Bibliography D-H

Subpage of Bibliography

919. Daddi, L. Neutrons Observations in Cold Fusion Experiments. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: neutron, review, ICCF-5

This report is a review of the most convincing observations of neutrons in Cold Fusion history up to recent experiments in which neutrons were so numerous and long lasting so as to allow activation of thermal detectors. Lately neutrons were observed also by using natural hydrogen. A more complete review is published elsewhere.

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920. Daddi, L. On a possible role of the virtual neutrons in cold fusion. in ASTI Workshop. 1999. Asti.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: theory

921. Daddi, L., Proton-electron reactions as precursors of anomalous nuclear events. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 249.

First Author: Daddi, L.
All Authors: Daddi, L.
Keywords: virtual neutron theory

922. Dagani, R., Nuclear Fusion: Utah Findings Raise Hopes, Doubts, in Chem. Eng. News. 1989. p. 4.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: critique, history,

923. Dagani, R., Advocates,Skeptics Alike Still Puzzled by Cold Fusion. Chem. Eng. News, 1990.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: newspaper, review

924. Dagani, R., Cold Fusion Believer Turned Skeptic Crusades for More Rigorous Research. Chem. Eng. News, 1995.

First Author: Dagani, R.
All Authors: Dagani, R.
Keywords: history, critique

925. Dairaku, T., et al. Studies of nuclear-reactions-in-solid in titanium deuteride under ion implantation. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dairaku, T.
All Authors: Dairaku, T., Katayama, Y., Hayashi, T., Isobe, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, Ti, ion bombardment, D+, multibody, theory

In order to find the signature of multi-body fusion, experiments of ion-beam implantation were carried out using titanium deuteride target made by the gas-loading method. Up to now, charged particles that are not known in the ordinary beam-target interaction have been observed in the experiment.

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926. Dalard, F., et al., Electrochemical incorporation of lithium into palladium from aprotic electrolytes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 445.

First Author: Dalard, F.
All Authors: Dalard, F., Ulmann, M., Augustynski, J., Selvam, P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Li, surface analysis, Pd-Li

927. Dalun, W., et al. Diagnosis of Neutrons from the Gas Discharge Facility. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dalun, W.
All Authors: Dalun, W., Suhe, C., Yijiu, L., Rong, L., Mei, W., Yibei, F., Xinwei, Z., Wushou, Z.
Keywords: neutron, gas discharge ICCF-6

928. D’Amato, F., et al. Search for Nuclear Phenomena by the Interaction Between Titanium and Deuterium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: D’Amato, F.
All Authors: D’Amato, F., De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Zeppa, P., Pontorieri, C., Lanza, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, tritium, ICCF-1

929. Dan, C. The Role of the Energy Fluctuations in the Possibility of Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Dan, C.
All Authors: Dan, C.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

930. Dandapani, B. and M. Fleischmann, Electrolytic Separation Factors on Palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1972. 39: p. 323.

First Author: Dandapani, B.
All Authors: Dandapani, B., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2, D2, separation

931. Dannetun, H.M., et al., The H2-O2 Reaction on Palladium Studied Over a Large Pressure Range: Independence of the Microscopic Sticking Coefficients on Surface Condition. Sur. Sci., 1985. 152-153: p. 559.

First Author: Dannetun, H. M.
All Authors: Dannetun, H. M., Saderberg, D., Lundstram, I., Petersson, L. G.
Keywords: H, O, Pd, sticking Coefficient

932. Dannetun, H.M., et al., The H2-O2 Reaction on Palladium Studied Over a Large Pressure Range: Independence of the Microscopic Sticking Coefficients on Surface Condition. Sur. Sci., 1985. 152-153: p. 559.

First Author: Dannetun, H. M.
All Authors: Dannetun, H. M., Saderberg, D., Lundstram, I., Petersson, L. G.
Keywords: H, O, Pd, sticking Coefficient

933. Danos, M., Coulomb-assisted cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 413.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M.
Keywords: Theory

934. Danos, M., Coulomb-assisted cold fusion in solids. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 484.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M.
Keywords: Theory

935. Danos, M. and V.B. Belyaev, Estimate of the neutron transfer fusion rate. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 354.

First Author: Danos, M.
All Authors: Danos, M., Belyaev, V. B.
Keywords: Theory, neutron

936. Darby, M.I. and M.N. Read, Site Preference of Dilute Hydrogen in Palladium. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 90: p. L41.

First Author: Darby, M. I.
All Authors: Darby, M. I., Read, M. N.
Keywords: Pd, H2, absorption

937. Dardik, I., et al. Intensification Of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superwave Excitation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Gazit, D., Golbreich, E., Greenspan, E., Kapusta, A., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Michailovitch, B., Shani, G., Zilov, T.
Keywords: excess heat, electrolysis, glow discharge

Energetics Technologies (ET) was recently established to investigate possibilities for inducing Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) using special wave excitation. Four experimental approaches are being pursued: electrolysis, glow-discharge, gas loading in catalyst cells and high-pressure high-temperature cell with ultrasonic wave excitation. The experimental setups developed by ET are described along with preliminary results obtained. A significant amount of excess heat was measured in the first glow discharge experiment. The power generated during the experiment was up to 3.9 times the input power. When driven with waves the excess heat was higher than when driven with DC. A significant amount of excess heat was also measured after the shutdown of the glow discharge; it lasted for approximately 10 hours. The total excess energy generated is estimated to be 6.7 times the input energy. The “heat-after-death” phenomenon was also observed in another glow discharge experiment. Excess heat up to approximately 80% was measured over a period of over 3 months in yet another glow discharge experiment. Driving the electrolytic cells with waves resulted in a faster loading than when driving them with DC of the same average current. The tritium concentration in the electrolyte measured at the end of the experiments was found to be up to more than 100% the pre-experiment level. No excess heat was measured, so far, in the catalyst cells. Successful loading of Pd target with D was obtained in the high-pressure high-temperature gas cell without going through the alpha+beta phase of the Pd-D system.

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938. Dardik, I., et al. Excess heat in electrolysis experiments at Energetics Technologies (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: heat

PowerPoint slides describing research at Energetics Technology. Topic covered: SuperWaves;  glow discharge experiments; electrolytic cells; cathode pretreatment; excess heat obtained; tritium and material analysis.

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939. Dardik, I., et al. Progress in Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachaturov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat

ABSTRACT In last year we have succeeded obtaining significant Excess Heat (=100%) with seven different Pd foils, using Electrolytic cells, excited by Dardik’s Super Wave. Several of the successful foils were provided by Dr. Vittorio Violante of ENEA Frascatti. Significant Excess Heat: The output power exceeded the input power (COP) by at least 100%. Maximum COP obtained is 600%, it lasted for 24.5 hours. The longest period of Excess Heat obtained was 134 hours at COP of 150%. A new type of experiments was initiated. Electrolytic loaded Pd cathode is exposed to Ultra Sonic waves (US), inducing cavitations in the vicinity of the cathode.

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940. Dardik, I., et al. Report on Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Shapiro, A., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords:

941. Dardik, I. Preparata Prize acceptance speech. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I.
Keywords: review,

942. Dardik, I., et al. Ultrasonically-excited electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I., Zilov, T., Branover, H., El-Boher, A., Greenspan, E., Khachatorov, B., Krakov, V., Lesin, S., Shapiro, A., Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: ultrasonic, heat, review

Three electrolysis cells with built-in ultrasonic transmitters were developed by Energetics Technologies. The ultrasonic transmitters induce cavitation in the electrolyte in the vicinity of the palladium cathode for in-situ cleaning and activation of the cathode surface, generation of dislocations, assistance in loading and excitation of the Pd-D system. The ultrasonically assisted electrolysis cells are described and excess heat generating experiments using these cells are illustrated. All of these experiments used the Dardik’s modified SuperWaves to drive the electrolysis. The reproducibility of excess heat generation obtained using the ultrasonically assisted electrolysis experiments approaches 80%, which is the highest of all types of electrolysis experiments performed at Energetics Technologies.

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943. Dardik, I. SuperWaves (TM) as the Natural Origin of Excess Heat. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dardik, I.
All Authors: Dardik, I.
Keywords:

Energetics Technologies has had excellent reproducibility of its own experimental results on cold fusion; significantly, its work has been replicated at independent laboratories, at SRI and ENEA. We believe that one of the most important reasons for these results is the use t of complex fractally nested current excitation From this perspective, these results in replicating the production of excess heat are a further confirmation that natural phenomena, including the electrochemical processes for producing excess of heat, can be correctly described by these fractal dynamics. . In this paper I describe basic concepts of the SuperWaves™ theory, which is an original general approach to model and understand natural phenomena.

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944. Das, D. and M.K.S. Ray, Fusion in condensed matter – a likely scenario. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 115.

First Author: Das, D.
All Authors: Das, D., Ray, M. K. S.
Keywords: Theory

945. Dasannacharya, B.A. and K.R. Rao, Remarks on Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 2.

First Author: Dasannacharya, B. A.
All Authors: Dasannacharya, B. A., Rao, K. R.
Keywords: theory,

946. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman. Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation With Excess Heat. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, structure, transmutation, ICCF-4, electrolysis

947. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman. Changes in Surface Topography and Microcomposition of a Palladium Cathode Caused by Electrolysis in Acidified Light Water. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, H2SO4, heat+, transmutation

948. Dash, J., G. Noble, and D. Diman, Surface Morphology and Microcomposition of Palladium Cathodes After Electrolysis in Acified Light and Heavy Water: Correlation With Excess Heat. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 299.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Noble, G., Diman, D.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, surface analysis, structure, transmutation

949. Dash, J. and S. Miguet, Microanalysis of Pd Cathodes after Electrolysis in Aqueous Acids. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 23.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Miguet, S.
Keywords: transmutation,, Pd, electrolysis,, D2O,, surface analysis

ABSTRACT The morphology and microcomposition of palladium after electrolysis in heavy water were studied. Fibers which appeared on the surface were observed to change with time. Evidence which supports the possibility of transmutation is presented.

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950. Dash, J., R. Kopecek, and S. Miguet. Excess Heat and Unexpected Elements from Aqueous Electrolysis with Titanium and Palladium Cathodes. in 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 1997.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Kopecek, R., Miguet, S.
Keywords: Excess heat, transmutation

ABSTRACT Presented here are results of research performed at Portland State University during the period 1994 to 1996. Excess heat was produced at the rate of about 1.2 watts during electrolysis of heavy water with a titanium cathode weighing 0.0625g. Analysis of the electrodes before and after electrolysis with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that new surface topographical features with concentrations of unexpected elements (V, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zn) formed during electrolysis. The morphology and microcomposition of palladium after electrolysis in heavy water were studied. Fibers which appeared on the surface were observed to change with time. Evidence which supports the possibility of transmutation is presented.

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951. Dash, J., Interaction of titanium with hydrogen isotopes, final progress report. 2001, U.S. Army Research Office.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J.
Keywords: heat, titanium

Attempts to achieve low temperature nuclear fusion can be traced to the work of Paneth, Peters, and Tanberg in 1927. Martin Fleischmann, who in his early career was a colleague of Paneth, teamed with Stanley Pons at the University of Utah to pursue this goal by the electrolysis of heaNy water with a palladium cathode. Palladium is a metalwhich strongly absorbs hydrogen isotopes. The question they sought to answer was whether the internal pressure generated by this absorption would be sufficient to overcome the coulomb repulsion of deuterium nuclei. In 1989 they claimed success in fusing deuterium nuclei to form helium 2. Their main evidence for this claim was excessheat which was orders of magnitude higher than could be explained by any known chemical reaction

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952. Dash, J., J. Freeman, and B. Zimmermann, Cold Fusion Research – Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 2002, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Freeman, J., Zimmermann, B.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides describing cold fusion experiments conducted during Portland State University summer apprenticeship program in 2002.

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953. Dash, J., et al. Effects of Glow Discharge with Hydrogen Isotope Plasmas on Radioactivity of Uranium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Savvatimova, I., Frantz, S., Weis, E., Kozima, H.
Keywords: glow discharge, radioactivity, gamma, transmutation

ABSTRACT Uranium foils were attached to the cathode of a glow discharge apparatus. A plasma of either hydrogen or deuterium ions was used to bombard the uranium. The rates of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation emissions were significantly greater for the bombarded uranium than for the original material.

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954. Dash, J. and D. Chicea. Changes In The Radioactivity, Topography, And Surface Composition Of Uranium After Hydrogen Loading By Aqueous Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Chicea, D.
Keywords: electrolysis, uranium, reduced radioactivity

ABSTRACT Hydrogen loading  of 99.98% pure natural uranium foils (0.18 mm thick) was performed by aqueous electrolysis in order to compare with glow discharge results. Alpha, beta, and gamma specific radioactivity were measured  after hydrogen loading and compared with the control. Some of the samples revealed an increase of the specific radioactivity of up to 20%. Gamma ray spectroscopy was also performed on the samples. Results reveal an increase of the specific counts for the peaks of Th234 and U235 and a decrease in the U Ka1 characteristic x-ray peak. The surface topography changed from granular before electrolysis to pitted afterward. The thorium concentration increased slightly after electrolysis compared with the original material. In summary, this work in progress reveals that loading hydrogen into uranium increases the uranium decay rate, in agreement with the glow discharge results.

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955. Dash, J., C. Lee, and S. Pedersen, The Quest for Excess. 2003, Portland State University: Porland, OR.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Lee, C., Pedersen, S.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides describing cold fusion experiments conducted during Portland State University summer apprenticeship program in 2003.

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956. Dash, J. and A. Ambadkar. Co-Deposition Of Palladium With Hydrogen Isotopes. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Ambadkar, A.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

ABSTRACT. Palladium was co-deposited with hydrogen isotopes on a Pd cathode. This resulted in enhanced production of excess thermal power. After electrolysis the Pd Lβ / Lα ratio was found to be increased in characteristic x-ray spectra from localized, microscopic areas on the surface of the Pd cathode. This suggests the possibility that appreciable amounts of silver are present in these areas.

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957. Dash, J., A. Ambadkar, and Q. Wang. ICCF11 Tutorial – Search for optimum conditions to produce excess heat from the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium cathode (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Ambadkar, A., Wang, Q.
Keywords: heat

Tutorial presented at ICCF-12.

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958. Dash, J. and D.S. Silver. Surface Studies After Loading Metals With Hydrogen And/Or Deuterium. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Silver, D. S.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Surface studies of 40 μm thick Pd foils after electrolysis in D2O / H2SO4 electrolyte for six minutes found inversions in isotopic ratios. Anomalous isotopic ratios were also found on the surface of a 350 μm thick Pd foil after electrolysis in the same electrolyte for 74 hours.

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959. Dash, J., Q. Wang, and D.S. Silver, Excess Heat and Anomalous Isotopes and Isotopic Ratios From the Interaction of Palladium With Hydrogen Isotopes, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 61-80.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Wang, Q., Silver, D. S.
Keywords:

960. Dash, J. and Q. Wang. Anomalous Silver on the Cathode Surface after Aqueous Electrolysis. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Wang, Q.
Keywords:

The presence of localized concentrations of anomalous elements (gold and silver)on the surfaces of palladium cathodes after electrolysis in either light water or heavy water electrolyte was first reported in 1994 [1]. Similarly, anomolous elements in surface pits were reported for titanium cathodes after electrolysis in heavy water electrolyte [2]. More recently, off-the-shelf battery fluid (Sp.G. 1.26) was substituted for analytical-grade H2SO4 (Sp.G. 1.84) in the electrolyte. Silver was found in localized concentrations on palladium cathodes after electrolysis. These results are consistent with a thermal neutron mechanism proposed previously [1].

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961. Dash, J. and J. Solomon, Effect of Recrystallization on Heat Output and Surface Composition of Ti and Pd Cathodes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Dash, J.
All Authors: Dash, J., Solomon, J.
Keywords: excess heat

The microstructure of Pd and Ti foils was altered by cold rolling followed by heating at temperatures up to ~700ÂÂу. The surface topography and microchemical composition of these foils was studied before and after electrolysis with heavy water electrolyte. Temperature measurements during electrolysis showed that Ti and Pd cathodes which had been heated to ~700ÂÂу gave about 1W excess power relative to a control.

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962. D’Aulerio, L., et al. Thermal analysis of calorimetric systems. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: D’Aulerio, L.
All Authors: D’Aulerio, L., Violante, V., Castagna, E., Fiore, R., Capobianco, L., Del Prete, P., Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

963. David, F., Theorie de la diafluidite. Fusion, 1994. 49: p. 58 (in French).

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F.
Keywords: Theory, fluidity, superconductivity, superfluidity

964. David, F. and J. Giles. Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: From Excess Energy to Energy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F., Giles, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Conventionally, the cold fusion reaction produces heat. The authors have sought a different approach, wherein the device has no input energy, relying on the energy produced by cold fusion in the device. The device consists of diodes fabricated as powder, with a large surface junction made up of a semiconductor in contact with palladium charged with deuterium.The apparent fusion reactions take place in the junction between the semiconductor and the Palladium powder, which produces an excitation which is transmitted to the electrons. This excitation increases their energy and allows them to cross the bandgap of the semiconductor and pass into the conduction band, as in a photovoltaic cell. This energy very quickly appears as a spontaneous potential difference which can reach over 0.5 volt per junction.The potential drop concentrates on the junction region, and at a nano scale the electric field reaches considerable values, higher than the megavolt per meter, which constrains the deuterium nuclei and increases the probability of deuterium fusion.

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965. David, F. and J. Giles. Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: Nuclear Energy or Chemical Artefact? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F., Giles, J.
Keywords:

The authors discusses the results of the testing of a new fusion device : the “Fusion Diode”.

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966. David, F. and J. Giles. Alternatives to Calorimetry (PowerPoint slides and poster). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: David, F.
All Authors: David, F., Giles, J.
Keywords: calorimeter

Since the first publication of Martin Fleischman and Stanley Pons in 1989, the majority of articles in the LENR field have focused on calorimetry. This is true for both electrolysis experiments and gaseous loading experiments.Many calorimetry experiments are masterpieces of science [3] Nevertheless, despite the experimental evidence, the results indicating excessive heat have not convinced the scientific community. Well-designed calorimetry experiments take a very long time to be developped. It’s an issue, because it would be good to test many alloys systematically.

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967. Davidonis, R., et al., An experimental evaluation of the probability of cold fusion. Litovskii Fiz. Sbornik, 1990. 30(6): p. 65.

First Author: Davidonis, R.
All Authors: Davidonis, R., Duskesas, G., Kalinauskas, R., Makarinunas, K., Petrauskas, J., Remeiskis, V., Ruzele, B.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, electrolysis, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, D2O, negative

968. Davidson, K., Cold Fusion Not Dead Yet, in San Francisco Examiner. 1989.

First Author: Davidson, K.
All Authors: Davidson, K.
Keywords: history

969. Davidson, M., Off-mass-shell Particles and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Davidson, M.
All Authors: Davidson, M.
Keywords: Horwitz-Piron, LENR, Nuclear anomalies, Stueckelberg, Variable mass

A recent and somewhat radical theoretical explanation for LENR is reviewed. It is based on variable mass theories of relativistic quantum mechanics that date back to the 1930s in works by Fock and Stueckelberg, and up to the present by many others. It explains a large number of observed anomalous effects in LENR by positing that nuclear rest-masses can vary in “nuclear active environments” in condensed matter settings. The varying masses modify the kinematic constraints of the nuclear reactions. It also offers a mechanism for enhancing electron screening and-or quantum tunneling rates, for allowing for resonant tunneling, and for modified radioactive decay rates by mass changes in the decaying isotopes.

