 2 nm in size can obtain a Pd/D loading near one at modest deuterium pressure. In hundreds of reactions, we have routinely prepared palladium nanoparticles inside an aluminosilicate matrix and have found that these systems produce up to 8 fold more heat with deuterium compared to hydrogen. Furthermore, a characteristic signature of a pressurization reaction is its reversibility — the heat released upon pressurization should be absorbed upon evacuation. This reversibility is observed with hydrogen but not deuterium. Although we are still seeking conventional explanations for this excess heat, the anomalous heat does not appear to be explained by impurities in the deuterium gas nor other simple chemical or physical sources. The selection and preparation of the particles, the experimental set-up, and results will be discussed.

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1924. Kidwell, D., et al. Yes, Virginia there is Heat, but It is Likely of Chemical Origin. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kidwell, D.
All Authors: Kidwell, D., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Dominguez, D. D.
Keywords:

Gas loading of palladium particles <2 nm in size produces anomalous amounts of heat in a reproducible manner. This heat is produced in the presence of deuterium but not in the presence of hydrogen. Control experiments have ruled out the excess heat was due to impurities in the deuterium that were absent in the hydrogen. Because the system is simple and mostly reversible, all extra heat must be of chemical or some other origin. Neither radiation nor nuclear “ash” was found to correlate with the anomalous heat. In some matrices, the likely source of the anomalous heat is D-H exchange with the water present in the matrix, where an approximate third increase of the expected energy from calculations can account for most of the excess heat. In other matrices, no simple explanation of the excess heat can be made.

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1925. Kidwell, D., M.A. Imam, and D.D. Dominguez, Fabrication, Characterization, and Evaluation of Excess Heat in Zirconium-Nickel-Palladium Alloys. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Kidwell, D.
All Authors: Kidwell, D., Imam, M. A., Dominguez, D. D.
Keywords: Excess heat, Gas loading, LENR, Melt-spinning, Nanoparticles

Prior gas loading experiments of Zirconium-Nickel-Palladium alloys have been reported to generate a greater amount of heat with deuterium than with hydrogen. What is intriguing about these experiments was the long-term heat observed. Others, using commercial materials of similar composition, have been unable to observe long-term heat. We also have been unable to observe long-term heat in the commercial materials and materials prepared at NRL. Furthermore, when tested using our gas-loading protocol of measuring both the heat during pressurization and evacuation, these alloys do not show much, if any, excess heat and the majority of the heat observed can be attributed to chemistry.

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1926. Kidwell, D., et al., Observation of radio frequency emissions from electrochemical loading experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Kidwell, D.
All Authors: Kidwell, D., Dominguez, D. D., Grabowski, K. S., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords:

1927. Kikuchi, E., et al., Effect of charging current density on release characteristics of tritium from palladium. Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1991. 59: p. 880 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kikuchi, E.
All Authors: Kikuchi, E., Nomura, K., Nogawa, N., Saito, H., Itoh, K., Niikura, H., Murabayashi, M.
Keywords: tritium, loading, diffusion

1928. Kim, Y.E., Comment on “Cluster-Impact Fusion”. 1989.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory cluster Impact

1929. Kim, Y.E., Fission-Induced Inertial Confinement Hot Fusion and Cold Fusion with Electrolysis. 1989.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

1930. Kim, Y.E., Neutron-Induced Photonuclear Chain-Reaction Process in Pd Deuteride. 1989.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

1931. Kim, Y.E., Nuclear Theory Hypotheses for Cold Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

1932. Kim, Y.E., R.A. Rice, and G.S. Chulick, The Electron Screening Effect on Fusion Cross-sections and Rates in Physical Processes. 1989.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S.
Keywords: theory

1933. Kim, Y.E., Nuclear Physics Interpretation of Cold Fusion and Optimal Designs for Gas/Solid-State Fusion Device. 1990.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

1934. Kim, Y.E., R.A. Rice, and G.S. Chulick, Cluster-Transport Impact Fusion. 1990.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S.
Keywords: theory,

1935. Kim, Y.E. Nuclear Physics Interpretation of Cold Fusion and Optimal Designs for Gas/Solid -State Device. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, method

1936. Kim, Y.E. Surface Reaction Mechanism and Lepton Screening for Cold Fusion with Electrolysis. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1, lepton

1937. Kim, Y.E. Surface-Reaction Theory of Cold and Warm Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory

1938. Kim, M.S. and M.Y. Park, Comment on room temperature nuclear fusion. Anal. Sci. & Technol., 1990. 3: p. 265 (in Korean).

First Author: Kim, M. S.
All Authors: Kim, M. S., Park, M. Y.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

1939. Kim, Y.E., New cold nuclear fusion theory and experimental tests. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 423.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory, d-t fusion

1940. Kim, Y.E., Cross section for cold deuterium-deuterium fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 507.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory, branching ratio, low energy

1941. Kim, Y.E., Neutron burst from a high-voltage discharge between palladium electrodes in D2 gas. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 680.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory, critique, Wada

1942. Kim, Y.E., Fission-induced inertial confinement hot fusion and cold fusion with electrolysis. 1991: Plenum Press.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory, surface reaction

1943. Kim, Y.E., et al., Cluster-Impact Nuclear Fusion: Shock-Wave Statistical Analysis. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1991. 5: p. 941.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Bae, Y. K., Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster Impact

1944. Kim, Y.E., et al., Theory of Cluster-Impact Fusion with Atomic and Molecular Cluster Beams. Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 5(6): p. 427.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster Impact

1945. Kim, Y.E., Time-delayed apparent excess heat generation in electrolysis fusion experiments. Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 6: p. 1053.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: heat+, D2, Pd, H2, theory, loading

1946. Kim, Y.E., et al., The effect of coulomb screening and velocity distribution on fusion cross-sections and rates in physical processes. Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 6(10): p. 929.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A.
Keywords: theory, cluster Impact

1947. Kim, Y.E., Surface reaction mechanism for deuterium-deuterium fusion with a gas/solid-state fusion device. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 558.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory, bubble

Recent highly reproducible results of tritium production by deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion from gas/solid-state fusion experiments are discussed in terms of a surface fusion mechanism. Theoretical criteria and experimental conditions for improving and optimizing D-D fusion rates in a gas/solid-state fusion device are described. It is shown that the surface fusion mechanism also provides a plausible explanation for the nonreproducibility of the results of electrolysis fusion experiments.

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1948. Kim, Y.E., R.A. Rice, and G.S. Chulik, The role of the low-energy proton-deuteron fusion cross section in physical processes. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 174.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulik, G. S.
Keywords: Theory, p-d fusion, geological

1949. Kim, Y.E., et al., Shock-wave Impact Fusion With Cluster Beams. Chem. Phys. Lett., 1991. 184: p. 465.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Chulick, G. S., Rice, R. A., Rabinowitz, M., Bae, Y. K.
Keywords: cluster Impact, theory

1950. Kim, Y.E., et al. Condensed Matter Effects for Cold and Hot Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Rice, R. A., Yoon, J. H.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

In dense plasmas, the ensemble of fusing particles has a significant exchange of kinetic and potential energies. Because of this condensed matter effect (CME), the higher Z nuclei thus have a larger reduction in fusion rates.Our proposed solution of the solar neutrino problem finds a larger reduction for 7Be(p, gamma)8 B than for p(p, e+ ve )D. Our CME predictions are consistent with neutrino detection experiments. CME have broad ranging astrophysical implications; may account for the anomalous branching ratio in cold fusion; and may be testable in laboratory beam fusion experiments with solid targets.

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1951. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev, Coulomb Barrier Transmission Resonance for Astrophysical Problems. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1993. 7: p. 1627.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory

1952. Kim, Y.E. Possible Evidence of Cold D(D,p)T Fusion from Dee’s 1934 Experiment. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow

1953. Kim, Y.E., et al. Reaction Barrier Transparency for Cold Fusion with Deuterium and Hydrogen. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. H., Zubarev, A. L., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow

1954. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev, Improved Coulomb Barrier Transmission Coefficient for Nuclear Fusion Cross Sections. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 475.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory

1955. Kim, Y.E., Possible Evidence of Cold D(D,p)T Fusion from Dee’s 1934 Experiment. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 519.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: history

BBB D(D,p)T fusion probabilities for the back-to-back proton-tritium tracks observed in Dee’s 1934 experiment are calculated using the conventional theory and found to be many orders of magnitude smaller than those inferred from Dee’s data.  Our results indicate that Dee’s data may be evidence for cold fusion, possibly due to low-energy reaction barrier transparency as recently proposed.  Therefore it is important to repeat Dee’s experiment with modern facilities.

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1956. Kim, Y.E., et al., Reaction Barrier Transparency for Cold Fusion with Deuterium and Hydrogen. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 408.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. H., Zubarev, A. L., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow

An improved parametric representation of Coulomb barrier penetration is presented. These detailed calculations are improvements upon the conventionally used Gamow tunneling coefficient. This analysis yields a reaction barrier transparency (RBT) which may have singular ramifications for cold fusion, as well as significant consequences in a wide variety of fusion settings.

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1957. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev. Uncertainities of Conventional Theories and New Improved Formulations of Low-Energy Nuclear Fusion Reactions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

vVe examine uncertainties of conventional theoretical estimates for lowenergy nuclear fusion cross-section a(E) and fusion rate (av) . Using new formulations based on the optical theorem and the radial distribution function, wederive new improved formulae for a(E) and (av) . Our results of the optical theorem formulation for a(E) indicate that a near cancellation of the Gamow factor can occur if the imaginary part of the effective nuclear interaction in the elastic scattering channel has a very weak component with a long finite interaction range. Uncertainties of conventional estimates of the electron screening effect for a(E) are also examined and a new alternative formulation is proposed. Finally, based on a solution of three-body Schrodinger equation and the optical theorem formulation, we derive a new formula for three-body fusion cross-section and rate and compare its predictions with conventional estimates and also with the recent experimental data for three-deuteron fusion reaction.

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1958. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev, Optical Theorem And Effective Finite-Range Nuclear Interaction for Low-Energy Nuclear-Fusion Reactions. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1995. 108: p. 1009.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory

1959. Kim, Y.E. and A. Zubarev. Comment on exact upper bound on barrier penetration probabilities in many-body systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory

We investigate conditions under which it is not possible to establish an exact upper bound for the barrier penetration probability of nuclei tunneling to classically forbidden small relative separation, by a value calculable in terms of the Born-Oppenheimer potential between nuclei.

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1960. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev. Optical Theorem Formulation and Nuclear Physics Mechanisms for Gamow Factor Cancellation in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory, gamow, ICCF-6

1961. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev, Gamow factor cancellation and nuclear physics mechanisms for anomalous low-energy nuclear reactions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 145.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory, Gamow

1962. Kim, Y.E. and A. Zubarev. Role of Continuum Electrons and Condensed Matter Mechanisms in Ultra Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

1963. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev. Ultra Low-Energy Nuclear Fusion of Bose Nuclei in Nano-Scale Ion Traps. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

1964. Kim, Y.E. and A.L. Zubarev, Nuclear fusion for Bose nuclei confined in ion traps. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 151.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: Theory,. boson

1965. Kim, S.-O., A.G. Lipson, and G.H. Miley. Characterization of Pd-Ni thin film by annealing method. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kim, S-O.
All Authors: Kim, S-O., Lipson, A. G., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: ICCF-9, film, method, layer, Pd-Ni

BBBBBBBBBB Thin film electrode production and characterization for heat cell studies are described. The objective is two-fold: maximizing excess heat production and insuring a long lifetime and electrolysis. To do this in a reproducible faction, a pre-and post-run analysis of the films was carried out using various probe techniques. In this study, various Pd-Ni thin films were manufactured using with a magnetron sputtering method. A variety of methods for pre-conditioning of substrates were experimented with. The samples were also treated by different annealing methods using inert gas and vacuum annealing processes. The investigations of samples were performed in an UHV system equipped with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It is shown that the vacuum annealed samples provided the best films. This suggests that vacuum annealing can pull bubbles from pores in the thin film, giving a higher density thin film that performs better. These results and their implications for electrode development will be discussed.

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1966. Kim, Y.E. Quantum Many-Body Theory and Mechanisms for Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Processes in Matter. in Fusion 03: From a Tunneling Nuclear Microscope to Nuclear Processes in Matter. 2003. Matsushita, Japan.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Pd-black

There have been a number of reports of observation of nuclear fusion events in acoustic cavitation experiments with deuterated liquid.  Some of the reported results have been interpreted as a result of achieving thermonuclear fusion temperatures (~a few keV) during acoustic bubble cavitation (ABC).  We propose an alternative theoretical model for the ABC fusion based on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism. Our theoretical model yields two main predictions.  The first prediction is that the Coulomb interaction between two charged bosons is suppressed for the case in which number N of charged bosons is large, and hence the conventional Gamow factor is absent. The second prediction is that the fusion rate depends on the probability of the BEC ground state occupation instead of the conventional Gamow factor.  This implies that the fusion rate will increase as the temperature of the system is lowered since the probability of the BEC state is larger at lower temperatures.  These predictions imply that the ABC fusion may be achievable at lower temperatures. A number of key improvement to acoustic cavitation experiments are proposed to check these predictions as well as the results of other experiments.

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1967. Kim, Y.E., et al. Experimental Test of Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reaction in Nanoscale Atomic Clusters. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Koltick, D., Pringer, R., Myers, J., Koltick, R.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Pd-black

We report preliminary results of experimental test of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism for ultra low energy nuclear fusion in nano-scale atomic clusters at pressures up to a 20,000 psi and at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Bose-Einstein condensation of integer-spin nuclei was suggested as a possible mechanism for ultra low-energy nuclear reaction in 1998.  Recently, theoretical studies of the BEC mechanism have been carried out by solving approximately many-body Schroedinger equation for a system of N identical charged integer-spin nuclei (“Bose” nuclei) confined in ion traps.  The solution is used to obtain theoretical formulae for estimating the probabilities and rates of nuclear fusion for N identical Bose nuclei confined in an ion trap or an atomic cluster.  These formulae show that the fusion rate does not depend on the Coulomb barrier penetration probability but instead depends on the probability of the ground-state occupation, which is expected to increase as the temperature decreases. To test these theoretical predictions, a series of experiments have been devised and performed.  The preliminary results of these experiments and also plans of future experiments are described.

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1968. Kim, Y.E., D. Koltick, and A. Zubarev. Quantum Many-Body Theory of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Induced by Acoustic Cavitation in Deuterated Liquid. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Koltick, D., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory

Recently, a theoretical model of Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC) mechanism has been developed to describe low-energy nuclear reaction in a quantum many-body system confined in a micro/nano scale trap. The BEC mechanism is applied to explain various anomalous results  observed recently in experiments involved with low-energy nuclear reaction processes in matter and in acoustic cavitation. Experimental tests of the BEC mechanism are also discussed. In addition to the BEC mechanism, plasma impact fusion (PIF) and particle cavitation fusion (PCF) mechanisms are also described.

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1969. Kim, Y.E., et al. Proposal for New Experimental Tests of the Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterium Loaded Micro- and Nano-Scale Cavities. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Koltick, D., Reifenberger, R., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory

Abstract             Most of experimental results of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand.  There have been persistent experimental results indicating that the LENR and transmutation processes in condensed matters (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena.  Recently proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena.             New experiments are proposed and described for testing the BEC mechanism for LENR and transmutation processses in micro-scale and nano-scale traps. (1) We propose the use of micro- or nano-porous conducting materials as a cathode in electrolysis experiments with heavy water with or without Li in order to stabilize the active surface spots and to enhance the effect for the purpose of improving the reproducibility of excess heat generation and nuclear emission.  (2) We propose new experiemental tests of the BEC mechanism by measuring the presssure and temperaure dependence of LENR events using deuterium gas and these deuterated metals with  or without Li.       If the LENRTPCM are surface phenomena, the proposed use of micro/nano scale porous materials is expected to enhance and scale up the LENRTPCM effects by many order of magnitude, and thus may lead to better reproductivity and theoretical understanding of the phenomena.

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1970. Kim, Y.E. and T.O. Passell. Alternative Interpretation of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction Processes with Deuterated Metals Based on The Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Passell, T. O.
Keywords: theory

Abstract       Recently, a generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism has been made to a ground-state mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps.  The theory has been used to describe (D + Li) reactions in the low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) processes in condensed matter and predicts that the (D + Li) reaction rates can be larger than (D + D) reaction rates by as much as a factor of ~50, implying that (D + Li) reactions may be occuring in addition to the (D + D) reactions.  A survey of the existing data from LENR experiments is carried out to check the validity of the theoretical prediction.  We conclude that there is compelling experimental evidence which support the theoretical prediction.  New experimental tests of the theoretical prediction are suggested.

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1971. Kim, Y.E. and A. Zubarev. Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory

A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation.  It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species.  Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters.  For the case of deutron-lithium (d+Li) LENR, the result indicates that  reactions may dominate over (d+d) reactions in LENR experiments.

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1972. Kim, Y.E. and A. Zubarev. Unifying Theory Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction And Transmutation Processes In Deuterated/Hydrogenated Metals, Acoustic Cavitations, And Deuteron Beam Experiments. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Zubarev, A.
Keywords: theory

The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome.  A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale and micro-scale quantum plasmas.  It is shown that recently developed theoretical models based on Bose-Einstein Fusion (BEF) mechanism and Quantum Plasma Nuclear Fusion (QPNF) mechanism are applicable to the results of many different types of LENR and LETR experiments

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1973. Kim, Y.E. Theory of Low-Energy Deuterium Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory

A consistent conventional theoretical description is presented for anomalous low-energy deuterium nuclear fusion in micro/nano-scale metal grains and particles. The theory is based on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state occupied by deuterons trapped in a micro/nano-scale metal grain or particle. The theory is capable of explaining most of the experimentally observed results and also provides theoretical predictions. Experimental tests of theoretical predictions are proposed. Scalabilities of the observed effects are discussed based on theoretical predictions.

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1974. Kim, Y.E. Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion:Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Tests (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory

Experimental Observations (as of 2008) (not complete) From both electrolysis and gas loading experiments [1] The Coulomb barrier between two deuterons are suppressed [2] Excess heat production (the amount of exess heat indicates its nuclear origin) [3] 4He production comensurate with excess heat production, no 23.8 MeV gamma ray [4] Production of hot spots and micro-scale crators on metal surface [5] Detection of radiations [6]Production of nuclear ashes with anomalous rates . . .. . . Based on a single physical concept, can we come up with a consistent physical theory which could explain all of the ten experimental observations?

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1975. Kim, Y.E. Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion: Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Tests. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords:

It is shown that theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) [1] is capable of explaining many diverse experimental results of deuteron induced nuclear reactions in metals, observed in electrolysis and gas loading experiments. The theory is based on a single conventional physical concept of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in metal and provides a consistent theoretical description of the experimental results. The theory also has predictive powers as expected for a quantitatively predictive physical theory. It is shown that the fusion energy transfer can be accomplished by the stopping power of metal without invoking hypothesis of fusion energy transfer to metal lattice vibrations. It is also shown that observed anomalous tritium production can be explained by incorporating a sub-threshold resonance reaction mechanism into the BECNF theory. The basic concept and important features of the BECNF theory is presented, and theoretical explanations of the experimental observations are described. Key experimental tests of theoretical predictions are proposed and discussed.

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1976. Kim, Y.E., Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for deuteron-induced nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal grains and particles. Naturwiss., 2009. 96(7): p. 803-811.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Bose–Einstein condensation, Deuteron fusion, Nuclear reactions, Metals

1977. Kim, Y.E., Generalized Theory of Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion for Hydrogen-Metal System. 2011, Purdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG).

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Theory

Generalized theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recent experimental results of Rossi et al. for hydrogen-nickel system. Based on incomplete experimental information currently available, preliminary theoretical explanations of the experimental results are presented in terms of the generalized BECNF theory. Additional accurate experimental data are needed for obtaining more complete theoretical descriptions and predictions, which can be tested by further experiments.

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1978. Kim, Y.E., Nuclear Reactions in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Particles. 2011, Purdue Nuclear and Many Body Theory Group (PNMBTG).

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, multibody

Low-energy nuclear reactions in micro/nano-scale metal particles are described based on the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF). The BECNF theory is based on a single basic assumption capable of explaining the observed LENR phenomena; deuterons in metals undergo Bose-Einstein condensation. The BECNF theory is also a quantitative predictive physical theory. Experimental tests of the basic assumption and theoretical predictions are proposed. Potential application to energy generation by ignition at low temperatures is described. Generalized theory of BECNF is used to carry out theoretical analyses of recently reported experimental results for hydrogen-nickel system.

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1979. Kim, Y.E., Bose-Einstein Condensate Theory of Deuteron Fusion in Metal. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 188-201.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein Condensation, Deuteron fusion in metal, Nano-scale materials, Sub-threshold resonance reaction

Theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) has been developed to explain many diverse experimental results of deuteron induced nuclear reactions in metals, observed in electrolysis and gas loading experiments. The theory is based on a single conventional physical concept of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in metal and provides a consistent theoretical description of the experimental results. The theory is capable of explaining most of the diverse experimental observations, and also has predictive powers as expected for a quantitatively predictive physical theory. It is shown that the fusion energy transfer to metal can be accomplished by the stopping power of metal without invoking hypothesis of fusion energy transfer to metal lattice vibrations. It is also shown that observed anomalous tritium production can be explained by a sub-threshold resonance reaction mechanism. The basic concept and important features of the BECNF theory is presented, and theoretical explanations of the experimental observations are described. Key experimental tests of theoretical predictions are proposed and discussed.

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1980. Kim, Y.E. and T.E. Ward, Bose-Einstein Condensation Nuclear Fusion: Role of Monopole Transition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 101-107.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E., Ward, T. E.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Monopole, Nuclear fusion

Based on a single conventional physical concept of Bose-Einstein condensation of deuterons in metal, theory of Bose-Einstein condensation nuclear fusion (BECNF) has been developed to explain many diverse experimental results. We investigate the role of monopole transition in BECNF theory, assuming a collective monopole vibrational excited nuclear state in 4He. Using the threshold resonance reaction mechanism, we derive formulae for S-factor, which can be used in BECNF theory to obtain the nuclear reaction rate. We find the reaction rate for this reaction is far greater than other exit reaction channels. The proposed monopole transition mechanism is capable of dissipating fusion energy into vibrational (phonon) energies in metal. Experimental tests of the monopole transition mechanism are proposed.

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1981. Kim, Y.E., Conventional Nuclear Theory of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions in Metals: Alternative Approach to Clean Fusion Energy Generation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Kim, Y. E.
All Authors: Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: Deuteron fusion in metals, Nuclear theory, Nuclear transmutations, Optical theorem formulation

Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in metals are described using conventional nuclear theory based on the optical theorem formulation. It can be applied to both deuteron and proton induced LENRs. Cryogenic ignition of deuteron fusion in metal particles is proposed as an alternative approach to clean fusion energy generation.

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1982. Kimura, T., Quantitative evaluation of multiple production of neutrons induced by cosmic rays in materials. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27: p. 1147.

First Author: Kimura, T.
All Authors: Kimura, T.
Keywords: neutron, method, critique

1983. Kimura, T., Current problems and future of room temperature nuclear fusion. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 49 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kimura, T.
All Authors: Kimura, T.
Keywords: Review

1984. Kimura, A. and H.K. Birnbaum, Effect of adsorbed surface poisons on the loss of hydrogen from nickel. Acta metall. Mater., 1991. 39: p. 295.

First Author: Kimura, A.
All Authors: Kimura, A., Birnbaum, H. K.
Keywords: NiH, phase Diagram, lattice Parameter, desorption, H2 structure, poison

1985. King, M.B., Charge Clusters: The Basis of Zero-Point Energy Inventions. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 18.

First Author: King, M. B.
All Authors: King, M. B.
Keywords: ZPE,, EV, charge cluster

1986. Kirchheim, R., Interaction of Hydrogen with Dislocations in Palladium- I. Activity and Diffusivity and Their Phenomenological Interpretation. Acta. Metall., 1981. 29: p. 835.

First Author: Kirchheim, R.
All Authors: Kirchheim, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, overvoltage, energy

1987. Kirchheim, R., Interaction of Hydrogen with Dislocations in Palladium-II Interpretation of Activity Results by Fermi-Dirac Distribution. Acta Metall., 1981. 29: p. 845.

First Author: Kirchheim, R.
All Authors: Kirchheim, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, energy, density Of States

1988. Kirchheim, R., T. Matschele, and W. Kieninger, Hydrogen in amorphous and nanocrystalline metals. Materials. Sci. and Eng., 1988. 99: p. 457.

First Author: Kirchheim, R.
All Authors: Kirchheim, R., Matschele, T., Kieninger, W.
Keywords: palladium black, phase diagram, PdH particle

1989. Kirkinskii, V.A. and Y.A. Novikov, A new approach to theoretical modelling of nuclear fusion in palladium deuteride. Europhys. Lett., 1999. 46: p. 448.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Y. A.
Keywords: Theory, screening, review, mobility

1990. Kirkinskii, V.A., V.A. Drebushchak, and A.I. Khmelnikov. Experimental evidence of excess heat output during deuterium sorption-desorption in palladium deuteride. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Drebushchak, V. A., Khmelnikov, A. I.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Pd, heat, D2

Thermal effects have been studied in the course of sorption-desorption of hydrogen isotopes by a finely powdered palladium deuteride using a conventional differential scanning calorimeter SETARAM DSC-111. During a-b transition an excess heat release is observed in palladium deuteride of about one watt per gram of deuteride. In similar experiments with palladium hydride no anomalous effects have been observed. On the basis of earlier computer modelling, relevant publications and our experimental results the excess heat release during deuterium sorption-desorption by palladium deuteride is attributed to the nuclear reactions of deuterium atoms yielding helium.

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1991. Kirkinskii, V.A. and Y.A. Novikov. Numercial calculations of cold fusion rates in metal deuterides. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Y. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, electron screening

An original model of а nuclear fusion mechanism in metal crystal structures at low energies is developed. It uses a new approach for estimation of electron screening in metals, which is based on account of dynamic deformation of outer metal electronic orbitals during counter motion of two deuterons near their sites boundary [1-3]. Computer simulation of deuterium behavior in the palladium deuteride crystal lattice has shown that the calculated rate of nuclear reactions agrees in order of magnitude with the values deduced from experimental data on excess heat output and helium generation.

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1992. Kirkinskii, V.A. and Y.A. Novikov. Fusion reaction probability in iron hydride and the problem of nucleosynthesis in the earth’s interior. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Y. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, FeH

ABSTRACT Numerical simulation of hydrogen isotopes nuclear interaction during their diffusion in a- and g-iron was carried out on the basis of electron orbital deformation dynamic model suggested by the authors earlier [1-4]. Calculated fusion rates show a possibility of cold fusion in the Earth’s interior. Geochemical indicators of nuclear fusion are 3He/4He ratio higher than usual or the presence of tritium in deep-seated rocks, minerals and natural gases.

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1993. Kirkinskii, V.A., V.A. Drebushchak, and A.I. Khmelnikov, Excess heat release during deuterium sorption-desorption by finely powdered palladium deuteride. Europhys. Lett., 2002. 58: p. 462.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Drebushchak, V. A., Khmelnikov, A. I.
Keywords: Experimental, gas phase, Pd, heat, res+

1994. Kirkinskii, V.A. and Y.A. Novikov. Calculations Of Nuclear Reactions Probability In A Crystal Lattice Of Titanium Deuteride. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Y. A.
Keywords: Theory

For calculations of probability of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes in the crystal lattice of titanium deuteride the model offered earlier for palladium deuteride was used. In a series of experiments the probability of D-D approach for random initial conditions was calculated, when initial energies of approaching deuterons were set in the range of energies 0.01-0.51 eV. For each experimental value of D-D approach the reaction rate was calculated on the shifted Coulomb potential with the shift energy, which equals to the energy of screening. The mean distance of D-D approach on all series equals 0.97 angstroms, that exceeds the mean distance in a molecule D-D. However, more than 14% of all experimental values show an approach of deuterons for a distance less than 0.1 angstroms. The general reaction rate for the given set of the initial conditions will make 10^1.91 DD^-1 s^-1. It is 4 orders of magnitude less, than the analogous rate calculated earlier for palladium deuteride. For optimization of calculations the most favorable initial conditions were selected. As a result the rate of the reaction calculated according to the above model should be additionally multiplied by a correction factor, which allows for the probability of the occurrence of these favorable conditions. In our case it equals 10^-16 – 10^-18; the rate of the nuclear fusion reaction of deuterons in titanium deuteride should be 3-4 orders lower, than the earlier calculated rate for palladium deuteride and equals 10^-14 – 10*-16 DD^-1 s^-1.

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1995. Kirkinskii, V.A. and Y.A. Novikov. Calculations Of Nuclear Reactions Probability In A Crystal Lattice Of Lanthanum Deuteride. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kirkinskii, V. A.
All Authors: Kirkinskii, V. A., Novikov, Y. A.
Keywords: theory

The dynamic model of electron orbitals deformation (EODD) was previously devised for palladium deuteride. It has now been applied to calculate the probability of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes in the crystal lattice of lanthanum deuteride. In a series of computer simulations, the probability of D-D approach for random initial conditions was calculated, when the initial energies of the approaching deuterons were set in the range of 0.001-9.0 eV. For each experimental value of D-D approach the reaction rate was calculated on the shifted Coulomb potential with the shift energy, which equals to the energy of screening. The mean distance of D-D approach on the whole series equals 0.19 Å. More than 54% of all experimental values show an approach of deuterons for a distance less than 0.1 Å. The average reaction rate for the given set of the initial conditions is 10^3.28 DD^-1 s^-1. This is three orders of magnitude less than the analogous rate calculated earlier for palladium deuteride. Allowing for the higher D content and the higher number of adjacent tetrahedral sites in LaD3 as compared with PdD0,6, an overall nuclear fusion rate in lanthanum deuteride will be only slight lower than in palladium deuteride, that is, 10^-12 – 10^-14 DD^-1 s^-1.

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1996. Kishimoto, S., M. Inoue, and N. Yoshida, Solution of Hydrogen in Thin Palladium Films. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1986. 82: p. 2175.

First Author: Kishimoto, S.
All Authors: Kishimoto, S., Inoue, M., Yoshida, N.
Keywords: H2, Pd, thin layer, pressure, thermodynamic

1997. Kitajima, M., K. Nakamura, and M. Fujitsuka, Electrical resistivity of high pressure D2-loaded Pd and Ti at low temperatures. Solid State Commun., 1990. 75: p. 159.

First Author: Kitajima, M.
All Authors: Kitajima, M., Nakamura, K., Fujitsuka, M.
Keywords: D2, resistivity, PdD, TiD, temperature

1998. Kitamura, A., T. Saitoh, and T. Itoh. In-situ ERD Analysis of Hydrogen Isotopes during Deuterium Implantation of Pd. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Saitoh, T., Itoh, T.
Keywords: D2, Pd, ion bombardment, surface layer, surface analysis, ICCF-5

The elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis is successfully applied to in-situ measurenlenls of hydrogen isolope distributions formed in Pd during deuterium ion implantation aiming at observation of peculiar phenomena in connection with the so called cold fusion. The beam-target D(d,p)t reaction yield during the implantation is found dependent on the beam current or the deuterium flux. This is interpreted in terms of a temperature dependence of the deuterium concentration that is measured in situ with the ERD method. When both surfaces of the Pd sample are coated with 7.5-µm thick films of aluminum oxide, the reaction yield is observed to increase by a factor of about 5, and the ERD spectra show distributions of D more localized near the surface.

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1999. Kitamura, A., T. Saitoh, and H. Itoh, In situ elastic recoil detection analysis of hydrogen isotopes during deuterium implantation into metals. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 372.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Saitoh, T., Itoh, H.
Keywords: ion implantation, particle emission, Ti, Pd, D2

2000. Kitamura, H. and S. Ichimaru, Dynamic evolution of fusion processes in ultrahigh-pressure liquid-metallic hydrogen: Effects of self-heating and radiative cooling. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1996. 65: p. 1250.

First Author: Kitamura, H.
All Authors: Kitamura, H., Ichimaru, S.
Keywords: theory, high pressure, fusion

2001. Kitamura, A., et al. D(d,p)t REACTION RATE ENHANCEMENT IN A MIXED LAYER OF Au AND Pd. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Awa, Y., Minari, T., Kubota, N., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y.
Keywords:

To investigate possible anomalies in nuclear reactions in solids, deuterium ion irradiation of deuterated Au/Pd samples have been performed with extensive measurements of reaction products and in situ characterization of the samples including ERDA and RBS.  The D(d,p)t reaction rate has been observed to become three orders of magnitude greater than the calculated one.  The deuterium density distribution in the sample with a composition modified by irradiation has been observed to peak at a depth appreciably greater than the projectile range.  We speculate that the formation of the mixed layer of Au and Pd maintaining significantly high deuterium density is the key factor for the reaction rate enhancement.

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2002. Kitamura, A., et al. In Situ Accelerator Analyses Of Palladium Complex Under Deuterium Permeation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Nishio, R., Iwai, H., Satoh, R., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y.
Keywords: transmutation, gas permeation

Preliminary results of experiments on D2 gas permeation using a system [vacuum/CaO/Sr/PdDx/D2 ] have shown some evidence of nuclear transmutation from Sr to Mo. The system is a little simpler than that used by Iwamura et al., and has a reversed gas flow direction. The diagnostic method used to identify the elements was conventional XPS, giving the areal densities of 4.2 × 10^14 cm^-2 (Sr) and 3.3 × 10^14 cm^-2 (Mo). Extended analytical methods are now being prepared, including in situ and simultaneous PIXE, RBS and NRA/ERD analyses for areal densities of transmutation elements and deuterium distribution.

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2003. Kitamura, A., et al. Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Gas Phase Experiments – Deuterium Permeation and Absorption – (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Yamaguchi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Transmutation

Summary of PIXE analysis * We tried to replicate the nuclear transmutation of Sr (2 – 50 x 10E15 cm^-2) to Mo under deuterium permeation through a variety of multilayered CaO/Sr/Pd samples. * Apparently positive results were obtained in 8 runs out of 14, although the identification of Mo peaks in the PIXE analysis was not definite. * It has been implied that sputtering loss of the atoms could be responsible for the observed tendency that areal density of Sr decreases in most cases, while there is a modest increase in that of Mo.

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2004. Kitamura, A., et al. CMNS Research Progressing in Kobe University -Deuterium Permeation and Absorption. in The 9th Meeting of Japan CF-Research Society. 2009. Shizuoka, Japan.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Yamaguchi, T., Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Miyashi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd-black nanoparticle heat

Experimental studies on condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS) ongoing at Kobe University are reviewed. One is a study of nuclear transmutation during forced permeation of deuterium (D) through multi-layered films of CaO/X/Pd, where X is element to be transmuted. This is described in detail in the present paper.The second study is to confirm heat and 4He generation by D absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. We have installed a twin system to perform calorimetry during D2 or H2 absorption by micronized powders of Si, Pd, Pd-black, and Pd-Zr oxide compounds. The research is performed as a joint research program with Technova Inc., and is described in detail in the separate two papers presented by the joint group in the present proceedings.

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2005. Kitamura, A., et al. MDE (Metal Deuterium Energy) Project 2009 Results Explanation File. in 237rd ACS National Meeting. 2009. Salt Lake City.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Yamaguchi, T., Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Excess heat, nanoparticle

Abstracts and PowerPoint slides of papers presented at the 237rd ACS National Meeting, March 2009. Work discussed include independent replications of Arata’s palladium black experiment (with steel cells instead of a DS-Cathode) and Arata’s zirconium-oxide palladium material.

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2006. Kitamura, A., et al. Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Gas Phase Experiments – Deuterium Permeation and Absorption –. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Yamaguchi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords:

Employing both in situ and ex situ accelerator analyses, we have attempted to replicate the Iwamura-type nuclear transmutation of Sr to Mo under deuterium permeation through a variety of multilayered CaO/Sr/Pd samples. Apparently positive results have been obtained in 8 of 14 runs, although the identification of Mo peaks in the PIXE analysis is not definite. It is implied that sputtering loss of the atoms could be responsible for the observed tendency that the areal density of Sr decreases in most cases, while there are modest increases in Mo. In addition to the accelerator analyses, g-ray detection has been tried for samples implanted with W atoms in expectation of transmutation from 183W to radioactive 191Pt.In another series of experiments, we examined heat and 4He generation by deuterium absorption in nano-sized Pd powders, as reported by Arata and Zhang. In order to determine the cause of the large isotope effects observed, nuclear ash including charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays was examined.

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2007. Kitamura, A., et al., Anomalous effects in charging of Pd powders with high density hydrogen isotopes. Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 273(35): p. 3109-3112.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Pddot operatorZr nano-powder, Deuterium absorption, Hydrogen absorption, D/Pd ratio, Isotope effect

A twin system for hydrogen absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For Pd-Zr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratio of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed in the phase of deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after the deuteride formation.

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2008. Kitamura, A., et al. Hydrogen Isotope Gas Absorption/Adsorption Charactoristics of Pd Nanopowders (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A.
Keywords: nano-particles

Extensive measurements of heat release under hydrogen isotope absorption/adsorption of 7 kinds (PP, PB, PZ, NZ, PNZ-I,PNZ-II, PNZ2B) of Pd nano-powdersin a twin gas charging system have been made by Kobe group in 2010-2011. Anomalies in heat and D(H)-absorption observed by Pd (and Pd-Ni) nano-powders dispersed into/onto ZrO2support are briefly overviewed. Heat and absorption data for larger Pure Pd powder and Pd-Black are shown in concentration in the present report.

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2009. Kitamura, A., et al., Heat Evolution from Pd Nano-powders Exposed to High-pressure Hydrogen Isotopes and Associated Radiation Measurements. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 56-68.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Charged particle measurement, Deuterium absorption, D/Pd loading ratio, Forced oxidation, Isotope effect, Pd·Zr nano-powder, Recovery of performance

Using a twin system for hydrogen absorption, experiments on heat evolution and charged particle generation by D2 (H2) gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders were done for the 0.1 μm. Pd powder, the Pd-black, and the mixed oxides of Pd·Zr, Pd·Ni·Zr and Ni·Zr. It has been found that the D(H)/Pd loading ratio and the absorption energy per D (H) is an increasing function of fineness of the sample surface. The Pd·Zr oxide nano-composites showed anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption as well as large loading ratio in the phase of deuteride/hydride formation. Although the samples were deteriorated by the repeated baking-hydrogenation cycles, an artificial oxidation of the PZ and the PNZ samples recovered the excellent original performances, and gave hydride formation energies of 1.5-2.3 eV/D and 1.5-2.0 eV/H, which are anomalously high compared with values for bulk Pd metal. In the second phase after the deuteride formation, the Pd·Zr and Pd·Ni·Zr oxide composites charged exclusively with D2 sometimes gave significantly positive output, which should be subjected to repeated investigation. Nuclear reaction products including energetic charged-particles for a possible cause of the phenomena were examined using a variety of nuclear diagnostics.

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2010. Kitamura, A., et al., Time-resolved Measurements of Loading Ratios and Heat Evolution in D2 (and H2)-Pd·Zr Mixed-oxide Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 42-51.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: D/Pd loading ratio, Heat output, Pd·Zr oxide compounds, Time-resolved measurements, Two sub-phases

Using a twin system for hydrogen absorption, we have studied heat evolution and high-energy particle generation by D2 and H2 gas absorption into nano-sized mixed oxide powders of palladium and zirconium. We have found very large energy of hydrogen absorption by Pd·Zr oxide compounds exceeding 1.0 eV/D (or H) together with a very high D/Pd loading ratio, exceeding 1.0. The system has been improved to enable time-dependent measurements of the gas flow rate and loading ratio simultaneously with the output heat. It has been revealed that the first phase is divided into two sub-phases; the 1a-phase, where most of the anomalously large output energy is produced with a very high loading, D/Pd ~ 1.2, and the 1b-phase, where much smaller power is produced as loading increases further by a ratio of about 0.5 with a difference in pressure between deuterium and hydrogen.

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2011. Kitamura, A., et al., Recent progress in gas-phase hydrogen isotope absorption/adsorption experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Murota, T., Tahara, T.
Keywords: Hydrogen isotope absorption, Inclusion, Nanoporous-silica, Pd nanoparticles

To enhance reusability of the nanopowder samples for heat generation by gas-phase hydrogen isotope absorption, porous-silica-inclusion has been applied to Pd nanopowders (PSII) and Pd?Ni nanocomposite (PNS) samples. Absorption parameters repeatedly obtained in the repeated runs including repeated oxidization-hydridation cycles suggest interesting role of admixed minority atoms in the nanoparticles.

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2012. Kitamura, A., et al., A Mass-Flow-Calorimetry System for Scaled-up Experiments on Anomalous Heat Evolution at Elevated Temperatures. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y.
Keywords: Hydrogen gas absorption, Oil-cooling mass-flow calorimetry, Silica-included CuNi nano-composite, 5 W/g-Ni

A new mass-flow calorimetry system has been installed to investigate the excess-power phenomena at elevated temperatures with an increased amount of the sample. Calibration runs using alumina powder has revealed very good stability with very high heat recovery rate. The first trial runs with a silica-included CuNi nano-composite sample containing 4 g of Ni mixed with 200 g of Al2O3 showed anomalous increase in temperature of the sample, which could imply a long-lasting excess power of 5 W/g-Ni.

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2013. Kitamura, A., et al., Brief summary of latest experimental results with a mass-flow calorimetry system for anomalous heat effect of nano-composite metals under D(H)-gas charging. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y.
Keywords:

2014. Kitamura, A., Status of cold fusion research in Japan. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A.
Keywords: review

2015. Kitamura, A., et al., Effect of Minority Atoms of Binary Ni-based Nano-composites on Anomalous Heat Evolution under Hydrogen Absorption. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y.
Keywords: CuNi/SiO2 nano-composite, Excess energy, Hydrogen gas absorption, Oil-flow calorimetry, Mesoporous silica, 10 keV/atom-H

Ni-based binary nano-composite samples supported by mesoporous silica and single-component nickel samples were subjected to hydrogen absorption runs at various temperatures up to 350◦C. The former include Pd0:016Ni0:070/SiO2 (PNSII) and Cu0:011Ni0:077/SiO2 (CNS2), and the latter NiO/Ni (NN) and Ni/SiO2 (NS). Only the binary nano-composite samples, PNSII and CNS2, showed excess power reaching 8 W/g-Pd and 1 W/g-Ni with integrated excess energy of 3.8 keV/Pd (6.5 keV/atom-H) and 0.6 keV/Ni (10 keV/atom-H), respectively, in elevated temperature runs, implying a catalytic effect of the minority atoms on the phenomena. These excess heat values were observed after the saturation of H-absorption to metal, which implies a non-chemical source of energy.

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2016. Kitamura, A., et al., Collaborative Examination on Anomalous Heat Effect Using Nickel-based Binary Nanocomposites Supported by Zirconia. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 202-213.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Takahashi, K., Seto, R., Matsuda, Y., Iwamura, Y., Uchimura, M., Takahashi, H., Hioki, T., Motohiro, T., Furuyama, Y., Kishida, M.
Keywords: Anomalous excess heat, Binary Ni-based nano-particles, Elevated temperature, Large hydrogen absorption, Melt-spinning samples, ZrO2 supporter

Hydrogen isotope absorption by nickel-based binary nanocomposite samples has been examined in collaborative work in the new NEDO MHE project. The samples tested so far include Pd0.044Ni0.31Zr0.65 (“PNZ3” and re-calcined “PNZ3-ݩ and Cu0.044Ni0.31Zr0.65 (“CNZ5”). Material characterization by XRD and STEM/EDS has revealed the . . .

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2017. Kitamura, A., et al., Excess heat evolution from nanocomposite samples under exposure to hydrogen isotope gases. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018.

First Author: Kitamura, A.
All Authors: Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Takahashi, K., Seto, R., Hatano, T., Iwamura, Y., Itoh, T., Kasagi, J., Nakamura, M., Uchimura, M., Takahashi, H., Sumitomo, S., Hioki, T., Motohiro, T., Furuyama, Y., Kishida, M., Matsune, H.
Keywords: D-gas, H–gas, Palladium-nickel, Nanocomposite, Excess Heat

2018. Kitcher, P., Authority, deference, and the role of individual reason. 1992: U. Notre Dame Press.

First Author: Kitcher, P.
All Authors: Kitcher, P.
Keywords: discussion

2019. Kitcher, P., The Social Dimensions of Science Authority, deference, and the role of individual reason, ed. E. McMullin. 1992: U. Notre Dame Press. 245.

First Author: Kitcher, P.
All Authors: Kitcher, P.
Keywords: discussion,

2020. Kleehaus, A. and C. Eisner, Potential Economic Impact of LENR Technology in Energy Markets. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Kleehaus, A.
All Authors: Kleehaus, A., Eisner, C.
Keywords: LENR Pricing, Commercialization of LENR, Technology Assessment, LENR Economy

There has been a huge discussion about the technology of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) devices. Some of the common assumptions about this technology discussed the projected major transformation of our present society in points of infrastructure, cost of power and power storage, but a clear economic impact simulation in a business plan systematic review matter with different parameters and scenarios is still missing.

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2021. Klein, A.C., et al. Anomalous Heat Output from Pd Cathodes Without Detectable Nuclear Products. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Klein, A. C.
All Authors: Klein, A. C., Zahm, L. L., Binney, S. E., Reyes, J. N., Higginbotham, J. F., Robinson, A. H., Daniels, M., Peterson, R. B.
Keywords: Pd D2O, heat+, tritium, neutron, gamma emission, electrolysis

2022. Klein, B. A Development Approach for Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Klein, B.
All Authors: Klein, B.
Keywords: Review

A plan is presented for investigation and development of the cold fusion effect, ultimately leading to implementation of commercial devices. The plan represents a methodical approach for identifying and addressing theoretical, scientific, engineering and economic concerns. The plan is presented from the perspective of a large architect/engineering corporation which performs work in established energy industries and which is not currently involved in cold fusion. The plan consists of a number of phases designed to establish the corporation’s level and method of involvement in the field.The phased plan provides a number of decision points; at each decision point a commitment to a higher level of funding is made on the basis of additional information which has been generated by the plan to that point. In this way the corporation can control its financial outlay, yet funding is appropriate so that pursuit of the plan is not hampered.

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2023. Klema, E.D. and G.W. Iseler, Spark-induced radiation from hydrogen or deuterium-loaded palladium. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 114.

First Author: Klema, E. D.
All Authors: Klema, E. D., Iseler, G. W.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, loading, spark, radioactivity, x-ray

2024. Klepacki, D.J., Y.E. Kim, and R.A. Brandenburg, Two-Body Photodisintegration of 3-Helium and 3-Helium Near the Giant Resonance I. Plane-Wave Approximation. 1989.

First Author: Klepacki, D. J.
All Authors: Klepacki, D. J., Kim, Y. E., Brandenburg, R. A.
Keywords: theory

2025. Klimov, A., Energy Release and Transmutation of Chemical Elements in Cold Heterogeneous Plasmoids. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Klimov, A.
All Authors: Klimov, A.
Keywords: Plasma aerodynamics, Plasma vortex reactor, Plasmoid, Excess energy release

Our main experimental results from excess energy release (COP >1) in cold heterogeneous (nano-cluster) plasmoid are considered and analyzed in this work. These experimental results were obtained by our team during the last 20 years. The main results may be divided into four groups.(1) Excess energy release behind shock wave in a non-equilibrium heterogeneous plasma and plasma precursor creation before its front was revealed in our experiment. This measured energy is much higher than the electric energy consumed by the plasma, COP ~ 4-10. This excess energy is estimated by measured gas density and pressure behind shock wave, its propagation velocity in plasma, and by using gas dynamics conservation laws.(2) A systematic study of new chemical element creation in water by cold heterogeneous plasmoids was performed. The plasmoids are created by RF discharge over water surface. The plasmoid’s chemical composition is determined by optical spectroscopy. The chemical compositions of water and its sediment are studied by independent diagnostic methods: IR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, ion mass spectroscopy, chemical analysis and micro-X-ray spectroscopy. We observed optical lines of the H, Li, K, Ca, OH-molecular bands, CaO-molecular bands and unknown molecular bands inside red plasmoids. The Li concentration and the Ca concentration are increased in a water sample by factor 102

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2026. Klimov, A., et al., High-energetic Nano-cluster Plasmoid and its Soft X-ray Radiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Klimov, A.
All Authors: Klimov, A., Grigorenko, A., Efimov, A., Evstigneev, N., Ryabkov, O., Sidorenko, M., Soloviev, A., Tolkunov, B.
Keywords: Plasmoid, plasma-chemical reactor, Soft X-ray radiation, Swirl flow

Artificial stable microwave (MW) plasmoids were obtained and studied by Kapitsa in swirl gas flow. ThisMWplasmoid had unusual physical properties close to those of natural ball lightning. We studied the physical parameters and properties of a longitudinal heterogeneous plasmoid (plasma formation with erosive nano-clusters) created by capacity coupled high-frequency (HF) discharge in high-speed swirl flow in our previous papers. These nano-clusters were created by an electrode’s erosion in a plasma reactor. Measurement of the power balance of this heterogeneous plasmoid is very important for aluminium-hydrogen power energetics, using a new plasma generator with high coefficient of performance (COP). This work is a continuation of our previous work. We determined that there is extra power released in heterogeneous plasmoids created by combined discharge (HF discharge + DC discharge). The measured COP in this plasmoid is about 2-10. We suppose that this extra power release in a heterogeneous plasmoid is connected with LENR. The obtained experimental results (COP, optical spectra, soft X-ray spectra, chemical composition of dusty particles) prove our suggestion. It was revealed that a heterogeneous non-equilibrium plasmoid creates intensive soft X-ray radiation (with quantum energy about 1-10 keV). We determined that excited and charged cluster particles are responsible for this soft X-ray radiation creation, to be exact. Parameters of heterogeneous non-equilibrium plasmoid (Ne, Te, TV, TR and others) were measured in the experimental plasma vortex reactor (PVR). The main goals of this work are the following: (1) Creation of plasma-chemical vortex reactor (PVR) with high COP. (2) Obtaining of the key experimental results in this reactor for the future theoretical LENR model creation based on the PVR’s operation.

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2027. Klopfenstein, M.F. and J. Dash. Thermal Imaging during Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Ti Cathode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: Vancouver, Canada.

First Author: Klopfenstein, M. F.
All Authors: Klopfenstein, M. F., Dash, J.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, electrolysis, heat, surface analysis, ICCF-7

2028. Klotz, I.M. and J.J. Katz, Two extraordinary electrical experiments. Am. Scholar, 1991. 60: p. 247.

First Author: Klotz, I. M.
All Authors: Klotz, I. M., Katz, J. J.
Keywords: history

2029. Klyuev, V.A., et al., High-energy Processes Accompanying the Fracture of Solids. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1986. 12: p. 551.

First Author: Klyuev, V. A.
All Authors: Klyuev, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Toporov, Yu. P., Deryagin, B. V., Lushohikov, V. I., Streikov, A. V., Shabalin, E. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, D, neutron

2030. Knapp, J.A., et al., Thin-foil electrochemical cells: high-sensitivity fusion tests and in-situ beam measurements of deuterium loading. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 371.

First Author: Knapp, J. A.
All Authors: Knapp, J. A., Guilinger, T. R., Kelly, M. J., Doyle, B. L., Walsh, D., Tsao, S. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2, H2, ion implantation

2031. Knies, D., et al. In Situ Energy-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction Study of Thin Pd Foil at D/Pd and H/Pd ~1 (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Knies, D.
All Authors: Knies, D., Violante, V., Grabowski, K. S., Dominguez, D. D., He, J., Hu, J. Z., Qadri, S. B., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Loading

Motivation * In situ XRD not performed for H/Pd > 0.76 in Fleischmann-Pons electrolytic cellsPossibility of learning * Does a new gamma phase was suggested by Tripodi et. al. for the electrochemically loaded palladium when the composition H/Pd approaching 1 exist? * Does temperature coefficient of resistivity of PdH versus the concentration of H anomaly show up in Pd crystalline structure (Tripodi et. al.)? * In the Pd-D system, new phases were found through deuterium thermal desorption spectra. Does anything show up on FPE system (Rybalko et. al.)? * Report showing oscillating resistivity for palladium hydrides at some concentration range of H/Pd>0.9 (Miley et. al.).* These proposed phase transitions are only based on indirect experimental data and have not been structurally determined.

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2032. Knies, D., et al. Differential Thermal Analysis Calorimeter at the Naval Research Laboratory. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Knies, D.
All Authors: Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Kidwell, D., Nguyen, V. K., Melich, M. E.
Keywords:

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) is a standard thermoanalytic technique used widely in industry and research. Drawing on this concept, DTA based calorimeters are under development at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) for the study of hydrogen in metals. The design goals are: high sensitivity, linear response, short time constant, tolerant to ambient temperature variations, easy to adapt to experimental constraints and low cost. In this paper we detail basic design requirements, and show a number of examples of their implementation.

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2033. Knies, D., et al. In Situ Energy-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction Study of Thin Pd Foils at D/Pd and H/Pd ~1. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Knies, D.
All Authors: Knies, D., Violante, V., Grabowski, K. S., Hu, J. Z., Dominguez, D. D., He, J., Qadri, S. B., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords:

Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in a modified Fleishman-Pons electrolytic cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H2O (D2O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

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2034. Knies, D., et al., In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1. J. Appl. Phys., 2012. 112(083510).

First Author: Knies, D.
All Authors: Knies, D., Violante, V., Grabowski, K. S., Hu, J. Z., Dominguez, D. D., He, J., Qadri, S. B., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Loading

2035. Knies, D., et al. A Method to Control Palladium Crystallographic Texture and Surface Morphology (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Knies, D.
All Authors: Knies, D., Cantwell, R., Dmitriyeva, O., Hamm, S., McConnell, M.
Keywords:

Statistical studies performed at SRI and ENEA have identified a potential threshold deuterium loading (D/Pd~0.9), surface texture {100}<001>, and surface morphology that give the highest probability to observation of the Fleischman-Pons excess heat effect using palladium foils. The development of crystallographic texture, grain size distribution, and rate of recrystallization are controlled by many factors. The surface morphology that develops during strong acid etching is strongly influenced by the thickness of the type of oxide layer that forms during recrystallization and subsequent cooling. This paper will report on annealing, oxidation and etching procedures to produce foils with desired crystallographic texture, surface morphology, strong grain boundary grooving, and the apparent discount between metallurgical treatment treatments and hydrogen loading.