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970. Davies, J.D. and J.S. Cohen, More on the cold fusion family. Ettore Majorana Int. Sci. Ser.: Phys. Sci., 1990: p. 52.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D., Cohen, J. S.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

971. Davies, J.D., A Direct Measurement of the Alpha-Muon Sticking Coefficient in Muon-Catalysed d-t Fusion. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1990. 16: p. 1529.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D.
Keywords: muon, D-T fusion

972. Davies, J.D., et al., Search for 2.5 MeV neutrons from D2O (heavy water) electrolytic cells stimulated by high-intensity muons and pions. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 103(1): p. 155.

First Author: Davies, J. D.
All Authors: Davies, J. D., Pyle, G. J., Squier, G. T. A., Bertin, A., Bruschi, M., Piccinini, M., Vitale, A., Zoccoli, A., Jones, S. E., Alper, B., Bom, V. R., Van Eijk, C. W. E., de Haan, H., Craston, D. H., Jones, C. P., Williams, D. E. G., Anderson, D. M., Eaton, G. H.
Keywords: PdD, TiD, muons, ion bombardment

973. Davis, L., Cold fusion: a learning curve? Aust. Phys., 1989. 26: p. 219.

First Author: Davis, L.
All Authors: Davis, L.
Keywords: review

974. Daviss, B., Reasonable Doubt, in New Scientist. 2003. p. 36.

First Author: Daviss, B.
All Authors: Daviss, B.
Keywords: Review

975. Davydov, A.S., Possible interpretation of cold nuclear fusion (Letter to the Editor). Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1989. 34: p. 1295 (in Russian).

First Author: Davydov, A. S.
All Authors: Davydov, A. S.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity, muons

976. Davydov, A.S., Possible explanation of the cold fusion experiments”. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1990. 35(9): p. 811.

First Author: Davydov, A. S.
All Authors: Davydov, A. S.
Keywords: Theory

977. de Guerville, F., Proton Conductors: Nanometric Cavities, H2 Precipitates under Pressure, and Rydberg Matter Formation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 26-39.

First Author: de Guerville, F.
All Authors: de Guerville, F.
Keywords: H2 precipitates, Impurities, Large hydrogen flux, Nanometric cavities, Partial metallization of hydrogen, Pressure, Proton conductors, Rydberg states

Proton conductors (PC) are metal oxides often used as solid electrolyte with hydrogen above 400 K, in which anomalous presence increase of several chemical elements and excess heat would have been obtained from near-surface locations. Near the surface of other metal oxides, closely spaced hydrogen at a distance of only 2 pm at least during a fraction of the time has been detected, and has been proposed to be in the form of hypothetical ultradense Rydberg matter H(0). How can H(0) form in PC near the cathode interface? Nanometric cavities (NC) were observed in the PC near their cathode interfaces. These NC would contain H2 precipitates with impurities, under a pressure of the order of 0.1 GPa. Since PC are crossed by a large flux of protons, a simple mechanism is proposed to increase the H2 pressure in these NC rapidly and temporarily well above the PC tensile strength. A second mechanism is then described to turn this H2 into a metallic-molecular state, form a Rydberg matter H(1) and then H(0) with a pressure decrease. In NC, the presence of impurities and the entry of the hydrogen atoms in the form of Rydberg atoms are proposed to decrease the pressure required to form metallic-molecular hydrogen. Finally, different experiments are proposed to test this research approach, particularly by transmission electron microscopy and Raman micro-spectroscopy.

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978. De Marco, F., et al. Progress Report on the Research Activities on Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Marco, F.
All Authors: De Marco, F., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., La Barbera, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, stress, D/Pd, ICCF-6

979. De Ninno, A., et al., Emission of neutrons from a deuterium-titanium system. Energ. Nucl. (Rome), 1989. 6: p. 9 (in Italian).

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium

980. De Ninno, A., et al., Evidence of emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium system”. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 9: p. 221.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium

981. De Ninno, A., et al., Emission of neutrons as a consequence of titanium-deuterium interaction. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101: p. 841.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Lollobattista, G., Martinis, L., Martone, M., Mori, L., Podda, S., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, titanium

982. De Ninno, A., et al. Emission of Neutron Bursts From a Titanium-Deuterium Gas Ststem in a High-Effeciency Low-Background Experimental Setup. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Pontorieri, C., Zeppa, P.
Keywords: neutron, Ti, D2, titanium

983. De Ninno, A., et al. The Production of Neutrons and Tritium in the Deuterium Gas-Titanium Interaction. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Frattolillo, A., Migliori, S., Lanza, F., Scaglione, S., Zeppa, P., Pontorieri, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, tritium, ICCF-2, titanium

984. De Ninno, A. and V. Violante. “Quasi-Plasma” Transport Model in Deuterium Overloaded Cathodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: theory

The Pd-D system has been described assuming a two-population model. A “quasi-plasma” delocalized boson gas picture has been used for the deuterons exceeding the sto ichiometric ratio in Pd-D compounds.A mathematical model supported by a numerical computer code with distributed parameters has been developed in order to describe the evolution of the deuteron concentration profile inside a Pd cathode under pulsed electrolysis. Several boundary conditions have been taken into account.A strong correlation has been found between the model system evolution and the experimental data .

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985. De Ninno, A. and V. Violante, Study of deuterium charging in palladium by electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 1304.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2, diffusion, loading

986. De Ninno, A., A. La Barbera, and V. Violante. Selection of palladium metallurgical parameters to achieve very high loading rations. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, preloading, ICCF-6, elecrolysis, D2O

987. De Ninno, A., A. La Barbera, and V. Violante, Deformations induced by high loading ratios in palladium-deuterium compounds. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 181.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd, loading, resistivity, cracking

988. De Ninno, A., M.V. Antisari, and C. Giangiordano. Material Science Aimed at Improving the Reproducibility of Heat Excess Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Antisari, M. V., Giangiordano, C.
Keywords: Pd, structure, loading, grain size, layer, Ni, diffusion, resistivity, ICCF-7, electrolysis

989. De Ninno, A., et al. Cold Fusion at ENEA Frascati: Progress Report. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Violante, V., Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: film, D2, D2O, Pd, Ni, loading, diffusion, stress, ICCF-7

Abstract The resources dedicated by ENEA to Cold Fusion research in the last two years have been strongly reduced. Nevertheless, fruitful activity has been performed following two main lines. The first line attains to the effort for reaching high values of D/Pd ratio in Pd in order to obtain the best conditions for cold fusion phenomena, in particular power excess production in electrolytic cells. The outcome of this research is the definition of the starting characteristic of Pd (metallurgy), and the procedure for its loading with Deuterium. The calorimetry by now assessed at ENEA Frascati has been used for the detection of power excess. The second line concerns the attempt to detect in a clear way the production of 4He during the power excess episodes. A system aimed to the analysis of the gases evolving from the electrolytic cell is being realised and will be briefly described.

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990. De Ninno, A., et al. A New Method Aimed at Detecting Small Amounts of Helium in a Gaseous Mixture. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Franttolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Scaramuzzi, F., Alessandrini, C.
Keywords: Helium, method, ICCF-8

991. De Ninno, A., et al., Experimental Evidence of 4He Production in a Cold Fusion Experiment. 2002, ENEA – Unita Tecnico Scientfica Fusione Centro Ricerche Frascati, Roma.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Del Gindice, E., Preparata, G.
Keywords: Cold fusion, mass spectroscopy, non equilibrium calorimetry, nuclear reactions in condensed matter, helium-4

We report the simultaneous production of excess enthalpy and of 4He in a one dimensional Palladium (Pd) stripe cathode electrolytically loaded with Deuterium (D), occurring when the stoichiometric ratio x=[D]/[Pd] exceeds 1. The excess heat is signaled by the local temperature rise, measured by a commercial Peltier element in good thermal contact with the thin film cathode substrate. In order to detect the very small amount of 4He expected in the gas mixture exiting from the cell, we remove effectively all non inert components of the gas mixture (especially hydrogen isotopes) with a non-evaporable getter (NEG) pump. . . .

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992. De Ninno, A., et al. 4He Detection In A Cold Fusion Experiment. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Rizzo, A., Del Gindice, E.
Keywords:

Excesses enthalpy consistent only with a nuclear process (deuterium fusion) has been claimed since 1989, even though these results are considered inconsistent with modern nuclear science and have been discarded by the most of nuclear scientists. We started an experimental programme aimed at probing these issues: Thermal anomalies can be observed only when the concentration x= [D]/[Pd] overcomes a threshold (x=1) [1]; This threshold can be easily obtained in a suitably Pd geometry; The thermal anomalies can be started and stopped controlling the experimental procedure; 4He is simultaneously generated, commensurate with the level of the excess enthalpy [2], [3], [4].Understanding a triple coincidence – the reaching of the threshold of the D concentration in Pd, the appearance of the excess of enthalpy, and the appearance of 4He – is the primary objective of this investigation . . .

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993. De Ninno, A., E. Del Giudice, and A. Frattolillo, Excess Heat and Calorimetric Calculation: Evidence of Coherent Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter at Room Temperature, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 127-152.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Del Giudice, E., Frattolillo, A.
Keywords:

994. De Ninno, A., Dynamics in Pd-H(D) Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 291-303.

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A.
Keywords: Lattice dynamics, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Material science

PdH(D) showsmany peculiar aspects whichmake it unique both for solid state and forLENRphysics. Its most surprising characteristic is that it behaves like a stable dense plasma consisting of H(D) nuclei which can be well explained on the basis of an appropriate many-body model.

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995. De Ninno, A., et al., Nuclear Project: Preliminar Study of the Hydrogen Flux in Palladium Film under Electric Field. International J. of Heat and Technology, 2016. 34(1).

First Author: De Ninno, A.
All Authors: De Ninno, A., Bassignana, A., Musumeci, F., Tudisco, S., Cammarata, G.
Keywords: palladium thin film

996. Deakin, M.R., et al., Search for cold fusion using x-ray detection. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. R1851.

First Author: Deakin, M. R.
All Authors: Deakin, M. R., Fox, J. D., Kemper, K. W., Myers, E. G., Shelton, W. N., Skofronick, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, x-ray, D2O, negative

997. Dean, S.O., Fusion News: 2004. J. Fusion Energy, 2004. 23(3): p. 137.

First Author: Dean, S. O.
All Authors: Dean, S. O.
Keywords: review

998. DeChiaro, L., L. Forsley, and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Strained Layer Ferromagnetism in Transition Metals and its Impact Upon Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: DeChiaro, L.
All Authors: DeChiaro, L., Forsley, L., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: DFT, Epitaxial, Ferromagnetism, LENR

Spin-polarized Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to model the lattice structures for the Transition Metal Group, Columns I and II, and a number of sp elements in the Periodic Table. Our results suggest that most of the transition metals can exhibit ferromagnetic ordering if the lattice is placed in sufficiently high tensile stress. These results are applied to the study of some layered structures employed by a number of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) research teams and may help to explain some of the anomalous results and the difficulty in reproduction of those results.

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999. Defkalion, Defkalion Green Technologies: Company Overview, Market Strategy, Global Positioning. 2011: Athens, Greece.

First Author: Defkalion
All Authors: Defkalion
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

Defkalion Green Technologies s.a. was established to manufacture and market products based on the E-Cat, which was invented by Andrea Rossi. We are undertaking a path from invention to industrialization on a global scale. There is no government financing involved.

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1000. Degwekar, S.B. and M. Srinivasan, A simple dead time method for measuring the fraction of bunched neutronic emission in cold fusion experiments. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1990. 17: p. 583.

First Author: Degwekar, S. B.
All Authors: Degwekar, S. B., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: neutron, method

1001. Dekhtyar, I.Y. and V.S. Shevchenko, Positron Annihilation in the System Palladium-Hydrogen. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1972. 49: p. K11.

First Author: Dekhtyar, I. Ya.
All Authors: Dekhtyar, I. Ya., Shevchenko, V. S.
Keywords: positron, PdH

1002. Del Giudice, E., et al. The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in a Novel Electrolytic Configuration. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Franttolillo, A., Preparata, G., Scaramuzzi, F., Bulfone, A., Cola, M., Giannetti, C.
Keywords: layer, Pd, Coehn, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, resistivity, loading, ICCF-8

1003. Del Giudice, E., et al. Loading Palladium with Deuterium Gas while Lowering Temperature. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Preparata, G., Scaramuzzi, F., Tripodi, P.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2, ICCF-8, layer

1004. Del Giudice, E., et al. Loading of H(D) in a Pd lattice. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Fleischmann, M., Frattolillo, A., Mengoli, G.
Keywords: ICCF-9, loading, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, theory, Preparata effect

The aim of the present contribution is to summarize what we have learnt in the last years about the ways and the means through which we are able to reach high loadings (x=D/Pd >1) in Pd-D systems.

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1005. Del Giudice, E., et al. Production of excess enthalpy in the electrolysis of D2O on Pd cathodes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A., Frattolillo, A., Porcu, M., Rizzo, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, 4He

INTRODUCTIONWe report the preliminary results of an experiment aimed at detecting the simultaneous production of excess heat and 4He in Palladium cathodes loaded with Deuterium up to a stoichiometric ratio x=D/Pd larger than 1.

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1006. Del Giudice, E. and A. De Ninno. Are Nuclear Transmutations Observed At Low Energies Consequences Of Qed Coherence? in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Del Giudice, E.
All Authors: Del Giudice, E., De Ninno, A.
Keywords: theory

Nuclear transmutations have been reported to occur in matrices subjected to either electrochemical or gas loading at room temperature. To overcome the difficulties of the large Coulomb repulsion among nuclei a γ-ray electromagnetic field appears  as a suitable agent. It is discussed whether this e.m. excitation could emerge from cold fusion processes and induce nuclear reactions through the giant resonance coupling of this e.m. field with the closed shells present in the nuclei of the matrix.

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1007. Delley, B., Effect of electronic screening on cold-nuclear-fusion rates. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10: p. 347.

First Author: Delley, B.
All Authors: Delley, B.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1008. Demanins, F., et al., Search for the neutron production in niobium deuteride. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 559.

First Author: Demanins, F.
All Authors: Demanins, F., Graziani, M., Kaspar, J., Modesti, S., Raicich, F., Rosei, R., Tommasini, F., Trovarelli, A.
Keywords: Nb, D2, neutron

1009. Demidenko, V.S. and V.I. Simakov, The state of deuterium and probability of cold nuclear fusion in solids. Izv. Vysch. Uchebn. Zaved. Fiz., 1993. 36(10): p. 20 (in Russian).

First Author: Demidenko, V. S.
All Authors: Demidenko, V. S., Simakov, V. I.
Keywords: Theory

1010. Derjaguin, B.V., et al., Titanium fracture yields neutrons? Nature (London), 1989. 341: p. 492.

First Author: Derjaguin, B. V.
All Authors: Derjaguin, B. V., Lipson, A. G., Kluev, V. A., Sakov, D. M., Toporov, Yu. P
Keywords: fractofusion, TiD, LiD

1011. Derjaguin, B.V., et al., Excitation of nuclear reaction under mechanical effect (impact) on deuterated solids. Physica B, 1990. 167: p. 189.

First Author: Derjaguin, B. V.
All Authors: Derjaguin, B. V., Kluev, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiOD, neutron

1012. Deryagin, B.V., et al., Possibility of nuclear reactions during the fracture of solids. Colloid J. USSR, 1986. 48: p. 8.

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Klyuev, V. A., Lipson, A. G., Toporov, Yu. P.
Keywords: fractofusion, D2O., H2O, ice, neutron

1013. Deryagin, B.V., et al., On the possibility of initiation of nuclear fusion in deuterated ferroelectrics by polarisation reversal waves at T < Tc. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1994. 334(3): p. 291 (in Russian).

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Andriankin, E. I., Lipson, A. G., Metelkin, E. V., Sakov, D. M., Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, ferroelectric, neutron

1014. Deryagin, B.V., et al., On the initiation of the nuclear fusion reaction in deuterated ferroelectric at its polarisation reversal induced by an electric field. Dokl, Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1994. 336: p. 753 (in Russian).

First Author: Deryagin, B. V.
All Authors: Deryagin, B. V., Andriankin, E. I., Kutikov, A. A., Lipson, A. G., Sakov, D. M., Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, ferroelectrics, polarisation reversal, fractofusion

1015. Di Giulio, M., et al., Analysis of Nuclear Transmutations Observed in D- and H-Loaded Films. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 527.

First Author: Di Giulio, M.
All Authors: Di Giulio, M., Filippo, E., Manno, D., Nassisi, V.
Keywords: transmutation., gas loading,, Pd,, D2,, laser,, H2

1016. Dickinson, J.T., et al., Fracto-emission from deuterated titanium: Supporting evidence for a fracto-fusion mechanism. J. Mater. Res., 1990. 5: p. 109.

First Author: Dickinson, J. T.
All Authors: Dickinson, J. T., Jensen, L. C., Langford, S. C., Ryan, R. R., Garcia, E.
Keywords: fractofusion, Ti, light, radio emisssion, particle emission

1017. Didenko, Y. and K. Suslick, The energy efficiency of formation of photons, radicals and ions during single-bubble cavitation. Nature (London), 2002. 418: p. 394-397.

First Author: Didenko, Y.
All Authors: Didenko, Y., Suslick, K.
Keywords: Sonofusion,

1018. Didyk, A. and R. Wisniewski, Changes Observed in the Elemental Composition of Palladium and Rhenium Specimens Irradiated in Dense Deuterium by gamma-Quanta with Boundary of Energy 23 MeV. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Didyk, A.
All Authors: Didyk, A., Wisniewski, R.
Keywords: Chain reaction of deuterium heating, Dense deuterium gas, Elastic and inelastic scattering, 2H-induced reactions, High pressure, Photon absorption and scattering

We have studied the elemental composition of palladium and rhenium specimens irradiated in dense gaseous deuterium by gamma-quanta of a continuous spectrum with the threshold energy of 23 MeV. Significant anomalies are found in the structure and elemental composition of the irradiated specimens. At both ends of the palladium wire considerable changes are observed in the form of blowouts (resembling congealed “Solar protuberances”) of molten metal with complex elemental composition. The palladium surface proved to be covered with small particles, approximately 1-2 ìm in size, composed of rhenium oxide Re2O7 , while near the cracks and fractures the surface was covered with rhenium, carbon and oxygen crystallites of hexagonal symmetry. The entire surface of the rhenium sample became cracked and coated with a thick layer of carbon compounds with rhenium as RexCy . The phenomenological model of nuclear reactions leading to the observed elemental composition of rhenium and palladium is discussed.

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1019. Dienes, J.K., On nuclear reactions in defects. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 543.

First Author: Dienes, J. K.
All Authors: Dienes, J. K.
Keywords: Theory, distance

1020. Dignan, T.G., et al., A search for neutrons from fusion in a highly deuterated cooled palladium thin film. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 469.

First Author: Dignan, T. G.
All Authors: Dignan, T. G., Bruington, M. C., Johnson, R. T., Bland, R. W.
Keywords: Pd-Ir ion bombardment, loading, neutron, gamma emission, D+

1021. Dillon, C.T. and B.J. Kennedy, The electrochemically formed palladium-deuterium system. I. Surface composition and morphology. Aust. J. Chem., 1993. 46: p. 663.

First Author: Dillon, C. T.
All Authors: Dillon, C. T., Kennedy, B. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, surface analysis D2O transmutation loading Pd

1022. Dillon, C.T., B.J. Kennedy, and M.M. Elcombe, The electrochemically formed palladium-deuterium system. II. In situ neutron diffraction studies. Aust. J. Chem., 1993. 46: p. 681.

First Author: Dillon, C. T.
All Authors: Dillon, C. T., Kennedy, B. J., Elcombe, M. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, crystal structure, neutron diffraction, surface, D2O, loading

1023. Ding, Y. and B.Y. Liaw. Electrochemical Characterization of Ni in Hydride-containing Molten Salts. in 9th International Conf. on Solid State Ionics. 1993. The Hague, The Netherlands.