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2036. Kobayashi, M., et al. Measurements of D/Pd and Excess Heat during Electrolysis of LiOD in a Fuel-Cell Type Closed Cell Using a Palladium Sheet Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kobayashi, M.
All Authors: Kobayashi, M., Imai, N., Hasegawa, N., Kubota, A., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, overvoltage, electrolysis, ICCF-3, high-low, loading

Measurement of O/Pd and excess heat was carried out during electrolysis of LiOD in a fuel-cell type closed cell using two batches of palladium sheet cathodes. We applied the “saw-tooth” current mode and the following “L-H ” current mode which was employed originally by Takahashi. Excess heat of 1 0-30% of input power was observed in experiment-A using a Pd sheet cathode that was one of the same batch used by Takahashi. But in experiment-B, the palladium sheet that was one of the different batch did not produce any measurable excess power. The saw-tooth mode and the L-H mode operation had no effect to enhance D/Pd.

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2037. Kobayashi, M., Present of ‘cold fusion’. Kagaku Kogaku, 1993. 57(10): p. 715 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kobayashi, M.
All Authors: Kobayashi, M.
Keywords: Review

2038. Kochubey, D.I., et al., Enrichment of deuterium with tritium in the presence of a palladium-561 giant cluster. J. Molec. Catal., 1991. 66: p. 99.

First Author: Kochubey, D. I.
All Authors: Kochubey, D. I., Babenko, V. P., Vargaftik, M. N., I., Moiseev.
Keywords: D2, chemical, tritium

2039. Kocsis, M., et al., Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1990. 145(5): p. 327.

First Author: Kocsis, M.
All Authors: Kocsis, M., Nyikos, L., Szentpetery, I., Horvath, D., Kecskemeti, J., Lovas, A., Pajkossy, T., Pocs, L.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O

2040. Kogashi, S., Present status of cold fusion research. J. Inst. Electron. Inf. Commun. Eng. (Japan), 1990. 73: p. 1311 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kogashi, S.
All Authors: Kogashi, S.
Keywords: history

2041. Kojima, H., R.S. Tebble, and D.E.G. Williams, The variation with temperature of the magnetic susceptibility of some of the transition metals. Proc. Royal Soc London, A, 1961. 260: p. 237.

First Author: Kojima, H.
All Authors: Kojima, H., Tebble, R. S., Williams, D. E. G.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pt, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Mn, W, Re, Ru, Os, Rh, Ir

2042. Kojima, H., W.-S. Zhang, and J. Dash. Precision Measurement Of Excess Energy In Electrolytic System Pd/D/H2SO4 And Inverse-Power Distribution Of Energy Pulses Vs. Excess Energy. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Kojima, H.
All Authors: Kojima, H., Zhang, W-S., Dash, J.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Excess energy was measured with a Seebeck envelope calorimeter in an electrolytic system containing a 2 mm diameter Pd tube cathode. After about 50 hours of electrolysis, many power pulses (Pex < ∼0.5 W) and bursts  (Pex > ∼0.5 W) of excess power Pex were observed.  The distribution of the number of power pulses N(Pex) with definite excess power Pex plotted on a logarithmic scale is expressed as a straight line with a gradient ~ – 2 for Pex < ∼0.5 W showing the typical behavior of the 1/f noise. The distribution for Pex > ∼0.5 W deviates from this regularity. These characteristic behaviors are discussed in relation to complexity in the mechanism of the excess energy generation in the experimental system.

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2043. Koldamsov, A., et al. Observation And Investigation Of Nuclear Fusion And Self-Induced Electric Discharges In Turbulent Liquids. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Koldamsov, A.
All Authors: Koldamsov, A., Yang, H., McConnell, D., Kornilova, A. A., Vysotskii, V., Desyatov, A.
Keywords: cavitation

2044. Komaki, H., production de proteins par 29 souches de microorganismes et augmentation du potassium en milieu de culture sodique sans potassium. Revue de Pathologie Comparee, 1967. 67: p. 213.

First Author: Komaki, H.
All Authors: Komaki, H.
Keywords: biological, transmutation

2045. Komaki, H., Formation de protines et variations minerales par des microorganismes en milieu de culture, sort avec or sans potassium, sort avec ou sans phosphore. Revue de Pathologie Comparee, 1969. 69: p. 83.

First Author: Komaki, H.
All Authors: Komaki, H.
Keywords: biological, transmutation

2046. Komaki, H. and C.L. Kervran. Experiences de Komaki, Premiere Serie de Recherches. in Preuves en biologie de transmutations a faible energie. 1975. Maloine, S. A. , Paris.

First Author: Komaki, H.
All Authors: Komaki, H., Kervran, C. L.
Keywords:

2047. Komaki, H. Observations on the Biological Cold Fusion or the Biological Transformation of Elements. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Komaki, H.
All Authors: Komaki, H.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, ICCF-3

In previous paper [1-7] the author with Prof. Dr. C. Louis KERVRAN suggested the probable occurrence of the biological cold fusion or the biological transmutation of elements. In order to confirm the phenomena. under the more controlled condition, potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium were determined in cells of Aspergillus niger IFO 4066. Penicillium chrysogenum IFO 4689, Rhizopus nigricans IFO 5781, Mucor rouxii IFO 0396, Saccharomyces cerevisiae IFO 0308. Torulopsis utilis IFO 0396, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus IFO 0213 and Hansenula anomala IFO 0118 cultured in normal medium and media deficient in one of potassium, magnesium, iron or calcium. Values of potassium 1890 ~ 2650 μg. magnesium 380 ~ 510 μg. iron 95 – 120 μg, and calcium 60 ~ 95 μg were obtained per g dried cells cultured in each deficient medium, while potassium 8650 ~ 11050 μg, magnesium 1920 ~ 2160 μg, iron 510 – 680 μg, and calcium 380 ~ 450 μg were found per g dried cells obtained by cultivation in the normal medium.The author would like to suggest the probable occurrence of the phenomena relevant to biological cold fusion.

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2048. Komaki, H. An Approach to the Probable Mechanism of the Non-Radioactive Biological Cold Fusion or So-Called Kervran Effect (Part 2). in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Komaki, H.
All Authors: Komaki, H.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, ICCF-4

2049. Komarov, V.V., Does Cold Fusion Exist and is it Measurable? Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45(2): p. 759.

First Author: Komarov, V. V.
All Authors: Komarov, V. V.
Keywords: theory

2050. Konashi, K., H. Kayano, and M. Teshigawara, Analysis of heavy-ion-induced deuteron-deuteron fusion in solids. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 379.

First Author: Konashi, K.
All Authors: Konashi, K., Kayano, H., Teshigawara, M.
Keywords: Theory, ion bombardment, fusion

2051. Kondo, J., Cold fusion in metals. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1989. 58(6): p. 1869.

First Author: Kondo, J.
All Authors: Kondo, J.
Keywords: Theory, jellium

2052. Konenkov, N.V., S.S. Silakov, and G.A. Mogil’chenko, Quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of hydrogen isotopes during deuterium implantation in titanium. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1991. 17(1): p. 8.

First Author: Konenkov, N. V.
All Authors: Konenkov, N. V., Silakov, S. S., Mogil’chenko, G. A.
Keywords: Ti, helium, tritium, ion implantation

2053. Konishi, S. Translated Summary of the “Proc. of the Topical Meeting on Cold Fusion”. in Proc. of the Topical Meeting on Cold Fusion. 1990. Japan.

First Author: Konishi, S.
All Authors: Konishi, S.
Keywords: history, review

2054. Kooistra, J., The Alternate View – LENR Part I, in Analog Science Fiction and Fact. 2003. p. 96.

First Author: Kooistra, J.
All Authors: Kooistra, J.
Keywords: Review

Now and then, the subject of “cold fusion” comes up in the Analog online forum, and I, as the resident expert, wind up entering discussions on the topic. Unfortunately, what  soon happens is that I start getting questions-usually pretty good ones-that I can’t possibly answer in the amount of time I’m willing to spend hanging out on the Internet, let alone the fraction of that time I have to devote to the forum.

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2055. Kooistra, J., The Alternate View – LENR Part II, in Analog Science Fiction and Fact. 2003. p. 80.

First Author: Kooistra, J.
All Authors: Kooistra, J.
Keywords: Review

In Part I of this column, I explained that “cold fusion” may not be fusion at all, and that the preferred term is now Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, or LENR. I also discussed my relevant experience as an experimental physicist; experience which led me to reject outright early claims that “cold fusion is all hooey,” based on hastily conducted experiments that failed to replicate the original result.

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2056. Koonin, S.E. and M. Nauenberg, Calculated fusion rates in isotopic hydrogen molecules. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 690.

First Author: Koonin, S. E.
All Authors: Koonin, S. E., Nauenberg, M.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2057. Koonin, S.E. and M. Mukerjee, Branching ratios in low-energy deuteron-induced reactions. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 42: p. 1639.

First Author: Koonin, S. E.
All Authors: Koonin, S. E., Mukerjee, M.
Keywords: Theory, branching ratio, critique

2058. Kopecek, R. and J. Dash, Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Titanium Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 46.

First Author: Kopecek, R.
All Authors: Kopecek, R., Dash, J.
Keywords: transmutation,, Ti,, D2O,, electrolysis

Excess heat was produced at the rate of about 1.2 watts during electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium cathode weighing 0.0625 g. Analysis of the electrodes before and after electrolysis with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that new surface topographical features with concentrations of unexpected elements (S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn ) formed during electrolysis.

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2059. Kornilova, A.A., V. Vysotskii, and G.A. Zykov. Investigation of combined influence of Sr, Cl and S on the effectiveness of nuclear transmutation of Fe-54 isotope in biological cultures. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kornilova, A. A.
All Authors: Kornilova, A. A., Vysotskii, V., Zykov, G. A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, biological, Fe, transmutation

2060. Kornilova, A.A., et al. Investigation of radiation effects at bubble cavitation in running liquid. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kornilova, A. A.
All Authors: Kornilova, A. A., Vysotskii, V., Sysoev, N., Desyatov, A.
Keywords: cavitation,

2061. Kosyakhkov, A.A., et al., Detection helium-3 and tritium formed during ion-plasma saturation of titanium with deuterium. Pis`ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., 1989. 49: p. 648 (In Russian).

First Author: Kosyakhkov, A. A.
All Authors: Kosyakhkov, A. A., Triletskii, V. S., Cherepin, V. T., Chichkan, S. M.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Ti, Helium, tritium

2062. Kosyakhkov, A.A., et al., Neutron yield in the deuterium ion implantation into titanium. Fiz. Tverd. Tela, 1990. 32: p. 3672 (in Russian).

First Author: Kosyakhkov, A. A.
All Authors: Kosyakhkov, A. A., Cherepin, V. T., Kolotyi, V. V., Kisurin, K. K.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Ti, neutron

2063. Kosyakhkov, A.A., et al., Mass-spectrometric study of the products of nuclear reactions occurring by ion-plasma saturation of titanium with deuterium. Dokl. Akad. Nauk [Tekh. Fiz.], 1990. 312(1): p. 96 (in Russian).

First Author: Kosyakhkov, A. A.
All Authors: Kosyakhkov, A. A., Triletskii, S. S., Cherepin, V. T., Chichkan, S. M.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Ti, neutron

2064. Kovacs, A., D. Brown, and F. Ek, Exothermic Reactions in the Partially Molten Li-Ni-Cu Alloy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 159-180.

First Author: Kovacs, A.
All Authors: Kovacs, A., Brown, D., Ek, F.
Keywords: Continuous operation, High power rate, Lithium–nickel–copper fuel, Nuclear reaction, Temperature cycling

Experiments with Li–Ni–Cu alloy, as a novel energy source, are described. The experiments are performed in the 1200–1300 deg C temperature range, using welded metallic containers and also in open tube under inert gas flow. The measured reaction energy is too high to be explained by chemical origin. The initial experiments elucidate the properties of this reaction, while the last experiment demonstrates its continuous operation.

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2065. Koval’chuk, E.P., et al., Electrochemically stimulated radiation by metals. Fiz.-Khim. Mekh. Mater., 1989. 25: p. 119 (In Russian).

First Author: Koval’chuk, E. P.
All Authors: Koval’chuk, E. P., Romaniv, O. N., Pazderskii, Yu. A., Aksiment’eva, E. M., Babei, Yu. I., Koval’chuk, A. E.
Keywords: Ni, Fe, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, beta

2066. Koval’chuk, E.P., O.M. Yanchuk, and O.V. Reshetnyak, Electromagnetic radiation during electrolysis of heavy water. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 189: p. 15.

First Author: Koval’chuk, E. P.
All Authors: Koval’chuk, E. P., Yanchuk, O. M., Reshetnyak, O. V.
Keywords: Ni, Pd, electrolysis, radiation

2067. Kowalski, L. The Dilemma Of A Physics Teacher. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: critique

This presentation is dedicated to an unknown high school chemistry student who sent me an e-mail message last spring. She wrote:”Help! My name is Maggie Johnson and I am a sophomore at Saratoga High School. In my chemistry class, I am doing a project on Cold Fusion. I was looking on the Internet for websites on Cold Fusion, and I came across links to your Cold Fusion items. I was wondering if you could give me some advice or information?”1) A year ago I would have replied that cold fusion is pseudoscience. But I am no longer comfortable with this kind of reply. . . .

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2068. Kowalski, L. Teachers Debate Cold Fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: critique

What follows is a collection of messages about cold fusion from teachers. The messages were posted on the Internet discussion list, Phys-L, or were sent to me in private. They illustrate a wide range of opinion. PHYS-L is a list dedicated to learning and teaching physics with 700 subscribers from over 35 countries, the majority of whom are physics educators.

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2069. Kowalski, L., Please Donate ICCF Proceedings To The Niels Bohr Library. 2004.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords:

The Niels Bohr Library is dedicated to the history of physics and allied fields. It is part of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics (AIP), located in College Park, Maryland. (See xxxx://www.aip.org/history/nblbro.htm.) I have recently been in contact with director of Library, Dr. R. J. Anderson. He has indicated that the Library is interested in preserving proceedings of cold fusion conferences. I would like to coordinate the process of collecting these important materials from those who are willing to become donors. Please contact me, preferably by email, even if you have only one volume to donate.

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2070. Kowalski, L. History of attempts to publish a paper. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: history

My 2004 paper, reviewing recent cold fusion claim, has been rejected (without sending it to referees and without offering any criticism) by editors of seven journals:1) Physics Today, USA 2) American Scientist, USA 3) Scientific American, USA 4) Nature, UK 5 New Scientist, UK 6) The Physics Teacher, USA 7) Science, USA

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2071. Kowalski, L. Recent cold fusion claims: are they valid? in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: Review

What is Cold Fusion? Cold fusion (CF) is a mixture of several claims that may or may not be related. Some of them belong to the realm of basic science while others belong to the area of patents. And some seem to be science fiction. From the point of view of history the CF episode, described in several books (1-7) and articles (8,9), is highly unusual. It is a situation in which the validity of research in one particular field has been officially questioned, at least in the US. According to many scientists, the cold fusion claims are in conflict with basic principles of physics and chemistry. That is why most researchers are no longer interested in cold fusion. Surprisingly, however, the field still attracts a large number of investigators with excellent credentials. Once a year they meet at international conferences and publish papers, most often in conference proceedings and over the Internet (10).  As a nuclear physicist, and a physics teacher, I examined some of these publications and attended one cold fusion conference (11).

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2072. Kowalski, L., et al. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L., Jones, S., Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: charged particle, CR-39

After familiarizing himself with the use of CR-39 detectors, about a year ago, the first author asked Steven Jones to send him a TiDx foil, similar to that described at the Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion (1). It was an attempt detect 3 MeV protons with the CR-39 chips. The idea was to develop an experiment suitable for student-oriented cold fusion projects. That is how the first author became a cold fusion researcher. After receiving the foil he sandwiched it between two CR-39 detectors for the period of 55 days. The area of each detector was one square inch. The exposure started three days after the sample was prepared (by keeping the titanium foil in deuterium gas at high temperature and pressure).

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2073. Kowalski, L., S. Little, and G. Luce. Searching for excess heat in Mizuno-type plasma electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L., Little, S., Luce, G.
Keywords: glow discharge

Excess heat generated in the glow discharge plasma electrolysis, first reported by Mizuno and Ohmori (1), has been studied by several researchers, both in Japan (2, 3, 4) and in other countries (5, 6, 7, 8). Most reports, but not all, confirmed generation of excess heat. Facing this situation we decided to replicate the most recent experiment (8) in which excess heat was reported to increase with voltage. Our results do not confirm reality of excess heat.

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2074. Kowalski, L., et al. Searching for excess heat in a Mizuno-type Cell (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L., Little, S., Luce, G., Slaughter, R.
Keywords: glow discharge

2075. Kowalski, L., et al. New results and an ongoing excess heat controversy. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L., Luce, G., Little, S., Slaughter, R.
Keywords: glow discharge

2076. Kowalski, L. On emission of nuclear particles caused by electrolysis. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Numerous tracks of charged nuclear particles, emitted during electrolysis, were discovered by Oriani and Fisher. More recently, emission of such particles after electrolysis was discovered by Oriani. This presentation is based on ten experiments conducted to replicate the reported results. Seven clusters of tracks were found in two out of six electrolysis experiments. Three clusters were also found in one of four experiments conducted to study emission of nuclear particles after electrolysis. Arguments are presented against prosaic explanations for the clusters, such as natural radioactivity and cosmic rays.

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2077. Kowalski, L. Nuclear or not nuclear: how to decide? in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: review

A recent claim demonstrating a nuclear process triggered by electrolysis is challenged. An analysis, based on relative diameters, is used to demonstrate that predominant pits could not possibly be attributed to alpha particles, or to less massive nuclear projectiles. This conclusion is supported not only by positive results from a replication experiment, but also by results from the experiment on which the original claim was based. While the numerous SPAWAR-type pits seem to be highly reproducible, their interpretation is not yet clear. The SPAWAR discovery can be called scientific (rather than protoscientific) because it is reproducible.

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2078. Kowalski, L., Comments on ‘The Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-deposition Experiments’ by P.A. Mosier-Boss, S. Szpak, F.E. Gordon and L.P.G. Forsely, Interpreting SPAWAR-Type Dominant Pits. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2008. 44: p. 291-295.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

A recent claim [Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 293 (2007)] demonstrating a nuclear process triggered by electrolysis is challenged. An analysis, based on relative diameters, is used to demonstrate that predominant pits could not possibly be attributed to alpha particles, or to less massive nuclear projectiles. This conclusion is supported not only by positive results from a replication experiment, but also by results from the experiment on which the original claim was based. While the numerous SPAWAR-type pits seem to be highly reproducible, their interpretation is not yet clear.

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2079. Kowalski, L., Comments on Codeposition Electrolysis Results. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 1-3.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: Codeposition electrolysis, Cold fusion, CMNS, CR39, LENR, SPAWAR

Results from SPAWAR-type experiments show that dominant pits, recorded with CR-39 detectors, are probably not due to alpha particles, as originally suspected. Two points of conflict, one experimental and another interpretational, remain to be resolved.

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2080. Kowalski, L., Cold Fusion is not Voodoo Science. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kowalski, L.
All Authors: Kowalski, L.
Keywords: Excess heat, review

The best way to start explaining CMNS is to refer to so-called “hot fusion,” a process in which two atomic nuclei of hydrogen fuse at temperatures exceeding several million degrees. This process generates thermal energy (heat) in hydrogen bombs, and in stars. In the last five decades numerous attempts have been made to turn a hydrogen bomb explosion into a “slowly burning” controllable process. This line of technological research, costing tens of billions of dollars, has not yet produced anything of practical use.Fusion of atomic nuclei has been studied by physicists since 1930s. We know that such fusion is only possible at extremely high temperatures. Its probability at ordinary temperatures– that is below ten thousand degrees or so–is practically impossible, due to mutual electric repulsion of atomic nuclei.

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2081. Kozima, H., Neutron Moessbauer effect and the cold fusion in inhomogeneous materials. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107 A: p. 1781.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: Theory, Mossbauer, TCNF

2082. Kozima, H. and S. Watanabe. Nuclear Processes in Trapped Neutron Catalyzed Model for Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Watanabe, S.
Keywords: Theory, trapped neutron, ICCF-5

Results are given of detailed calculations of 1) probability of channeling for particles generated in n – d and n – p fusion reactions, 2) fusion probability of a triton generated in nÛd fusion with a deuteron and 3) fusion probability ol a deuteron accelerated by n – d elastic collision with another deuteron. A lot of neutrons are generated in a successive reactions of d – d fusion reactions triggered by a trapped thermal neutron enough to explain experimentally observed anomalous excess heat, neutron bursts and tritium anomaly in optimum situations. The results confirms the preliminary estimations used in the previous works.

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2083. Kozima, H., et al., Analysis of the First Cold Fusion Experiment on TNCF Model Analysis of Tritium and Neutron Generation in Pd+LiOD/D2O System. Cold Fusion, 1996.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Hiroe, K., Nomura, M., Ohta, M.
Keywords: theory, TNCF

2084. Kozima, H. On the existance of trapped thermal neutron in cold fusion materials. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, neutron, TNCF, ICCF-6

2085. Kozima, H., et al. Analysis of the electrolytic cold fusion experiments on TNCF model. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Katsuhiko, H., Masahiro, N., Masayuki, O.
Keywords: theory, TNCF, neutron, ICCF-6

2086. Kozima, H., Excess Heat and Helium Generation in CF Experiments. Cold Fusion, 1996. 17.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, neutron

2087. Kozima, H., et al., On the Elemental Transmutation in Biological and Chemical Systems. Cold Fusion, 1996. 17.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Hiroe, K., Nomura, M., Ohta, M.
Keywords: theory, biological, transmutation

2088. Kozima, H., et al., Analysis of cold fusion experiments generating excess heat, tritium and helium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1997. 425: p. 173.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Watanabe, S., Hiroe, K., Nomura, M., Kaki, K.
Keywords: theory, TCNF

2089. Kozima, H. The TNCF Model for the Cold Fusion Phenomenon. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canad: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, neutron, ICCF-7

2090. Kozima, H., The cold fusion phenomenon. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 68.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: Review

2091. Kozima, H., M. Fujii, and K. Arai, Tritium and helium measurements by Bockris et al. analyzed on the TNCF Model. Cold Fusion, 1998. 26.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Fujii, M., Arai, K.
Keywords: theory, neutron, tritium

2092. Kozima, H., K. Kaki, and M. Ohta, Anomalous phenomenon in solids described by the TNCF model. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 52.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Kaki, K., Ohta, M.
Keywords: Theory, TNCF

2093. Kozima, H., et al., Nuclear reactions in surface layers of deuterium-loaded solids. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 337.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Arai, K., Fujii, M., Kudoh, H., Yoshimoto, K., Kaki, K.
Keywords: Theory, TCNF

2094. Kozima, H., Present status of cold fusion research. 1. Hoshasen Kagaku (Tokyo), 1999. 42(10): p. 310 [in Japanese].

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: Review

2095. Kozima, H., Present status of cold fusion research. 2. Hoshasen Kagaku (Tokyo), 1999. 42(11): p. 351 [in Japanese].

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: Review

2096. Kozima, H., et al., Analysis of energy spectrum of neutrons in cold-fusion experiments by the TCNF model. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 1431.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Ohta, M., Fujii, M., Arai, K., Kudoh, H., Kaki, K.
Keywords: theory, TCNF

2097. Kozima, H. The Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Physics of Neutrons in Solids. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8, neutron

2098. Kozima, H. TNCF Model- A Phenomenological Approach. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, TNCF, ICCF-8

2099. Kozima, H., et al. Nuclear Transmutation in Solids Explained by TNCF Model. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Ohta, M., Arai, K., Fujii, M., Kudoh, H., Yoshimoto, K.
Keywords: theory, TNCF, ICCF-8

2100. Kozima, H. and K. Arai, Localized nuclear transmutation in PdHx observed by Bockris and Minevski revealed a characteristic of CF phenomenon. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25(6): p. 513.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Arai, K.
Keywords: Theory, TCNF

2101. Kozima, H. and K. Arai, Local coherence, condensation and nuclear reaction of neutrons at crystal boundary of metal hydrides and deuterides. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25(9): p. 845.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Arai, K.
Keywords: Theory, TNCF, dineutron

2102. Kozima, H., K. Arai, and K. Yoshimoto, Tritium and 4He data by Chien et al. confirmed the cold fusion phenomenon. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25: p. 509.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Arai, K., Yoshimoto, K.
Keywords: Theory, TCNF

2103. Kozima, H., K. Yoshimoto, and K. Arai, First reliable tritium data by Packham et al. analyzed by TCNF model. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2000. 25: p. 505.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Yoshimoto, K., Arai, K.
Keywords: Theory, TCNF

2104. Kozima, H., Neutron drop: condensation of neutrons in metal hydrides and deuterides. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 253.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: Theory, neutron,, TCNF

2105. Kozima, H., et al., Possible explanation of 4He production in a Pd/D2 system by the TNCF model. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 86.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Ohta, M., Fujii, M., Arai, K., Kudoh, H.
Keywords: theory, TNCF

2106. Kozima, H. An explanation of data sets obtained by McKubre et al. (excess heat), Clarke (null results of 4He, RHe) and Clarke et al (tritiium) with “Arata Cell”. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, neutron, fusion, ICCF-9, Arata, TNCF

2107. Kozima, H. Excited states of nucleons in a nucleus and cold fusion phenomenon in transition-metal hydrides and deuterides. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory, neutron, fusion, ICCF-9, Arata, TNCF, neutron drops

2108. Kozima, H., et al. Consistent explanation of topography changes and nuclear transmutation in surface layers of cathodes in electrolytic cold fusion experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Warner, J., Cano, C. S., Dash, J.
Keywords: theory, neutron, transmutation, ICCF-9, TNCF

SynopsisNuclear transmutations (NT’s) and exotic surface topography observed in the surface layers of cathodes in electrolytic experiments by J. Dash et al. over the last ten years have been analyzed using the TNCF model. Surface topographies of the cathodes showed characteristic fine structures where the results of nuclear transmutation (NT) were detected. Nuclear transmutations, characterized by their locality, are accompanied by excess heat generation, which suggests a nuclear origin. The products of nuclear transmutation are explained either by decay of excited cathode element nuclei to form an element of higher mass number than the original (nuclear transmutation by decay, or NTD) or by fission of these nuclei (nuclear transmutation by fission, or NTF). The model was successfully used to analyze two cases of quantitative changes of isotope ratios in Ti and Pd cathodes and the surface topography change. . . .

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2109. Kozima, H. CF-Matter and the Cold Fusion Phenomenon. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory

The working concept of “cf-matter,” defined as “neutron drops in a thin neutron liquid” as described in previous papers, is used to explain complex events, especially nuclear transmutations, in cold fusion phenomenon (CFP). In samples used in CF experiments, the cf‑matter contains high‑density neutron drops in surface/boundary regions while in the volume it contains only a few of them, in accordance with experimental data. Generation of various nuclear transmutations, the most interesting features in CFP, are explained naturally if we use the concept of the cf-matter. Qualitative correspondence between the relative isotopic abundance of elements in the universe and the number of observations of elements in CFP is shown using more than 40 experimental data, sets. This facts is an evidence showing statistically that CFP in transition-metal hydrides/deuterides is a low energy version of nuclear processes occurring in the stars catalyzed by, specific neutrons in the cf-matter formed in surface/boundary regions of CF materials.

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2110. Kozima, H. Cold Fusion Phenomenon and Solid State Nuclear Physics. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory

2111. Kozima, H. Complexity in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H.
Keywords: theory,

2112. Kozima, H. and H. Date. Nuclear Transmutations in Polyethylene (XLPE) Films and Water Tree Generation in Them. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Kozima, H.
All Authors: Kozima, H., Date, H.
Keywords: theory,

2113. Krakowski, R.A., et al., Lessons Learned from the Tokamak Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study (ARIES). 1993, Los Alamos National Laboratory.

First Author: Krakowski, R. A.
All Authors: Krakowski, R. A., Bathke, C. G., Miller, R. L., Werley, K. A.
Keywords: Plasma fusion

This paper is about plasma fusion, not cold fusion. We uploaded it here because it is difficult to find.Abstract:Lessons from the four-year ARIES (Advanced Reactor Innovation and Evaluation Study) investigation of four commercial magnetic-fusion-energy (MFE) power-plant embodiments of the tokamak are summarized. These lessons are derived from the physics; engineering and technology; economics; and environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) characteristics of these conceptual tokamak power-plant designs. This summary of ARIES lessons is intended to provide a general indicator of the requirements of economically and environmentally attractive fusion power. The integration of fundamental tokamak physics with conceptual engineering models through a cost-based systems methodology has been especially thorough in ARIES. . . .

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2114. Krapivnyi, N.G., Y.B. Kleshnya, and Sobornitskii, Allowing for finite rate of propagation of hydrogen concentration wave during hydrogen diffusion in metals. translated from Elektrokhimiya, 1991. 28(3): p. 451.

First Author: Krapivnyi, N. G.
All Authors: Krapivnyi, N. G., Kleshnya, Y. B., Sobornitskii
Keywords: loading, diffusion, Pd, H2

2115. Krasnoshchekov, Y.I., et al., Possibility of nuclear reaction during phase transitions. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1991. 36: p. 705.

First Author: Krasnoshchekov, Yu. I.
All Authors: Krasnoshchekov, Yu. I., Larionov, L. V., Makovei, V. A., Muryshev, E. Yu., Syrenkov, G. I.
Keywords: theory, phase change

2116. Krause, W. and L. Kahlenberg, On Palladium-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1935. 68: p. 449.

First Author: Krause, W.
All Authors: Krause, W., Kahlenberg, L.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Excess Volume

2117. Krauss, A., et al., Low-Energy Fusion Cross Sections of D + D and D + 3He Reactions. Nucl. Phys. A, 1987. 465: p. 150.

First Author: Krauss, A.
All Authors: Krauss, A., Becker, H. W., Trautvetter, H. P., Rolfs, C.
Keywords: fusion, cross Section, D2, energy

2118. Kreysa, G., G. Marx, and W. Plieth, A critical analysis of electrochemical nuclear fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 266: p. 437.

First Author: Kreysa, G.
All Authors: Kreysa, G., Marx, G., Plieth, W.
Keywords: critique, review

2119. Krishnan, M.S., et al., Evidence for Production of Tritium via Cold Fusion Reactions in Deuterium Gas Loaded Palladium, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 4.

First Author: Krishnan, M. S.
All Authors: Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Nagvenkar, V. B., Sadhukhan, H. K.
Keywords: tritium

After the first announcement reporting the observation of cold fusion further evidence supporting the same has appeared in scientific literature although many other groups have failed to obtain positive results. Palladium and titanium loaded electrolytically and titanium loaded directly with deuterium gas have been reported to emit neutrons. Interestingly gas loading experiments involving Pd-D have not been reported so far. Such experiments were therefore conducted recently in our group. Tritium measurements in gas loaded Pd-D targets have been carried out. The present paper summarises the results obtained so far to ascertain whether cold fusion reactions occur in gas loaded Pd targets also.

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2120. Krishnan, M.S., et al., Observation Of Cold Fusion In A Ti-SS Electrochemical Cell, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 3.

First Author: Krishnan, M. S.
All Authors: Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Nayar, M. G., Shyam, A., Sikka, S. K.
Keywords: Ti D2O, loading, neutron

Since the two communications reporting the occurrence of cold fusion, experiments had been initiated in a number of laboratories to study the electrolysis of D2O with palladium (Pd) as cathode. In a few cases titanium (Ti) has also been used as cathode. Ti is a material of interest as it can form deuteride up to the composition of TiD2 (against 0.6 in case of Pd). Further Ti is more easily available and cheaper in our country. Three groups have reported the use of Ti as the cathode material in their electrolytic experiments. Meanwhile in an interesting paper use of Ti in deuterium gas loading experiments has been reported wherein occurrence of neutron bursts under non-equilibrium conditions was observed.

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2121. Krishnan, M.S., et al., Cold Fusion Experiments Using a Commercial Pd-Ni Electrolyser, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 1.

First Author: Krishnan, M. S.
All Authors: Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Srinivasan, M., Sikka, S. K., Shyam, A., Chitra, V., Iyengar, T. S., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd,

The first reports of observation of ‘Cold Fusion’ during the electrolysis of heavy water using Pd cathodes, resulted in frantic attempts in several laboratories of the world to duplicate these experiments and if possible improve upon them. Electrolytic cold fusion investigations were initiated at Trombay in the first week of April ’89 as a collaborative effort between the Heavy Water and Neutron Physics Divisions of BARC. A commercial (Milton Roy) diffusion type Pd-Ag cathode/ Ni anode hydrogen generator which was readily available was employed for this purpose, after loading NaOD as electrolyte in place of the original NaOH. This paper gives details of the electrolyser characteristics, conditions of operation and the neutron and tritium measurements.

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2122. Krishnan, M.S., S.K. Malhotra, and H.K. Sadhukhan, Material Balance of Tritium in the Electrolysis of Heavy Water, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 10.

First Author: Krishnan, M. S.
All Authors: Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Sadhukhan, H. K.
Keywords: tritium,

2123. Krivit, S., Historical Analysis of Key “Cold Fusion” Experiments. 2003.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2124. Krivit, S. and N. Winocur, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion: Real Science, Real Hope, Real Energy. 2004: Pacific Oaks Press.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Winocur, N.
Keywords: review

Here is the first chapter from the book: Krivit, S. and N. Winocur, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion: Real Science, Real Hope, Real Energy. 2004: Pacific Oaks Press. For more information about this book, or to purchase a copy, please see:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/TRCF/AboutTRCF.htm

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2125. Krivit, S. and N. Winocur, Cold Fusion Report (in Chinese). 2004, New Energy Times.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Winocur, N.
Keywords: review,

2126. Krivit, S. and N. Winocur, Cold Fusion Report (in Italian). 2004, New Energy Times.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Winocur, N.
Keywords: review,

2127. Krivit, S. and N. Winocur, O Renascimento da Fusao a frio: Ciencia Real, a esperanca real, Energia reais. 2004: Pacific Oaks Press.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Winocur, N.
Keywords: review

Aqui está o primeiro capítulo do livro de: Krivit, S. e N. Winocur: O Renascer da Fusão a Frio: Ciência Real, Esperança Real, Energia Real. 2004: Pacific Oaks Press. para mais informações sobre este livro, ou para comprar uma cópia, consulte:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/v2/books/RebirthofColdFusion/AboutTRCF.shtmlEm termos simples, a fusão a frio é um fenômeno científico que ocorre em um arranjo experimental a temperatura ambiente e produz energia nuclear, na forma de calor, sem radiação nociva.

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2128. Krivit, S. How Can Cold Fusion Be Real, Considering It Was Disproved By Several Well-Respected Labs In 1989? in 12th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems. 2005. Brussels, Belgium.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: critique

This journalistic investigation into cold fusion follows the work of Eugene Mallove, formerly with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology press office as well as Infinite Energy magazine, and the work of author Charles Beaudette.This paper is the result of a broad survey of original interviews with researchers who have been active in the cold fusion field for the past 15 years, their papers, and references to significant, previously undisclosed cold fusion experiments and audits.This investigation shows that the claims of excess heat were never disproved, in contrast to the generally-held belief at the time. With the benefit of 16 years of progress and hindsight, cold fusion researchers have accumulated convincing evidence to establish the claims of a new, genuine field of science. This investigation shows that the original hope of cold fusion, a new source of energy without harmful radiation, remains. This paper also serves as a brief summary of some of the highlights of the field to date.

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2129. Krivit, S. How Can Cold Fusion Be Real, Considering It Was Disproved By Several Well-Respected Labs In 1989? (PowerPoint slides). in 12th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems. 2005. Brussels, Belgium.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: critique

PowerPoint presentation for the paper with the same title.

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2130. Krivit, S. Cold Fusion, a Journalistic Investigation (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: review,

2131. Krivit, S. Introduction to The Hydraulic-Electrostatic Cold Fusion Method (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: heat,

2132. Krivit, S. Introduction to a new method to initiate cold fusion / condensed matter nuclear reactions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: heat,

2133. Krivit, S. What really happened with cold fusion and why is it coming back? in International Congress of Nanotechnology. 2005. San Francisco, CA.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: review

2134. Krivit, S. What really happened with cold fusion and why is it coming back? (PowerPoint slides). in International Congress of Nanotechnology. 2005. San Francisco, CA.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: review,

2135. Krivit, S. and B. Daviss, Extraordinary Evidence. New Energy Times, 2006(19).

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Daviss, B.
Keywords: Review

This article describes recent experiments at the U.S. Navy San Diego SPAWAR Systems Center, which demonstrated nuclear effects with palladium co-deposition cathodes subjected to magnetic or high voltage fields.This document was copied from:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/news/2006/2006ExtraordinaryEvidence.pdfScientists at the U.S. Navy’s San Diego SPAWAR Systems Center have produced something unique in the 17-year history of the scientific drama historically known as cold fusion: simple, portable, highly repeatable, unambiguous, and permanent physical evidence of nuclear events using detectors that have a long track record of reliability and acceptance among nuclear physicists.

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2136. Krivit, S., Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: The Emergence of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 3-16.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2137. Krivit, S., Low energy nuclear reaction research – Global scenario. Curr. Sci., 2008. 94(7): p. 854.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords: Review

2138. Krivit, S., Introduction, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 3-5.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2139. Krivit, S. and J. Marwan, A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research. J. Environ. Monit., 2009. 11: p. 1731-1746.

First Author: Krivit, S.
All Authors: Krivit, S., Marwan, J.
Keywords: review

This paper presents a new look at low-energy nuclear reaction research, a field that has developed from one of the most controversial subjects in science, cold fusion. Early in the history of this controversy, beginning in 1989, a strong polarity existed; many scientists fiercely defended the claim of new physical effects as well as a new process in which like-charged atomic nuclei overcome the Coulomb barrier at normal temperatures and pressures. Many other scientists considered the entire collection of physical observations — along with the hypothesis of a cold fusion — entirely a mistake. Twenty years later, some people who had dismissed the field in its entirety are considering the validity of at least some of the reported experimental phenomena. As well, some researchers in the field are wondering whether the underlying phenomena may be not a fusion process but a neutron capture/absorption process. In 2002, a related tabletop form of thermonuclear fusion was discovered in the field of acoustic inertial confinement fusion. We briefly review some of this work, as well.

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2140. Kuangding, P. and C. Shanna. The theory of Bose-Einstein condensation in finite system for explanation of cold fusion. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kuangding, P.
All Authors: Kuangding, P., Shanna, C.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-6

2141. Kubota, A., et al. Hydrogen and Deuterium Absorption by Pd Cathode in a Fuel-Cell Type Closed Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kubota, A.
All Authors: Kubota, A., Akita, H., Tsuchida, Y., Saito, T., Haseqawa, N., Imai, N., Hayakawa, N., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, overvoltage, D/Pd, Current Density, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The hydrogen and deuterium loading ratio, H/Pd and D/Pd, in Pd cathode were measured during electrolysis of 1 M LiOD, 1 M LiOH, 2.8M HzS04, 2.8M D2S04, 14.7 M H3P04, 0.57 M K2CO3 in a fuel-cell type closed cell. Cold worked pure Pd (diam. 2 – diam. 5 rods) were used for cathodes. A gas-diffusion type fuel cell anode was used for ionization of hydrogen and deuterium gas. H/Pd or D/Pd was calculated from H2 or D2 gas pressure decrease and temperature during electrolysis under in-situ conditions.The result is summarized as follows; the loading ratio depends on hydrogen overvoltage. D/Pd is smaller than H/Pd by 4 ~ 8% for a given overvoltage. The loading ratio does not depend on electrolyte, but the overvoltage depends on electrolyte for a given current density.

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2142. Kubota, A., et al. Development and Experiments on a Flow Calorimetry System. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kubota, A.
All Authors: Kubota, A., Takama, S., Saito, T., Hasegawa, N., Sukenbu, S., Sumi, M., Asami, N.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, method, ICCF-6

2143. Kubota, A., A. Taniike, and A. Kitamura. Production of High Energy Charged Particles During Deuteron Implantation of Titanium Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kubota, A.
All Authors: Kubota, A., Taniike, A., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: ion implanation, D2, three body, particle emission, energy, theory, ICCF-8

Implantation experiments using 300-keV deuteron beams are performed to study the 3-body reaction in metal deuterides with full use of in situ analyses of the target. The ΔΕ-Ε telescope and the angular correlation measurements of the reaction products are made for TiDx samples prepared with various methods. A portion of the α-particle spectra with a yield ratio of 10^-7 to D(d,p) protons, which is difficult to explain by reactions with impurities and the sequential reactions, is ascribed to the 3D → α + p + n channel.

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2144. Kucherov, Y. Slow Nuclear Excitation Model. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kucherov, Y.
All Authors: Kucherov, Y.
Keywords: Theory, phonon, ICCF-6

2145. Kuehne, R.W., Cold fusion: pros and cons. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 155: p. 467.

First Author: Kuehne, R. W.
All Authors: Kuehne, R. W.
Keywords: Review, critique

2146. Kuehne, R.W., Possible explanations for failures to detect cold fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1991. 159: p. 208.

First Author: Kuehne, R. W.
All Authors: Kuehne, R. W.
Keywords: theory, review, critique, fractofusion

2147. Kuehne, R.W., The possible hot nature of cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 198.

First Author: Kuehne, R. W.
All Authors: Kuehne, R. W.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2148. Kuehne, R.W. and R.E. Sioda, An extended micro hot fusion model for burst activity in deuterated solids. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 187.

First Author: Kuehne, R. W.
All Authors: Kuehne, R. W., Sioda, R. E.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

2149. Kuehne, R.W., Response to “Strange behavior of tritiated natural water”. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 265.

First Author: Kuehne, R. W.
All Authors: Kuehne, R. W.
Keywords: review, critique, fractofusion, theory

2150. Kuji, T., et al., Hydrogen Chemical Potentials and Dislocation Structures Following Quenching of Palladium-Hydrogen Alloys into the Two-Phase Envelope. Scr. Metall., 1985. 19: p. 1369.

First Author: Kuji, T.
All Authors: Kuji, T., Flanagan, T. B., Sakamoto, Y., Hasaka, M.
Keywords: H2, Pd, PdH, solubility, composition, phase diagram

2151. Kuji, T. and T.B. Flanagan, Temperature Dependence of the Chemical Potential of Hydrogen in the Two-phase Coexistence Region of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1985. 81(1): p. 2921.

First Author: Kuji, T.
All Authors: Kuji, T., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, thermodynamic, solubility

2152. Kulakov, A.V., E.V. Orlenko, and A.A. Rumyantsev, Problem of physical mechanism of so-called cold fusion. Power Eng. (USSR Acad. Sci), 1990. 28(1): p. 141.

First Author: Kulakov, A. V.
All Authors: Kulakov, A. V., Orlenko, E. V., Rumyantsev, A. A.
Keywords: theory screening

2153. Kumagai, H., et al., Attempts in detection of neutrons on so-called cold nuclear fusion. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1991. 60: p. 2594.

First Author: Kumagai, H.
All Authors: Kumagai, H., Nakabayashi, S., Yamagata, S., Isomura, S., Ichihara, T., Yoshida, K., Suzuki, T., Takahashi, K., Kira, A., Tanahata, I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O

2154. Kumar, N., Cold fusion: is there a solid state effect? Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 833.

First Author: Kumar, N.
All Authors: Kumar, N.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2155. Kumar, K., et al., Analyses of palladium cathodes used for heavy water electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 178.

First Author: Kumar, K.
All Authors: Kumar, K., Hwang, I. S., Ballinger, R. G., Dauwalter, C. R., Stecyk, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, structure, loading, surface analysis

2156. Kunimatsu, K., et al. Deuterium Loading Ratio and Excess Heat Generation During Electrolysis of Heavy Water by Palladium Cathode in a Closed Cell Using a Partially Immersed Fuel Cell Anode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Kunimatsu, K.
All Authors: Kunimatsu, K., Hasegawa, N., Kubota, A., Imai, N., Ishikawa, M., Akita, H., Tsuchida, Y.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, heat+, overvoltage, electrolysis, ICCF-3

We have developed a novel electrolytic cell pressurized by D2 in which deuterium loading ratio in a palladium cathode can be determined in-situ during the calorimetric measurements of excess heat. A gas diffusion type fuel cell anode is partially immersed in the electrolyte solution to act as a counter electrode, at which electrochemical oxidation of deuterium gas molecules to deuterium ions takes place instead of electrolytic decomposition of water molecules to generate oxygen gas.

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2157. Kunimatsu, K., Current status of room-temperature nuclear fusion. Excess heat measurement. Petrotech. (Tokyo), 1994. 17(12): p. 998 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kunimatsu, K.
All Authors: Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: review

2158. Kunimatsu, K., F. Hasegawa, and N. Furuya, Gaseous-Difusion Electrode and Electrochemical Reactor Using the Same. 1995: US Patent # 5,423,967.

First Author: Kunimatsu, K.
All Authors: Kunimatsu, K., Hasegawa, F., Furuya, N.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O,

2159. Kunimatsu, K., Surface modification of the cathode in the study of cold fusion. Hyomen Gijutsu, 1996. 47(3): p. 218 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kunimatsu, K.
All Authors: Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: loading, heat+

2160. Kuroiwa, K., et al., Experimental investigation on loading ratio D/Pd using high pressure and deuterium glow discharge methods. Rept. Fac. Sci. Eng., Saga Univ., 1997. 26: p. 33 (in Japanese).

First Author: Kuroiwa, K.
All Authors: Kuroiwa, K., Ohtsu, Y., Tochitani, G., Fujita, H.
Keywords: loading, ion bombardment, Pd, D2

2161. Kuss, H.M., Die elektrochemische Kernfusion bleibt unbewiesen! (“Electrochemical nuclear fusion still unproven!”). Chem. Labor Betr., 1989. 40: p. 353 [in German].

First Author: Kuss, H. M.
All Authors: Kuss, H. M.
Keywords: Review

2162. Kuzmann, E., et al., Investigation on the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe-Zr amorphous alloy. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(4): p. 243.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., Varsanyi, M., Korecz, L., Vertes, A., Masumoto, T., Deak, F., Kiss, A., Kiss, L.
Keywords: electrolysis, Fe-Zr, neutron, Mossbauer, gamma emission, D2O

2163. Kuzmann, E., et al. Mossbauer Spectroscopic Charactrization of Samples for Cold Fusion Experiment. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., Gal, M., Sulymos, G. K., Szeles, C. S.
Keywords: superconductor, D2, H2, Mossbauer, ICCF-2, structure

2164. Kuzmann, E., et al. Mossbauer Spectroscopic Charactrization of Samples for Cold Fusion Experiment. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., G·l, M., Sulymos, G. K., Szeles, C. S.
Keywords: superconductor, D2, H2, Mossbauer, ICCF-2, structure

2165. Kuzmann, E., et al. On the Possibility of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Fe-Zr Amorphous Alloy. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1992. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., Vertes, A., Varsanyi, M., Kiss, L., Korecz, L., Deak, F., Kiss, A., Masumoto, T.
Keywords: Fe-Zr, D2O, neutron gamma emission Mossbauer, electrolysis

2166. Kuzmann, E., et al. On the Possibility of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Fe-Zr Amorphous Alloy. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1992. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., Vertes, A., Varsanyi, M., Kiss, L., Korecz, L., Deak, F., Kiss, A., Masumoto, T.
Keywords: Fe-Zr, D2O, neutron gamma emission Mossbauer, electrolysis

2167. Kuzmann, E., et al., Moessbauer study of cold nuclear fusion in Fe-Zr alloy. Hyperfine Interactions, 1992. 71: p. 1417.

First Author: Kuzmann, E.
All Authors: Kuzmann, E., Varsanyi, M., Korecz, L., Vertes, A., Masumoto, T., Ujihira, Y., Kiss, A., Kiss, L.
Keywords: electrolysis Fe-Zr, neutron, gamma emission, Mossbauer

2168. Kuznetsov, V.A., et al. Anomalous Heat Effects and Cold Fusion in KD2PO4 Crystals on the Ferroelectric Phase Transition. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Kuznetsov, V. A.
All Authors: Kuznetsov, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Saunin, E. I., Ivanova, T. S.
Keywords: KD2PO4, Solid Electrolyte, ferroelectric, heat, D2, ICCF-5

The kinetic peculiar features of the phase transition heat (Delta H) have been investigated by the differential scanning calorimetry method in KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 Crystal on transition through the Curie point at preset rates of cooling and heating samples. It has been shown that on reaching a large number of thermal cycles the Delta H values of a KD2PO4 crystal undergoing inversion, so that the value of Delta H(exo) begins to exceed that of Delta H(endo). Such an anomaly of the Delta H behavior is absent in the hydrogen containing analog . . .

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2169. Lacher, J.R., A Theoretical Formula for the Solubility of Hydrogen in Palladium. Royal Society of London Proceedings A, 1937. 161: p. 525.

First Author: Lacher, J. R.
All Authors: Lacher, J. R.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, V, Ta, Ti, Zr, solubility

2170. Laforgue, A. Cold Fusion and Quantum Mechanics. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Laforgue, A.
All Authors: Laforgue, A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

One can explain the cold fusion reaction by a permanent state of collision between the deuterons of the double layer. Each one collides with the total mass of the network with an energy surpassing the potential barrier. This state is determined by the dimension of the quantum mechanical path of deuterons under the Bohr-Heisenberg limit. The discussion of the quantum path of self could be bessered by a new model of quantum mechanical wave corpuscle.

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2171. Lahey, R.T., Sonoluminescence and the Search for Sonofusion (PowerPoint slides). 2005, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute: Troy, NY.

First Author: Lahey, R. T.
All Authors: Lahey, R. T.
Keywords: Sonofusion,

2172. Lakshmanan, A., Excess Energy Release During Na Metal Dissolution in a Dilute Epsom (MgSO4 · 7H2O) Solution. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 64-71.

First Author: Lakshmanan, A.
All Authors: Lakshmanan, A.
Keywords: Cavitation crystallization, Epsom solution, Excess energy release, Explosion, Hydrogen trapping, Na dissolution

During sodium metal dissolution in aqueous Epsom salts, it was accidentally discovered that a massive explosion occurs in 0.85 M Epsom solution on the completion of Na dissolution. Borosil glass vaporizes at temperatures>1000у. This fact indicated that a very high temperature has indeed been reached in this experiment. The timing of the explosion (20-25 s after Na addition) indicated that hydrogen somehow got trapped in cavitation induced meta-stable nano-crystals. The excess energy release could not be explained by conventional hydrogen combustion in air. One must therefore look elsewhere for an explanation of the process behind the excess energy release.

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2173. Lakshmanan, A., Anomalous Heat Energy Released through Cavitation-Coulombic Repulsion Oscillations Following Sodium Metal Dissolution in a Dilute Epsom Solution – Plausible Mechanisms. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 72-85.

First Author: Lakshmanan, A.
All Authors: Lakshmanan, A.
Keywords: Anomalous heat energy release, Cavitation-Coulombic repulsion oscillation, Collision of protons, Exponential build-up

Plausible mechanisms are discussed for explaining the sudden burst of energy released from 0.85MEpsom (MgSO4·7H2O) aqueous solution following sodium metal dissolution which led to the vaporization of the entire system including the glass beaker. Exothermic reactions lead to micro/nano-metastable crystal formation due to steam cavitation. H + 2 molecular ions trapped at Mg2+ ion lattice sites in cavitation-induced metastable crystals were considered as precursors for energy release. In principle, for charge compensation, two protons should occupy one Mg2+ lattice site in these crystals. Therefore, cavitation crystal formation brings in the two protons in molecular ions closer. This process is, however, opposed by Coulombic repulsion between the two protons which results in the collapse of the nanocrystal containing hydrogen. This leads to the release of hydrogen ions into the solution resulting in the release of hydration energy during the formation of H3O+, hydronium ions and in local heating. Stirring distributes the heat energy uniformly in the solution. Local heating, however, leads to the promotion of cavitation – this time with more vigor since additional energy input has occurred. Thus reformation of the crystal takes place quickly and the hydrogen ions are brought together more closer than during the previous occasion which increases the electrostatic repulsive force. As a result, the crystal collapses faster leading to the release of more hydration energy. This is how cavitation gains energy from repulsion. The above cavitation Coulombic repulsion oscillation (CCRO) cycle continues leading to an exponential build-up of the pressure and oscillation speed of the precursors and a decrease in inter-proton separation leading to their collision. Finally a sudden burst of energy witnessed occurs due to cavitation collapse. It remains to be ascertained if the energy release is a consequence of p-p fusion, or other mechanisms proposed which include volume casimir effect, miniature black holes and lattice phonon amplification. The fact that increase in the oscillation speed of the two protons in the proposed H + 2 species is exponential without an upper limit till the end-point is reached should determine the logistics of the underlying mechanism causing the energy release. The p-p fusion should, however, be accompanied by positron emission whose presence could be verified by its annihilation gamma rays or with 5.5 MeV gamma rays produced from HD fusion reactions if energetic deuterium is formed from p-p fusion in amounts commensurate with the energy produced but this fusion process is mediated by weak interaction process and hence is less probable. No other proposal explains burst of energy observed better than the collapse of miniature black holes.

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2174. Lam, D.J. and K.M. Myles, The magnetic susceptibilities of Pd-Cd, Pd-Sn, and Pt-Cu binary alloys. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1966. 21: p. 1503.

First Author: Lam, D. J.
All Authors: Lam, D. J., Myles, K. M.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pd-Cd, Pd-Sb, Pt-Cu

2175. Lam, P.K. and R. Yu, Comment on ‘Cold fusion: How close can deuterium atoms get inside palladium?’. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63: p. 1895.

First Author: Lam, P. K.
All Authors: Lam, P. K., Yu, R.
Keywords: Polemic, critique

2176. Langanke, K., Potential of a deuterium molecule trapped in an external field of screened point charges with fcc-symmetry. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 1031.