First Author: Ding, Y.
All Authors: Ding, Y., Liaw, B. Y.
Keywords: Ni, molten Salt, LiCl-KCl, Fused Salt

1024. Dini, D. Why “Cold” and “Warm” Fusion Reaction Plants for Producinbg Useful Energy are Very Far From Now. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Dini, D.
All Authors: Dini, D.
Keywords: Commercialization

1025. Divisek, J., L. Fuerst, and J. Balej, Energy balance of D2O electrolysis with a palladium cathode. Part II. Experimental results. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 278: p. 99.

First Author: Divisek, J.
All Authors: Divisek, J., Fuerst, L., Balej, J.
Keywords: Pd, heat, recombination, surface analysis, electrolysis, D2O, loading, transmutation

1026. Dmitrenko, V.N., I.P. Dryapachenko, and M.V. Sokolov, On the possibility of the study of electron screening in three-particle nuclear reactions. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1991. 36: p. 993 (in Russian).

First Author: Dmitrenko, V. N.
All Authors: Dmitrenko, V. N., Dryapachenko, I. P., Sokolov, M. V.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1027. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Mechanisms for heat generated during deuterium loading of alumina-based Pd nanoparticle material (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M., Moddel, G.
Keywords: heat

Recent studies on gas-loading of Pd nanoparticle materials have demonstrated consistent and repeatable anomalous heat production in the presence of deuterium gas [1-4]. Our group has confirmed anomalous heat production in zeolite and alumina powders containing Pd nanoparticles and found additional features. Investigations at low pressure and slow loading showed a clear association between exothermic and endothermic features and the presence of specific chemical species. These provide insight into the underlying mechanisms and the crucial question as to the origins of the anomalous heat.

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1028. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Control of excess heat production in Pd-impregnated alumina powder (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Excess heat

We carried out an experimental study of excess heat production during deuterium loading of Pd-impregnated alumina.  Earlier studies [1,2] have shown that a hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reaction can account for at least some of excess heat observed during gas-loading experiments. In this work we show that excess heat contributed by H/D exchange can be eliminated by prebaking the material in vacuum at 390у, due to the removal of residual water from the material. After the material is given the opportunity to reabsorb water from air the reaction and excess heat production in the presence of deuterium resumes. Our calculations on the energy available from H/D exchange show that all the excess heat observed during our experiment can be accounted for by this chemical reaction.

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1029. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Effect of temperature gradient on calorimetric measurements during gas-loading experiments (PowerPoint slides), in 10th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals. 2012.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Excess heat

We studied the influence of the temperature gradient on heat measurements during gas-loading experiments. The quasi isothermal chamber that we conducted our experiments in is built to keep the inside temperature uniform. However, when experimenting at the elevated temperatures above 200у nonuniformities induced by the air flow inside the chamber produce local hot and cold spots.

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1030. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and M. McConnell, Mechanisms for Heat Generation during Deuterium and Hydrogen Loading of Palladium Nanostructures. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, Gas-loading, Isotope effect, Nanoparticles, Palladium

Our group has confirmed excess heat production and isotope effects in alumina and zeolite powders containing highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles. Varying the pressures and loading rates produced correlations between the exothermic and endothermic aspects of the experiments. It was shown that the generated power is proportional to the pressurization rate times a quantity Φ, which is the energy content of what we called “fuel”. There are two types of fuels, both of which can trigger the reaction that can be either exothermic or endothermic depending on the gas used in the experiment (deuterium or hydrogen). Observed heat generation during the pressurization phase is most likely of a chemical nature.

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1031. Dmitriyeva, O., et al., Using Bakeout to Eliminate Heat from H/D Exchange During Hydrogen Isotope Loading of Pd-impregnated Alumina Powder. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 13-17.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Moddel, G., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, Gas-loading, H/D Exchange, LENR, Pd

Earlier studies [1,2] have shown that a hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange chemical reaction initiated in Pd-impregnated material can account for at least some of the excess heat observed during gas-loading experiments. We report on using in-situ material bakeout for an extended time to assess and eliminate the chemical heat contribution.

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1032. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and G. Moddel, Measurement Artifacts in Gas-loading Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., Moddel, G.
Keywords: Calibration, Gas-loading, Heat, Measurement, Palladium

Numerous reports on gas loading of hydrogen isotope into powdered materials indicate excess heat generation that could be the result of a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). When the amount of generated heat is small, it is important to characterize the calorimeter to account for possible measurement errors, or artifacts, which can result in long-term apparent excess heat. In this paper we investigate one of those possible measurement artifacts applicable to the gas loading systems that (1) use thermometry as a proxy for energy flow measurements, and (2) run at elevated temperatures. When loading gas into Pd-impregnated alumina, we have found that thermal gradients inside the system result in apparent heating or cooling of the measuring system. We experimentally magnified this effect and confirmed that it was due to temperature nonuniformity inside the calorimetric system. We quantified the effect using a numerical simulation tool to show that a temperature gradient as small as 0.5 K/m might result in 50 mW of apparent excess heat”generation”. We suggest a simple approach for investigators to account for this measurement artifact by calibrating their systems with helium gas either prior to, or at the end of, the experimental sequence.

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1033. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Role of dopants in deuterium loading during electrochemical experiment (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Knies, D., Hamm, S., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords:

Density functional theory was applied to study the hydrogen/deuterium evolution reaction on the palladium surface. High deuterium loading ratio ( > 0.9 ) has been identified as a necessary condition for initiating low energy nuclear reaction in palladium material. However, electrochemical loading of deuterium to the concentrations above 0.75 has its own challenges. While loading concentrations above 0.95 have been reported, the mechanism responsible for such elevated loading levels is still unknown. Our recent experiments gave an indication that the use of certain dopants modifies the process of deuterium adsorption on palladium surfaces. Such modifications promote deuterium loading to higher concentrations. We provide a detailed explanation on how the presence of dopants changes the activation overpotential and alter the deuterium escape kinetics during the evolution reaction.

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1034. Dmitriyeva, O., et al. Machine learning to analyze deuterium loading patterns during electrochemical experiments (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., McConnell, M., Goulet, E., Cantwell, R.
Keywords:

Machine learning is an effective and powerful computational approach that can be successfully applied towards a vast variety of engineering and scientific problems. The key to the approach is to generalize from the observed data to predict the behavior of the system and recognize the correlations and patterns.We discuss the implementation of machine learning algorithms to analyze experimental electrochemical data obtained in our lab. We use the supervised and unsupervised learning approaches to train the algorithms to recognize patterns in deuterium loading in palladium electrodes. Our analysis reveals important material parameters and experimental conditions that alter loading ratio. Open-source Python-based implementation along with the use of MongoDB relational database makes the data manipulation fast and effective.More than two decades of collective efforts resulted in significant LENR experimental data pool. Applying learning algorithms for data analysis can provide some important insight to what the nature of the phenomenon is.

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1035. Dmitriyeva, O., R. Cantwell, and D. McConnell, Numerical Modeling of H2 Molecule Formation within Near-surface Voids in Pd and Ni Metals in the Presence of Impurities. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Dmitriyeva, O.
All Authors: Dmitriyeva, O., Cantwell, R., McConnell, D.
Keywords: DFT, Impurities, LENR, Palladium, Surface, Vacancy

We have used density functional theory (DFT) to investigate crucial material parameters that can promote a low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). This approach significantly decreases the experimental burden involved into material fabrication and testing. It also provides the foundation for systematical study and optimization of important material properties. We focused on three characteristics to describe the LENR environment: (1) a high hydrogen isotope loading ratio, (2) the presence of dopants or impurities, and (3) material morphology. We chose two figures of merit to characterize those environments: hydrogen adsorption energy on metal surface and H2 bond length. We showed that high hydrogen loading and the presence of impurities in Pd and Ni can lower the adsorption energy, thus increasing hydrogen surface mobility potentially improving the reaction rate. Another factor that would increase the fusion probability is the distance between two hydrogen atoms. We demonstrated that a hydrogen molecule can be formed in a near-surface void in Pd and Ni at the bond length of 0.70-0.74 Å.

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1036. DOE, Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. 2004, Department of Energy, Office of Science.

First Author: DOE
All Authors: DOE
Keywords: Review

IntroductionThe Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Science (SC) was approached in late 2003 by a group of scientists who requested that the Department revisit the question of scientific evidence for low energy nuclear reactions. In 1987 Pons and Fleischman first reported the production of “excess” heat in a Pd electrochemical cell, and postulated that this was due to D-D fusion (D=deuterium), sometimes referred to as “cold fusion.” The work was reviewed in 1989 by the Energy Research Advisory Board (ERAB) of the DOE. ERAB did not recommend the establishment of special programs within DOE devoted to the science of low energy fusion, but supported funding of peer-reviewed experiments for further investigations. Since 1989, research programs in cold fusion have been supported by various universities, private industry, and government agencies in several countries. . . .

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1037. DOE, 2004 U.S. Department of Energy Cold Fusion Review Reviewer Comments. 2004, Department of Energy, Office of Science.

First Author: DOE
All Authors: DOE
Keywords:

Eighteen anonymous reviews of cold fusion gather by the DoE for the 2004 Report of the Review of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions.

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1038. Dolan, T.J. An outsider’s view of cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Dolan, T. J.
All Authors: Dolan, T. J.
Keywords: review, ICCF-9

An outside-ڳ views are presented on ICCF-9, on cold fusion research issues, and on suggestions for improvement.

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1039. Dolan, T.J., Notes from the 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Sciences. 2005: Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Dolan, T. J.
All Authors: Dolan, T. J.
Keywords: Review

The following brief summary refers to only some of the 60 papers presented at the conference.

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1040. Dominguez, D.D., P.L. Hagans, and M.A. Imam, A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems. 1996: Washington.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Hagans, P. L., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, neutron, gamma

Claims of excess power produced in electrochemical cells have been made by many investigators including those from two Navy laboratories. The excess power reportedly occurs in palladium electrodes highly loaded with deuterium. Other anomalous effects such helium-4, tritium and low energy radiation production have also been reported. This report summarizes the experimental results from a number of electrochemical loading/calorimetric experiments on palladium electrodes run at NRL. The experiments were carried out with the purpose of replicating the published excess power results obtained at the other Navy laboratories and with the goal of identifying the experimental conditions necessary to produce anomalous effects. Most of the experiments described were attempts to electrolytically load pure palladium or palladium alloy cathodes with deuterium (or hydrogen) and then to measure the power produced in the electrolytic cells. Loading was monitored in situ by measuring the change in the axial resistance of the cathode and comparing the measure values with the known relationship between resistance and the D(H)/Pd atomic ratios. While attaining high levels of deuterium loading in palladium cathodes was difficult we found that using materials with a large grain microstructure facilitated the loading. Calorimetric measurements on the highly loaded cathodes were initially made in isoperibol calorimeters that had a sensitivity of ѱ0%. No excess power (200 mW) and no radiation above the background were measured in any of the experiments described. Highly sensitive heat conduction calorimeters were evaluated for their use with the electrochemical cells. Results showed that measurements at the ѱ0 mW level were possible in the heat conduction calorimeters when data were collected frequently and signal averaging was used. Another experiment that was investigated was the electrochemical codeposition of palladium and deuterium on cathodes. Again, no radiation above background levels was detected in these experiments.

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1041. Dominguez, D.D., P.L. Hagans, and M.A. Imam. The effect of microstructure on deuterium loading in palladium cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Hagans, P. L., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, loading, grain-size, electrolysis, ICCF-6

The effect of micro structure on deuterium loading in palladium cathodes was investigated. Cathode micro structure is determined by thermomechanical processing that includes electrode deformation (swaging) and the annealing conditions (time and temperature). Results will be presented on the extent of deuterium loading in rod-shaped (0.4 cm in diameter and 3.5 cm long) cathodes with controlled microstructure produced at The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Loading on NRL cathodes will be compared with that attained on commercially available electrodes routinely used at other laboratories.

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1042. Dominguez, D.D., et al. Anomalous Results in Fleischmann-Pons Type Electrochemical Experiments (PowerPoint slides). in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Kidwell, D., Hubler, G. K., Cheng, S-F., Imam, M. A., Grabowski, K. S., Knies, D., DeChiaro, L., Moser, A. E., He, J., Violante, V.
Keywords: excess heat

Presentation Outline: Generation of FPE * The addition of metals/metal salts to shorten time to onset of effect * Focus on Pd 90% Rh 10% cathode material Steps taken to confirm results * Improved electrochemical cell design to eliminate the possibility of shorts to ground being mistaken for excess heat * Implemented many additional cell diagnostics (Used redundant measurements for independent verification) * Attempted to “crash” the VSP and initiate excess heat and

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1043. Dominguez, D.D., et al., Are Oxide Interfaces Necessary in Fleischmann-Pons-type Experiments? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Kidwell, D., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K., He, J., Violante, V.
Keywords: Chemical additives, Deuterated palladium cathodes, Electrochemical, Excess power

The generation of excess power in a palladium deuteride electrochemical system is often difficult and time consuming. Long incubation times, on the order of weeks or months, are necessary presumably for the basic electrolyte to dissolve and redeposit essential impurities onto the cathode surface. To accelerate this process, we added chemical additives to the electrolyte once the palladium was loaded with deuterium. Chemicals that produce oxide interfaces on the palladium surface seemed to occasionally produce apparent excess power. A single Pd90Rh10 cathode generated a total apparent excess energy on the order of 10 kJ after a series of additions in an experiment that only took one week. The results are encouraging and may lead to an understanding of what triggers excess power production in Fleischmann-Pons-type experiments. A hypothetical model describing the possible role of oxide interfaces is described.

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1044. Dominguez, D.D., A.E. Moser, and J. He, Evidence for Excess Energy in Fleischmann-Pons-Type Electrochemical Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Dominguez, D. D.
All Authors: Dominguez, D. D., Moser, A. E., He, J.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Deuterium , Excess energy, Palladium

The production of excess energy in palladium cathodes electrochemically loaded with deuterium (the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment) has been debated in the literature since its first publication in 1989. In a subset of 61 trials, we electrochemically loaded palladium-rhodium foil cathodes with deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water in specially designed closed calorimeter cells. We observed excess energy bursts in the range 2.4-44.3 kJ in 6% of these experiments. Additionally, a conservative estimate of the total integrated output energy is greater than the total integrated input energy in these experiments. This paper documents the steps taken to examine these results thoroughly for calibration/measurement errors and instrumental artifacts. A 2.4 kJ energy burst is at least four times greater than the energy released by oxidizing deuterium in the cell headspace. The data and subsequent elimination of alternative explanations for excess energy production lead us to conclude that the excess energy is real and of yet unknown origin.

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1045. Dong, S.Y., et al., Precursors to ‘cold fusion’ phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 330.

First Author: Dong, S. Y.
All Authors: Dong, S. Y., Wang, K. L., Feng, Y., Chang, L., Luo, C. M., Hu, R. Y., Zhou, P. L., Mo, D. W., Zhu, Y. F., Song, C .L., Chen, Y. T., Yao, M. Y., Ren, C., Chen, Q. K., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, emr, UV, x-ray, theory, CR-39, particle emission

1046. Dong, Q., et al., Studies on behavior of deuterium and hydrogen in palladium”. Chem. J. Chin. Univ, 1992. 13(6): p. 847 (in Chinese).

First Author: Dong, Q.
All Authors: Dong, Q., Qiu, W., Gan, F., Cai, N.
Keywords: positron,, diffusion, loading

1047. Dong, Z.M., et al., Studies on Anomalous Phenomena of D/Pd Systems using a Gas-loading Process – A Stride Towards Neutrino Detection. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 119-131.

First Author: Dong, Z. M.
All Authors: Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Liu, B., Wei, Q., Tian, J., Zheng, S., Yu, J. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Deuterium/Palladium system, Gas-loading, Neutrino detection, Pumping effect

A brief reviewof 20 years of experiments at Tsinghua University confirms anomalous phenomena during gas loading in D/Pd systems. A scale-up of the experiment would make it feasible to test the hypothesis that neutrinos are emitted during these phenomena (the “neutrino conjecture”).

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1048. Dong, Z.M., C.L. Liang, and X.Z. Li, Condensed matter nuclear science research status in China. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Dong, Z. M.
All Authors: Dong, Z. M., Liang, C. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords:

1049. Donne, A.J.H. and A.A.M. Oomens, Zon op Aarde (Sun on Earth). Natuur en Technik, 1990. 58(2): p. 118 (in Dutch).

First Author: Donne, A. J. H.
All Authors: Donne, A. J. H., Oomens, A. A. M.
Keywords: history

1050. Donohue, D.L. and M. Petek, Isotopic measurements of palladium metal containing protium and deuterium by glow discharge mass spectrometry. Anal. Chem., 1991. 63: p. 740.

First Author: Donohue, D. L.
All Authors: Donohue, D. L., Petek, M.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, isotope change, D2O, surface analysis H/D

1051. Dougar-Jabon, V.D., V.I. Kariaka, and N.V. Samsonenko. Study of the Neutron and g-Emission from the Palladium-Deuterium System in the Process of the Transformation of the Crystalline Structure. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dougar-Jabon, V. D.
All Authors: Dougar-Jabon, V. D., Kariaka, V. I., Samsonenko, N. V.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission Pd, PdD, phase transition ICCF-8

1052. Dragan, G., Topoenergetic evidence of cold fusion phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 361.

First Author: Dragan, G.
All Authors: Dragan, G.
Keywords: theory, critique, Fleischmann

1053. Dragic, A. and Z. Maric, Comment on ‘On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom’ by Samsonenko et al. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 229: p. 130.

First Author: Dragic, A.
All Authors: Dragic, A., Maric, Z.
Keywords: theory

1054. Dragic, A., Z. Maric, and J.P. Vigier, New quantum mechanical tight bound states and ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Lett. A, 2000. 265: p. 163.

First Author: Dragic, A.
All Authors: Dragic, A., Maric, Z., Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: Theory

1055. Drexler, J. Electrodeless, Multi-Megawatt Reactor for Room-Temperature, Lithium-6/Deuterium Nuclear Reactions. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Drexler, J.
All Authors: Drexler, J.
Keywords: heat, lithium

This paper describes a reactor design to facilitate a room-temperature nuclear fusion/fission reaction to generate heat without generating unwanted neutrons, gamma rays, tritium, or other radioactive products.The room-temperature fusion/fission reaction involves the sequential triggering of billions of single-molecule, Li6D “fusion energy pellets” distributed in lattices of a palladium ion accumulator that also acts as a catalyst to produce the molecules of Li6D from a solution comprising D2O, Li6OD with O2 gas bubbling through it. The D2 gas is the source of the negative deuterium ions in the Li60 molecules.

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1056. Drexler, J., Self-catalyzed nuclear fusion of lithium-6 and deuterium using alpha particles. 1994: World WO 94/16446.

First Author: Drexler, J.
All Authors: Drexler, J.
Keywords: method, patent,

1057. Driscoll, J., et al., Issues Related to Reproducibility in a CMNS Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 34-41.

First Author: Driscoll, J.
All Authors: Driscoll, J., Horton, M., Kowalski, L., Lohstreter, P.
Keywords: Cold Fusion, CMNS, LENR, Nuclear Reactions

Unexplained emission of charged nuclear projectiles due to electrolysis has been reported by Richard Oriani. Experimental results were said to be highly reproducible. Working independently, we were not able to observe emission of charged nuclear particles (in a chemical process similar to Oriani’s) and therefore are unable to provide supporting evidence that the effect is reproducible.

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1058. Droege, T.F., A Discussion of an H2O run which followed Operation with D20. 1990.