First Author: Langanke, K.
All Authors: Langanke, K.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2177. Langanke, K., H.J. Assenbaum, and C. Rolfs, Screening corrections in cold deuterium fusion rates. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 333: p. 317.

First Author: Langanke, K.
All Authors: Langanke, K., Assenbaum, H. J., Rolfs, C.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2178. Langmuir, I., Pathological Science. Physics Today, 1989. October: p. 36.

First Author: Langmuir, I.
All Authors: Langmuir, I.
Keywords: critique

2179. Lanza, F., et al. Tritium Production Resulting From Deuteration of Different Metals and Alloys. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Lanza, F.
All Authors: Lanza, F., Bertolini, G., Vocino, V., Parnisari, E., Ronsecco, C.
Keywords: tritium, Ti, Zr, Hf, Ta, D2, neutron, ICCF-2

Abstract Previous experiments have shown that tritium is produced in deuterated titanium. To define better the phenomenon a series of tests have been performed using various metals and alloys and different deuterating conditions. Sheets and shavings of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr 50% alloy have been tested. A statistical analysis of the tritium production shows that significant differences are obtained varying the type of metal used. Using pure metals the tritium production increases with the increase of the atomic number of the metal. Moreover higher productions of tritium have been obtained using materials of technical purity as tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr alloy.

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2180. Lason, L., et al., Search for neutrons from cold fusion of deuterium absorbed in palladium. Acta Univ. Lodz., Fol. Phys., 1992. 16: p. 3.

First Author: Lason, L.
All Authors: Lason, L., Przytula, M., Wojtkiewicz, R., Baczynski, J., Bauer, J.
Keywords: D2, Pd, neutron

2181. Lasser, R. and K.H. Klatt, Solubility of Hydrogen Isotopes in Palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1983. 28: p. 748.

First Author: Lasser, R.
All Authors: Lasser, R., Klatt, K. H.
Keywords: PdT, PdH, PdD, pressure, phase Diagram, thermodynamic

2182. Lasser, R., Isotope Dependence of Phase Boundaries in the PdH, PdD, and PdT Systems. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1985. 46: p. 33.

First Author: Lasser, R.
All Authors: Lasser, R.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, PdT, phase Boundary, Phase Diagram

2183. Lasser, R. and G.L. Powell, Tritium in Pd and Pd0.08Ag0.20. 1987, NY: Plenum Press.

First Author: Lasser, R.
All Authors: Lasser, R., Powell, G. L.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, H2, D2, tritium, solubility, Phase Diagram, thermodynamic, Pd-Ag

2184. Lautzenhiser, T. and D. Phelps, Cold Fusion: Report on a Recent Amoco Experiment. 1990, Amoco Production Company.

First Author: Lautzenhiser, T.
All Authors: Lautzenhiser, T., Phelps, D
Keywords: Excess heat, tritium

This report will discuss briefly some of the early calorimetric experiments on cold fusion and in more detail, a single experiment just concluded. A closed cell electrolytic experiment has been conducted using a palladium cathode and platinum anode with accurate (+/-0.001 watt) calorimetric measurements. Results indicate a positive energy output of approximately 50 Kilojoules more than was input to the experiment through electrolysis current and heater current. The heat output was observed both as short term bursts of energy and as long term sustained production. Colorimetric calibration with an internal heat source showed essentially identical data before and after the electrolysis experiment. Material balance for palladium, water and lithium showed essentially no material had been consumed during the experiment. Tritium levels measured before and after electrolysis showed a factor of 3 increase that cannot be accounted for by concentration effects.

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2185. Lautzenhiser, T., D. Phelps, and M. Eisner. Constant Heat Flow Calorimeter. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Lautzenhiser, T.
All Authors: Lautzenhiser, T., Phelps, D, Eisner, M.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

A constant heat flow calorimeter is described and its application to a Fleischmann-Pons experiment is detailed. In this calorimeter the electrolytic cell is contained in an isothermal chamber into which electrical power is fed from two separate sources. One source feeds biasing power Paux to an auxiliary resistive element located in the chamber while the other source provides, Pe, the electrochemical power requirements for the cell. The cell temperature T1 is maintained at its set point by varying Paux as needed. Clearly power needs to be removed from the cell if a steady state is to be maintained and this is accomplished by inducing heat flow through a thermal link to a reference body whose temperature T2 is less than T1. . . .

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2186. Lawandy, N.M., Interactions of charged particles on surfaces. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2009. 95(23).

First Author: Lawandy, N. M.
All Authors: Lawandy, N. M.
Keywords:

Charges of the same polarity bound to a surface with a large dielectric contrast exhibit an attractive long-range Coulomb interaction, which leads to a two-particle bound state. Ensembles of like charges experience a collective long-range interaction, which results in compacted structures with interparticle separations that can be orders of magnitude smaller than the equilibrium separation of the pair potential minimum. Simulations indicate that ensembles of surface bound nuclei, such as D or T, exhibit separations small enough to result in significant rates of fusion.

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2187. Lawson, A.C., et al., Strain and particle size of palladium metal powders. Adv. in X-ray Analysis, 1990. 33: p. 403.

First Author: Lawson, A. C.
All Authors: Lawson, A. C., Conant, J. W., Talcott, C. L., David, M. A., Vaninetti, J., Goldstone, J. A., Williams, A., Roof, R. B., Von Dreele, R. B.
Keywords: strain, particle-size, Pd

2188. Lawson, D.R., et al., Use of a coulometric assay technique to study the variables affecting deuterium loading levels within palladium electrodes. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36: p. 1515.

First Author: Lawson, D. R.
All Authors: Lawson, D. R., Tierney, M. J., Cheng, I. F., Van Dyke, L. S., Espenscheid, M. W., Martin, C. R.
Keywords: loading, Pd, method

2189. Lawson, A.C., et al., Debye-Waller factors of PdDx materials by neutron powder diffraction. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1992. 183: p. 174.

First Author: Lawson, A. C.
All Authors: Lawson, A. C., Conant, J. W., Robertson, R., Rohwer, R. K., Young, V. A., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: PdD, lattice parameter, thermal expansion, structure, neutron diffraction

2190. Leary, W.E., Recent Tests Said To Justify More Cold Fusion Research, in The New York Times. 1989: NYEditor. p. 10.

First Author: Leary, W. E.
All Authors: Leary, W. E.
Keywords: history, newspaper

2191. Lecci, S., et al. Material Database for Electrochemical Loading Experiments at ENEA. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Lecci, S.
All Authors: Lecci, S., Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F., Violante, V.
Keywords:

A large number of palladium cathodes have been crafted, in many years, to perform chemical loading experiments. These cathodes underwent, very often, different production processes, characterization procedures and experimental conditions. The need to keep trace of all the steps of the “life” of a cathode was the starting point for the creation of a database. The information stored in this useful archive puts us in condition of easily compare different cathodes and try to correlate their experimental behavior with their history.

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2192. Lee, M. and R. Glosser, Pressure Concentration Isotherms of Thin Films of the Pd-H System as Modified by Film Thickness , Hydrogen Cycling , and Stress. J. Appl. Phys., 1985. 57: p. 5236.

First Author: Lee, M.
All Authors: Lee, M., Glosser, R.
Keywords: PdH, H2, thin layer, Phase Diagram, solubility, pressure

2193. Lee, M. and R. Glosser, Resistivity of Thin Films of the Palladium-Hydrogen System as a Function of Film Thickness. Zeitschrift fur Physik. Chemie, 1986. 147: p. 27.

First Author: Lee, M.
All Authors: Lee, M., Glosser, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, resistivity, layer PdH

2194. Lee, A.R. and T.M. Kalotas, On the feasibility of cold fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102(4): p. 1177.

First Author: Lee, A. R.
All Authors: Lee, A. R., Kalotas, T. M.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2195. Lee, K.P., et al., Cold Fusion. Anal. Sci. & Technol., 1991. 4(1): p. 103 (in Korean).

First Author: Lee, K. P.
All Authors: Lee, K. P., Kim, S. W., Choi, K. U., Hwang, S. T.
Keywords: Review

2196. Lee, K.H. and Y.M. Kim. The Change of Tritium Concentration during the Electrolysis of D2O in Various Electrolytic Cells. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Lee, K. H.
All Authors: Lee, K. H., Kim, Y. M.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The U-type and bell jar type electrolytic cells were designed using pyrex glass and modified for recombination of gases with platinum catalysts. The electrolysis of LiOD/D2O in V-type cell yielded more final activities in Pt/Pd system than Pt/Pt system. Some electrolysis of LiOD/D2O in Pt/Pd showed the increase of 3T above 100%. The separation factor of D/T in electrolysis was not measured directly but assumed 2 ~ 3 from literature. The increase of 3T can not be explained with the isotope separation effect.But in the modified cells with recombination, the electrolysis yielded no significant increase of final tritium activities in the total system. In this case, recombined D2O was collected separately and total 3T activities were obtained by combining this with residue in D2O electrolytes.Finally, bell jar type closed cells were designed with recombination catalysts. And palladium electrode was covered by different porous materials. After 10 days of electrolysis with a change of current density, one cell showed the increase of 3T activities significantly.

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2197. Lee, K.H., H.J. Jang, and S.J. Kim, A Change of Tritium Content in D2O Solutions during Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Lee, K. H.
All Authors: Lee, K. H., Jang, H. J., Kim, S. J.
Keywords: Electrolysis, Palladium co-deposition, Tritium

In this study electrochemical co-deposition of Pd/D on nickel electrodes was performed to determine whether a nuclear fusion reaction occurs in the palladium deposit. Co-deposition was performed with a palladium salt/D2O solution. The content of tritium in D2O solution was varied depending on the electrolysis procedure during co-deposition. A comparison between the co-deposition of Pd/D and the simple electrolysis of D2O was performed to investigate the change of tritium concentration in the D2O solution.

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2198. Leggett, A.J. and G. Baym, Exact upper bounds on barrier penetration probabilities in many-body systems: application to ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(2): p. 191.

First Author: Leggett, A. J.
All Authors: Leggett, A. J., Baym, G.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling

2199. Leggett, A.J. and G. Baym, Can solid-state effects enhance the cold-fusion rate? Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 45.

First Author: Leggett, A. J.
All Authors: Leggett, A. J., Baym, G.
Keywords: Theory, Born-Oppenheimer

2200. Leisure, R.G., L.A. Nygren, and D.K. Hsu, Ultrasonic relaxation rates in palladium hydride and palladium deuteride. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1986. 33: p. 8325.

First Author: Leisure, R. G.
All Authors: Leisure, R. G., Nygren, L. A., Hsu, D. K.
Keywords: diffusion, PdD, PdH, ultrasonic, accustic

2201. LENR-CANR, The DoE Lies Again. 2005, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: LENR-CANR
All Authors: LENR-CANR
Keywords: Review

The DoE promised to evaluate cold fusion claims fairly, twice. Both times, when given a chance to keep the promise, the DoE failed.

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2202. Letts, D. and D. Cravens. Laser Stimulation Of Deuterated Palladium: Past And Present. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

A method is disclosed to fabricate a Palladium cathode that can be electrolyzed in heavy water and stimulated with a laser at a predetermined wavelength to produce apparent excess power; the fabrication method involves cold working, polishing, etching and annealing the Palladium prior to electrolytic loading with Deuterium. Loading is accomplished with the cathode sitting in a magnetic field of 350 Gauss. After loading the cathode with Deuterium, Gold is co-deposited electrolytically on the cathode. When a coating of Gold is visible on the cathode, co-deposition is halted and the cathode is stimulated with a low-power laser with a maximum power of 30 milliwatts. The thermal response of the cathode is typically 500 mW with maximum output observed of approximately 1 watt. The effect is repeatable when protocols are followed and has been demonstrated in several laboratories.

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2203. Letts, D. and D. Cravens. Laser Stimulation Of Deuterated Palladium: Past And Present (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

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2204. Letts, D. and D. Cravens. Cathode fabrication methods to reproduce the Letts-Cravens effect (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 5th Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2004. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: palladium, recipie, excess heat

A method is disclosed to fabricate a Palladium cathode that can be electrolyzed in heavy water and stimulated with a laser at a predetermined wavelength to produce apparent excess power; the fabrication method involves cold working, polishing, etching and annealing the Palladium prior to electrolytic loading with Deuterium. Loading is accomplished with the cathode sitting in a magnetic field of 350 Gauss. After loading the cathode with Deuterium, Gold is co-deposited electrolytically on the cathode. When a coating of Gold is visible on the cathode, co-deposition is halted and the cathode is stimulated with a low-power laser with a maximum power of 30 milliwatts. The thermal response of the cathode is typically 500 mW with maximum output observed of approximately 1 watt. The effect is repeatable when protocols are followed and has been demonstrated in several laboratories.This file includes the paper, the PowerPoint slides, and another set of PowerPoint slides describing the dual laser cell fabrication technique.

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2205. Letts, D., D. Cravens, and P.L. Hagelstein, Thermal Changes in Palladium Deuteride Induced by Laser Beat Frequencies, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 337-352.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Cravens, D., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

2206. Letts, D. and P.L. Hagelstein. Stimulation of Optical Phonons in Deuterated Palladium. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: heat

Progress made since 2007 in the triggering of excess power by terahertz stimulation of deuterated palladium is reported. The stimulation was provided by tuning dual lasers to one of three specific beat frequencies corresponding to the known optical phonon frequencies of deuterated palladium (8, 15, 20 THz).Results imply that optical phonons may be involved in the Fleischmann-Pons effect, giving preliminary support to Hagelstein’s phonon theory. The importance of laser beam polarization is also demonstrated, confirming earlier work reported by Violante et al., and by Letts and Cravens.

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2207. Letts, D., D. Cravens, and P.L. Hagelstein, Dual Laser Stimulation and Optical Phonons in Palladium Deuteride, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 81-93.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Cravens, D., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

2208. Letts, D., Codeposition Methods: A Search for Enabling Factors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 81-92.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D.
Keywords: Excess power, Palladium, Seebeck calorimeter

This paper is a preliminary report on results obtained from a series of experiments conductedApril-September 2009. The experiments were designed to test for excess power using the basic methods disclosed in 1991 by Szpak, Mossier-Boss and Smith. A large and repeatable excess power signal was observed and the efforts to test mundane explanations for the signal are described. The design, fabrication and calibration methods of a new type of Seebeck calorimeter used for these experiments are also disclosed.

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2209. Letts, D. and P.L. Hagelstein, Modified Szpak Protocol for Excess Heat. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 44-54.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Codeposition, Deuterium, Excess power, Palladium, Seebeck calorimetry, Vacancies

In recent theoretical work, vacancies in PdD have been shown to be able to host molecular D2, which is conjectured to be necessary for excess heat in Fleischmann-Pons experiments. Vacancies in the original Fleischmann-Pons experiment are proposed to be created through inadvertent codeposition at high loading. This suggests that a better approach should be to focus on experiments in which Pd codeposition is controlled, such as in the Szpak experiment. Unfortunately, the Szpak experiment has proven difficult to replicate, and we conjecture that this is due to low D/Pd loading. A modified protocol has been tested in which codeposition is carried out at higher current density with a lower PdCl2 concentration. Positive results have been obtained in all of the tests done with this protocol so far.

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2210. Letts, D., Remembering John Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D.
Keywords: Bockris, Cold fusion, Letts, RF, Triggering

This brief note recalls the authors first interaction with Professor John Bockris in 1992 and how well Bockris could communicate lasting scientific truth.

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2211. Letts, D., Highly reproducible LENR experiments using dual laser stimulation. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Letts, D.
All Authors: Letts, D.
Keywords:

2212. Levi, B.G., Doubts Grow as Many Attempts at Cold Fusion Fail. Physics Today, 1989. June: p. 17.

First Author: Levi, B. G.
All Authors: Levi, B. G.
Keywords: history, review

2213. Levi, G. and D. Bianchini, Report on heat production during preliminary tests on the Rossi “Ni-H” reactor. 2011, Bologna University.

First Author: Levi, G.
All Authors: Levi, G., Bianchini, D.
Keywords: heat

In this first and preliminary document are reported the heat production measures done during two short tests done on December 16 2010 [Test 1] and January 14 2011 [Test 2].

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2214. Levi, G., et al., Teste experimental de um dispositivo mini-Rossi na corporacao Leonardo, Bologna 29 de marco de 2011. 2011, Bologna University.

First Author: Levi, G.
All Authors: Levi, G., Bianchini, D., Leonardi, C., Essen, H., Kullander, S., Rossi, A., Focardi, S.
Keywords: heat

Relatório do evento por Hanno Essen e Kullander Sven, 03 de abril de 2011.Nós nos reunimos no edifício da Corporação Leonardo, onde o aparelho de 10 kW para a produção de energia anômala pelo níquel e hidrogênio foi demonstrada durante uma conferência de imprensa em 14 de janeiro. Referências [1] a [4] para os artigos originais descrevendo a inovação são listados no final. No mesmo edifício, foram colocadas duas instalações CHP, com base no biodiesel a partir de resíduos que Andrea Rossi, tinha desenvolvido antes de sua atividade em Ni-H presente.

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2215. Levi, G., et al., Indication of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder. 2013, Bologna University xxxx://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3913v1.

First Author: Levi, G.
All Authors: Levi, G., Foschi, E., Hartman, T., Hoistad, B., Pettersson, R., Tegner, L., Essen, H.
Keywords: heat

This document copied from:xxxx://arxiv.org/abs/1305.3913v1An experimental investigation of possible anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube named E-Cat HT is carried out. The reactor tube is charged with a small amount of hydrogen loaded nickel powder plus some additives. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils inside the reactor tube. Measurement of the produced heat was performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras, recording data every second from the hot reactor tube. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three phase power analyzer. Data were collected in two experimental runs lasting 96 and 116 hours, respectively. An anomalous heat production was indicated in both experiments.

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2216. Levi, G., et al., Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device and of isotopic changes in the fuel. 2014, Bologna University.

First Author: Levi, G.
All Authors: Levi, G., Foschi, E., Hoistad, B., Pettersson, R., Tegner, L., Essen, H.
Keywords:

New results are presented from an extended experimental investigation of anomalous heat production in a special type of reactor tube operating at high temperatures. The reactor, named E-Cat, is charged with a small amount of hydrogen-loaded nickel powder plus some additives, mainly Lithium. The reaction is primarily initiated by heat from resistor coils around the reactor tube. Measurements of the radiated power from the reactor were performed with high-resolution thermal imaging cameras. The measurements of electrical power input were performed with a large bandwidth three-phase power analyzer. Data were collected during 32 days of running in March 2014. The reactor operating point was set to about 1260ºC in the first half of the run, and at about 1400 у in the second half. The measured energy balance between input and output heat yielded a COP factor of about 3.2 and 3.6 for the 1260ºC and 1400ºC runs, respectively. The total net energy obtained during the 32 days run was about 1.5 MWh. This amount of energy is far more than can be obtained from any known chemical sources in the small reactor volume. A sample of the fuel was carefully examined with respect to its isotopic composition before the run and after the run, using several standard methods: XPS, EDS, SIMS, ICP-MS and ICP-AES. The isotope composition in Lithium and Nickel was found to agree with the natural composition before the run, while after the run it was found to have changed substantially. Nuclear reactions are therefore indicated to be present in the run process, which however is hard to reconcile with the fact that no radioactivity was detected outside the reactor during the run.

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2217. Lewan, M., Swedish physicists on the E-cat: “It’s a nuclear reaction”, in NyTeknik. 2011: Stockholm, Sweden.

First Author: Lewan, M.
All Authors: Lewan, M.
Keywords: Heat

2218. Lewan, M., Cold Fusion: 18 hour test excludes combustion, in NyTeknik. 2011: Stockholm, Sweden.

First Author: Lewan, M.
All Authors: Lewan, M.
Keywords: Heat

2219. Lewan, M., Cold fusion: Observing researcher wants more tests, in NyTeknik. 2011: Stockholm, Sweden.

First Author: Lewan, M.
All Authors: Lewan, M.
Keywords: Heat

2220. Lewan, M., Kall fusion — nu ska den vara klar för produktion, in NyTeknik. 2011: Stockholm, Sweden.

First Author: Lewan, M.
All Authors: Lewan, M.
Keywords: Heat

2221. Lewenstein, B.V., Preserving data about the knowledge creation process. Developing an archive on the cold fusion controversy. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 1991. 13: p. 79.

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: history, bibliography

2222. Lewenstein, B.V. and W. Baur, A cold fusion chronology. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1991. 152: p. 273.

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V., Baur, W.
Keywords: history, review

2223. Lewenstein, B.V., Cold fusion saga: Lesson in science. Forum Appl. Res. Public Policy, 1992. 7(4): p. 67.

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: history

2224. Lewenstein, B.V., Cold fusion and hot history. Osiris, 1992. 7: p. 135.

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: history

2225. Lewenstein, B.V., La saga de la fusion froide” (The cold fusion saga). Recherche, 1994. 25: p. 636 (in French).

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: history

2226. Lewenstein, B.V., Do public electronic bulletin boards help create scientific knowledge? The cold fusion case. Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1995. 20: p. 123.

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: history

2227. Lewenstein, B.V., From Fax to Facts: Communication in the Cold Fusion Saga. Social Studies of Science, 1995. 25(403-36).

First Author: Lewenstein, B. V.
All Authors: Lewenstein, B. V.
Keywords: sociology, review, history

2228. Lewins, J.D., The fusion trail goes cold. Nucl. Eng. (Inst. Nucl. Eng.), 1989. 30: p. 6.

First Author: Lewins, J. D.
All Authors: Lewins, J. D.
Keywords: history, discussion

2229. Lewis, F.A., The Hydrides of Palladium and Palladium Alloys. Pt. Met. Rev., 1960. 4-5: p. 132.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: PdH, review, Phase Diagram, diffusion

2230. Lewis, F.A., The Palladium Hydrogen System. 1967, New York: Academic Press.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: PdH, review, structure, thermodynamic, phase diagram, lattice parameter, pressure,

2231. Lewis, F.A., The hydrides of palladium and palladium alloys. Pt. Met. Rev., 1968. 4/5: p. 61.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, Phase Diagram, H, loading

2232. Lewis, F.A., A. Obermann, and G. Hodes, Hydrogen Overpotential and Underpotential at Palladium-Black and Platinum-Black Surfaces. Surf. Technol., 1976. 4: p. 79.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., Obermann, A., Hodes, G.
Keywords: Pd, Pt, overvoltage, H, Pd-black, Pt-black

2233. Lewis, F.A., W.F.N. Leitch, and A. Murray, Electrolytic Hydrogen Isotope Separation Factors and Efficiency of Exchange Between D2O and Hydrogen (Protium) at Palladium Electrodes. Sur. Technol., 1978. 7: p. 385.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., Leitch, W. F. N., Murray, A.
Keywords: Pd, separation factor, H/D

2234. Lewis, F.A., W.D. McFall, and T.C. Witherspoon, Hysteresis of Pressure-Composition and Electrical Resistance-Composition Relationships of Palladium/Hydrogen and Palladium Alloy/Hydrogen Systems. Z. Phys. Chemie, 1979. 114: p. 239.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., McFall, W. D., Witherspoon, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, H, Lattice Parameter, Phase Diagram, resistance, PdH

2235. Lewis, F.A., Molecular Hydrogen Diffusion Overpotential and Local Cells Hydrogen Transfer Processes at Electrodes of Palladium , Palladium Alloys and Other Transition Metals , And Implications for Theories of Hydrogen Overpotential. Sur. Technol., 1980. 11: p. 1.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, review

2236. Lewis, F.A., et al., Electrolytic Hydrogen Isotope Separation Factors Within Low Voltage Hydrogen Transfer Cells. Surf. Technol., 1981. 13: p. 101.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., Kirkpatrick, J. H., Letch, W. F. N., Magennis, J., Obermann, A.
Keywords: Separation Factor, electrolysis, PdD, PdH, hydrogen, deuterium

2237. Lewis, F.A., The Palladium-Hydrogen System. Platinum Met. Rev., 1982. 26: p. 121.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, pressure, Diffusion

2238. Lewis, F.A., K. Kandasamy, and B. Baranowski, The “Uphill” Diffusion of Hydrogen: Strain-Gradient-Induced Effects in Palladium Alloy Membranes. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1988. 13: p. 439.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., Kandasamy, K., Baranowski, B.
Keywords: diffusion, H2, Pd, PdH, strain

2239. Lewis, N.S., et al., Searches for low-temperature nuclear fusion of deuterium in palladium. Nature (London), 1989. 340(6234): p. 525.

First Author: Lewis, N. S.
All Authors: Lewis, N. S., Barnes, C. A., Heben, M. J., Kumar, A., Lunt, S. R., McManis, G. E., Miskelly, G. M., Penner, R. M., Sailor, M. J., Santangelo, P. G., Shreve, G. A., Tufts, .B. J., Youngquist, M. G., Kavanagh, R. W., Kellogg, S. E., Vogelaar, R. B., Wang, T. R., Kondrat, R., New, R.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat-, neutron-, gamma emission tritium-, helium electrolysis

2240. Lewis, L.N., P.G. Kosky, and N. Lewis, On the search for non-electrochemical cold fusion: production of D2 off of high surface area Pd colloid. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1990. 145: p. 81.

First Author: Lewis, L. N.
All Authors: Lewis, L. N., Kosky, P. G., Lewis, N.
Keywords: loading heat, neutron gamma emission, method

2241. Lewis, D. and K. Sk’ld, A phenomenological study of the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 294: p. 275.

First Author: Lewis, D.
All Authors: Lewis, D., Sk’ld, K.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat, neutron, D2O, Pd, tritium

2242. Lewis, D., Some regularities and coincidences in thermal, electrochemical and radiation phenomena observed in experiments at Studsvik on the Fleischmann-Pons effect. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 316: p. 353.

First Author: Lewis, D.
All Authors: Lewis, D.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, D2O

2243. Lewis, F.A., S.G. McGee, and R.A. McNicholl, Limits of hydrogen contents introduced by electrolysis into palladium and palladium-rich alloys. Z. Phys. Chem., 1993. 179: p. 63.

First Author: Lewis, F. A.
All Authors: Lewis, F. A., McGee, S. G., McNicholl, R. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, loading, pressure, OCV, Pd

2244. Lewis, E., Comments on ‘Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system’. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 242.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: theory, plasmoids charge cluster

2245. Lewis, E., Reply to “Comments on ‘Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system'”. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 266.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: Thaory, plasmoids

2246. Lewis, E., Evidence of micrometre-sized plasmoid emission during electrolysis cold fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 107.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: plasmoids theory

2247. Lewis, E. “Cold Fusion” May Be Part Of A Scientific Revolution. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: Review

Paradigm shifts in physics have occurred at about 80-year intervals for the past 500 years. The periodicity of the paradigm shifts is due to the constraints of inhibition of apprehension and the difference between theoreticians and technicians, so that there is a three-generation periodicity. The various phenomena called “cold fusion” and associated physical anomalies are the grounds for another scientific revolution. If the historical pattern of paradigm development continues into the future, we can make predictions about this new physics and its economic effects. The Fluid Theory, Field Theory, and Q.M-Relativity Theory paradigms each led to an industrial revolution that happened about 55 or 80 years afterward.

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2248. Lewis, E. The Ball Lightning State In Cold Fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: Ball Lightning

There is evidence of microscopic ball lightning in the most common kinds of cold fusion and transmutation experiments. Photographs of BL effects from four groups are shown in this article. There is a state of existence of material and energy like that of ball lighting. Common characteristics and effects of ball lightning are described, as are simple hypotheses and conjectures.

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2249. Lewis, E. Evidence of Microscopic Ball Lightning in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: theory

2250. Lewis, E. Cold Fusion in the Context of a Scientific Revolution in Physics: History and Economic Ramifications. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: Review

2251. Lewis, E. Microscopic Ball Lightning. in Ninth International Symposium on Ball Lightning. 2006. Eindhoven, Netherlands.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: theory

Microscopic ball lightning, smaller than a tenth of a millimeter, has been produced by electrical discharge and electrolysis experiments. It shares the anomalous characteristics of natural ball lightning such as the ability to bore holes in materials and transmute atoms. It groups and organizes in the same way as natural ball lightning, in chains and rings. It has anomalous effects on materials, putting atoms into an anomalous state in which the atoms flow, move, organize, and transmute. Atoms in this state may move with very little heat in their environment. Pictures of microscopic ball lightning effects from various authors are included in this article to help describe the behavior of the phenomenon.

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2252. Lewis, E. The Eighty Year Periodicity of Scientific Revolutions and What It Means for the Cold Fusion Field. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: review

About 19 years ago, I developed a theory of scientific revolutions and economic depressions that allowed predictions that have been accurate. This general theory allows one to understand how the new plasmoid paradigm may develop over the next 100 years, if science continues to develop in the eighty year pattern it has had for the last 600 years. During the next 20 years, younger people may accept the new paradigm and develop the physical theories. About 40 years from now, if the paradigm is accepted by society, inventors and technicians will begin to invent the paradigm’s major inventions. Along with explaining the economic and scientific predictions of this theory, this paper describes the history of plasmoid research relating to the cf/LENR field.  Of particular interest to people nowadays, twenty years ago this model accurately predicted the timing and characteristics of the economic depressionary period that is starting now. This model ties the economic long-wave cycle to scientific revolutions in physics.

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2253. Lewis, E. Evidence of Ball Lightning — A Survey of Some Recent Experimental Papers Describing Microscopic Objects Associated with Transmutation Phenomena. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: review

Eight or 9 groups of researchers have reported that transmutation experiments are associated with the emission of anomalous objects that cause anomalous markings. Since the year 2000, Urutskoev et al., Savvatimova, Ivoilov, and Adamenko have published similar results, and several scientists are speculating that these emitted objects are Lochak monopoles. Plastic targets like CR-39 and nuclear emulsions of various kinds are used by researchers as a way to detect various particles and objects, and people are finding anomalous markings on their detectors and on their electrodes. Before them, Matsumoto, Shoulders and I reported finding similar markings in transmutation experiments. I found such markings on the components of an electrolysis cell [1]. I hypothesized that microscopic ball lightning is produced in transmutation experiments. Matsumoto accepted this idea when I told him, and Savvatimova and Urutskoev acknowledge that they have found tracks similar to those in the photographs published by Matsumoto [2, 3]. Their transmutation results are similar also. During this decade, several groups investigated these objects that evidence the characteristics and behavior of ball lightning.

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2254. Lewis, E., Traces of Ball Lightings in Apparatus. Infinite Energy, 2009(83).

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: theory

Researchers of electrical discharge and electrolysis experiments have been finding microscopic markings that are unusual and anomalous. These markings are made by microscopic objects that are in the size range of 400 micrometers to 1 micrometer. These objects are a type of microscopic ball lightning. They share the anomalous characteristics of natural ball lightning (BL). Pictures of the markings and anomalous effects that were taken by six groups of researchers are shown and explained in this article.

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2255. Lewis, E., Tracks of Ball Lightning in Apparatus? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords:

Researchers of electrical discharge and electrolysis experiments have been finding microscopic markings that are unusual and anomalous. It is possible that these markings are made by microscopic objects that are in the size range of 400-0.1 Åm. These objects may be a type of microscopic ball lightning. They may share the anomalous characteristics of natural ball lightning. They are also finding highly anomalous material activity and emissions. Pictures of the markings and anomalous effects that were taken by six groups of researchers are shown and interpreted in this article.

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2256. Lewis, E., More Evidence of Microscopic Ball Lightning (Plasmoids) in CF Devices. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Lewis, E.
All Authors: Lewis, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Microscopic ball lightning, Plasmoids, Traces, Tracks, Transmutation

The traces and marks of micrometer-sized plasmoids have been found in many transmutation and cold fusion experiments. This author has counted about 12 groups that have published photographs that show such microscopic markings on their electrodes, experimental apparatus, X-ray films, or particle track-detecting nuclear emulsions. Twenty years ago, this author proposed a theory that these objects will be commonly produced in these kinds of devices. A survey article of such markings and traces exhibited in various experiments from the year 2000 to 2007 was published in this journal in 2009. In it, the author compared the markings to those previously detected by T. Matsumoto and K. Shoulders. In this letter, markings and features that were published more recently by Mosier-Boss et al. and Adamenko et al. are described. The author believes that this kind of highly anomalous microscopic plasmoid is similar to macroscopic natural ball lightning and so calls these objects “microscopic ball lightning.” The author proposes that more focus on investigating these objects will greatly enhance the researchers’ understanding of the processes involved in atomic transmutations.

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2257. Li, X.Z., An Introduction to Cold Fusion, in Science Daily. 1990.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Review

Review of cold fusion, in Chinese.

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2258. Li, X.Z., et al. The Precursor of “Cold Fusion” Phenomenon in Deuterium/Solid Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Dong, S. Y., Wang, K. L., Feng, Y., Luo, C., Hu, R., Zhou, P., Mo, D., Zhu, Y., Song, C., Chen, Y., Yao, M., Ren, C., Chen, Q.
Keywords: particle emission, X-ray, CR-39, D2, Pd

It is suggested that detecting the precursor of the “cold fusion” phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems will help solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of first step in this direction are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. It has been shown that the surface condition has an important impact on this phenomenon.

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2259. Li, X.Z. Chinese Effort in Understanding the “Cold Fusion” Phenomena. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: review, China, ICCF-2

2260. Li, X.Z. Cold Fusion Researches in China-From Confirmation to Analyzing the Mechanism. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: review, China, Gas Discharge, neutron, ICCF-3

While the number of activities was decreasing. the quality of the research activities on cold fusion was improved in the third year. Neutron em issions from the glow discharge tu be with flowing deuterium gas a readdressed to confirm the a nomalous nuclear phenomen on. “Combined Resonance Tunneling” and the concept of “Semi-Resonance” are proposed to be the possible mechanism.

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2261. Li, X.Z., D.Z. Jin, and L. Chang. The Combined Resonance Tunneling and Semi-Resonance Level in Low Energy D-D Reaction. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Jin, D. Z., Chang, L.
Keywords: theory tunneling, ICCF-3

When nuclear potential wells are connected by an atomic potential well, a new kind of tunneling may happen even if there is no virtual energy level in nuclear potential wells. The necessary condition for this combined residence tunneling is a residence in the atomic potential well. Thus, the nuclear reaction may be affected by the action in atomic scale in terms of combined residence tunneling. The nuclear spectrum data support this idea.

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2262. Li, X.Z., et al., Anomalous nuclear phenomena and solid state nuclear track detector. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1993. 22: p. 599.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Mo, D. W., Zhang, L., Wang, S. C., Kang, T. S., Liu, S. J., Wang, J.
Keywords: D2, Pd, particle emission, CR-39

2263. Li, X.Z. Searching for Truth with High Expectations – 5 Year Studies of Cold Fusion in China. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: review

2264. Li, X.Z., The 3-Dimensional Resonance Tunneling in Chemically Assisted Nuclear Fission and Fusion Reactions. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 480.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory tunneling

2265. Li, X.Z., REVISIT TO GAMOW FACTOR. 1995.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory, Resonance, Gamow Factor, Coulomb Barrier, grain Size

2266. Li, X.Z. Solving the Puzzle of Excess Heat without Strong Nuclear Radiation. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory, boson, resonance, ICCF-5

Five experimental evidences show that the excess heat is from a nuclear source with a life-time of 10^4 seconds. This life-time is shown to be related to the barrier penetration number . . . . in terms of the resonance penetration theory. The boson nature qf the deuteron ion (D+), and the deuteron energy band structure in lattice play the critical roles in filling the corresponding narrow resonance energy level. Prof. J. Huizenga’s challenge of three miracles!l) is answered, and “excess heat” without strong nuclear radiation is a reasonable phenomenon. It predicts: ( 1 ) there must be a critical loading ratio; (2) the greater the grain size and the activation energy are, the better the reproducibility.

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2267. Li, X.Z. Tunneling the Coulomb barrier via lattice confined ions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory Gamow tunneling, ICCF-5

2268. Li, X.Z., Excess Heat Measurement in Gass-Loading D/Pd System. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 34.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: heat,, D2,, gas,, Pd

2269. Li, X.Z., A New Approach Towards Fusion Energy with No Strong Nuclear Radiation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 44.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: review,

2270. Li, X.Z., et al. “Excess Heat” Measurement in Gas-loading D/Pd System. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Yue, W., Huang, G. S., Shi, H., Gao, L., Liu, M., Bu, F. S.
Keywords: excess heat

A gas-loading DPd system has been designed to measure the “excess heat”. The prehinary result has shown that the calorimetric feature of the DPd system is distinct fiom that of its twin WPd system. The difference between these twin systems can be attributed to the “excess heat” of the order of watts per cubic centimeter of palladium.

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2271. Li, X.Z., et al. “Fine Tuning” Mechanism for Resonance Tunneling in D/Pd Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Huang, G. S., Bian, Z. G., Yang, J.
Keywords: Theory

A “Fine Tuning” parameter is introduced to describe how an extremely narrow energy level in the nuclear potential well is able to keep itselfin resonance with the energy level in the lattice potential well. The good agreement between theoretical expectation and the experimental observation provides an additional evidence for the “resonance penetration of Coulomb barrier via lattice confined deuterons”, and suggests the key to enhance the reproducibility of “excess heat”.

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2272. Li, X.Z., A new approach towards nuclear fusion without strong nuclear radiation. Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys., 1996. 16(2): p. 1 (in Chinese).

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Theory, resonance tunneling

2273. Li, D., The measuring principle and the experimental method of the cold fusion – reaction cross section. Jishou Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban, 1996. 17(3): p. 65 (in Chinese).

First Author: Li, D.
All Authors: Li, D.
Keywords: theory

2274. Li, X.Z., et al. New Measurements of Excess Heat in a Gas Loaded D-Pd System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Huang, G. S., Yu, W. Z.
Keywords: heat, gas, D2, Pd, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2275. Li, X.Z., C.X. Li, and H.F. Huang, Maximum value of the resonant tunneling current through the Coulomb barrier. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 324.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Li, C. X., Huang, H. F.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling

2276. Li, X.Z., Overcoming of the Gamow tunneling insufficiencies by maximizing the damp-matching resonant tunneling. Czech. J. Phys., 1999. 49: p. 985.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory, tunneling, Gamow

2277. Li, X.Z., et al. Coherence in Cold and Hot Fusion. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Mei, M. Y., Tian, J., Cao, D. X., Li, C. X.
Keywords: theory, coherence, d-t, cross section, ICCF-8

2278. Li, X.Z., et al. Nuclear Transmutation in Pd Deuteride. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Yan, Y. J., Tian, J., Mei, M. Y., Deng, Y., Yu, W. Z., Tang, G. Y., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: Pd, transmutation, D2O, electrolysis, surface analysis, ICCF-8

2279. Li, X.Z., et al., Sub-barrier fusion and selective resonant tunneling. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 2000. 61: p. 024610-1.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Tian, J., Mei, M. Y., Li, C. X.
Keywords: Theory

2280. Li, X.Z. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Introduction to Proceedings). in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Review

“Condensed Matter Nuclear Science” was suggested for the title of a new journal during an extended meeting held by ICCF-9 International Advisory Committee on May 21, 2002. It symbolized the new starting point of this research field after 13 years of world-wide continuous study. Three coherences were announced in Lerici, ITALY as the theme of ICCF-9, i.e. the coherence between CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS and NUCLEAR PHYSICS; the coherence between “hot fusion” and “cold fusion”; and the coherence between application and fundamental research. This conference is organized according to the theme.

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2281. Li, X.Z., et al. “Super-absorption” – Correlation between deuterium flux and excess heat. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Ren, X. Z., Tian, J., Cao, D. X., Chen, S., Pan, G. H., Ho, D., Deng, Y.
Keywords: ICCF-9, gas loading, D2, Pd, heat, theory

ABSTRACT The concept of Super-Absorption has been proposed based on the correlation between deuterium flux and excess heat, and based on the selective resonant tunneling model. The experimental evidence for this correlation is shown in the D/Pd system with a Calvet high precision calorimeter. A theoretical model is set-up to show how the resonant tunneling effect will correlate the deuterium flux to the generation of excess heat.

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2282. Li, X.Z., et al. “Pumping effect” – Reproducible excess heat in a gas-loading D/Pd system. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Ren, X. Z., Tian, J., Yu, W. Z., Cao, D. X., Chen, S., Pan, G. H., Zheng, S. X.
Keywords: ICCF-9, gas loaded, D2, Pd, heat, resistence, loading

ABSTRACT Excess heat in a gas-loading D/Pd system is detected using current-constant mode or temperature-constant mode. A reproducible “pumping effect” is observed for the D/Pd gas-loading system. Using this effect, the power density of “excess heat” (apparent excess energy) reaches 2 W/cc.

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2283. Li, X.Z., Nuclear Physics for Nuclear Fusion —Selective Resonant Tunneling in Light Nuclei Fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2002. 41(63).

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Theory,

2284. Li, X.Z., et al. PROGRESS IN GAS-LOADING D/Pd SYSTEM — The feasibility of a self-sustaining heat generator. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Cai, N., Wei, Q., Tian, J., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: excess heat, gas loading

Great progress has been made after 14 year of experiments with the gas-loading D/Pd system. 6 watts of “excess heat” were generated in a gas-loaded D/Pd system for 9 hours continuously. This experiment has been repeated 6 times already in various configurations. The “excess power” density in the Pd disk is more than 100 W per cubic centimeter, which is about the power density in a fuel rod of a thermal neutron fission reactor.

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2285. Li, X.Z., et al., Correlation between abnormal deuterium flux and heat flow in a D/Pd system. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 2003. 36: p. 3095-3097.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Tian, J., Wei, Q., Zhou, R., Yu, Z. W.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat, helium

This paper is reprinted from the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics. The original is on line at:xxxx://www.iop.org/EJ/ xxxx://www.iop.org/EJ/abstract/0022-3727/36/23/035/Abstract Deuterium flux through the thin wall of a palladium tube has been studied by monitoring gas pressure and temperature. A high-precision calorimeter (Calvet) was used to detect heat flow when the heater was shut down and the palladium tube was cooling down slowly. At certain temperatures an abnormal deuterium flux appeared. This deuterium flux reached a peak when the temperature of the palladium was decreasing. This abnormal deuterium flux differs from the monotonic feature of a normal diffusive flux and is accompanied by a heat flow.

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2286. Li, X.Z. The Puzzle of Excess Heat with No Strong Nuclear Radiation (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: heat, radiation,

2287. Li, X.Z., et al. Multiple Scattering Theory (MST) and Condensed Matter Nuclear Science — “Super-Absorption” in a Crystal Lattice. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Chen, S., Wei, Q., Cai, N., Zheng, S., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: theory

Abstract A simple 1-dimensional model is used to illustrate “super-absorption” in a crystal lattice. The WKB method is applied to calculate the reflection rate and the transmission rate for a single cell.  Then matrix algebra is manipulated to give the relation between the single cell and an array of N cells. The selective resonant tunneling in this array of N cells is discussed, and the dependence of the absorption rate on the number of the cells is calculated to show the difference between coherent and non-coherent systems.

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2288. Li, X.Z., et al., A Chinese View on Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Fusion Energy, 2004. 23(3): p. 217-221.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Zheng, S., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: Review

From www.springerlink.com. Reprinted with permission from the authors.Abstract:Investigation on tritium was one of the recommendations in Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) report of U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) in November, 1989. Fifteen years evolution of the related research proved that it was an important recommendation. A selective resonant tunneling model is attempted to explain this discovery. Deuterium flux might be a key issue to solve the problem of the reproducibility. A further investigation is suggested based on this model.

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2289. Li, X.Z., et al. Multiple Scattering of Deuteron Wave Function near Surface of Palladium Lattice. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Cai, N., Zheng, S., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: theory

2290. Li, X.Z., et al. Multiple Scattering of Deuteron Wave Function near Surface of Palladium Lattice (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Cai, N., Zheng, S., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: theory

2291. Li, X.Z., et al. Selective Resonant Tunneling through Coulomb Barrier by Confined Particles in Lattice Well. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Wei, Q., Liu, B., Cai, N.
Keywords: theory,

2292. Li, X.Z., et al., The Conjecture of the Neutrino Emission from the Metal Hydrides. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 11-15.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Wei, Q., Liu, B., Ren, S. L.
Keywords: Condensed matter nuclear science, 3-Deuteron fusion reaction, KamLAND, Metal hydrides, Neutrino emission, Selective resonant tunneling

Selective Resonant tunneling model has been successful to explain the three major puzzles in cold fusion proposed by nuclear physicist (i.e. penetration of Coulomb barrier, no neutron emission, no gamma radiation), and successful also to explain the three major cross-section data in hot fusion(i.e. d+t, d+d, d+He3). Its prediction about 3-deuteron fusion has been found in experiments as well. The reasonable inference is the neutrino emission from the metal hydrides. The feasibility of detection of this neutrino is discussed in this note.

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2293. Li, X.Z. Predictability of Theory, and Collaboration with Experimentalists in CMNS (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory

Prof. T. Dolan . . . IAEA Coordinator for International Fusion Research (1995-2001), decided to use 3-Parameter formula instead of 5-Parameter formula for D+T Fusion Cross-Section in his Plasma Course at Univ. of Illinois, 2008. Because 3-Parameter formula is better than 5-Parameter formula not only in numbers but also in Physics. 3-Parameter formula shows the possibility of having nuclear reaction without strong neutron or gamma radiation.

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2294. Li, X.Z., B. Liu, and Q. Wei. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Research in China. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Wei, Q.
Keywords: review,

2295. Li, X.Z., et al. Exploring a Self-Sustaining Heater without Strong Nuclear Radiation. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Zheng, S. X., Cao, D. X.
Keywords: Excess heat,

2296. Li, X.Z., Q. Wei, and B. Liu, An Approach to Nuclear Energy without Strong Nuclear Radiation, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 39-56.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Wei, Q., Liu, B.
Keywords:

2297. Li, X.Z., Review of CBS 60 Minutes ‘Cold Fusion is Hot Again’ (in Chinese). 2009, Tsinghua University: Beijing.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Review

A review, written in Chinese, of the CBS 60 Minutes program “Cold Fusion is Hot Again.” This program was broadcast on April 19, 2009.

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2298. Li, X.Z., et al. Wave Nature of Deuterium Flux Permeating through Palladium Thin Film with Nanometer Coating Layers — (II) Theoretical Model —- (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Tian, J., Ren, X. Z., Li, J., Wei, Q., Liang, C. L., Yu, J. Z.
Keywords: theory

Super-wave has generated the long lasting, high gain “excess heat” in deuterium/palladium systems during Energetics Technologies, ENEA, and SRI collaboration. There must be an internal wave nature of the deuterium/palladium systems, which is in response to external super-wave, particularly, near the surface of the deuterium/palladium systems. Three sets of experimental data in the past 7 years at Tsinghua University are summarized to reveal this wave nature (please see abstract (I)). A simple theoretical model was set-up to understand this wave nature.

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2299. Li, X.Z., et al. Wave Nature of Deuterium Flux Permeating through Palladium Thin Film with Nanometer Coating Layers — (II) Theoretical Model. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Tian, J., Ren, X. Z., Li, J., Wei, Q., Liang, C. L., Yu, J. Z.
Keywords: theory

Two sets of experimental results are analyzed using the wave nature of the deuterons inside the palladium film. An identity for the ratio of absorption to transmission rate is derived to qualitatively explain the correlation between the deuterium flux and heat flow in experiments. In addition, a peak-wise behavior is shown for the permeation of deuterium flux through the palladium thin film as a function of the number of nanometer coating layers in experiments and in theory. This peak-wise variation is the charateristic behavior due to the wave nature of the deuterons.

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2300. Li, X.Z., The Big Elephant and Blind Men. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z.
Keywords: theory, critique

There were five blind men who tried to understand what an elephant was. The first touched the nose, and said that it was like a soft tube. The second touched the big ear, and said it was like a fan (ancient Chinese fans are made of a big piece of palm leaf). The third touched the big leg, and said it was like a pillar. The fourth touched the body, and said it was like a wall. The fifth touched the tail, and said it was like a rope. This Chinese fable tells us that after more than 20 years of experimental study of anomalous phenomena in metal hydrides (deuterides), we are supposed to integrate our knowledge about these phenomena and extract an image of this “big elephant.” Infinite Energy initiated this discussion about the “elephant.” Logically speaking, one should read the 162 papers in Storms’ JCMNS paper, then comment on this new Storms paper. Nevertheless, I would like to support this initiative, and provide my imagination as a sixth blind after reading Storms’ review.

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2301. Li, X.Z., Z.M. Dong, and C.L. Liang, “Excess Heat” in Ni-H Systems and Selective Resonant Tunneling. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L.
Keywords: Bethe’s solar model of weak interaction, Internal conversion electron, Resonant electron capture, Selective resonant tunneling

Selective resonant tunneling model is applied to Ni-H systems to explain the “excess heat” without strong neutron and gamma radiations. In combination with Bethe’s solar model of weak interaction, the reaction rate is estimated, and compared with experiments. An experimental test is further suggested.

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2302. Li, X.Z., et al., Hydrogen-lithium Low Energy Resonant Electron-capture and Bethe’s Solar Energy Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 181-192.

First Author: Li, X. Z.
All Authors: Li, X. Z., Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Fu, Y., Liu, B., Huang, G., Zheng, S., Chen, S.
Keywords: Bethe’s solar energy model, Huizenga’s three puzzles, LiAlH4, (p +6Li) Low energy resonance, New formula for fusion cross-section with three parameters, Resonant electron capture, Width of resonance peak

Bethe’s solar energy model is applied to the case of (p+6Li) low energy resonance near 50 eV. The cross-section would be greatly enhanced to meet the experimental observations in Ni-H(LiAlH4) systems and in “`Hydrogen-lithium fusion devices.”‘ The width of the resonance does not prevent low energy resonance from contributing to the cross-section.

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2303. Liang, W.X., et al. Neutron Measurements in a AC-Discharge Tube. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Liang, W. X.
All Authors: Liang, W. X., Xu, D. M., Zhang, G. Y., Yao, Z. L., Wang, E. Y.
Keywords: Pd, Gas Discharge, D2, neutron, ICCF-3

A schematic diagram of the device is shown in Fig. 1. Discharge is produced by an AC voltage (300V-600V , 50Hz) applied between two Pd Coaxial electrodes in a glass tube filling deuterium gas with pressure in the range of 0.1 to tens Torr. The neutron counts are recorded by two long Counters Consisting of BF3 Counter. One of the neutron detectors is close to the glass tube and another is far away from glass tube for background neutron level measurements. After 20 minutes discharge cleaning with 350V AC at this time increasing the voltage to 500v , the neutron counts are suddenly increased to the level higher than 4 times of the background. Fifteen minutes later increasing a little deuterium pressure again, the neutron counts rise to a level of 10 times higher than the background (see Fig. 2).

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2304. Liang, C.L., Z.M. Dong, and X.Z. Li, Selective resonant tunnelling — turning hydrogen-storage material into energetic material. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Liang, C. L.
All Authors: Liang, C. L., Dong, Z. M., Li, X. Z.
Keywords:

2305. Liang, C.L., et al., Lithium – An Important Additive in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Liang, C. L.
All Authors: Liang, C. L., Dong, Z. M., Fu, Y., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Resonance and resonant tunneling, p+6Li low energy resonance, Resonance accompanied with weak interaction, The width of resonance at low energy, 3-Parameter formula for fusion cross-section

A (p+6Li) low energy resonance state is found using the 3-parameter formula for fusion cross-section based on the selective resonant tunneling model. The electron capture is the possible weak interaction to make use of this low energy resonance. When the resonance energy level is close to zero, the width of the resonance peak in the fusion cross-section is much greater than the width of the resonance energy level; therefore, the absorption through this low energy resonance level is no longer a problem for resonant tunneling of Coulomb barrier at low energy. Both hot fusion data and the CMNS experiment data support this resonant tunneling concept. As a result, lithium turns out to be an important additive in both CMNS and Hot Plasma fusion research.

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2306. Liaw, B.Y., et al. Elevated Temperature Excess Heat Production Using Molten-Salt Electrochemical Techniques. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Tao, P. L., Turner, P., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: molten salt, heat+, Pd, Fused Salt

An investigation of elevated-temperature excess heat production in the Ti-D and Pd-D systems is presented here. A eutectic LiCl-KCl molten salt saturated with LiD is used as the electrolyte in a Pd/Al or Ti/Al electrochemical cell. Typical operating temperatures are around 370у, which results in faster kinetics compared to room temperature operation. If this system can be developed for utility applications, high-grade heat and high thermodynamic efficiencies can be expected. Since the electrolyte provides a very reducing environment, metal surface oxides are readily removed; thus, this unique system offers the possibility of using less expensive materials than Pd. A modified isoperibol calorimeter was built for the excess power measurements. Preliminary results show high levels of excess power output, especially in the Pd-D system, although the effect remains sporadic.This is the Fusion Facts version of the paper, with a different title.

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2307. Liaw, B.Y., P.L. Tao, and B.E. Liebert. Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Tao, P. L., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: Pd, molten salt, helium Fused Salt ICCF-2

2308. Liaw, B.Y., et al., Elevated-temperature excess heat production in a Pd + D system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 319: p. 161.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Tao, P. L., Turner, P., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: molten salt, Pd, heat+, 4He, surface analysis Fused Salt

2309. Liaw, B.Y. and B.E. Liebert. A Potential Shuttle Mechanism for Charging Hydrogen Species into Metals in Hydride-Containing Molten Salt Systems. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: Molten Salt, method, Fused Salt, ICCF-3

This paper proposes a “shuttle mechanism” in the hydride-containing molten salts under severe charging conditions. Our previous work reported that the use of elevated-temperature deuteride-containing molten salts promises great potential for charging deuterium into metals for excess heat generation. Substantial excess heat was measured occasionally but was difficult to reproduce, which reduced the prospect of this technology. We believe an understanding of the reaction mechanism is critical for reproducibility.The proposed “shuttle mechanism” is based on the interpretation of the polarization behavior for various cell operating conditions. An attempt has been made to understand the reaction(s) responsible for the excess heat generation in spite of the complexity of the electrochemistry of this molten-salt system compared to heavy-water electrolysis. We examined the oxidation potentials reported in the literature and compared with results obtained from polarization techniques .