First Author: Droege, T. F.
All Authors: Droege, T. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, H2O, heat+, effect of H2O

1059. Droege, L.J. and T.F. Droege. A Zero Gradient Calorimeter for the Measurement of Anomalous Heat from the Electrolysis of Deuterated Metals. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Droege, L. J.
All Authors: Droege, L. J., Droege, T. F.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-1

1060. Droege, T.F. and L.J. Droege. An Improved Zero Gradient Calorimeter For the Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Droege, T. F.
All Authors: Droege, T. F., Droege, L. J.
Keywords: heat, apparatus, method, ICCF-2

1061. Duan, S.Y., et al. Fusion Neutron Emission Induced by Injection of Deuterium Into Titanium Target in a Mirror Plasma. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Duan, S. Y.
All Authors: Duan, S. Y., Guan, W. S., Cheng, S. Q., Zhang, J., Hao, S. L., Gu, B., Li, J. Q., Liang, W. X., Zhsang, G. Y., Pei, S. X., Huang, J. C., Chen, K. W., Liu, R., Liu, X. R., Li, Y. J.
Keywords: titanium, gas discharge, ion implantation D2, neutron, gamma emission ICCF-2

1062. Dubinko, V.I., Low-energy Nuclear Reactions Driven by Discrete Breathers. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Anharmonic lattice vibrations, Discrete breathers, Nuclear fusion, Quantum tunneling

A new mechanism of LENR in solids is proposed, which is based on the large amplitude anharmonic lattice vibrations, a.k.a. intrinsic localized modes or “discrete breathers” (DBs). In particular, so called gap DBs, which can arise in diatomic crystals such as metal hydrides, are argued to be the LENR catalyzers. The large mass difference between H or D and the metal atoms provides a gap in phonon spectrum, in which DBs can be excited in the H/D sub-lattice resulting in extreme dynamic closing of adjacent H/D atoms (” 0.01 Å) required for the tunneling through the nuclear Coulomb barrier. DBs have been shown to arise either by thermal activation at elevated temperatures or by knocking atoms out of equilibrium positions under non-equilibrium gas loading conditions, employed under radiolysis or plasma deposition methods. The DB statistics in both cases are analyzed, and an attempt is made to quantify part of the vibrational problem in terms of electrochemical current or ion flux, connecting them with external excitation of DBs that act as nano-colliders of deuterons, triggering LENR. Resulting analytical expressions (under a selected set of material parameters) describe quantitatively the observed exponential dependence on temperature and linear dependence on the electric (or ion) current. Possible ways of engineering the nuclear active environment based on the present concept are discussed.

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1063. Dubinko, V.I., Quantum Tunneling in Breather ‘Nano-colliders’. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Correlation effects, Discrete breathers, Low energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear active sites

In many crystals with sufficient anharmonicity, special kinds of lattice vibrations, namely, discrete breathers (DBs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons). Coherency and persistence of large atomic oscillations in DBs may have drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied recently to the tunneling problem by Vysotskii et al:, who demonstrated a giant increase of sub-barrier transparency during the increase of the correlation coefficient at special high-frequency periodic action on the quantum system. In the present paper, it is argued that DBs present the most natural and efficient way to produce correlation effects due to time-periodic modulation of the potential well width (or the Coulomb barrier width) and hence to act as breather ‘nano-colliders’ (BNC) triggering low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in solids. The tunneling probability for deuterium (D-D) fusion in ‘gap DBs’ formed in metal deuterides is shown to increase with increasing numbers of oscillations by 190 orders of magnitude, resulting in the observed LENR rate at extremely low concentrations of DBs. Possible ways of engineering the nuclear active environment based on the present concept are discussed.

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1064. Dubinko, V.I., Nuclear Catalysis Mediated by Localized Anharmonic Vibrations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 45-61.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I.
Keywords: Correlation effects, Discrete breathers, Localized anharmonic vibrations, Low energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear active sites

In many-body nonlinear systems with sufficient anharmonicity, a special kind of lattice vibration, namely, Localized Anharmonic Vibrations (LAVs) can be excited either thermally or by external triggering, in which the amplitude of atomic oscillations greatly exceeds that of harmonic oscillations (phonons) that determine the system temperature. The coherency and persistence of LAVs may have a drastic effect on quantum tunneling due to correlation effects discovered by Schrodinger and Robertson in 1930. These effects have been applied to the tunneling problem by a number of authors, who demonstrated a giant increase of sub-barrier transparency during the increase of the correlation coefficient at a special high-frequency periodic action on the quantum system. Recently, it has been proposed that discrete breathers (a sub-class of LAVs arising in periodic systems) present the most natural and efficient way to produce correlation effects in regular crystals due to time-periodic modulation of the potential well (or the Coulomb barrier) width and hence to act as breather ‘nano-colliders’ catalyzing low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) in solids. It has been shown that the tunneling probability for D-D fusion under electrolysis of heavy water increases enormously with increasing number of oscillations resulting in the fusion rates comparable with those observed experimentally. In the present paper, we discuss possible ways of engineering the nuclear-active environment (NAE) and catalyzing LENR in NAE based on the LAV concept. We propose some practical ways of catalyzing LENR that are based on a special electro-magnetic treatment or electron and gamma irradiation, which could trigger LAVs in crystals and clusters.

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1065. Dubinko, V.I., D. Laptev, and K. Irwin, Catalytic Mechanism of LENR in Quasicrystals based on Localized Anharmonic Vibrations and Phasons. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 75-86.

First Author: Dubinko, V. I.
All Authors: Dubinko, V. I., Laptev, D., Irwin, K.
Keywords: Quasicrystals, Localized anharmonic vibrations, Low energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear active sites, Phasons, Tunneling

We propose a mechanism explaining high catalytic activity of quasicrystals (QCs), which is based on unusual dynamics of atoms at special sites in QCs, namely, localized anharmonic vibrations (LAVs) and phasons. With the vibrations, one deals with a large amplitude (fractions of an angstrom) time-periodic oscillations of a small group of atoms around their stable positions in the lattice, known also as discrete breathers, which can be excited in regular crystals as well as in QCs. On the other hand, phasons are a specific property of QCs, which are represented by very large amplitude (angstrom) oscillations of atoms between two quasi-stable positions determined by the geometry of a QC. Large amplitude atomic motion in LAVs and phasons may result in time-periodic driving of adjacent potential wells occupied by hydrogen ions (protons or deuterons). The rate of tunneling of the particle through the potential barrier separating the wells is shown to be drastically enhanced by the driving. These results support the concept of nuclear catalysis in QCs that can take place at special sites provided by their inherent topology.

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1066. Dudu, D., et al., Nuclear effects in the electrolysis of heavy water. Rev. Roum. Phys., 1989. 34: p. 229.

First Author: Dudu, D.
All Authors: Dudu, D., Molea, M., Pascalau, I., Piticu, I., Vata, I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O

1067. Dufour, J., Energy Source System (Patent). 1991: World Patent, WO 91/01036 (1991).

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords:

1068. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and J.P. Millot. Cold Fusion by Sparking in Hydrogen Isotopes. Energy Balances and Search for Fusion By-products. A Strategy to Prove the Reality of Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P.
Keywords: H2, D2, gas discharge, heat+, tritium, ICCF-4

The idea of transmuting hydrogen isotopes into heavier species (helium), at room temperature, with the aid of palladium acting as a kind of catalyst can be traced back as early as 1926. In 1989, a rebirth was given to the concept. By electrolysing heavy water with a palladium cathode, Jones, Fleischmann and Pons claimed to obtain significant energy production, in excess of the electrical energy introduce into the apparatus to carry out the electrolysis. . . .

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1069. Dufour, J., Cold fusion by sparking in hydrogen isotopes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 205.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: spark discharge, heat+, Pd, stainless steel, D2, H2, theory

1070. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and J.P. Millot. Measurement of Excess Energy and Isotope Formation in the Palladium-Hydrogen System. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P.
Keywords: H2, heat+, theory, gas discharge, ICCF-5

A search for the products of fusion reactions that could be triggered by sparking in hydrogen isotopes was carried out. No signatures above background were found. On the contrary, the excess energy production was confirmed in the simple hydrogen/palladium system. The formation of a tightly bound state of the hydrogen (deuterium) atom is hypothesized to explain these results.

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1071. Dufour, J., et al. From “Cold Fusion” to “Hydrex” and “Deutex” States of Hydrogen. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P., Dufour, X.
Keywords: theory, hydrex, heat+, gas, hydrogen, deuterium, ICCF-6

1072. Dufour, J., et al., Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 198.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Millot, J. P., Dufour, X.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, deuterium, heat+, hydrex

1073. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and X.J.C. Dufour. Formation and Properties of Hydrex and Deutex. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Dufour, X. J. C.
Keywords: hydrex, transmutation, theory, UH3, gas diacharge, ICCF-7

1074. Dufour, J., J. Foos, and X.J.C. Dufour, Formation and properties of hydrex and deutex. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 53.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Foos, J., Dufour, X. J. C.
Keywords: hydrex deutex theory heat transmutation

1075. Dufour, J., Response to ‘Comments on ‘Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/ deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope’. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 385.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: theory

1076. Dufour, J., et al. Hydrex Catallyzed Transmutation of Uranium and Palladium: Experimental Part. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, U, hydrex, gas discharge, heat+, ICCF-8

1077. Dufour, J., et al. The Hydrex Concept-Effect on Heavy Nuclei. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, hydrex, ICCF-8

1078. Dufour, J., et al., Hydrogen triggered exothermic reaction in uranium metal. Phys. Lett. A, 2000. 270: p. 254.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, hydrex

An exothermal reaction has been observed when submitting metallic uranium to the combined action of a magnetic field and an electrical current. The set-up used to study the phenomenon is described and results are given. A tentative explanation is given, based on the possible existence of a still hypothetical proton/electron resonance.

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1079. Dufour, J., et al., Experimental observation of nuclear reactions in palladium and uranium — possible explanation by hydrex mode. Fusion Technol., 2001. 40: p. 91.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: hydrex, U, Pu, heat, transmutation

Experiments with uranium are presented that show a highly exothermal reaction, which can only be of nuclear origin. One striking point of these results is that they clearly show that what is being observed is not some kind of fusion reaction of the deuterium present (only exceedingly small amounts of it are present). This is a strong indication that hydrogen can trigger nuclear reactions that seem to involve the nuclei of the lattice (which would yield a fission-like pattern of products). Confronted with a situation where some experiments in the field yield a fusion-like pattern of products (CF experiments) and others a fissionlike one (LENR experiments), one can reasonably wonder whether one is not observing two aspects of the same phenomenon. . . .

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1080. Dufour, J., et al. Synthesis Of A Copper Like Compound From Nickel And Hydrogen And Of A Chromium Like Compound From Calcium And Deuterium. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Murat, D., Dufour, X., Foos, J.
Keywords: transmutation,

1081. Dufour, J., Very Sizeable Increase of Gravitation at Picometer Distance: A NovelWorking Hypothesis to Explain Anomalous Heat Effects and Apparent Transmutations in Certain Metal/Hydrogen Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 47-61.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Gravity, Isotopic shift, LENR, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

Since more than 15 years, unexplained heat effects have been reported in systems involving hydrogen isotopes (hydrogen and deuterium) and certain metals like palladium. The most studied system (palladium/deuterium) has given birth to the “Cold Fusion” concept: a special kind of DD fusion reaction, only occurring in a metallic lattice, which yields heat and helium-4 as the main reaction product. Other systems have also been studied (nickel hydrogen and caesium/deuterium for instance), showing shifts in isotopic ratio of the products of reaction and leading to the more generalized concept of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR). A novel conjecture (the pico-gravity conjecture) is presented here, that may explain all the anomalies observed in this so-called “Cold Fusion” field. According to this conjecture, the main part of the energy produced in Low Energy Nuclear Reaction could be the result of a very special kind of chemical reactions (pico-chemical reactions), induced by a considerable increase of gravity at pico-meter distances (pico-gravity). True nuclear signatures (α-particles emission for instance) could also occur according to the pico-gravity conjecture. But they should be many orders of magnitude lower than would be expected from the energy produced (which is observed experimentally). This conjecture will be tested by analysing the products of the reaction of hydrogen isotopes with selected metals.

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1082. Dufour, J., et al. A simple calorimetric method to avoid artifacts in a controversial field: The ice calorimeter. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D., Foos, J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

The idea of the ice calorimeter is rather old. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) developed in 1783 a calorimetric method based on the measurement of the mass of the ice that melts when heated. Robert Bunsen (1811-1899) improved this method in 1870 and designed a calorimeter based on the measurement of the volume rather than the mass of ice melted. Nowadays this method is still used [1] because it is simple, accurate, sensitive and most of all rather insensible to interference, which is a key point in order to have convincing experiment in a controversial field. Moreover, an ice calorimeter is adiabatic and isotherm (0у) thus suppressing the problem of heat transfer in wires and tubing connecting the experiment to the outside of the calorimeter. It is an integrating calorimeter that measures enthalpy.

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1083. Dufour, J., et al. An Experimental Device To Test the YPCP (“Yukawa Pico Chemistry And Physics”) Model: Implications for the CF-LENR Field. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D., Foos, J.
Keywords: Theory,

1084. Dufour, J. The CMAF Window (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Theory

Possible sizeable energy production from 500/1000 eV deuterons.

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1085. Dufour, J., X. Dufour, and D. Murat. A Practical Way to Generate Protons (Deuterons) of Energy Between 500 and 1000 eV. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X., Murat, D.
Keywords:

Research tools used in the field of d/d fusion are protons (deuterons) accelerators producing ion beams of energies between 10 keV up to several MeV . Another source of protons (deuterons) are low pressure electrical discharge, yielding ions of energies between 1 to some tens of eV. Based on this second source, a way to generate protons (deuterons) in the range 500 to 1000 eV is described.

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1086. Dufour, J. and X. Dufour. Evaluation of d/d Reaction Rates in Metallic Lattices as a Function of the Deuteron Energy. A Phenomenological Model of Nuclear Fusion in Solids. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J., Dufour, X.
Keywords:

Recently, unexplained enhancements of d/d reaction rates in solids were observed. This enhancement is lower than a factor of 10 at low energies of the deuteron (a few keV) and as high as a factor of 1018 for extremely low energies (0,025 eV). Based on the calculation of d/d reaction rates in a lattice, a phenomenological model is proposed to infer the enhancement that can be expected for deuterons of energies in between these two extremes. A potentially interesting zone (between 500 and 2000 eV) has been identified.

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1087. Dufour, J., Nuclear Signatures to be Expected from Rossi Energy Amplifier. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Energy production, Hydrogen, Nickel, Nuclear reaction, Radiations

The nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with fine nickel powders are derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier). The initiation of the reactions (either by proton or neutron capture) is not discussed and considered as true. Proposals are made to check the process either by radiation emission measurements or by elemental analysis (ICP-MS)

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1088. Dufour, J., An Introduction to the Pico-chemistry Working Hypothesis. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 40-45.

First Author: Dufour, J.
All Authors: Dufour, J.
Keywords: Enthalpy of formation, Hydrogen, Nickel, Nickel hydride, Nickel pico-hydride

The nuclear signatures that can be expected when contacting hydrogen with nickel were derived from thermal results recently obtained (Rossi energy amplifier), using the type of reaction paths proposed as the explanation of the energy produced. The consequences of either proton or neutron capture have been studied. It was shown that these consequences are not in line with the experimental observations. A novel tentative explanation is thus described. Should this explanation be true? It is proposed to call pico-chemistry the novel field thus opened.

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1089. Duncan, R. An Outsider’s View of the Fleischmann – Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: review

A Long History of ‘Cold Fusion’ * First report of a possible nuclear fusion in palladium loaded with heavy hydrogen: Berlin, Germany, September 17, 1926 by Professors Paneth and Peters, later retracted. (83 years old) * Some patent activity in and after 1927 . . .

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1090. Duncan, R. Search for the Origins of the Anomalous Heat Effect (AHE) in Deuterium-loaded Palladium Driven Far From Equilibrium (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: Review

Discovery is Creatively Disruptive”If we all worked on the assumption that what is accepted as true is really true, there would be little hope of advance.”- Orville Wright

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1091. Duncan, R., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Duncan, R.
All Authors: Duncan, R.
Keywords: review

My thanks to everyone who attended ICCF-18, which was held at the University of Missouri. We had a total of 215 registered participants, of whom 125 submitted original work that was presented within the scientific program. This was the first time in many years that ICCF has been held on the campus of a major research university, and we were delighted to have the opportunity to host this important conference.

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1092. Dunlap, B.I., et al., Linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals – local-density-functional cluster studies of D-D interactions in titanium and palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41: p. 9683.

First Author: Dunlap, B. I.
All Authors: Dunlap, B. I., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Mintmire, J. W., White, C. T.
Keywords: Theory, PdD, structure

1093. Dunn, J. LENR Market Development Technology of the (near) Future? (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Dunn, J.
All Authors: Dunn, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

LENR Technology overview* Sporadic development since Pons & Fleishman’s famous Cold Fusion announcement in 1989 * Replication/Scale limited — Many reports of excess heat; several groups planning to market LENR systems in 2013 * Many scientists & efforts — recent progress — great hope * Promising efforts of Rossi, Defkalion, Piantelli, others * R&D rekindled, but still mostly small level efforts * Increasing interest and growing media attention * Huge anticipation and potential partners & customers * New formal efforts by U-Missouri + energy co’s, others

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1094. Durocher, J.J.G., et al., A search for evidence of cold fusion in the direct implantation of palladium and indium with deuterium. Can. J. Phys., 1989. 67: p. 624.

First Author: Durocher, J. J. G.
All Authors: Durocher, J. J. G., Gallop, D. M., Kwok, C. B., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., McKee, J. S. C., Mirzai, A., Smith, G. R., Yeo, Y. H.
Keywords: In, ion bombardment, ion implantation, D+, neutron

1095. Durup, J., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6120.

First Author: Durup, J.
All Authors: Durup, J.
Keywords: theory

1096. Eagleton, R.D. and R.T. Bush, Design considerations for palladium electrodes as suggested by a deuteron cluster model for cold nuclear fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 359.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, cluster, method, heat

1097. Eagleton, R.D. and R.T. Bush, Calorimetric experiments supporting the transmission resonance model for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 239.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D., Bush, R. T.
Keywords: Theory, resonance, heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, current density

1098. Eagleton, R.D. Experimental Details for Light Water Cold Fusion Research at Cal. Poly.- Pomona. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Eagleton, R. D.
All Authors: Eagleton, R. D.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis, method

1099. Early, J.G., Hydrogen diffusion in palladium by galvaostatic charging. Acta Metall., 1978. 26: p. 1215.

First Author: Early, J. G.
All Authors: Early, J. G.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd, H2

1100. Eberhard, V., et al., Neutron limits from gas-loaded titanium-deuterium systems. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1989. 334: p. 357.

First Author: Eberhard, V.
All Authors: Eberhard, V., Heeringa, W., Klages, H. O., Maschuw, R., Voelker, G., Zeitnitz, B.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

1101. Echenique, P.M., J.R. Manson, and R.H. Ritchie, Cluster-Impact Fusion. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 64(12): p. 1413.

First Author: Echenique, P. M.
All Authors: Echenique, P. M., Manson, J. R., Ritchie, R. H.
Keywords: theory, cluster Impact

1102. Editorial, Cold Confusion, and Cold Results from Utah. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 361, 364.

First Author: Editorial
All Authors: Editorial
Keywords: history

1103. Eggers, H.C. and J. Rafelski, Strangeness and Quark Gluon Plasma: Aspects of Theory and Experiment. 1990.

First Author: Eggers, H. C.
All Authors: Eggers, H. C., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: theory,

1104. Ehrlich, A.C., et al., A search for neutrons in single-phase palladium-deuterium Kold fusion? Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 529.