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2310. Liaw, B.Y. and Q.H. Gao. Thin Film Yttria-Stabilized Tetragonal Zirconia. in 9th International Conf. on Solid State Ionics. 1993. The Hague, The Netherlands.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Gao, Q. H.
Keywords: ZrO2, layer

2311. Liaw, B.Y. and Y. Ding. Charging Hydrogen into Ni in Hydride-containing Molten Salts. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Ding, Y.
Keywords: Ni, Molten Salt, method, Fused Salt, ICCF-4

2312. Liaw, B.Y., P.L. Tao, and B.E. Liebert, Helium analysis of palladium electrodes after molten salt electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 92.

First Author: Liaw, B. Y.
All Authors: Liaw, B. Y., Tao, P. L., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: molten salt, Pd, helium Fused Salt

2313. Liboff, R.L., Fusion via metallic deuterium. Phys. Lett., 1979. 71A: p. 361.

First Author: Liboff, R. L.
All Authors: Liboff, R. L.
Keywords: theory, boson wave overlap

2314. Liboff, R.L., Feasibility of fusion of an aggregate of deuterons in the ground state. Phys. Lett., 1993. 174 A: p. 317.

First Author: Liboff, R. L.
All Authors: Liboff, R. L.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

2315. Lida, T., Deuteron fusion experiments with some foils implanted with deuteron beams. Genshikaku Kenkyu, 1995. 40(5): p. 77.

First Author: Lida, T.
All Authors: Lida, T.
Keywords: ion bombardment, Pd, Zr, Ti, D2, particle emission

2316. Lietz, H., Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Status Report Germany. 2004.

First Author: Lietz, H.
All Authors: Lietz, H.
Keywords:

This memo reports historical and present, experimental and theoretical research being done in Germany of relevance to Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS), Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR), sometimes called “cold fusion”. Reported are current d+d fusion experiments far below the Coulomb barrier at Universities in Berlin and Bochum.

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2317. Lietz, H., Unbeachtete Forschung: Kalte Fusion, in Telepolis. 2004.

First Author: Lietz, H.
All Authors: Lietz, H.
Keywords: review, history

Am 23. März 1989 wurde die Welt in Aufregung versetzt, als zwei Chemiker berichteten, sie hätten eine Kernfusion bei Raumtemperatur beobachtet. Berichte einer neuen, vielversprechenden Energiequelle liefen um die Welt. Nach einem halben Jahr, einem Negativbericht des US-Energieministeriums und einigen gescheiterten Versuchen, das Experiment zu reproduzieren, setzte sich in Wissenschaft und Öffentlichkeit die Überzeugung durch, es habe sich um einen Fehlalarm gehandelt. Jenseits des wissenschaftlichen und offentlichen Mainstreams jedoch haben Wissenschaftler in den letzten 15 Jahren die Forschung vorangetrieben. In Italien und Japan sind dafür offentliche Gelder zur Verfügung gestellt worden. In Hunderten Experimenten wird mittlerweile von der Messung von Fusionsprodukten, der Umwandlung von Elementen und einem Energiegewinn berichtet. Die Erforscher der kalten Fusion haben erreicht, dass das US-Energieministerium diese Berichte nun überprüft. Gespannt wartet die Fachwelt auf den Review. Der vorliegende Bericht schildert Forschungsergebnisse aus 15 Jahren und fragt, wie es moglich war, dass außerhalb des Internets kaum Informationen darüber bekannt geworden sind. Als Hauptgrund wird genannt, dass die kalte Fusion bisherigen Erkenntnissen widerspricht, Fusion sei nur heiß moglich. Berichtet wird auch, wie die kalte Fusion von Teilen der Politik und der Wissenschaft aktiv bekämpft worden ist. In jedem Fall ist die kalte Fusion eine Konkurrenz für die heiße Fusion, in die als Energiequelle der Zukunft bereits Milliardenbeträge investiert worden sind.

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2318. Lievrouw, L.A., Communication and the social representation of scientific knowledge. Crit. Stud. Mass Commun., 1990. 7: p. 1.

First Author: Lievrouw, L. A.
All Authors: Lievrouw, L. A.
Keywords: history, discussion

2319. Lihn, C.J., et al., The influence of deposits on palladium cathodes in D2O electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 324.

First Author: Lihn, C. J.
All Authors: Lihn, C. J., Wan, C. C., Wan, C. M., Perng, T. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, quartz, surface analysis, diffusion

2320. Lin, T.L. and C.C. Liu, Cold fusion experiment at Department of Nuclear Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 487.

First Author: Lin, T. L.
All Authors: Lin, T. L., Liu, C. C.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

2321. Lin, G.H., et al., On electrochemical tritium production. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1990. 15: p. 537.

First Author: Lin, G. H.
All Authors: Lin, G. H., Kainthla, R. C., Packham, N. J. C., Velev, O. A., Bockris, J.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, dendrite, D2O

2322. Lin, G.H., et al., Electrochemical fusion: a mechanism speculation. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 280: p. 207.

First Author: Lin, G. H.
All Authors: Lin, G. H., Kainthla, R. C., Packham, N. J. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: dendrite, tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

2323. Lin, G.H., J.R. Bhardwa, and J. Bockris, Response to Noninski et al: Observation of beta radiation decay in low energy nuclear reaction. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 207.

First Author: Lin, G. H.
All Authors: Lin, G. H., Bhardwa, J. R., Bockris, J.
Keywords: critique, transmutation

2324. Lin, G.H. and J. Bockris, Anomalous radioactivity and unexpected elements as a result of heating inorganic mixtures. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 100.

First Author: Lin, G. H.
All Authors: Lin, G. H., Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, gunpowder, chemical

2325. Lindley, D., Does commercial pressure make for bad science? The World & I, 1989: p. 513.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history, critique

2326. Lindley, D., Double Blow for Cold Nuclear Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 567.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

2327. Lindley, D., Cold Fusion Gathering is Incentive to Collaborate. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 325.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

2328. Lindley, D., Noncommittal Outcome. Nature (London), 1989. 341: p. 679.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

2329. Lindley, D., No Evidence for Neutrons at Yale/BYU. Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 106.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history, neutron

2330. Lindley, D., Official Thumbs Down. Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 215.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

2331. Lindley, D., The Embarrassment of Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 375.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

This paper is available from:xxxx://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v344/n6265/pdf/344375a0.pdfA copy is also available here:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/v2/inthenews/1990/Nature-Embarassment.shtmlThese links along with some selected quotes from the paper are included in the version here.

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2332. Lindley, D., Utah Faculty Protest Cold Fusion Dealings. Nature (London), 1990. 345: p. 561.

First Author: Lindley, D.
All Authors: Lindley, D.
Keywords: history

2333. Linford, R.K., Remarks of Rulon K. Linford. J. Fusion Energy, 1991. 10(1): p. 121.

First Author: Linford, R. K.
All Authors: Linford, R. K.
Keywords: history

2334. Lipson, A.G., et al., Anomalous beta activity of products of mechanical working of a titanium- deuterated material. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1989. 15(10): p. 783.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Klyuev, V. A., Deryagin, B. V., Toporov, Yu. P., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: fractofusion, Ti, ball mill, tritium

2335. Lipson, A.G., et al., Deuterium-deuterium fusion initiation by friction in the system titanium- deuterated polymer. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1989. 15(17): p. 26 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Klyuev, V. A., Toporov, Yu. P., Deryagin, B. V., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: friction, Ti, D2O, neutron, fractofusion

2336. Lipson, A.G., et al., Neutron emission during the mechanical treatment of titanium in the presence of deuterated substances. JETP, 1989. 49(11): p. 675.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, A. G., Klyuev, V. A., Deryagin, B. V., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, fractofusion

2337. Lipson, A.G., et al., Observation of neutrons from cavitation action on substances containing deuterium. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(9): p. 89 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Klyuev, V. A., Deryagin, B. V., Toporov, Yu. P., Sirotyuk, M. G., Khavroshkin, O. B., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: D2O, H2O, LaNi5, ultrasonic, neutron, fractofusion

2338. Lipson, A.G., et al., Neutron generation by mechanical activation of metal surfaces. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(17): p. 54 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Klyuev, V. A., Toporov, Yu. P., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: fractofusion, Ti, LaNi5, friction, neutron, D2O

2339. Lipson, A.G., et al., Reproducible neutron emission by the combined effect of cavitation and electrolysis at the surface of a titanium cathode in electrolyte based on heavy water. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1991. 17(21): p. 33 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Deryagin, B. V., Kudryavtsev, V. N., Toporov, Yu. P., Klyuev, V. A., Kolobov, M. A., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: Ti, ultrasonic, electrolysis, neutron

2340. Lipson, A.G., V.A. Kuznetsov, and B.V. Deryagin, Scenarios of ‘cold nuclear fusion’ by concentration of elastic energy in crystals. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1991. 318(3): p. 636 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Kuznetsov, V. A., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: fractofusion, theory

2341. Lipson, A.G., et al., The possibility of ‘cold nuclear fusion’ in deuterated ceramic YBa2Cu3O(7-x) in the superconducting state. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1991. 321(5): p. 958 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Toporov, Yu. P., Gromov, V. V., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: superconductor, neutron, D2

2342. Lipson, A.G., et al., Parallel recording of pulsed thermal effects and neutron bursts in heterostructural Au/Pd/PdO, saturated with deuterium by electrochemical means. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1992. 18(20): p. 58 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Deryagin, B. V., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: Pd-Au-PdO, electrolysis, neutron, layers

2343. Lipson, A.G., et al., Neutron emission in monocrystals of KD2PO4, stimulated by ferroelectric phase transition. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fis., 1992. 18(16): p. 90 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Kalinin, V. B., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: neutron, KD2PO4, fractofusion

2344. Lipson, A.G., et al., Initiation of nuclear fusion by cavitation action on deuterium-containing media. Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1992. 62(12): p. 121 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Deryagin, B. V., Klyuev, V. A., Toporov, Yu. P., Sirotyuk, M. G., Khavroshkin, O. B., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: LaNi5, ultrasonic, neutron, D2O, fractofusion

2345. Lipson, A.G., et al., On the initiation of DD reactions in the zirconium-deuterium system. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 166: p. 43.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Kluev, V. A., Mordovin, V. N., Sakov, D. M., Derjaguin, B. V., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, Zr, ball mill, neutron, D2O

2346. Lipson, A.G., et al., Possibilities for increasing the neutron emission in KD2PO4 crystals at the phase transition through the Curie point. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1993. 19(11): p. 729.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Saunin, E. I., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: KD2PO4, phase change, fractofusion, neutron

2347. Lipson, A.G., et al., Is ‘cold nuclear fusion’ necessary to understand the anomalous thermal effects in the Pd-D(H) system? Phys. Dokl., 1993. 38: p. 286.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Deryagin, B. V., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: critique, history

2348. Lipson, A.G., et al., The generation of nuclear fusion products by a combination of cavitation action and electrolysis at the titanioum surface in deuterated electrolyte. Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1993. 63(7): p. 187 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Deryagin, B. V., Toporov, Yu. P., Klyuev, V. A., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: fractofusion, Ti, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ultrasonic

2349. Lipson, A.G., et al., Cold nuclear fusion induced in KD2PO4 single crystals by a ferroelectric phase transition. JETP, 1993. 76(6): p. 1070.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Saunin, E. I., Kalinin, V. B., Kolovov, M. A., Deryagin, B. V., Khodyakov, A. A.
Keywords: KD2PO4, fractofusion, neutron

2350. Lipson, A.G., I.I. Bardyshev, and D.M. Sakov, Generation of hard gamma-radiation in KD2PO4 single crystals during the ferroelectric phase transition. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1994. 20: p. 957.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Bardyshev, I. I., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: ferroelectrics, gamma emission, fractofusion, KD2PO4

2351. Lipson, A.G. and D.M. Sakov, Increase in the intensity of the external neutron flux in the irradiation of a KD2PO4 crystal at the point of the ferroelectric transition. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1994. 20: p. 954.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: KD2PO4, neutron, irradiation

2352. Lipson, A.G., I.I. Bardyshev, and D.M. Sakov. Possible Observation of the First Excited State of He4 Nucleus According to the g-Emission Data in KD2PO4 Crystals upon Transition Through Curie Point. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Bardyshev, I. I., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: Helium, KD2PO4, gamma emission ICCF-5

The spectrum of g-radiation (in the range of 3.0-8.5 MeV), generated by KD2P04 crystals on the phase transition through Curie point, was studied by the use of a semiconductor, low-background detector. The maximum g-radiation with the energy of 4.1ÂÂѰ.3 MeV and the width G=0.6ÂÂѰ.4 was detected. The maximum has been recorded in the course of the ferroelectric phase transition on KD2PO4 single crystals, and proves the decay of the first excited state of He4 nucleus.

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2353. Lipson, A.G. and D.M. Sakov. Amplification of the Neutron Flux Transmitted Through KD2PO4 Single-Crystal at the Ferroelectric Phase Transition State. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M.
Keywords: KD2PO4, neutron irradiation, ICCF-5

The phenomenon of external neutron flux amplification (about 10% from total value) emitted from Cf252 neutron source (I=3-10^2 n/s in 4p), than partialy moderated by use of polyethylene and transmitted through the KD2P04 single crystal being at the ferroelectric phase transition state has been obtained. If DKDP crystal was out of the phase transition temperature interval upon the transmission of neutron flux through it, then amplification effect was not observed. The variation of excess neutron emission intensity ejected by DKDP crystal at the different detector’s background level has been studied. The intensity of neutron emission (after subtraction of the background) is increased from 0.01 count/s at cosmic background level (0.01 count/s) to 0.20 count/s at 1.1 count/s background level of detector.

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2354. Lipson, A.G., D.M. Sakov, and E.I. Saunin, Interaction of weak neutron flux with triglycine sulphate (D0.6H0.4) at the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1995. 21(24): p. 25 (in Russian).

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion, neutron, D2

2355. Lipson, A.G., et al., Generation of the products of DD nuclear fusion in high-temperature superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-deltaDy near the superconducting phase transition. Tech. Phys., 1995. 40: p. 839.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E.I., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: superconductor, fractofusion, phase transition, neutron, tritium

2356. Lipson, A.G., et al., The nature of excess energy liberated in a Pd/PdO heterostructure electrochemically saturated with hydrogen (deuterium). Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1995. 69: p. 1810.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Kuznetsov, V. A., Ivanova, T. S., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, polywater, Pd

2357. Lipson, A.G., et al. Excess Heat Production and Nuclear Ash in PdO/Pd/PdO Heterostructure after Electrochemical Saturation with Deuterium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Sakov, D. M., Kuznetsov, V. A., Ivanova, T. S.
Keywords: heat+, PdO-Pd-PdO, layer, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-6

2358. Lipson, A.G., et al., Possibility of mechanically stimulated transmutation of carbon nuclei in ultradisperse deuterium-containing media. Tech. Phys., 1997. 42: p. 676.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Kuznetsov, V. A., Ivanova, T. S., Saunin, E. I., Ushakov, S. I.
Keywords: fractofusion, ball mill, neutron,

2359. Lipson, A.G., et al. Evidence for DD-Reaction and a Long-Range Alpha Emission in Au/Pd/PdO:D Heterstructure as a Result of Exothermic Deuterium Deposition. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Roussetski, A. S., Asami, N.
Keywords: CR-39, particle emission, Au-Pd-PdO, alpha, D2, neutron, ICCF-8, Helium

2360. Lipson, A.G., et al., Evidence for low-intensity D-D reaction as a result of exothermic deuterium desorption from Au/Pd/PdO:D heterostructure. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 238.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Roussetski, A. S., Akimoto, T., Mizuno, T., Asami, N., Shimada, R., Miyashita, S., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, neutron, Au/Pd/PdO, particle emission

2361. Lipson, A.G., et al. In-Situ Charged Particles And X-Ray Detection In Pd Thin Film-Cathodes During Electrolysis In Li2SO4/H2O. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Miley, G. H., Castano, C. H.
Keywords: charged particle, x-ray, CR-39

Measurements of energetic charged particle and soft X-ray emissions have been performed using calibrated CR-39 plastic track and LiF/Al2O3:C-Thermo-Luminescent (TLD)  detectors. It was found that during the electrolysis of thin Pd-film cathodes on the dielectric substrates, the alpha-particles ranging from 11.0-16.0 MeV and protons near 1.7 MeV are emitted. No significant X-ray emission with upper dose limit of ~ 1 mrem (corresponding to ~ 5.0 X-ray photon/s´cm2 with Ex=10 keV) was detected.

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2362. Lipson, A.G., A.B. Karabut, and A.S. Roussetski. Anomalous enhancement of DD-reaction, alpha emission and X-ray generation in the high current pulsing deuterium glow-discharge with Ti-cathode at the voltages ranging from 0.8-2.5 kV. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Karabut, A. B., Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Ti, D2, glow discharge, X-ray, alpha, transmutation, CR-39

Using electronic noiseless solid state plastic track (CR-39) and Al2O3:C thermo-luminescent (TLD) detectors, the yields of charged particles (DD-reaction products and long-range α-particles) and X-ray photons are studied in the pulsing-periodic deuterium glow discharge with Ti-cathode at low discharge voltage (ranging of 0.8-2.5 kV) and high current density (300 – 600 mA/cm^2). Analysis of DD-proton yields versus accelerating voltages, allowed to estimate the deuteron screening potential value US at the deuteron energy range of 0.8 < Ed < 2.45 keV. It was found that in this energy range the effective screening potential would be as high as US = 620 ѱ40 eV.

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2363. Lipson, A.G., et al. Anomalous thermal neutron capture and sub-surface Pd-isotopes separation in cold-worked palladium foils as a result of deuterium loading. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Kuznetsov, V. A., Saunin, E. I., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: ICCF-9, neutron, Pd, D2, PdD, absorption

The process of thermal neutron absorption in the cold- worked Pd cathodes during electrolysis in NaOD/D2O solution under irradiation by Ultraweak Thermalized Neutron Field (UTNF) was studied. It was found that during deuterium loading the probability of thermal neutron absorption in a strained Pd is increased by a factor 8 compared to the unstrained (annealed) sample or sample where loading is not carried out. Symmetric separation of Pd isotope pairs of Pd108-Pd105 and Pd110-Pd104 occurring in the subsurface layer down to 500 A depth in the cold worked Pd foil loaded with deuterium is observed. It is established that observed Pd isotope separation is solely defined by a strong plastic deformation (mechanical strain), induced by deuterium loading in Pd-matrix. The effect of Pd-isotopes separation is strongly enhanced under UTNF irradiation

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2364. Lipson, A.G., et al. Strong Enhancement of DD-reaction Accompanied by X-ray Generation in a Pulsed Low Voltage High-Current Deuterium Glow Discharge with a Ti-Cathode. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Karabut, A. B., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: glow discharge Ti CR39

Using noiseless solid state CR-39 plastic track and Al2O3:C thermo-luminescent detectors, the yields of 3.0 MeV protons from DD-reaction and soft x-ray photons emitted from the cathode were studied in the periodic pulsing deuterium glow discharge with titanium cathodes at low discharge voltages (in the range 0.8-2.5 kV) and high current density (300-600 mA/cm^2). The analysis of DD-proton yield versus accelerating voltages allowed us to estimate the deuteron screening potential value US in the deuteron energy range of 0.8 < Ed < 2.45 keV. A strong DD-reaction enhancement was found in the glow discharge (the effective screening potential Ue = 610ѱ50 eV was found) compared to that for accelerator experiments at higher deuteron energies (Elab ≥ 2.5 keV) and lower beam current density (50-500 μA/cm^2). X-ray measurements showed an intense (Ix = 10^13 − 10^14 s^−1cm^−2 ) soft x-ray emission (with a mean energy Ex = 1.2 − 1.5 keV) directly from the titanium cathode. The x-ray yield is strongly dependent on the deuterium diffusivity in the near the surface layer of cathode.

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2365. Lipson, A.G., et al. Phenomenon of an Energetic Charged Particle Emission From Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Miley, G. H., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: charged particle, CR-39

Abstract The new phenomenon of energetic alpha (up to 16.0 MeV) and proton (~1.7 MeV) emissions has been discovered from a metal surface possessing a large affinity for hydrogen and loaded/excited by electrolysis, glow discharge or powerful laser. These various experiments on charged particle detection show a remarkable feature, namely all exhibit a similar specific energy yield of long-range alphas (1 alpha particle per 10-15 eV input energy/Pd(Ti) target atom) independent of the excitation power of delivering method (electrolysis, glow discharge or laser irradiation). This result suggests the mechanism of energy transfer causing the energetic particle emissions in hydrogen loaded metal targets is similar despite the seemingly dissimilar excitation techniques.

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2366. Lipson, A.G., et al. Evidence of Supersoichiometric H/D LENR Active Sites and High Temperature Superconductivity in a Hydrogen-Cycled Pd/PdO. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Castano, C. H., Miley, G. H., Lyakhov, B. F., Tsivadze, A., Mitin, A.
Keywords: superconductivity, Pd, H,

2367. Lipson, A.G., et al. Evidence of Supersoichiometric H/D LENR Active Sites and High Temperature Superconductivity in a Hydrogen-Cycled Pd/PdO (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Castano, C. H., Miley, G. H., Lyakhov, B. F., Tsivadze, A., Mitin, A.
Keywords: superconductivity, Pd, H,

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same title.

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2368. Lipson, A.G., G.H. Miley, and H. Momota. Enhancement of First Wall Damage in ITER Type TOKAMAK Due to LENR Effects. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Miley, G. H., Momota, H.
Keywords: glow discharge, tokamak

2369. Lipson, A.G., G.H. Miley, and H. Momota. Enhancement of First Wall Damage in ITER Type TOKAMAK Due to LENR Effects (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Miley, G. H., Momota, H.
Keywords: glow discharge, tokamak

2370. Lipson, A.G., et al. Reproducible Nuclear Emissions from Pd/PdO:Dx Heterostructure during Controlled Exothermic Deuterium Desorption. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Miley, G. H., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: alpha, soft x-ray

2371. Lipson, A.G., et al. Reproducible Nuclear Emissions from Pd/PdO:Dx Heterostructure during Controlled Exothermic Deuterium Desorption (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Miley, G. H., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: alpha, soft x-ray

2372. Lipson, A.G., et al. Generation of DD-Reactions in a Ferroelectric KD2PO4 Single Crystal During Transition Through Curie Point (Tc = 220 K). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Saunin, E. I., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: neutron, cr-39

A new approach to develop a source of 2.45 MeV neutrons caused by polarization reversal in KD2PO4 single crystal (DKDP) during its passage through the Curie point (Tc = 220 K) is presented. The background of this approach is referred to observation of neutron/proton emission in DKDP during paraelectric – ferroelectric phase transition to spontaneous polarization state (and vice versa) upon the heating/cooling of crystal through Curie point Tc = 220 K.  The proposed source is based on earlier established proof of deuteron acceleration and neutron generation in the crystalline lattice of ferroelectrics during their transition to spontaneously polarized state (polarization reversal). In order to obtain neutron yield for practical application, the proposed solution foresees a separate DKDP crystals serving as cathode and anode and undergo to simultaneous ferroelectric phase transition in low-pressure deuterium atmosphere.

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2373. Lipson, A.G., et al. Generation of DD-Reactions in a Ferroelectric KD2PO4 Single Crystal During Transition Through Curie Point (Tc = 220 K) (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Saunin, E. I., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: neutron, cr-39

A new approach to develop a source of 2.45 MeV neutrons caused by polarization reversal in KD2PO4 single crystal (DKDP) during its passage through the Curie point (Tc = 220 K) is presented. The background of this approach is referred to observation of neutron/proton emission in DKDP during paraelectric – ferroelectric phase transition to spontaneous polarization state (and vice versa) upon the heating/cooling of crystal through Curie point Tc = 220 K.  The proposed source is based on earlier established proof of deuteron acceleration and neutron generation in the crystalline lattice of ferroelectrics during their transition to spontaneously polarized state (polarization reversal). In order to obtain neutron yield for practical application, the proposed solution foresees a separate DKDP crystals serving as cathode and anode and undergo to simultaneous ferroelectric phase transition in low-pressure deuterium atmosphere.

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2374. Lipson, A.G. Edge plasma effects in ITER-type TOKAMAK caused by an enhancement of DD/DT reaction in metals at high currentlow energy deuteron bombardment. in 7th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium loaded Metals. 2006. Asti, Italy: iscmns.org.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G.
Keywords: theory

LENR effects could also affect the processes at the first wall and divertor of TOKAMAK. Now LENR are not taken into account as a possible source of radiation damage in thermonuclear reactors.

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2375. Lipson, A.G., A.S. Roussetski, and E.I. Saunin. Analysis of #2 Winthrop Williams’ CR-39 detector after SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiment. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2376. Lipson, A.G., et al. Analysis of the CR-39 detectors from SRI’s SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiments #7 and #5. Signature of possible neutron emission. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Saunin, E. I., Tanzella, F. L., Earle, B., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2377. Lipson, A.G. and I.P. Chernov. Status of Russian research on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in non-equilibrium condensed matter, based on publications in peer-reviewed journals. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Chernov, I. P.
Keywords: History,

2378. Lipson, A.G., et al. Charged Particle Emissions Upon Electron Beam Excitation of Deuterium Subsystem in the Pd and Ti- Deuteride Targets. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Chernov, I. P., Roussetski, A. S., Lyakhov, B. F., Chardantsev, Y., Saunin, E. I., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: Charged particle

Energetic charged particle emissions accompanying deuterium desorption from specially prepared Pd/PdO:Dx and TiDx targets in vacuum, stimulated by electron beam (J ~ 0.6 mA/cm^2, U = 30 keV) have been studied using a set of CR-39 plastic track detectors covered with various metal foil filters. It was found that the electron bombardment of those targets is caused by statistically significant emissions of DD-reaction product (3 MeV protons), as well as high energy alpha particles (11-20 MeV). At the same time the Pd/PdO:Dx and the TiDx samples show no sign of nuclear emissions during vacuum exposure without e-beam stimulation.  Extrapolation of both the

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2379. Lipson, A.G., et al., Hot Deuteron Generation and Charged Particle Emissions on Excitation of Deuterium Subsystem in Metal Deuterides, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 95-117.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Chernov, I. P., Roussetski, A. S., Cherdantsev, Yu. P., Tsivadze, A., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Melich, M. E.
Keywords:

2380. Lipson, A.G., et al. Surface Morphology of Metal Deuterides Upon e-Beam Excitation of Their Deuterium Subsystem (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Chernov, I. P., Roussetski, A. S., Sokhoreva, V., Mironchik, V., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Recent ab-initio theoretical study of interaction between electromagnetic radiation and metal deuterides indicate a new mechanism for deuteron acceleration, which along with possible large electron screening in the metal targets could potentially strongly enhance the yield of DD-reaction in metal deuterides at room temperature. In this research we continue our study with regards to the role of electromagnetic excitation of hydrogen subsystem in metal deuterides to enhance the yield of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). To this aim we have carried out 5 series of experiments on charged particle detection using plastic track detectors CR-39, under in-vacuum electronbeam stimulation of various metal deuterides during spontaneous deuterium desorption (if any) from the deuterated samples.