First Author: Ehrlich, A. C.
All Authors: Ehrlich, A. C., Gillespie, D. J., Kamm, G. N., Elbek, B.
Keywords: D2, electrolysis, neutron, high temperature, loading neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

1105. El-Boher, A., et al., Final Report on Calorimetry-based Excess Heat Trials using Celani Treated NiCuMn (Constantan) Wires. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: El-Boher, A.
All Authors: El-Boher, A., Isaacson, W., Azizi, O., He, J., Pease, D., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Gas loading, Hydrogen, Micro-nano surface, Nickel, Nickel hydride

Sensitive mass flow calorimetry was used in a series of tests to evaluate eight treated NiCuMn (Constantan) wires in a gas loading cell. The goal of this testing was to reproduce and confirm the production of excess heat when using an experimental setup similar to that demonstrated in 2013 by Dr. Francesco Celani at National Instrument’s NI week and ICCF 17. Six of the eight Constantan wires used in the SKINR tests were provided by Dr. Celani and the remaining two were obtained from Mathieu Valat. Initial tests in the series closely followed the set-up, operation, and heating protocols used by Dr. Celani with a significantly modified stainless test cell to enable the use of mass flow calorimetry. Later tests used the same modified test cell but added additional heating protocols using pulsed or highly modulated electric currents (SuperWaves) to enhance hydrogen loading and create additional thermal gradients within the Constantan wires. No excess heat was observed in a calorimeter of a sensitivity <10 mW when running either the initial or later test protocols during  200 days of testing.

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1106. Ellison, C.H. and J.A. Mahaffey, An investigation of reports of fusion reactions occurring at the cathode in glow discharges. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 178.

First Author: Ellison, C. H.
All Authors: Ellison, C. H., Mahaffey, J. A.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, polemic, D2, Pd, ion implantation, theory, review

1107. ENEA. Abstracts. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords:

Abstracts from the ICCF-15 conference held in Rome, Italy, October 5-9, 2009.

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1108. ENEA, COLD FUSION The History of Research in Italy. 2009, Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords: History

The present volume represents the historical development of the research carried on in Italy in the field of the so-called “Cold Fusion” during the last twenty years.This 2009 year marks the 20th anniversary of the announcement of the results of an experiment conducted in the University of Utah, USA, by Martin Fleishmann and Stanley Pons. . To commemorate the “birth” ofCold Fusion, the International Advisory Committee of ICCF-14, the Conference held last August in Washington D.C., USA has decided to hold the 2009 ICCF-15 Conference in Italy. It will take place in Rome atthe Angelicum University, on October 5-9, under the Chairmanship of one of us (V.V.).

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1109. ENEA, FUSIONE FREDDA Storia Della Ricerca in Italia. 2009, Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: ENEA
All Authors: ENEA
Keywords: history

Sono trascorsi circa venti anni dall’annuncio, da parte dei due Accademici Martin Fleishmann e Stanley Pons, dell’ottenimento di reazioni nucleari in reticoli metallici a temperatura ambiente.Durante questi anni si sono svolte numerose conferenze nazionali ed internazionali e a Washington DC si svolgerà l’International Conference on Cold Fusion, giunta alla sua quattordicesima edizione. In occasione del Convegno verrà presentata la raccolta di volumi dedicata alla Storia della Fusione Fredda in tutti i Paesi che hanno contribuito allo sviluppo di questa disciplina dal 1989 ad oggi. Oltre ad Italia e Stati Uniti, anche Cina, India, Russia, Francia e Giappone hanno lavorato intensamente in questo campo. All’ENEA, ed in particolare al Presidente del Consiglio Scientifico dell’Ente, è stato affidato il compito di curare l’edizione della storia di questa ricerca in Italia, attraverso la raccolta dei racconti delle attività svolte dai singoli gruppi o laboratori che hanno operato nel settore.

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1110. Engvild, K.C., Nuclear reaction by three-body recombination beteween deuterons and the nuclei of lattice-trapped D2 molecules. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 253.

First Author: Engvild, K. C.
All Authors: Engvild, K. C.
Keywords: Theory

1111. Engvild, K.C. and L. Kowalski. Triple Deuterium Fusion Between Deuterons And The Nuclei Of Lattice Trapped Deuterium Molecules. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Engvild, K. C.
All Authors: Engvild, K. C., Kowalski, L.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

A hypothesis is proposed where low energy nuclear reactions involve three-body recombination of deuterons injected between the nuclei of D2 molecules trapped in a dense lattice of a chemical compound of transition metal and impurity. Two D’s fuse to 4He, and the energy is converted by expulsion of the third deuteron. Measurable fusion occurs when two D’s are confined within 0.1 angstrom of each other. Three boson (efimov) interactions can have longer range than two boson interactions. The best known example is triple alpha fusion to carbon-12 in stars. Triple deuterium interaction could perhaps be possible in the 0.5-1.0 angstrom range; the distance between D’s in a D2 molecule are 0.74 angstrom. The hypothesis accounts for the low reproducibility and short duration of the effect because of rapid destruction of the active structure by sputtering, radiation damage, bubble formation and chemical reduction of the impurities to compounds like D2O, ND3, CD4, or BD3. The hypothesis also accounts for the observed prevalence of 4He >> tritium >> neutrons.

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1112. Enyo, M., Is the cold fusion reaction possible? Kagaku to Kogyo (Tokyo), 1991. 44: p. 47 (in Japanese).

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: Review

1113. Enyo, M., Key points in the evaluation of experimental results (the excess heat). Oyo Butsuri, 1991. 62: p. 716 (in Japanese).

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: Discussion

1114. Enyo, M. Hydrogen/Deuterium Concentration in Pd under Cathodic Polarization. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M.
Keywords: overvoltage, poison, electrolysis, OCV, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-3, Pd, D2O

Effective hydrogen pressure at hydrogen evolving cathode is discussed in connection with the mechanism of the hydrogen electrode reaction. A Nernst type expression involving hydrogen overpotential is not generally applicable. Experimental results on Pd and Pd-Ag alloy cathodes with and without addition of catalytic poison are presented. The highest pressure observed was ca. 106 atm at 0.25 A cm^-2, 30у.

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1115. Enyo, M. and P.C. Biswas, Hydrogen absorption in palladium electrodes in alkaline solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 335: p. 309.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M., Biswas, P. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Li deposition, fugacity, OCV, loading

1116. Enyo, M. and P.C. Biswas, Hydrogen pressure equivalent to overpotential on Pd + Ag alloy electrodes in acidic solutions in the presence of thiourea. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 357: p. 67.

First Author: Enyo, M.
All Authors: Enyo, M., Biswas, P. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, loading, fugacity, OCV, H2, thermodynamic

1117. EPRI. NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Metals. 1989. Washington, D.C.: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

Attempts to confirm Fleischmann and Pons’s observations of cold fusion phenomena have met with inconsistent results. This second workshop on this topic brought together skeptics and advocates to facilitate communication, to examine closely the experimental results, and to identify research issues.

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1118. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 1: Plenary Session Papers, TR-104188-V1. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 1. From:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V1This meeting was the latest in a series of conferences devoted to a new area of scientific endeavor, variously called, “Deuterated Metals Research,” “Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena in Solids,” and “New Hydrogen Energy.”A number of new experimental approaches were presented including the use of ceramic proton conductors at high temperature and the use of ultrasonic cavitation in heavy water to load palladium and titanium foils with deuterium.The 125 papers that were presented were divided so that Volume 1 contains all the papers received from authors who participated in the four plenary sessions, Volume 2 includes contributed papers on calorimetry and materials, Volume 3 has contributions on nuclear particle detection and measurement, and Volume 4 contains the papers contributed on theory and special topics.

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1119. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 2: Calorimetry and Materials Papers, TR-104188-V2. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 2. From:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V2

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1120. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 3: Nuclear Measurements Papers, TR-104188-V3. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 3. From:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V3

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1121. EPRI. Proceedings: Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion Volume 4: Theory and Special Topics Papers, TR-104188-V4. 1994. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii: Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

ICCF-4 conference proceedings, Volume 4. From:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104188-V4

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1122. EPRI, Development of Energy Production Systems from Heat Produced in Deuterated Metals, Volume 1, TR-107843-V1. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the idea that heat, and possibly nuclear products, could be created electrolytically in palladium lattices. Observations using high precision mass flow calorimetry revealed that excess heat could be produced in electrochemical cells with palladium cathodes and a heavy water electrolyte in a more or less reproducible manner, when a number of criteria were satisfied. This excess heat generated is far too large to be a chemical or metallurgical transformation. By inference, a nuclear reaction of some as yet undetermined nature is the hypothesized heat source. This report details the observation of excess powers documented in calorimetry experiments.

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1123. EPRI, Development of Energy Production Systems from Heat Produced in Deuterated Metals, Volume 2, TR-107843-V2. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the idea that heat and possibly nuclear reaction products could be created electrolytically in palladium lattices. Excess heat-which occurred in a number of cases when certain criteria were satisfied-was too large to result from any chemical or metallurgical transformation in so small a mass of material. By inference, some type of nuclear reaction was the hypothesized heat source. This report details the search for “signature” emissions of possible nuclear reactions associated with heat production.

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1124. EPRI, Cavitation-Induced Excess Heat in Deuterated Metals, TR-108474. 1998, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

1125. EPRI, Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Electrolysis in Heavy Water, TP-108743. 1999, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: EPRI
All Authors: EPRI
Keywords:

EPRI sponsored an experimental program to investigate the trace element changes brought about in palladium after extensive electrolysis in heavy water electrolytes. Of particular interest were cathodes which had experienced episodes of excess heat production beyond all electrical and other inputs. This report details the careful analysis of a particular cathode by neutron activation (NAA) as compared with the identical simultaneous analysis of virgin palladium material from which the cathode was fabricated.

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1126. ERAB, Report of the Cold Fusion Panel to the Energy Research Advisory Board. 1989: Washington, DC.

First Author: ERAB
All Authors: ERAB
Keywords: ERAB, review history

A copy of the ERAB report has been prepared by the National Capital Area Skeptics (NCAS) organization (www.ncas.org). It is available here: xxxx://www.ncas.org/erab/ This library contains a brief introduction to the report and a copy of the NCAS version of the ERAB report.

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1127. Escarpizo, B., et al. Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2

1128. Escarpizo, B., et al. Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2

1129. Escarpizo, B., et al. Deuterium Concentration Profiles and Crystallization Anomalies in Electrolytically Deuterated Titanium Plates. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Escarpizo, B.
All Authors: Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Tornero, J., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, lattice parameter, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Deuterium concentration and distribution profiles in electrolytically deuterated Ti plates have been obtained by Elastic Recoil Detection (E.R.D. ) , Rutherford Back Scattering (R.B.S. ) and X-ray diffraction (XRD ) . It has been found that D/Ti ratio remains constant (~ 1.65) up to a penetration which depends on the electrolysis time and then it goes down steeply to ~0. 05. The formed deuteride (TiDx, x ~1.65) exhibits some preferred orientations and its texture depends on that of the original Ti plate. The relevance of these data in relation to electrolytic cold fusion experiments is discussed.

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1130. Esko, E., Anomalous Metals in Electrified Vacuum. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Esko, E.
All Authors: Esko, E.
Keywords: Transmutation

Independent analysis of Quantum Rabbit (QR) vacuum arc test samples from an experiment conducted on Sept. 27, 2011 revealed the anomalous appearance of potassium (K) and gold (Au). These anomalies appeared in a prior QR vacuum arc test and raise the possibility of low energy transmutation.

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1131. Essen, H. and S. Kullander, Experimental test of a mini-Rossi device at the Leonardocorp, Bologna 29 March 2011, in NyTeknik. 2011.

First Author: Essen, H.
All Authors: Essen, H., Kullander, S.
Keywords: heat

We gathered in the Leonardo Corporation building where the 10 kW apparatus for anomalous energy production by nickel and hydrogen was demonstrated during a press conference on 14th of January.  References [1] to [4] for the original papers describing the innovation are listed at the end. In the same building, two CHP facilities were located, based on biodiesel from waste which Andrea Rossi, prior to his present Ni-H activity, had developed.The present test was done on a smaller device [5] than the 10 kW device that has been used earlier during the January press conference. One of the reasons for going to smaller dimensions is safety according to Rossi.

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1132. Evan, D. and S. Szpak, Note on the release of nH1 from cathodically polarized Pd electrodes. 1998.

First Author: Evan, D.
All Authors: Evan, D., Szpak, S.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdH, reaction

1133. Evans, P., Reply to patent office. 1996.

First Author: Evans, P.
All Authors: Evans, P.
Keywords: patent, Pons, Fleischmann

1134. Evans, A.B., 4-Space Dirac Theory and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Evans, A. B.
All Authors: Evans, A. B.
Keywords: theory

A 4-space Dirac theory, which gives the same transition energies as the standard model, predicts specific distributions of virtual electrons and positrons accompanying bound electrons. If potential barriers are viewed stochastically, it seems possible that this has implications for LENR.

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1135. Ewing, R.I., et al., Negative results and positive artifacts observed in a comprehensive search for neutrons from ‘cold fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 404.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I., Butler, M. A., Schirber, J. E., Ginley, D. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Pd, Ti, neutron, D2O, Pd, method

1136. Ewing, R.I., High-sensitivity neutron detectors used at Sandia National Laboratories to monitor and diagnose ‘cold fusion’ experiments: negative results. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 473.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Pd, Ti, neutron

1137. Ewing, R.I., et al., A sensitive multi-detector neutron counter used to monitor ‘cold fusion’ experiments in an underground laboratory: negative results and positive artifacts. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1990. 37: p. 1165.

First Author: Ewing, R. I.
All Authors: Ewing, R. I., Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Schirber, J. E.
Keywords: neutron, method

1138. Fallavier, J., et al., Srearch for Nuclear Fusion in Deuterated Targets under Cluster-Beam Impact. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1990. 65(5): p. 621.

First Author: Fallavier, J.
All Authors: Fallavier, J., Kemmler, J., Kirsch, R., Poizat, J. C., Remillieux, J., Thomas, J. P.
Keywords: cluster, ion bombardment, D2

1139. Faller, S.H., R.W. Holloway, and S.C. Lee, Investigation of cold fusion in heavy water. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(1): p. 9.

First Author: Faller, S. H.
All Authors: Faller, S. H., Holloway, R. W., Lee, S. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, gamma emission, D2O, negative

1140. Fan, G.Y., et al. Production of Neutron and Tritium from D2O Electrolysis with Palladium Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fan, G. Y.
All Authors: Fan, G. Y., Wang, X. F., Huang, G. S., Zhou, H. Y., Han, Z. E., Wu, Z. D.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Anomalous neutron burst and an increase in tritium concentration were observed simultaneously from heavy water electrolysis with palladium cathode. Consider with previous experimental results, we presumed that production of neutrons and tritium from D2O electrolysis depends heavily on the Constitution and the state of each cathode.

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1141. Fang, P.H., An Investigation of Interactions Between Deuterium and Palladium Related Crystalline and Amorphous Alloys. 1989.

First Author: Fang, P. H.
All Authors: Fang, P. H.
Keywords: theory, structure

1142. Fang, P.H., Deuterium fusion through nonequilibrium induction. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 369.

First Author: Fang, P. H.
All Authors: Fang, P. H.
Keywords: ultrasonic, Pd, powder

1143. Farkas, A., On the electrolytic separation of the hydrogen isotopes on a palladium cathode. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1937. 33: p. 552.

First Author: Farkas, A.
All Authors: Farkas, A.
Keywords: loading, H, Pd, crack, separation

1144. Farley, F.J.M., Cold fusion. New Scientist, 1991. 129(1756): p. 3.

First Author: Farley, F. J. M.
All Authors: Farley, F. J. M.
Keywords: recombination, theory

1145. Farrell, J.J., R.L. Mills, and W.R. Good, An Alternative Explanation of Extreme UltraViolet Emission From Dark Matter. 1993.

First Author: Farrell, J. J.
All Authors: Farrell, J. J., Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, dihydrino

1146. Fateev, E.G., Possibilities for establishing the mechanism of neutron generation in deuterated materials under mechanical loading. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1995. 21(5): p. 373.

First Author: Fateev, E. G.
All Authors: Fateev, E. G.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

1147. Fauvarque, J., P. Clauzon, and G. Lalleve. Abnormal excess heat observed during Mizuno-type experiments. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Fauvarque, J.
All Authors: Fauvarque, J., Clauzon, P., Lalleve, G.
Keywords: glow discharge

A simple calorimeter has been designed that works at constant temperature; that of boiling water. Heat losses can be estimated accurately with an ohmic heater. As expected, losses are independent of the electric power input to the heater and the amount of evaporated water is linearly dependant on the power input. The device has been used to determine the heating power of a plasma electrolysis (the Ohmori-Mizuno experiment). We confirm that in this experiment, the heat output from electrolysis is greater than the electrical power input. The excess energy increases as the electrolysis voltage is increased from 200 V up to 350 V (400 W input). The excess energy may be as high as 120 W.

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1148. Fauvarque, J., et al. Abnormal excess heat measured during Mizuno-type experiments: a possible artefact? in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Fauvarque, J.
All Authors: Fauvarque, J., Clauzon, P., Lalleve, G., Le Buzit, G.
Keywords:

Recently performed Mizuno-type experiments confirmed generation of excess heat but not at the rate reported in ref. 2 (Sotchi -ICCF13). The main reason for the discrepancy is now clear; the bandwidth of our Unigor wattmeter, used in old experiments, was insufficient for correcting measurements of highly fluctuating electric energies.

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1149. Fayet, P., A. Kaldor, and D.M. Cox, Palladium Clusters: H2, D2, N2, CH4, CD4, C2H4, and C2H6 Reactivity and D2 Saturation Studies. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 92: p. 254.

First Author: Fayet, P.
All Authors: Fayet, P., Kaldor, A., Cox, D. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2, adsorption, loading

1150. Featherstone, S., Can Andrea Rossi’s Infinite-Energy Black Box Power The World–Or Just Scam It?, in Popular Science. 2012.

First Author: Featherstone, S.
All Authors: Featherstone, S.
Keywords: excess heat

1151. Feder, T., DOE Warms to Cold Fusion. Physics Today, 2004. April: p. 27.

First Author: Feder, T.
All Authors: Feder, T.
Keywords: Polemic

This is a short summary of Feder, T., DOE Warms to Cold Fusion. Physics Today, 2004. April: p. 27. The full article is available at the Physics Today website: xxxx://www.physicstoday.org/vol-57/iss-4/p27.html

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1152. Fedorovich, G.F., Coulomb interaction in a radiation defect of a hydride crystal. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1990. 16(12): p. 911.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. F.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. F.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, LiD

1153. Fedorovich, G.V., Coulomb interaction in an E-cell. Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., 1991. 36: p. 847.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell

1154. Fedorovich, G.V., The Coulomb interaction in the E-cell. Physica B, 1991. 172: p. 491.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, E-cell

1155. Fedorovich, G.V., Quantum-mechanical screening. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 164: p. 149.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, E-cell, screening

1156. Fedorovich, G.V., Nuclear fusion in crystal hydrides of light elements. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 442.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell, screening

1157. Fedorovich, G.V., A possible way to nuclear fusion in solids. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 288.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, E-cell

1158. Fedorovich, G.V., Parametric excitation of crystalline structures as a possible cause of high-energy emissions. Tech. Phys., 1993. 38(10): p. 866.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion, PdD

1159. Fedorovich, G.V., Screening of the Coulomb potential in a nondegenerate hydrogen isotope gas. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 120.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1160. Fedorovich, G.V., Ferroelectrics for Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 474.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

1161. Fedorovich, G.V., The possible nature of cold fusion in the Earth’s mantle. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1749.

First Author: Fedorovich, G. V.
All Authors: Fedorovich, G. V.
Keywords: Theory, geological, fractofusion

1162. Feenstra, R., et al., Critical Point Lowering in Thin Pd-H Films. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1983. 13: p. L13.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., de Bruin-Hordjik, G. J., Bakker, H. L. M., Griessen, R., De Groot, D. G.
Keywords: Pd, H, phase Diagram thin layer

1163. Feenstra, R., et al., Gravimetrical Determination of Pressure-Composition Isotherms of Thin Pd-H Films. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1986. 16: p. 1953.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., de Groot, D. G., Rector, J. H., Salomons, E. M., Griessen, R.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen, phase Diagram, thin layer, enthalpy

1164. Feenstra, R., R. Griessen, and D.G. de Groot, Hydrogen Induced Lattice Expansion and Effective H-H Interaction in Single Phase PdHc. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1986. 16: p. 1933.

First Author: Feenstra, R.
All Authors: Feenstra, R., Griessen, R., de Groot, D. G.
Keywords: PdH, Lattice Parameter, excess Volume

1165. Fehn, T. and C.A. Schiller, Cold nuclear fusion and electrochemical measuring techniques. Chem.-Tech. (Heidelberg), 1989. 18: p. 72, 75, 77 (German).

First Author: Fehn, T.
All Authors: Fehn, T., Schiller, C. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron

1166. Felici, R., et al., In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. Rev. Sci. Instr., 1995. 66(5): p. 3344.

First Author: Felici, R.
All Authors: Felici, R., Bertalot, L., De Ninno, A., La Barbera, A., Violante, V.
Keywords: lattice Parameter, Pd, loading, PdD

1167. Feng, S., Enhancement of cold fusion rate by electron polarization in palladium deuterium solid. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72: p. 205.

First Author: Feng, S.
All Authors: Feng, S.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling, screening

1168. Fernandez, F., et al. Nuclear Effects in Electrolytically Deuterated Ti and Pd Electrodes. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Fernandez, F.
All Authors: Fernandez, F., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: tritium, neutron, Ti, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, negative

1169. Fernandez, J.F., et al. Cubic-Tetragonal Phase Transition in TiDx (X> or = 1.7) and its Possible Relation to Cold Fusion Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Alguera, M., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron, phase diagram, TiD, ICCF-4

1170. Fernandez, J.F., F. Cuevas, and C. Sanchez, Deuterium concentration profiles in electrochemically deuterated titanium and their evolution after electrolysis. J. Alloys Comp., 1994. 205: p. 303.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Ti, loading, D2O, backscatterung, surface analysis

1171. Fernandez, J.F., F. Cuevas, and M. Alguero, Experimental investigation of neutron emissions during thermal cycling of TiDx (x = ca. 2.00). Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 237.

First Author: Fernandez, J. F.
All Authors: Fernandez, J. F., Cuevas, F., Alguero, M.
Keywords: Ti, D2, neutron

1172. Ferrari, C., et al., A calorimeter for the electrolytic cell and other open systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1996. 18: p. 1333.

First Author: Ferrari, C.
All Authors: Ferrari, C., Papucci, F., Salvetti, G., Tognoni, E., Tombari, E.
Keywords: heat, method.

1173. Feugeas, J., Comments on “Evidence of micrometre-sized plasmoid emission during electrolysis cold fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 109.

First Author: Feugeas, J.
All Authors: Feugeas, J.
Keywords: plasmoids electrolysis, theory

1174. Filimonov, V.A., Mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(20): p. 29 (in Russian).

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, cluster

1175. Filimonov, V.A., On the probability of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(19): p. 42 (in Russian).

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration

1176. Filimonov, V.A., Cold nuclear fusion: Its possibility in principle and means of realization. Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys., 1992. 37(6): p. 689.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration

1177. Filimonov, V.A., On the probability of cold nuclear fusion implementation: Synergetic hypothesis. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1992. 162: p. 99.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: Theory, vibration, defects

1178. Filimonov, V.A. and V.A. Lishnevskii. Cold Fusion and Superfast Low-Temperature Chemical Processes in Solids: Common Basis for Understanding. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A., Lishnevskii, V. A.
Keywords: review

1179. Filimonov, V.A., Synergetic Activation Model: Key to Intense and Reproducible Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 455.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: theory

1180. Filimonov, V.A. Neutrino-Driven Nuclear Reactions Of Cold Fusion And Transmutation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filimonov, V. A.
All Authors: Filimonov, V. A.
Keywords: theory, transmutation

1181. Filippov, D., et al. On the possible magnetic mechanism of shortening the runaway of RBMK-1000 reactor at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filippov, D.
All Authors: Filippov, D., Lochak, G., Rukhadze, A., Urutskoev, L.
Keywords: accident

1182. Filippov, D., A. Rukhadze, and L.I. Urutshoev. Effects of atomic electrons on nuclear stability and radioactive decay. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Filippov, D.
All Authors: Filippov, D., Rukhadze, A., Urutshoev, L. I.
Keywords: transmutation, theory

1.         The only valid (necessary and sufficient) condition for b-stability of a nucleus is the minimum value of the mass of the atom (not of the nucleus) on the isobar line (that is, atomic weight = const). This condition holds true for all known isotopes without exception. 2.         The condition of nuclear stability and the decay schemes of unstable nuclei depend on the state of the electron shells. Atom ionization and other perturbations in electron shells (caused, for example, by magnetic fields) not only changes the decay periods of unstable nuclei [1, 2], but also alters decay schemes [3] and modifies the stability condition. . . .

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1183. Fimin, N.N., Quantum-interference effects and the mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1996. 22(5): p. 17 (in Russian).

First Author: Fimin, N. N.
All Authors: Fimin, N. N.
Keywords: theory, QM, Bose condensate, fractofusion

1184. Fischer, U., H. Jâger, and W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Neutron Emission Observed During the Electrical Explosion of Deuterated Liquids of Metallic Conductivity. Phys. Lett. B, 1973. 44(2): p. 161.

First Author: Fischer, U.
All Authors: Fischer, U., Jâger, H., Lochte-Holtgreven, W.
Keywords: neutron, ND3, explosion

1185. Fischer, U., H. Jâ€Âѧer, and W. Lochte-Holtgreven, Neutron Emission Observed During the Electrical Explosion of Deuterated Liquids of Metallic Conductivity. Phys. Lett. B, 1973. 44(2): p. 161.

First Author: Fischer, U.
All Authors: Fischer, U., J‰ger, H., Lochte-Holtgreven, W.
Keywords: neutron, ND3, explosion

1186. Fisher, A., Much Ado About. MOSAIC, 1990. 21(2): p. 13.

First Author: Fisher, A.
All Authors: Fisher, A.
Keywords: review, history

1187. Fisher, J.C., Polyneutrons as agents for cold nuclear reactions. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 511.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory, polyneutron

1188. Fisher, J.C., Liquid-drop model for extremely neutron rich nuclei. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 66.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory, polyneutron

1189. Fisher, J.C. Theory of Low-Temperature Particle Showers. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: theory

A theoretical basis is offered for the remarkable observation by Oriani and Fisher [1] of a shower of about 250,000 energetic charged particles that occurred in the vapor of oxygen and hydrogen evolved from electrolysis. The shower was localized in space and in time, originating a few millimeters above the surface of a plastic detector chip and lasting for a few seconds. The responsible nuclear reactions must have been sustained by the vapor constituents.

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1190. Fisher, J.C. Polyneutron Theory of Transmutation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: theory

Polyneutron theory postulates that large clusters of neutrons are bound and stable against strong decay and that their interactions with ordinary nuclei are responsible for a new class of low-temperature nuclear phenomena. It is postulated that these clusters, also termed polyneutrons or neutron isotopes, grow to include hundreds of neutrons in chain reactions fueled by isotopes such as 2H, 18O, and 7Li.

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1191. Fisher, J.C. Outline of Polyneutron Theory. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Theory

I suggest that neutron clusters of sufficient size are bound and stable against strong decay; and that they can react with ordinary nuclei by transferring neutrons to them, accepting neutrons from them, and binding with them to form composite nuclei. Implications of this enlarged scope of nuclear physics are explored, including a chain reaction with nuclear fuel 2H that produces energy, 4He, 3H, and a wide range of nuclear transmutations. Natural explanations emerge for these and other nuclear phenomena for which evidence has been accumulating over the past two decades.

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1192. Fisher, J.C. External Radiation Produced by Electrolysis — A Work in Progress. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

1193. Fisher, J.C., Palladium Fission Triggered by Polyneutrons. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 1-5.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: Fission, LENR reaction, Liquid drop model, Palladium, Polyneutron

Polyneutron theory is applied to experiments of Iwamura et al. that show evidence for titanium and for an anomalous iron isotope ratio in palladium cathodes following electrolysis. Theory and experiment are in reasonable agreement. Experiments are suggested for additional testing of the theory.

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1194. Fisher, J.C., Neutron Isotope Theory of LENR Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Fisher, J. C.
All Authors: Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: LENR, Neutron Isotope, Nuclear reaction, Theory

Neutron isotopes are characterized and their reactions with ordinary isotopes are described. A theory of LENR processes emerges.

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1195. Fishman, R.S. and G.D. Mahan, Binding of charged particles in lattice defects. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(17): p. 11493.

First Author: Fishman, R. S.
All Authors: Fishman, R. S., Mahan, G. D.
Keywords: Theory, jellium

1196. Fitzpatrick, T., Cold Fusion Meet Ends Without Agreement, in Salt Lake City Tribune. 1990: Salt Lake CityEditor.

First Author: Fitzpatrick, T.
All Authors: Fitzpatrick, T.
Keywords: newspaper, history

1197. Flanagan, T.B. and F.A. Lewis, Hydrogen Absorption by Palladium in Aqueous Solution. Faraday Soc. Trans., 1959. 55: p. 1401.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, resistivity, loading

1198. Flanagan, T.B. and F.A. Lewis, Electrode Potentials of the Palladium + Hydrogen System. Faraday Soc., 1959. 55: p. 1409.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, overvoltage, thermodynamic, solubility

1199. Flanagan, T.B., Absorption of Deuterium by Palladium. J. Phys. Chem., 1961. 65: p. 280.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, D, resistivity, overvoltage, pressure

1200. Flanagan, T.B. and J.W. Simon, Consequences of the Proton Model for Hydrogen Adsorption in the b Phase of the Hydrogen-Palladium System. J. Phys. Chem., 1966. 70: p. 3750.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Simon, J. W.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, adsorption, theory, thermodynamic

1201. Flanagan, T.B., et al., The Effect of Lattice Defects on Hydrogen Solubility in Palladium, I. Experimentally Observed Solubility Enhancements and Thermodynamics of Absorption. J. Less-Common Met., 1979. 49: p. 13.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Lynch, J. F., Clewley, J. D., Turkovich, B. V.
Keywords: Pd, H, excess Volume, vacancy, phase diagram, solubility PdH

1202. Flanagan, T.B., et al., Isobaric and Isothermal Hysteresis in Metal Hydrides and Oxides. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1982. 82: p. 2589.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Clewley, J. D., Kuji, T., Park, C. N., Everett, D. H.
Keywords: phase Diagram, theory, PdH

1203. Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates, The Effect of Hysteresison the Phase Diagram of Pd-H. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 92: p. 131.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Oates, W. A.
Keywords: PdH, hydrogen, phase Diagram

1204. Flanagan, T.B., et al., Hydrogen Solubility in Ordered and Disordered Palladium alloys. NATO ASI Ser., Ser. B, 1986: p. 341.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Biehl, G. E., Clewley, J. D., Kuji, T., Sakamoto, Y.
Keywords: solubility, hydrogen, PdCe, resistance, thermodynamic

1205. Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates, The Palladium-Hydrogen System. Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., 1991. 21: p. 269.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Oates, W. A.
Keywords: PdH, Phase Diagram, diffusion, Lattice Parameter bonding thermodynamic, review

1206. Flanagan, T.B., W. Luo, and J.D. Clewley, Calorimetric enthalpies of absorption and desorption of protium and deuterium by palladium. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 42.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Luo, W., Clewley, J. D.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, thermodynamic, heat, PdD

1207. Flanagan, T.B. and H. Noh, Thermodynamics and hysteresis for hydrogen solution and hydride formation in Pd-Ni alloys. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1995. 50: p. 475.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Noh, H.
Keywords: Pd-Ni-H, phase diagram, pressure, thermodynamic

1208. Flanagan, T.B., D.L. Wang, and H. Noh, The effect of cycling through the hydride phase on isotherms for fcc Pd-rich alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 216.

First Author: Flanagan, T. B.
All Authors: Flanagan, T. B., Wang, D. L., Noh, H.
Keywords: PdH, Phase diagram, Pd-Ni-H, Pd-Cr-H, Pd-Mo-H, Pd-Au-H, Pd-Ag-H

1209. Flannigan, D.J. and K. Suslick, Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation (letter). Nature (London), 2005. 434.

First Author: Flannigan, D. J.
All Authors: Flannigan, D. J., Suslick, K.
Keywords: Sonoluminescence, accustic,

1210. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, The behavior of microdisk and microring electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1987. 222: p. 107.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis

1211. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 261: p. 301 and errata in Vol. 263.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Hawkins, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, neutron, tritium, 4He, D2O

The strange behaviour of electrogenerated hydrogen dissolved in palladium has been studied for well over 100 years, and latterly these studies have been extended to deuterium and tritium [1]. For discharge of deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water we have to consider the reaction stepsThe strange behaviour of electrogenerated hydrogen dissolved in palladium has been studied for well over 100 years, and latterly these studies have been extended to deuterium and tritium. For discharge of deuterium from alkaline solutions of heavy water we have to consider the reaction stepsD2O + e → Dads + OD (i)Dads + D2O + e → D2 + OD   (ii)Dads → Dlattice                                                                            (iii)Dads + Dads → D2                                              (iv)It is known that at potentials negative to + 50 mV on the reversible hydrogen scale, the lattice is in the β-phase, hydrogen is in the form of protons (as shown by the migration in an electric field) and is highly mobile (D  = 10-7 cm2 s-1 for the α-phase at 300 K).

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1212. Fleischmann, M., et al., Measurements of gamma-rays from cold fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339(622): p. 667.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Hawkins, M., Hoffman, R. J.
Keywords: critique, history, gamma emission

1213. Fleischmann, M. An Overview of Cold Fuson Phenomena. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: theory, history, ICCF-1

The present position of research in the field of Cold Fusion has already been outlined in two papers presented at this meeting. This report will therefore emphasize the early work and general considerations which led us to investigate the possibility of inducing nuclear reactions of D+ in palladium electrodes . . . This is followed by a brief assessment of the position reached at the end of the first year of research in this field as summarized by the papers presented at this conference.

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1214. Fleischmann, M., et al., Calorimetry of the palladium-deuterium-heavy water system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 293.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Anderson, M. W., Li, L. J., Hawkins, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Pd, D2O, tritium

It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the “black-box” model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm^-3 at approximately 1 A cm^-2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation; the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5-50 MJ cm^-3) is 10^2 – 10^3 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.

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1215. Fleischmann, M. The Present Status of Research in Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review, heat, history, ICCF-2

In the development of any new area of research (and especially in one likely to arouse controversy!) it is desirable to achieve first of all a qualitative explanation of the demonstration of the phenomena invoked in the observations. It is the qualitative demonstrations which are unambiguous: the quantitative analyses of the experimental results can be the subject of debate but, if these quantitative analyses stand in opposition to the qualitative demonstration, then these methods of analysis must be judged to be incorrect.

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1216. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons. Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O System: from Simplicity via Complications to Simplicity. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: calorimetry heat Pd D2O electrolysis boiling method, ICCF-3

It is shown that accurate values of the rates of enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of light and heavy water can be obtained from measurements in simple, single compartment Dewar type calorimeter cells. This precise evaluation of the rate of enthalpy generation relies on the non-linear regression fitting of the “black-box” model of the calorimeter to an extensive set of temperature time measurements. The method of data analysis gives a systematic underestimate of the enthalpy output and, in consequence, a slightly negative excess rate of enthalpy generation for an extensive set of blank experiments using both light and heavy water. By contrast, the electrolysis of heavy water at palladium electrodes shows a positive excess rate of enthalpy generation; this rate increases markedly with current density, reaching values of approximately 100 W cm^-3 at approximately 1 A cm^-2. It is also shown that prolonged polarization of palladium cathodes in heavy water leads to bursts in the rate of enthalpy generation; the thermal output of the cells exceeds the enthalpy input (or the total energy input) to the cells by factors in excess of 40 during these bursts. The total specific energy output during the bursts as well as the total specific energy output of fully charged electrodes subjected to prolonged polarization (5-50 MJ cm^-3) is 10^2 – 10^3 times larger than the enthalpy of reaction of chemical processes.

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1217. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Some comments on the paper Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O electrochemical cells, R.H. Wilson et al., J. Electroanal. Chem. 332 [1992] 1. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 332: p. 33.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: critique, Wilson

1218. Fleischmann, M., et al. Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O System: The Search for Simplicity and Accuracy. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Le Roux, M., Roulette, J.
Keywords: heat+, theory, method, ICCF-4

Our search for high levels of the rates of excess enthalpy generation in the Pd-D2O and Pd-alloy-D2O systems has been based inter alia on the following preconditions and suppositions: (i) that it is necessary to use materials which will withstand the high stresses induced by the experiments; (ii) given that (i) is assured, that it is necessary to adopt particular experimental protocols to achieve excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures; (iii) that the protocols (ii) should ensure a high D/Pd ratio under all conditions; (iv) that the protocols (ii) and (iii) should allow one to take advantage of “positive feedback” in the systems; (v) that the systems are sensitive to “hidden state variables;” (vi) that the state variables need to be further generalised to take account of cross-terms and of gradients with position.

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1219. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Calorimetry of the Pd-D2O system: from simplicity via complications to simplicity. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 176: p. 118.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, D2O, life after death

1220. Fleischmann, M., S. Pons, and G. Preparata, Possible theories of cold fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107: p. 143.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S., Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory

Summary. — We review some of the key facts in the phenomenology of Pd-hydrides usually referred to as «cold fusion». We conclude that all theoretical attempts that concentrate only on few-body interactions, both electromagnetic and nuclear, are probably insufficient to explain such phenomena. On the other hand we find good indications that theories describing collective, coherent interactions among elementary constituents leading to macroscopic quantum-mechanical effects belong to the class of possible theories of those phenomena.

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1221. Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Reply to the critique by Morrison entitled ‘Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by Fleischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 187: p. 276.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Pons, S.
Keywords: critique, Morrison

These two documents first appeared in the Internet sci.physics.fusion forum in 1993. The first was written by Douglas Morrison (CERN), and the second by Martin Fleischmann (Univ. Southhampton) and Stanley Pons (IMRA Europe). A version of this was published as: Fleischmann, M. and S. Pons, Reply to the critique by Morrison entitled ‘Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by FLeischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 187: p. 276. This debate refers mainly to paper “Calorimetry of the PD-D2O System: from Simplicity via Complications to Simplicity,” published in Physics Letters A. A simlar paper was later published in the ICCF-3 conference proceedings and handed out by Fleischmann, which is on this web site.

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1222. Fleischmann, M. The Experimenters’ Regress. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Harwell, critique, electrolysis, heat, Pd, ICCF-5, D2O

IntroductionAt the beginning of any new and controversial field of investigation, we cannot tell which of the following two statements is true:A. “Positive” conclusions are correct; “negative” results are due to bad experimentation.B. “Negative” conclusions are correct; “positive” results are due to bad experimentation.This is the basis of the Experimenters’ Regress, a concept drawn from the field of the Sociology of Science, e.g. see ( 1 ). As scientists, we also need to examine the possible validity of the following statement (as well as its corollary) . . .

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1223. Fleischmann, M. More About Positive Feedback; More About Boiling. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat, positive feedback, enthalpy of formation, ICCF-5

We have already described elsewhere ( 1 ,2) some of the principles which have guided our search for the generation of high rates of excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures, say, up to the boiling points of the electrolytes (3,4) . One of these principles has been the prediction that the partial molar enthalpy of absorption of hydrogen (or deuterium) in palladium (5) will become positive at the high charging ratios (X = DlPd) required for excess enthalpy generation (6,7), see Fig 1.Although a transition from exothermic to endothermic absorption is probably not a necessary condition for achieving excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperaturesl , such a transition will certainly facilitate the achievement of high charging ratios. For example, increases of temperature will then themselves lead to increases in X and thereby in the rates of excess enthalpy generation. These are the conditions required for the development of “positive feedback” and; in this paper, we report on two lines of investigation which have indicated the presence of these effects. We then outline the way in which our understanding of this phenomenon has guided our investigation of excess enthalpy generation at elevated temperatures.