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2381. Lipson, A.G., et al. Charged Particle Emissions in Metal Deuterides Upon e-Beam Excitation of Their Deuterium Subsystem (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Chernov, I. P., Roussetski, A. S., Tsivadze, A., Cherdantsev, Yu. P., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: Charged particle

Recent ab-initio study of hydrogen desorption from metal hydrides with a high hydrogen solubility [V.M., Silkin, I.P Chernov et. al, Phys. Rev., B 76, 245105 (2007)], showed that excitation of the hydrogen subsystem in those deuterides results in plasmon formation leading to generation of strong electric fields (F ~ 10E8V/cm) within at a lattice parameter scale (a ~ 0.3-0.4 nm). As a result, the mean energy of desorbed protons/deuterons (Ed) escaping from the hydride surface would effectively be increased from kT ~ 1/40 eV to several eV (Ed= F x a ~ 3-4 eV) or two orders of magnitude increase, effectively producing “hot” deuterons

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2382. Lipson, A.G., et al. Evidence for Fast Neutron Emission During SRI’s SPAWAR/Galileo-Type Electrolysis Experiments #7 and #5, Based on CR-39 Track Detector Record (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Lipson, A. G.
All Authors: Lipson, A. G., Roussetski, A. S., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cr-39, particle emission

We have reported [1] the detailed analysis of the CR-39 detector (Landauer) from SRI’s #BE013-7 (#7) Pd deposition experiment where the detector was separated from the cathode wire by a 6 ìm Mylar® film during. The Mylar® protected the CR-39 surface from chemical, mechanical, and electrostatic (spark discharge) damage during electrolysis. We compared those results with that of the background detector (placed 2 m from the electrolytic cell) and with the blank CR-39 detector, installed as in #7, in an identically operated cell using light water. We also calibrated our CR-39 detectors using the proton recoil tracks from a Cf-252 neutron source and compared them with the foreground tracks. The readings were performed manually using the “PAVICOM” track reading facility in the Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. All detectors were cut from the same sheet.

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2383. Lipson, A., et al. Charged Particle Emissions and Surface Morphology of Pd/PdO:Dx and TiDx Targets Under Electron Beam Excitation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Lipson, A.
All Authors: Lipson, A., Chernov, I. P., Sokhoreva, V., Mironchik, V., Roussetski, A. S., Tsivadze, A., Cherdantsev, Yu. P., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Melich, M. E.
Keywords:

We report charged particle emission from metal deuterides upon e-beam excitation of their surface. Detection and identification was made using CR-39 plastic track detectors with Cu and Al absorbers. Protons with primary energy 3 MeV and α-particles with energies Eα> 10 MeV are observed.

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2384. Lisowski, W., et al., Atomic H Desorption from Thin Palladium Hydride Films. Appl. Surf. Science, 1988. 31: p. 157.

First Author: Lisowski, W.
All Authors: Lisowski, W., Nowicka, E., Wolfram, Z., Dus, R.
Keywords: PdH, mass Spectrometer, desorption, loading

2385. Little, S., G. Luce, and M. Little. MOAC – A High Accuracy Calorimeter for Cold Fusion Studies. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Little, S.
All Authors: Little, S., Luce, G., Little, M.
Keywords: Calorimetry heat,

2386. Liu, F., et al., Nature of short range interaction between deuterium atoms in palladium. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72: p. 891.

First Author: Liu, F.
All Authors: Liu, F., Rao, B. K., Khanna, S. N., Jena, P.
Keywords: theory, distance

2387. Liu, Z., et al., Photoemission studies of Pd/D system with high deuterium content. Chin. Phys. Lett., 1990. 7: p. 125.

First Author: Liu, Z.
All Authors: Liu, Z., Xie, K., Qi, S., Cao, J., Li, N., Yu, X., Lin, Z.
Keywords: photoemission, PdD, surface analysis, loading, structure

2388. Liu, R., et al., Measurement of neutron energy spectra from the gas discharge facility. Yuanzi Yu Fenzi Wuli Xuebao, 1994. 11(2): p. 115 (in Chinese).

First Author: Liu, R.
All Authors: Liu, R., Wang, D., Chen, S., Li, Y., Fu, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: ion bombardment, neutron

2389. Liu, C., et al. Preliminary study on tritium and elements transmutation in water under simulated aerospatial conditions. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Liu, C.
All Authors: Liu, C., Wang, G. Z., Mo, D. W., Li, X. Y., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Theory

A series of unexpected phenomena have been discovered under simulated aerospatial conditions. The tritium-rich water passed through the aerospatial condition. The Beta-radiation of tritium was measured before and after this process in terms of liquid scintillation counter. It was found that the radiation from tritium decreased every time it passed through this simulated system. the amount is about 20%. The trace elements analysis was made for distilled water before and after the same process. It was found also that the change of the trace elements, for example K from 0.0045ppm to 0. OOSppm.

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2390. Liu, F.S., The phonon mechanism of the cold fusion. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1996. 10: p. 1129.

First Author: Liu, F. S.
All Authors: Liu, F. S.
Keywords: Theory, phonons resonance, screening

2391. Liu, B., et al. Triggering A Deuterium Flux In Pd Wire Using Electromagnetic Field. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Li, X. Z., Yan, L., Ge, L.
Keywords: loading, heat, magnetic field

An electromagnetic field is applied on a long-thin Pd wire to test the effect of an electrical potential on the loading of the deuterium gas into the palladium, which was proposed by Del Giudice, De Ninno and their group during ICCF-9. The preliminary experimental results showed that this electromagnetic field triggered not only the loading, but also the “excess heat” because of the deuterium flux effect as proposed by Xing Z. Li and his group.

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2392. Liu, B., et al. “Excess Heat” Induced by Deuterium Flux in Palladium Film. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Li, X. Z., Wei, Q., Mueller, N., Schoch, P., Orhre, H.
Keywords: Excess heat, flux,

2393. Liu, B., et al. “Excess heat” in a Gas-Loading D/Pd System with Pumping inside Pd Tube. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Li, X. Z., Wei, Q., Zheng, S.
Keywords: gas loading, excess heat,

2394. Liu, F.-S., Y. Hou, and W.-F. Chen, Theory of Fusion During Acoustic Cavitation in C3D6O Liquid. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 142-147.

First Author: Liu, F-S.
All Authors: Liu, F-S., Hou, Y., Chen, W-F.
Keywords: Acoustic cavitation, Fermi golden rule, Fusion, Green function, Phonon-deuteron interaction, Transition probability

This paper demonstrates that an exact calculation for transition probability of deuteron under the phonon-deuteron interaction leads to violation of Fermi golden rule. Considering the violation of Fermi golden rule, the zero-point oscillation, and the energy uncertainty relation, this paper demonstrates that the neutron emission during acoustic cavitation comes from D(entered)-D(entered) fusion in C3D6O liquid instead of in cavitation vapor bubbles. This paper gives some predictions. The most important prediction is that the water can be taken as energy source producing fusion instead of C3D6O liquid.

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2395. Liu, B., et al. Wave Nature of Deuterium Flux Permeating through Palladium Thin Film with Nanometer Coating Layers —(I) Experimental Observation—- (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Tian, J., Ren, X. Z., Li, J., Wei, Q., Liang, C. L., Yu, J. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: materials, permeation

Wave nature of deuterium flux permeating through the palladium thin film is revealed using nanometer coating layers. Three sets of experimental data[1,2,3] agree with wave in multiple-layer theory quantitatively or qualitatively. Other than granular particle diffusion model and surface catalyst model, the wave nature of deuterons inside the coating layers must be included in order to explain the experimental phenomena.

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2396. Liu, B., et al. Wave Nature of Deuterium Flux Permeating through the Palladium Thin Film with Nanometer Coating Layers — ( I ) Experimental Observation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Tian, J., Ren, X. Z., Li, J., Wei, Q., Liang, C. L., Yu, J. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords:

Wave nature of deuterium flux permeating through the palladium thin film is revealed using nanometer coating layers. Three sets of experimental data [1,2,3] agree with wave in multiple-layer theory quantitatively or qualitatively. Other than granular particle diffusion model and surface catalyst model, the wave nature of deuterons inside the coating layers must be included in order to explain the experimental phenomena.

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2397. Liu, B., et al., Nuclear Transmutation on a Thin Pd Film in a Gas-Loading D/Pd System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Liu, B.
All Authors: Liu, B., Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Deformation, Gas loading, Nuclear transmutation

This paper discusses the deformation and elemental distribution of different palladium film surfaces after loading and unloading many times deuterium gas in the system.

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2398. Lo, S.Y., Enhancement of nuclear fusion in a strongly coupled cold plasma. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3(16): p. 1207.

First Author: Lo, S. Y.
All Authors: Lo, S. Y.
Keywords: theory, plasma screening

2399. Lobanov, V.V., et al., Studies of neutron emission from TiFe alloy loaded with deuterium at room temperature. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1991. 17(23): p. 22 (in Russian).

First Author: Lobanov, V. V.
All Authors: Lobanov, V. V., Zetkin, A. S., Kagan, G. E., Demin, V. E., Mil’man, I. I., Syurdo, A. I.
Keywords: Ti-Fe, D2, neutron

2400. Lochak, G. and L. Urutskoev. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Lochak, G.
All Authors: Lochak, G., Urutskoev, L.
Keywords:

Our report surveys the experimental and theoretical studies carried out at the RECOM since 1998 and the theoretical studies of leptonic monopoles by Georges Lochak (Fondation Louis de Broglie). We will outline briefly all the results to give the overall picture of our research.

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2401. Loebich, J., D. and C.J. Raub, Das Zustandsdiagramm Lithium-Palladium und die Magnetischen Eigenschaften der Li-Pd Legierungen. J. Less-Common Met., 1977. 55: p. 67.

First Author: Loebich, Jr., D.
All Authors: Loebich, Jr., D., Raub, C. J.
Keywords: Pd-Li, Li, Phase Diagram

2402. Lohr, L.L., Electronic structure of palladium clusters: implications for cold fusion. J. Phys. Chem., 1989. 93: p. 4697.

First Author: Lohr, L. L.
All Authors: Lohr, L. L.
Keywords: theory, Pd, D, distance

2403. Lomax, A., Replicable cold fusion experiment: heat/helium ratio. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Lomax, A.
All Authors: Lomax, A.
Keywords:

2404. Lomovskii, O.I., A.F. Eremin, and V.V. Boldyrev, Isotope heat effect in reactions with libreration of hydrogen on palladium catalytic particles. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 309: p. 879 (In Russian).

First Author: Lomovskii, O. I.
All Authors: Lomovskii, O. I., Eremin, A. F., Boldyrev, V. V.
Keywords: chemical, heat, Pd

2405. Lonchampt, G., L. Bonnetain, and P. Hieter. Reproduction of Fleischmann and Pons Experiments. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Lonchampt, G.
All Authors: Lonchampt, G., Bonnetain, L., Hieter, P.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, replication, boiling Fleischmann, ICCF-6

AbstractThe objective of this work is to check the reliability of the initial Fleischmann and Pons calorimeter for studying cold fusion from ambient to boiling temperature. After describing our experimental set up, the assessment of excess heat from the enthalpy balance is discussed. We have observed deposits on the electrodes after electrolysis, which, in our opinion, have a determining role in the excess heat generation. We show raw data from three runs. It is concluded that this calorimeter is well adapted for such cold fusion investigation.

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2406. Lonchampt, G., et al. Excess Heat Measurement with Patterson Type Cells. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Lonchampt, G.
All Authors: Lonchampt, G., Biberian, J. P., Bonnetain, L., Delepine, J.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, electrolysis heat+, replication CETI, ICCF-7

We have measured excess heat in a Patterson type cell doing electrolysis of light water in Li2SO4 with a cathode made of 0.6 mm nickel palladium beads and a platinum anode. The cell employed is similar to the CETI cell, the main difference being its increased diameter, allowing the use of more beads and a larger current with a relatively low current density. The experiment lasted 90 days. We show that a total excess energy of 800 kJ is produced, and cannot be explained by a chemical reaction. No nuclear ashes have been searched for at this stage.

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2407. Lonchampt, G., et al. Excess Heat Measurement with Pons and Fleischmann Type Cells. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Lonchampt, G.
All Authors: Lonchampt, G., Biberian, J. P., Bonnetain, L., Delepine, J.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, Pt cathode, Li2SO4, replication Fleischmann, ICCF-7

In experiments similar to the original Pons and Fleischmann description, we have done runs with palladium and platinum cathodes up to boiling in LiOD and Li2SO4. We show that up to 29% excess heat is produced at boiling, in accordance with our previous work, and in qualitative agreement with data obtained by Pons and Fleischmann but with lower magnitude. In addition we show that after boiling when the electrolyte is neutralized with sulfuric acid, excess heat is systematically observed at low temperature, even with platinum cathodes.

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2408. Long, H.Q., et al. Anomalous Effects in Deuterium/Metal Systems. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Long, H. Q.
All Authors: Long, H. Q., Sun, S. H., Liu, H. Q., Xie, R. S., Zhang, X.-W., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, neutron, gamma emission, D2 H2 ICCF-3

Stable and high yield of neutron had been measured repeatedly in the glow discharge processs of the flowing rare deuterium gas in a Deuterium / Metal system consisted of Pt, Nb, W, Cu, Mo, Ag or Fe with D respectively.A layer of metal film which was deposited on the inner surface of glass reaction bulb in the glow discharge process and insulated from electrodes played key action on inducing anomalous effects repeatedly. Neutrons had been measured by activation detector (115In, 193Ir) and recoil proton neutron spectrometer; there was a continued spectrum in the energy range from 0.5 Mev to 11 MeV; The average neutron energy was 3.55MeV; different heights of peak appeared at (0. 5-1 .0) Mev, (3.0-3.5)Mev, (5.0 – 5.5)Mev, (8.0-8.5)Mev, (9.0–9.5)Mev and (10.0 – 10.5)Mev; but the neutrons of (2.0-2.5)Mev interesting to people appeared in a valley of the energy spectrum and their yield was only 7-8 % of the total yield of neutrons. The highest yield of neutron appeared in D / Pt system, the lowest appeared in D / Fe system . . .

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2409. Long, H.Q., et al. The Anomalous Nuclear Effects Inducing by the Dynamic Low Pressure Gas Discharge in a Deuterium/Palladium System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Long, H. Q.
All Authors: Long, H. Q., Xie, R. S., Sun, S. H., Liu, H. Q., Gan, J. B., Chen, B. R., Zhang, X.-W., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: Pd, D, Gas Discharge, neutron, x-ray, gamma emission, ICCF-3

Neutron emission which average rate was 13-330 n/s and x-rays which average energy > eUmax were continuously detected from a gas discharge reaction ball, these neutrons were divided into two groups of 2 – 2.5 MeV and 2.5 – 7 MeV, and the emission of neutron was 100% reproducible.

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2410. Long, H., et al. New Experimental Results of Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Metal Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Long, H.
All Authors: Long, H., Yin, W., Zhang, X.-W., Wu, J., Zhang, W.-S., Tang, Z. H., Shen, Q., Zhou, Z., Qi, B., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Yang, Y.
Keywords: neutron, X-ray, Gas Discharge, Pt, Nb, Ta, WThx, W, Pd, Cu, Mo, Ag, Fe, D2, ion bombardment, ICCF-4

2411. Longhurst, G.R., T.J. Dolan, and G.L. Henriksen, An investigation of energy balances in palladium cathode electrolysis experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 337.

First Author: Longhurst, G. R.
All Authors: Longhurst, G. R., Dolan, T. J., Henriksen, G. L.
Keywords: Pd electrolysis D2O, heat- neutron, gamma emission, tritium-

2412. Lopez, E., et al. Search for Charged-Particle d-d Fusion Products in an Encapsulated Pd Thin Film. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Lopez, E.
All Authors: Lopez, E., Neuhauser, B., Ziemba, F., Jackson, J., Mapoles, E., McVittie, J., Powell, R.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, ion implantation, loading, gamma emission

2413. Lopez Garcia, A.R., et al., Gamma-radiation detection limits for electrochemically induced deuterium cold-fusion rates. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105: p. 987.

First Author: Lopez Garcia, A. R.
All Authors: Lopez Garcia, A. R., Vucetich, H., Bolzan, A. E., Arvia, A. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

2414. Lorenzini, E., P. Tartarini, and M. Trentin, Cold fusion: status of the research. Tec. Ital., 1990. 55(1): p. 1 (in Italian).

First Author: Lorenzini, E.
All Authors: Lorenzini, E., Tartarini, P., Trentin, M.
Keywords: review

2415. Louis, E., et al., Calculation of hydrogen-hydrogen potential energies and fusion rates in palladium hydride (PdxH2) clusters (x=2,4). Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 42: p. 4996.

First Author: Louis, E.
All Authors: Louis, E., Moscardo, F., San-Fabian, E., Perez-Jorda, J. M.
Keywords: theory, cluster phonon vibration, distance

2416. Louthan, J., M. R., et al., Hydrogen Embrittlement of Metals. Mater. Sci. and Eng., 1972. 10: p. 357.

First Author: Louthan, Jr, M. R.
All Authors: Louthan, Jr, M. R., Caskey, Jr, G. R., Donovan, J. A., Rawl, Jr., D. E.
Keywords: H, embrittlement, strength, Cu, Al, cracks

2417. Lowther, J.E., Hot spots in palladium hydride and cold fusion. Suid-Afrik. Tydskr. Wetenskap, 1991. 87: p. 17.

First Author: Lowther, J. E.
All Authors: Lowther, J. E.
Keywords: theory, hot spots

2418. Lpson, A.G., et al., Yield of nuclear fusion products from absorption of elastic energy in deuterated metals. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1992. 323(6): p. 1097 (in Russian).

First Author: Lpson, A. G.
All Authors: Lpson, A. G., Kutsnetsov, V. A., Sakov, D. M., Deryagin, B. V.
Keywords: theory, local energy

2419. Lu, R., X-ray emission and cold nuclear fusion in glow discharge process of a kind of gas. Trends Nucl. Phys., 1995. 12(1): p. 44 (in Chinese).

First Author: Lu, R.
All Authors: Lu, R.
Keywords: theory gas discharge, neutron, x-ray gamma emission

2420. Lu, R. Some Problems in Solar Physics and Astrophysics. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Lu, R.
All Authors: Lu, R.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

2421. Lu, R., Electron-ion bound state and it initiating a little nuclear fusion. High Power Laser Part. Beams, 1998. 10(2): p. 315 (in Chinese).

First Author: Lu, R.
All Authors: Lu, R.
Keywords: Theory, three body, D3

2422. Lu, R. A kind of new physical process and it role in solar physics amdastrophysics. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Lu, R.
All Authors: Lu, R.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory

2423. Ludecki, C.M., G. Deublein, and R.A. Huggins, Thermodynamic Characterization of Metal Hydrogen Systems by Assessment of Phase Diagrams and Electrochemical Measurements. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1987. 12: p. 81.

First Author: Ludecki, C. M.
All Authors: Ludecki, C. M., Deublein, G., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: H, review, phase diagram, thermodynamic

2424. Lukosi, E., et al., Diamond-based Radiation Sensor for LENR Experiments. Part 1: Sensor Development and Characterization. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Lukosi, E.
All Authors: Lukosi, E., Prelas, M. A., Shim, J., Kasiwattanawut, H., Weaver, C., Mathai, C, Gangopadhyay, S.
Keywords: Charged particle spectroscopy, Diamond sensors, Low energy nuclear reactions

There have been many reports on charged particle and neutron production in LENR experiments but as of yet they have not been correlated in time with excess heat generation. Diamond sensors with palladium electrodes can be utilized to address this need. First results using a diamond sensor is presented.

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2425. Lukosi, E., et al., Diamond-based Radiation Sensor for LENR Experiments. Part 2: Experimental Analysis of Deuterium-loaded Palladium. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Lukosi, E.
All Authors: Lukosi, E., Prelas, M. A., Shim, J., Kasiwattanawut, H., Weaver, C., Mathai, C, Gangopadhyay, S., Preece, K.
Keywords: Charged particle spectroscopy, Diamond sensors, Low energy nuclear reactions

The purpose of this paper is to report on the continued work on utilizing a palladium electrode on a diamond sensor in a pressurized hydrogen or deuterium environment to investigate the release of radiation during low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). In this investigation we conducted a long hydrogen exposure to see if palladium electrode delamination occurred due to chemical reactions and it was found that after seven days the electrode did not delaminate. A pressurized deuterium run was conducted immediately following the hydrogen exposure on the same sensor and some interesting count burst data was observed. Further analysis is required to determine what the observed effect could be attributed to.

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2426. Luo, N., et al. In-Situ Charactorization of Sputtered Pd Thin-Films Undergoing Electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Luo, N.
All Authors: Luo, N., Castano, C. H., Kim, S-O., Lipson, A. G., Woo, T., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

In-situ measurements on the resistance and temperature variations of Pd thin films are carried out during electrolysis. The measurement is made possible by covering parts of the Pd films with a protective layer of thermal and electric insulators. Electrical contacts are made by using either silver epoxy or indium soldering. The resistance-loading curve deviates somewhat from the typical curve for a bulk Pd/H(D) system. The initial resistance increase shows a much faster hydrogen diffusion rate along the film axis than that observed in bulk systems. The characteristic resistance-loading curve is explained by the electronic band structures of Pd loaded with different H(D) fractions. An excess heat of 30% during the electrolysis process was detected using an open  calorimeter and a novel circuit switching methodology. The corresponding excess power density reaches 100 W/cm^3.

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2427. Luo, N., G.H. Miley, and A.G. Lipson. Modeling of Surface and Bulk Effects in Thin-Film Pd Cathodes and High Proton Loading. in AVS, ICMSC Conference. 2002. Cleveland, Ohio.

First Author: Luo, N.
All Authors: Luo, N., Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G.
Keywords: Hydride, Electronic structure, Charge state, Density functional theory

Abstract Electronic structure modeling is carried out for bulk PdH system with implications for some surface effects. The calculation is performed under the frame work of density functional theory. The results provide new insight into the charge state of H inside Pd. The H is slightly negatively charged over the composition range studied in this paper, and the negative charge around the proton increases with an increasing loading in hydrogen. By studying the behavior of H at the “bridging” site, which is also important to surface configuration, this paper helps explain why the effective charge observed in H drift experiments is different from the static charge state.

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2428. Luo, N. and G.H. Miley. First-Principles Studies Of Ionic And Electronic Transport In Palladium Hydride. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Luo, N.
All Authors: Luo, N., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: loading, lattice

The transport properties of palladium hydride/deuteride are investigated using state-of-the-art density functional computational tools. This aspect of loaded hydride is important in that the resistance-loading curve is often used as a diagnostic in experiments to estimate the loading ratio. Understanding transport provides other important insights into some features of the nuclear reaction mechanism. This research involves both ionic and electronic degrees of freedom. For the ionic part, the focus is on the charge state of hydrogen/deuteron, in both a static and a dynamic (hopping) situation. Experiments show that hydrogen hops as fractional-charged positive ion in Pd lattice [1,2] while previous band structure calculations [3-5] always gave a negatively charged H in the ground state. This discrepancy is addressed in the current research and some results are already published [6]. The collective motion of ions is studied in the phonon structure and electron-phonon coupling constant using a perturbation density functional theory. The electronic part focuses on the density of state and the Fermi surface, which when combined with the electron-phonon coupling constant, determine the temperature and the H/D loading dependant resistivity curves. Our numerical results [7] qualitatively match experimental trends. The possible connections between this transport theory/mechanism and the non-equilibrium conditions required for excess heat are discussed.

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2429. Luo, N., et al. Enhancement Of Nuclear Reactions Due To Screening Effects Of Core Electrons. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Luo, N.
All Authors: Luo, N., Shrestha, P., Miley, G. H., Violante, V.
Keywords: theory

Recent progress in understanding the screening effects of core level atomic electrons is summarized in this paper. Some preliminary results on core electron screening were reported before [1]. The studies focus on two types of nuclear reactions in some metal lattices: fusion between deuterons and also proton capture by medium and heavy lattice nuclei. In both reactions the energy of the light nuclear species, proton or deuteron, is on the KeV (1000 electron volts) scale, while that of heavy nuclei is essentially zero. A standard atomic code is used to obtain the core electron charge density and the potential profile in the metal atom. This Hartree-Fock-Slater type code was originally written by Herman and Skillman and later modified by others and available online. For the D-D reaction, the charge density obtained then gives an estimate on the screening length. The corresponding enhancement in Coulomb barrier tunneling can be obtained from this data.  For the proton capture reaction, an ion dynamic code written to simulate the motion of KeV protons in Pd/Ni lattice, CLAIRE, was modified to take into account the realistic atomic potential, including core electron contributions. In both cases, our result shows a significant nuclear reaction enhancement. The reaction rate calculated roughly matches the scale of excess heat observed in some metal hydride/deuteride experiments.

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2430. Luo, N. and G.H. Miley, First-principles Studies of Electronic and Ionic Transport in Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 241-255.

First Author: Luo, N.
All Authors: Luo, N., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Electro-negativity, Electron-phonon interaction, Low-energy nuclear reaction, Palladium-hydride system

We review first principles studies on some transport properties and ion dynamics of the palladium hydride/deuteride system. The review is not meant to extensive, because it is aimed at understanding the abnormal and not-so-well-known part of the transport in the aforementioned compound that may be of particular importance to scientists studying Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) as well as persons interested in hydrogen storage in metal hydrides. Many well-known properties of Pd/H, such as the steady-state electronic structure, have already been covered by numerous studies and reviews elsewhere. Many of the studies reviewed here were carried out at the University of Illinois. We focus on the three different but related topics: (1) The charge state of H in Pd, especially in the hopping process. (2) The electron-phonon interaction, and its role in the negative differential resistivity. (3) Defects and dislocations in Pd and their effects in the H state and its transport. The latter is of intellectual interest relative to our recent research on LENRs involving the conjectured formation of hydrogen/deuterium clusters in such defects.

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2431. Lyakhov, B.F., et al., Anomalous heat release in the Pd/PdO system electrolytically saturated with hydrogen. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1993. 67: p. 491.

First Author: Lyakhov, B. F.
All Authors: Lyakhov, B. F., Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Yavich, A. A.
Keywords: loading, critique, electrolysis, heat

2432. Lynch, J.F., J.D. Clewley, and T.B. Flanagan, The Formation of Voids in Palladium Metal by the Introduction and Removal of Interstital Hydrogen. Philos. Mag. A, 1973. 28: p. 1415.

First Author: Lynch, J. F.
All Authors: Lynch, J. F., Clewley, J. D., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, solubility, Excess Volume, cracks

2433. Lynch, J.F. and T.B. Flanagan, An investigation of the dynamic equilibrium between chemisorbed and absorbed hydrogen in the palladium/hydrogen system. J. Phys. Chem., 1973. 77: p. 2628.

First Author: Lynch, J. F.
All Authors: Lynch, J. F., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, absorption, loading, thermodynamic

2434. Lynch, D.L., et al., Spectroscopic studies of surface and subsurface hydrogen/metal systems. J. Chem. Phys., 1992. 97(7): p. 5177.

First Author: Lynch, D. L.
All Authors: Lynch, D. L., Rick, S. W., Gomez, M. A., Spath, B. W., Doll, J. D., Pratt, L. R.
Keywords: Pd, Ni, H, surface

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