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1224. Fleischmann, M. Cold Fusion; Past, Present & Future. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review, ICCF-7

In reviewing first of all some of the early history of research into the nuclear reactions of D + compressed into host lattices we need to consider the applicability (or otherwise) of existing paradigms . . .

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1225. Fleischmann, M. Giuliano Preparata: An Appreciation. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history, ICCF-8

1226. Fleischmann, M., Reflections on the Sociology of Science and Social Responsibility in Science, in Relationship to Cold Fusion. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

Section 1.  Introduction I have been asked on several occasions during the last ten years to provide a commentary on subjects such as the Sociology of Science, Social Responsibility in Science etc. with special reference to the topic of “Cold Fusion”.  I have always been reluctant to do so for two principal reasons.    The first is that I believe that the consideration of these topics is premature.   The reason is that I am convinced that there is much more information which bears on such topics which will be revealed in the fullness of time.  Furthermore, there are aspects of the past history, developments and, indeed, of the science which I do not wish to discuss even at the present time. Inevitably, therefore, any such article will be incomplete, will lack focus and will be couched in rather general terms.  This is the way the present article has turned out to be; in view of the evident deficiencies, it should only be taken as a first step in trying to develop a discussion of the important Social Issues.

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1227. Fleischmann, M. Searching for the consequences of many-body effects in condensed phase systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history, theory, ICCF-9, electrolysis

BBBBBBBBBB Some of the background work which led to the decision to investigate the behaviour of D+ electrochemically compressed into Pd host lattices is outlined. The key features of such “Cold Fusion” systems are described.

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1228. Fleischmann, M. Background to Cold Fusion: the Genesis of a Concept. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: theory, history

The scheme of research which led to the start-up of the project now known as “Cold Fusion” is illustrated by Fig. 1. We note that it is commonly believed that there is absolutely no way of influencing Nuclear Processes by Chemical means: therefore, any results that demonstrate that this might be possible must be due to faulty experimentation, delusion, fraud etc. However, any enquiry as to the experimental foundation of the first statement in Fig. 1 is normally met by the response: “because quantum mechanics, Q.M., shows that this is so”. We are driven to the conclusion that this first statement is just part of the belief-system of Natural Scientists and we naturally also have to ask the question; “what conclusion would we draw if we subject the statement to the dictates of Field Theory?”

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1229. Fleischmann, M. and M. Miles. The “Instrument Function” of Isoperibolic Calorimeters; Excess Enthalpy Generation due to the Parasitic Reduction of Oxygen. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Two criticisms which are frequently advanced to counter observations of the generation of excess enthalpy in the cathodic polarisations of Pd-based electrodes in D2O-based electrolytes (e.g. see (1), (2)) are usually based on the assertion that the isoperibolic calorimeters used in these studies are imprecise and inaccurate. Furthermore, any excess enthalpy generation is then attributed to the reduction of electrogenerated oxygen although such assertions have not been accompanied by appropriate measurements. There is naturally a link between these two assertions.

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1230. Fleischmann, M., Background to Cold Fusion: The Genesis of a Concept, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 19-36.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

1231. Fleischmann, M. and M. Miles, Thermal Behavior of the Polarized Pd/D2O System, P.A. Mosier-Boss, Editor. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Miles, M.
Keywords: Excess heat

The research in the thermal behavior of the polarized Pd/D-D2O system was, and still is, directed towards determining the conditions maximizing excess enthalpy production. At the present time, a sustained low grade heat source can be maintained for considerable periods of time.Although the excess enthalpy production in these systems is generally accepted, there are still instances of misunderstanding even among seasoned scientists. In the series of papers entitled “Our penultimate papers on the isoperibolic calorimetry of the Pt/D2O and Pd/D2) systems”, Prof. Fleischmann (and his collaborators) deals with the correct and incorrect interpretation of calorimetric data.In a separate paper “More about positive feedback; more about boiling” Prof. Fleischmann discusses aspects of this system of interest to practical applications, viz the design of an effective energy source.

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1232. Fleischmann, M., et al., Experimental Evidence of Nuclear Reactions Generated in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Miles, M., Chubb, S. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, tritium

This report reviews research activities on the polarized Pd/D2O system. In contrast to the pioneering work of Fleischmann and his collaborators, we consider only events at, and/or, within Pd electrodes prepared by the co-deposition technique developed in this laboratory. Our effort proceeded along two paths: (i) investigation of thermal and nuclear events in the Pd host lattice and (ii) examination of the role of the interphase region. These paths were undertaken to assess the intensity of events and to provide some information on the factors controlling the initiation and maintenance of excess enthalpy generation, i.e., the “performance envelope”.

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1233. Fleischmann, M. and M. Miles, Letters from Martin Fleischmann to Melvin Miles, R. Carter, M.C.H. McKubre, and J. Rothwell, Editors. 2018, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Fleischmann, M.
All Authors: Fleischmann, M., Miles, M.
Keywords: History

This is a collection of letters between Martin Fleischmann, the co-discoverer of cold fusion, and Melvin Miles, who was one of the first to replicate the effect at the Naval Weapons Center, China Lake laboratory. It also includes some correspondence with Stanley Pons and various other people. The collection spans 13 years, from 1992 to 2005. Fleischmann and Miles coauthored several papers, including some with other researchers associated with the U.S. Navy, notably Pamela Mosier-Boss, Stanislaw Szpak and Ashraf Imam. Most of these papers are about calorimetry.

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1234. Fleming, J.W., et al., Calorimetric studies of electrochemical incorporation of hydrogen isotopes into palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 517.

First Author: Fleming, J. W.
All Authors: Fleming, J. W., Law, H. H., Sapjeta, J., Gallagher, P. K., Marohn, W. F.
Keywords: heat-, method, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

1235. Flitt, H.J. and J. Bockris, Concerning Adsorbed and Absorbed Hydrogen on and in Ferrous Metals. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1982. 7: p. 411.

First Author: Flitt, H. J.
All Authors: Flitt, H. J., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Fe, H, overvoltage

1236. Focardi, S., R. Habel, and F. Piantelli, Anomalous heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107A: p. 163.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Habel, R., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat+

1237. Focardi, S., et al., Large excess heat production in Ni-H systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 111A: p. 1233.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, heat+

Summary. — Evidence of a large heat excess produced in Ni-H systems and details of the calorimetric measurements are reported in this paper. Two cells which ran for long periods (about 300 days) produced an energy excess of 600MJ and 900MJ, respectively.

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1238. Focardi, S., et al. On the Ni-H System. in Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1999. Bologna.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, S.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat+, neutron, gamma emission transmutation

1239. Focardi, S., et al. Evidence of electromagnetic radiation from Ni-H Systems. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Gabbani, V., Montalbano, V., Piantelli, F., Veronesi, F.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

We report evidence of photon emission in three experiments with hydrogen loading of Ni slabs, during the degassing phase, when hydrogen was introduced into the cell, and during thermal cycling. In the first experiment we obtained excess power of about 20 W, while in the second experiment photon emission was observed instead of power production. In the third experiment, a Ni sample in hydrogen underwent thermal excitation and showed an increasing photon emission for a few hours.

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1240. Focardi, S. and A. Rossi, A new energy source from nuclear fusion. www.journal-of-nuclear-physics.com, 2010.

First Author: Focardi, S.
All Authors: Focardi, S., Rossi, A.
Keywords:

A process (international patent publication no WO 2009/125444 A1) capable of producing large amounts of energy by a nuclear fusion process between nickel and hydrogen, occurring below 1000 K, is described. Experimental values of the ratios between output and input energies obtained in a certain number of experiments are reported. The occurrence of the effect is justified on the basis of existing experimental and theoretical results. Measurements performed during the experiments allow to exclude neutron and gamma rays emissions.

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1241. Foglio, P.A., et al., Neutron monitoring and related measurements during electrolysis of heavy water with palladium and titanium cathodes: activity report. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 131.

First Author: Foglio, P. A.
All Authors: Foglio, P. A., Sangiust, V., Cavallotti, P. L., Ducati, U., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, Ti, neutron, tritium, D2O

1242. Fonda, L. and G.L. Shaw. Flucturations and Nonreproducibility in Cold Fusion From Free Quark Catalysis. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Fonda, L.
All Authors: Fonda, L., Shaw, G. L.
Keywords: theory, quark

1243. Fonda, L. and G.L. Shaw, Deuteron cold fusion by anti-diquark catalysis. Fizika (Zagreb), 1990. 22: p. 371.

First Author: Fonda, L.
All Authors: Fonda, L., Shaw, G. L.
Keywords: Theory, anti-diquarks

1244. Forsley, L., et al. Analyzing Nuclear Ash from the Electrocatalytic Reduction of Radioactivity in Uranium and Thorium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Forsley, L.
All Authors: Forsley, L., August, R., Jorne, J., Khim, J., Mis, F., Phillips, G.
Keywords: transmutation, U, Th, ICCF-7

1245. Forsley, L. and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Nuclear Products Observed in the PdD Co-Dep System (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Forsley, L.
All Authors: Forsley, L., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

Conclusion* Multiple Nuclear Channels   * Fast protons   * Fast neutrons * Collateral Damage   * Tritium previously observed   * Elemental transmutation * Aneutronic Thermal Channel

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1246. Fou, C., Deuteron-Deuteron [dd] Binding via Neutron Exchange. Infinite Energy, 2006. 11(66): p. 26.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords:

1247. Fou, C., Coulomb Field for LENR in Solid. Infinite Energy, 2007. 12(71): p. 25.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords: theory,

1248. Fou, C. Investigation of Deuteron-Deuteron Cold Fusion in a Cavity. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Fou, C.
All Authors: Fou, C.
Keywords: theory

A cavity in a solid, first of all, serves as a place of confinement for a Deuterium molecule. Two deuterons in the molecule are trapped together in close proximity. Thus, they may engage in ‘Low Energy Nuclear Reaction’ which requires longer time, unlike collision type of nuclear reaction. Secondly, the electric field in the cavity (to be shown below) superimposed on this deuteron-pair would lower the Coulomb barrier between them facilitating a ‘Low Energy Fusion’ reaction. Furthermore, neutron exchange reaction between two deuterons (in an analogous manner like the electron exchange that forms a Deuterium molecule) is like a ‘Long Range’ force (as compared to the range of nuclear force) that can pull two deuterons together. This range is longer than that of the pi-plus exchange nuclear force between a proton and a neutron, because neutrons are charge neutral. [1] Longer reaction time; [2] Lowered Coulomb Barrier; [3] Longer range are the necessary conditions for (d-d) ‘Cold Fusion’.

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1249. Fowler, W.A., et al., The synthesis and destruction of elements in peculiar stars of types A and B. Astrophys. J., 1965. 142(2): p. 423-450.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A., Burbidge, E. M., Burbidge, G. R., Hoyle, F.
Keywords:

1250. Fowler, W.A., G.R. Caughlan, and B.A. Zimmermann, Thermonuclear Reaction Rates. Ann. Rev. Astr. Astrophys., 1967. 5: p. 525.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A., Caughlan, G. R., Zimmermann, B. A.
Keywords: branching ratio

1251. Fowler, W.A., Cold fusion results still unexplained. Nature (London), 1989. 339(6223): p. 345.

First Author: Fowler, W. A.
All Authors: Fowler, W. A.
Keywords: Theory

1252. Fox, H., Cold Fusion Impact in the Enhanced Energy Age. 1992, Salt Lake City: Fusion Information Center.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: history,

1253. Fox, H. Cold Nuclear Fusion & Enhanced Energy Devices: A Progress Report. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review, ICCF-4

1254. Fox, H., Comments on ‘Experiments of one-point cold fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 347.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: critique, Matsumoto

1255. Fox, H. Cold Nuclear Fusion, Space Energy Devices & Commercialization. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review

1256. Fox, H. A Survey of Current International “Cold Fusion” Research. in IECEC Conference. 1995. Paper #95-247.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: Review

1257. Fox, H. and R.W. Bass. Cold versus hot fusion deuterium branching ratios. in Proceedings of 16th International Symposium on Fusion Engineering. 1995. IEEE.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Bass, R. W.
Keywords: Plasma fusion, cold fusion

1258. Fox, H., Cold Fusion and the Coulomb Barrier. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 23.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: theory,

1259. Fox, H., R.W. Bass, and S.X. Jin, Plasma-injected transmutation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 222.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Bass, R. W., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation, electron cluster

1260. Fox, H., Charge clusters in operation. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 62.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: charge clusters, theory

1261. Fox, H., Do Thorium Daughter Products Explain LENT-1 Experiments? J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 20.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: transmutation,, LENT

1262. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Operating the LENT-1 transmutation reactor: Preliminary report. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 110.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation, method, LENT

1263. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Operating the LENT-1 Transmutation Reactor: A Preliminary Report. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 110.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: transmutation,, LENT

1264. Fox, H., New-Energy Anomalies. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(2/3): p. 47.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H.
Keywords: review,

1265. Fox, H. and S.X. Jin, Low-energy nuclear reactions and high-density charge clusters. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 26.

First Author: Fox, H.
All Authors: Fox, H., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: charge clusters, theory transmutation LENT

1266. Fralick, G.C., A.J. Decker, and J.W. Blue, Results Of An Attempt To Measure Increased Rates Of The Reaction 2D + 2D –> 3He + n In A Nonelectrochemical Cold Fusion Experiment. 1989, NASA: Cleveland, OH.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Decker, A. J., Blue, J. W.
Keywords:

An experiment was performed at the Lewis Research Center to look for evidence of deuterium fusion in palladium. The experiment, which involved introducing deuterium into the palladium filter of a hydrogen purifier, was designed to detect neutrons produced in the reaction2D + 2D → 3He + nas well as heat production. The neutron counts for deuterium did not differ significantly from background or from the counts for a hydrogen control. Heat production was detected when deuterium, but not hydrogen, was pumped from the purifier.

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1267. Fralick, G.C., et al., LENR at GRC (PowerPoint slides). 2011, NASA Glenn Research Center: Cleveland, OH.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Wrbanek, J., Wrbanek, S., Niedra, J. M.
Keywords: Excess heat

Excess heat experiments were performed at NASA using a Johnson Matthey HP Series palladium membrane hydrogen purifier.

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1268. Fralick, G.C., et al. LENR at GRC (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Fralick, G. C.
All Authors: Fralick, G. C., Wrbanek, J., Wrbanek, S., Niedra, J. M.
Keywords: review

BACKGROUND: Changes from 1989 to 2009* Previous NASA D-Pd experiment (Fralick, et al.; 1989) looked for neutrons (saw none) -but saw anomalous heating * NASA H2O-Ni-K2CO3 Electrolytic Cell experiment (Niedra et al,1996) Apparent current-dependent excess heat consistent as heat from hydrogen-oxygen  recombination * NASA Sonoluminescence Experiment (Wrbanek, et al) – Cratering seen with heavy water, not seen with light water * After 1989, Cold Fusion research evolved into research in “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR), primarily at U.S. Navy, DARPA & various Universities2009: NASA IPP-sponsored effort to:– Repeat the initial tests to investigate this anomalous heat — Apply GRC’s instrumentation expertise to improve the diagnostics for this experiment — Establish credible framework for future work in LENR

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1269. Frattolillo, A., A. De Ninno, and A. Rizzo. Experimental techniques for detecting small quantities of 4He gas: problems and solutions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Frattolillo, A.
All Authors: Frattolillo, A., De Ninno, A., Rizzo, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, method

The problems arising from the techniques of measurement so far used to detect 4He in the gases coming out from Fleishmann-Pons cells are discussed. Innovative solutions are proposed. The results of extensive tests carried out with a facility built at ENEA Frascati are reported, which prove the ability of this equipment to overcome the problems discussed in this paper.

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1270. Frazier, G.A. and R. Glosser, Charcterization of Thin Films of the Pd-H System. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 74: p. 89.

First Author: Frazier, G. A.
All Authors: Frazier, G. A., Glosser, R.
Keywords: Pd, layer, resistivity, pressure, phase Diagram

1271. Fredericks, K., Possibility of Tachyon Monopoles Detected in Photographic Emulsions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Fredericks, K.
All Authors: Fredericks, K.
Keywords: Detection, Mass Estimate, Monopoles, Parabolic curvature, Photographic emulsion, Superluminal, Tachyons

Low-energy nuclear reaction experiments using photographic emulsions, including those by Urutskoev, et.al, Ivoilov, and others have shown unique particle tracks. Analysis of a sample population of these types of tracks suggests detection of magnetically charged particles with faster-than-light velocities. Particle kinetic energy was estimated from energy deposition and momentum was estimated from track curvature in magnetic fields. Measured values were plotted on a kinetic energy versus momentum graph and were found to fall in the v > c region. Track curvature was found to be parabolic, which is a signature for monopoles. Using the classical theory of tachyons, the plane of parabolic curvature suggests electrically charged tachyons detected as slower-than-light monopoles. Preliminary lower limits for particle mass are found. Further study is suggested to broaden this search.

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1272. Frederico, T., et al., Microscopic calculation of the molecular-nuclear d+d–>3He+n or 3H+p reactions at close to zero energies. Braz. J. Phys., 1993. 23(1): p. 96.

First Author: Frederico, T.
All Authors: Frederico, T., de Groote, J. J., Hornos, J. E., Hussein, M. S.
Keywords: Theory, fusion rate

1273. Freedman, S. and D. Krakauer, Biases in cold fusion data. (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 703.

First Author: Freedman, S.
All Authors: Freedman, S., Krakauer, D.
Keywords: critique, statistics, Jones

1274. French, D. Patents and Cold Fusion. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: French, D.
All Authors: French, D.
Keywords: Commercialization

1275. French, D., Patents and Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: French, D.
All Authors: French, D.
Keywords: Commercialization

Patents are available for any arrangement that exploits Cold Fusion. The arrangement must incorporate a feature which is new. Furthermore, the Patent Office may require proof that the procedures defined in the patent actually work. And the description must be sufficient to enable others to duplicate the invention.

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1276. French, D., Key Principles for Patenting in the Land of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 98-108.

First Author: French, D.
All Authors: French, D.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Fleischmann, LENR, Patents, Rossi

Patents can be obtained in the field of Cold Fusion/LENR but they will be specific to the arrangements that they describe. Proper patent drafting requires close cooperation between the inventor and attorney, with the inventor understanding the principles of claim drafting. Reference is made to the Andrea Rossi patent obtained before the US patent office and to the European patent obtained by Fleischmann and Pons before the European patent office with examples of claims for analysis.

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1277. Friedmann, H., et al., Search for ‘cold fusion’. Kerntechnik, 1990. 55: p. 161.

First Author: Friedmann, H.
All Authors: Friedmann, H., Hundegger, P., Kirchmayr, H. R., Pavlik, A., Vonach, H., Wiesinger, G., Winkler, G.
Keywords: D2, Ti, Ti-Fe, Y, neutron

1278. Frisone, F., Study of the probability of interaction between the plasmons of metal and deuterons. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1996. 18D: p. 1279.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory

1279. Frisone, F. Can Impurities Within a Deuterated Crystalline Lattice Have an Effect Favouring Cold Fusion? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, impurity, plasmons, ICCF-7

1280. Frisone, F., Can variations in temperature influence deuteron interaction within crystalline lattices? Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 20 D: p. 1567.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory

1281. Frisone, F. Fusion reaction within a microcrack in a crystalline lattice at room temperature. in AIP Conf. Proc. 513(Nuclear and Condensed Matter Physics). 2000.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, fusion rate

1282. Frisone, F. Probability of Deuteron Plasmon Fusion at Room Temperature within Microcracks of Crystalline Lattices with Deuterium Loading. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, cracks, ICCF-8

1283. Frisone, F., Deuteron Interaction Within a Microcrack in a Lattice at Room Temperature. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39(2 (March)).

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, crack

1284. Frisone, F., Theoretical model of the probability of fusion between deuterons within deformed crystalline lattices with microcracks at room temperature. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 139.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory, cracks

1285. Frisone, F. Theoretical Model Of The Probability Of Fusion Between Deuterons Within Deformed Lattices With Micro-Cracks At Room Temperature. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory

1286. Frisone, F. Theoretical Comparison Between Semi-Classic And Quantum Tunneling Effect. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory

1287. Frisone, F. Theoretical Comparison Between Semi-Classic And Quantum Tunneling Effect Any Application Coherence Theory On The Tumor (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory

1288. Frisone, F. Theoretical Hypothesis of a Double Barrier Regarding the D-D Interaction in a Pd Lattice: A Possible Explanation of Cold Fusion Experiment Failures. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: theory,

1289. Frisone, F., Tunneling Effect Enhanced by Lattice Screening as Main Cold Fusion Mechanism: An Brief Theoretical Overview. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 16-26.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Nuclear reaction,Tunneling effect,Vibrational frequency of the lattice

In this paper are illustrated the main features of tunneling traveling between two deuterons within a lattice. Considering the screening effect due lattice electrons, we compare the d-d fusion rate evaluated from different authors assuming different screening efficiency and different d-d potentials. Then, we propose an effective potential which describe very well the attractive contribute due to plasmon exchange between two deuterons and by means of it we will compute the d-d fusion rates for different energy values. Finally the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results proves the reality of cold fusion phenomena and the reliability of our model.

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1290. Frisone, F., Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter: A Theoretical Study of D-D Reaction within Palladium Lattice by Means of the Coherence Theory of Matter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 27-40.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Nuclear reaction,Tunneling effect,Vibrational frequency of the lattice

In the last decades, an indisputable experimental evidence was built up for Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction (LERN) phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. Actually, the real problem is that, the theoretical statements of LERN are not known; in fact, no new branch of science has begun, yet. In this work, we seek to analyse the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of Preparata model of palladium lattice and we will show the occurrence probability of fusion phenomena according to more accurate, but not claimed, experiments, in order to demonstrate theoretically the possibility of cold fusion. Further, we focus on tunnelling the Coulomb barrier existent between two deuterons. Analysing the possible contributions of lattice on improving the tunnelling probability, we will find that there is a real mechanism through which this probability could be increased: this mechanism is the screening effect due to d-shell electrons of palladium lattice. Finally the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results proves the reality of cold fusion phenomena and the reliability of our model.

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1291. Frisone, F., Calculation of Deuteron Interactions within Microcracks of a D2 Loaded Crystalline Lattice at Room Temperature. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 41-46.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Collective plasmonic excitation, Dislocations, Fusion within a microcrack, Tunneling effect

We have analysed the possibility that the coefficient of lattice deformation, linked to the formation of microcracks at room temperature and low energies, could influence the process of fusion. The calculated probability of fusion within a microcrack, in the presence of D2 loading at room temperature and for impure metals, shows moderately elevated values compared with the probability of fusion on the surface. For all the temperatures in the 150-350 K range and for all the energies between 150 and 250 eV, the formation of microcracks increases the probability of fusion compared to non-deformed lattices, and also reduces the thickness of the Coulomb barrier. Using the trend of the curve of potential to evaluate the influence of the concentration of impurities, a very high barrier is found within the pure lattice (J ≈ 0.25%). However, under the same thermodynamic conditions, the probability of fusion in the impure metal (J ≈ 0.75%) could be higher, with a total energy less than the potential so that the tunneling effect is amplified. Finally, we analysed the influence of forced D2 loading on the process.

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1292. Frisone, F. “The Coulomb Barrier not Static in QED,” A correction to the Theory by Preparata on the Phenomenon of Cold Fusion and Theoretical hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Theory

In the last two decades, irrefutable experimental evidence has shown that Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) occur in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. Nevertheless, we are still confronted with a problem: the theoretical basis of LENR are not known and, as a matter of fact, little research has been carried out on this subject. In this work we seek to analyse the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of Preparata’s model of the palladium lattice [5,15]. We will also show the occurrence probability of fusion phenomena according to more accurate experiments [6]. We are not going to use any of the research models which have been previously followed in this field. Our aim is to demonstrate the theoretical possibility of cold fusion. Moreover, we will focus on tunneling the existent Coulomb barrier between two deuterons. Analysing the possible contributions of the lattice to the improvement of the tunneling probability, we find that there is a real mechanism through which this probability could be increased: this mechanism is the screening effect due to d-shell electrons of palladium lattice. The accordance between theoretical and experimental results will prove the reality of cold fusion phenomena and show the reliability of our model.

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1293. Frisone, F. Theoretical Model Of The Probability of Fusion Between Deuterons within Deformed Crystalline Lattices with Micro-Cracks at Room Temperature. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords:

In this paper, we wish to demonstrate that the deformation of the crystalline lattice, at room temperature, can influence the process of fusion of the deuterons introduced into the lattice by deuterium loading. In fact, calculating the probability of deuteron-plasmon fusion within a micro-crack, showed, together with the enhancement of the tunnelling effect, an increase of at least 1-3 orders of magnitude compared to the probability of fusion on the surface of the lattice. These phenomena open the way to the theoretical hypothesis that a kind of chain reaction, catalysed by the micro-cracks produced in the structure as a result of deuterium loading, can favour the process.

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1294. Frisone, F., Nuclear Exothermic Reactions in Lattices Pd: A Theoretical Study of d-d Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Coulomb barrier, d-d Reactions, Many body

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the Coulomb barrier has variations in both time and space. Further, in this paper, we have taken the interaction between deuteron-optical photons, we want to clarify this point, of course, these photons have a vibrational frequency of interest because it was discovered that the interaction between photons and deuterons causes the Coulomb barrier is not static, that has of oscillations in different directions within the lattice. So we can conclude that this phenomenon of cold fusion that breaks new ground in modern nuclear physics. In recent years, over 20 years, have seen thousands of experiments and theoretical models to explain the phenomenon of fusion at low energy (LENR) in specialized heavy hydrogen systems. We can say that a new possible way to obtain nuclear energy without waste is emerging. Nevertheless in spite of experimental contributions, the theoretical framework is not known. In this work, we try to explain the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of the coherence theory of nuclear and condensed matter. The coherence model of condensed matter affirms that within a deuteron-loaded palladium lattice there are three different plasmas: electrons, ions and deuterons plasma. Then, according to the loading percentage x = D/Pd, the ions deuterium can take place on the octahedrical sites or in the tetrahedral in the (1,0,0)-plane. In the coherence theory it is called β-plasma the deuterons plasma in the octahedral site and γ -plasma which in tetrahedral. We propose a general model of effective local time-dependent deuteron-deuteron potential, that takes into account the electrons and ions plasma oscillations. The main features of this potential are extracted by means of many-body theory considering the interaction deuteron-phonon-deuteron. In fact the phonon exchange produces a attractive component between two deuteron within the D2 molecular. This attractive force is able to reduce the inter-nuclear distance from about 0.7 to 0.16 Å. It means that the lattice strongly modifies the nuclear environment with respect to free space. In this way according to deuterons energy, loading percentage and plasma frequency we are able to predict high o low tunneling probability. The fusion rates (s−1) computed vary from 10^−70 to 10^−17 and also a set of other mechanism, which could be enhanced these values, are proposed. In this way we hope that by means of this approach in the future will be possible to realize and control the nuclear exothermic reactions that take place in the condensed matter in order to obtain clean energy.

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1295. Frisone, F., Nuclear Exothermic Reactions in Lattices: A Theoretical Study of D-D Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Frisone, F.
All Authors: Frisone, F.
Keywords: Coherence theory, Condensed matter, Dislocations within the ions of the metal, Low energy nuclear reactions

In this work we try to explain the deuteron-deuteron reactions within palladium lattice by means of the coherence theory of nuclear and condensed matter. The coherence model of condensed matter affirms that within a deuteron-loaded palladium lattice there are three different plasmas: electrons, ions and deuterons plasma. Then, according to the loading percentage x = D/Pd, the ions deuterium can take place on the octahedrical sites or in the tetrahedral in the (1,0,0)-plane. In the coherence theory it is called β-plasma the deuterons plasma in the octahedral site and γ-plasma which in tetrahedral. We propose a general model of effective local time-dependent deuteron-deuteron potential, that takes into account the electrons and ions plasma oscillations. The main features of this potential are extracted by means of many-body theory considering the interaction deuteron-phonon-deuteron. In fact the phonon exchange produces a attractive component between two deuteron within the D2 molecular. This attractive force is able to reduce the inter-nuclear distance from about 0.7 to 0.16 Å. It means that the lattice strongly modifies the nuclear environment with respect to free space. In this way according to deuterons energy, loading percentage and plasma frequency we are able to predict high o low tunneling probability.

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1296. Frodl, P., et al., Possible participation of lithium in Fleischmann-Pons reaction is testable. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45: p. 757.

First Author: Frodl, P.
All Authors: Frodl, P., Roessler, O. E., Hoffmann, M., Wahl, F.
Keywords: theory, Li

1297. Frolov, A.M. and V.H. Smith, On stimulated nuclear fusion in the cold generalized DT hydrides of fissionable elements. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 196: p. 217.

First Author: Frolov, A. M.
All Authors: Frolov, A. M., Smith, V. H.
Keywords: theory, fission

1298. Fromm, E. and E. Gebhardt, Gases and Carbon in Metals. 1976: Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

First Author: Fromm, E.
All Authors: Fromm, E., Gebhardt, E.
Keywords: Pd, H, O, D, solubility, phase Diagram, diffusion, thermodynamic, resistivity, Pd-Ag, review

1299. Fujii, Y., et al. Anomalous Neutron Burst in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Fujii, Y.
All Authors: Fujii, Y., Takahashi, M., Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Kamoto, O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-2

1300. Fujii, M., et al. Measurement of Neutrons in Electrolysis at Low Temperature Range. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fujii, M.
All Authors: Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Fukushima, K., Katada, M., Hirose, T., Kubo, K., Miura, H., Miyamoto, S., Nakahara, H., Nakamitsu, Y., Seimiya, T., Shirakawa, T., Sueki, K., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Watanabe, T.
Keywords: Pd, DCl, methanol, neutron, electrolysis, low temperature, ICCF-3, loading

We observed three neutron trains continuing 2 or 3 h as the excess flux during electrolysis of due to rated alcoholic electrolyte at low temperature range with Pd cathode for 1878 h. those were 22 counts/2h and two times of 27 counts/3h in the average background counts of 4/h. We could not find any excess in other time intervals between 28.6 ms and 1878h. The production rates of the 22 and 27 pounds were 6.3×10^-24 and 4.5×10^-24/d-d/s during the 2 and 3h, respectively. The confidence level of neutron emission for the 22/2h and 27/3h were 88% and 59%, respectively, established from the statistics. And for the total of the three trains, the confidence level became 98%.

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1301. Fujii, M., et al. Heat measurement during light water electrolysis using Pd/Ni rod cathodes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fujii, M.
All Authors: Fujii, M., Mitsushima, S., Kamiya, N., Ota, K.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat, H2O, electrolysis, Pd, Ni, Li2SO4, heat capacity

The heat balance under electrolysis in 1M Li2SO4 light water solutions was measured using Pd rods or Pd coated Ni (Pd/Ni) rods for cathode. We detected large excess heat of more than 10% in 6 of 28 experiments. However, in many other experiments, no excess or only small excess heat was observed. In most cases the excess heat was 5% or less. In order to confirm the excess heat, we have to find the reason why these differences take place.

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1302. Fujita, S., On the feasibility of nuclear fusion in fcc metals. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1989. 156: p. K17.

First Author: Fujita, S.
All Authors: Fujita, S.
Keywords: theory

1303. Fujiwara, M. and K. Sakuta. Statistically Significant Increase in Neutron Counts for Palladium Plate Filled with Deuterons by Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fujiwara, M.
All Authors: Fujiwara, M., Sakuta, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The comparison of the neutron count rate was executed among the Pd states different in the absorbed deuteron amounts. Charge and discharge of deuterons to the Pd plate was repeated cyclically by electrolysis. Highly significant difference of 1% level in statistics was observed between filled and emptied states in one sample among the four samples tested. This excess neutron count rate corresponds to the fusion rate of 0.8×10^ -23 fusions/deuteron pair/sec.

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1304. Fukada, S., et al., Neutron emission from some metal deuterides. Technol. Rep. Kyushu Univ., 1990. 63(5): p. 475 (in Japanese.

First Author: Fukada, S.
All Authors: Fukada, S., Furuya, S., Matsumoto, Y., Ishibashi, K., Mitsuishi, N.
Keywords: D2, Pd, Ti, Pd-coated C, neutron

1305. Fukada, S., et al., Measurement of exoelectrons from palladium and palladium deuteride with gas proportional counter. J. Alloys Comp., 1994. 204: p. 223.

First Author: Fukada, S.
All Authors: Fukada, S., Furuya, S., Sakae, T., Mitsuishi, N.
Keywords: fractofusion, electron emission, Pd

1306. Fukai, Y., From Metal Hydrides to the Metal-Hydrogen System. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 8.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: phase Diagram, H, high Pressure, V, Ti

1307. Fukai, Y. Some Properties of the Fe-H System at High Pressures and Temperatures. and their Implications for the Earth’s Core. in High-Pressure Research: Application to Earth and Planetary Sciences. 1992. Terra Scientific Publishing Co, Tokyo.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Fe, H2, phase Diagram

1308. Fukai, Y. The ABC’s of the Hydrogen-Metal System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Pd, D, distance, theory, ICCF-3, PdD, lattice parameter

Some basic properties of the hydrogen- metal system are described with particular attention paid to the availability of close D-D pairs in metals. A brief description is also given of the behavior of energetic D+ ions during their passage through a metal lattice.

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1309. Fukai, Y. and H. Sugimoto, Hydrogen Diffusion in Metals-Unsolved Problems. Defect and Diffusion Forum, 1992. 83: p. 87.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y., Sugimoto, H.
Keywords: hydrogen, diffusion

1310. Fukai, Y., Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials II Some Unsolved Problems of Hydrogen in Metals, ed. M. Doyama, et al. 1993: Elsevier Sci. PubFukai, Y.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: volume, structure, Pd, Ni, Mn, alloys, H2,

1311. Fukai, Y., Present status on cold fusion. Nippon Butsuri Gakkaishi, 1993. 48(5): p. 354 (in Japanese).

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y.
Keywords: Review

1312. Fukai, Y. and N. Okuma, Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1994. 73: p. 1640.

First Author: Fukai, Y.
All Authors: Fukai, Y., Okuma, N.
Keywords: PdH, phase diagram, structure, high Pressure

1313. Fukuhara, M., Possible dynamic interaction of deuterons between tetrahedral and octahedral interstices of palladium lattice at cryogenic temperatures. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 151.

First Author: Fukuhara, M.
All Authors: Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: theory, structure, gamma phase

1314. Fukuhara, M. Possible Nuclear Transmutation Of Nitrogen In The Earth’s Atmosphere. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Fukuhara, M.
All Authors: Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: theory

1315. Fukushima, K. Is Sono-Fusion to be a Possible Mechanism for Cold Fusion? in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Fukushima, K.
All Authors: Fukushima, K.
Keywords: theory, accustic, sonofusion, ICCF-3

Phenomena of sono-Iuminescence now appear before the footlights. Recently direct measurement of the temperature of a hot spot created in a liquid by applying a supersonic field was carried out and very large values, T ~ 0.5 eV, were obtained.It seems, therefore, to be an urgent problem to determine the upper bound for temperatures and densities realizable in the hot spot, in connection with cold fusion. In this paper we calculate it by use of the bubble dynamics so far developed by many authors and estimate the fusion rate per bubble.

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1316. Fukushima, K. Sonofusion, Compressibility of Liquid and Stability of Spherical Cavity. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Fukushima, K.
All Authors: Fukushima, K.
Keywords: sonofusion, theory, compressibility, ICCF-5

We proposed the sonofusion at ICCF3 and theoretically predicted by use of a simplified model that the temperature of gas within a supersonic cavity reaches more than 10^8 K if the initial radius of the cavity is less than 10 µm, that is temperatures high enough for the occurrence of hot fusion.In the present paper we consider a more realistic model by taking into account the compressibility of liquid and search for the optimum values of supersonic parameters for getting high gas-temperature. In addition the stability of a spherical cavity is examined.

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1317. Fullenwider, M., Electrochemical current balance with the hydrogen-palladium system. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1975. 122(5): p. 648.

First Author: Fullenwider, M.
All Authors: Fullenwider, M.
Keywords: loading, PdH, Pd, electrolysis, H2O

1318. Fullenwider, M., A Method for the Determination of Energy Gaps in Hydrogen-Metal Systems. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1986. 285: p. 285.

First Author: Fullenwider, M.
All Authors: Fullenwider, M.
Keywords: H2, Pd, Band Gap, PdH, density of states

1319. Fulvio, F. Theoretical model on the relationship between low energies in the probability of deuterium nuclei cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Fulvio, F.
All Authors: Fulvio, F.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, micro crack, fractofusion

1320. Gabovich, A.M., Possibility of cold fusion in palladium deuterides: screening effects and connection to superconducting properties. Philos. Mag. B, 1997. 76: p. 107.

First Author: Gabovich, A. M.
All Authors: Gabovich, A. M.
Keywords: Theory, superconductivity, screening

1321. Gai, M., et al., Upper limits on neutron and gamma-ray emission from cold fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 29.

First Author: Gai, M.
All Authors: Gai, M., Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Zhao, Z., Davenport, A. J., Isaacs, H. S., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, Ti, neutron gamma emission

1322. Gai, M., et al., Upper limits on emission rates of neutrons and gamma-rays from ‘cold fusion’ in deuterated metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 217.

First Author: Gai, M.
All Authors: Gai, M., Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Zhao, Z., Davenport, A. J., Isaacs, H. S., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission

1323. Gajda, M. and J. Rafelski, Jovian limits on conventional fusion. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1991. 17: p. 653.

First Author: Gajda, M.
All Authors: Gajda, M., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: theory, Jupiter

1324. Gajewski, R., Investigation of some aspects of cold fusion. 1989.

First Author: Gajewski, R.
All Authors: Gajewski, R.
Keywords: proposal, history

1325. Gajewski, R., Fuzja, nadzieja czy iluzja? (Nuclear fusion, hope or illusion?). Postepy Fiz., 1991. 42: p. 85 (in Polish).

First Author: Gajewski, R.
All Authors: Gajewski, R.
Keywords: Discussion

1326. Gamarra, N., Erroneous Predictions. Library of Congress, 1967.

First Author: Gamarra, N.
All Authors: Gamarra, N.
Keywords: predictions, history

1327. Gamberale, L., D. Garbelli, and G. Piana. Measurement of heat capacity of PdHx. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Gamberale, L.
All Authors: Gamberale, L., Garbelli, D., Piana, G.
Keywords: ICCF-9, heat capacity, PdH, resistivity

We present experimental data on heat capacity and thermal coefficient of resistance of PdHx system at loading ratio 0<x<0.93 at room temperature. To this purpose a dynamic measurement method has been devised.  Data confirm the existence of a phase transition around x; 0.7 (gamma phase).

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1328. Gamberale, L., Final technical report on the Defkalion GT calorimetric protocol. 2014, Personal Communication.

First Author: Gamberale, L.
All Authors: Gamberale, L.
Keywords: excess heat, calorimeter

I show that the experimental protocol used by Defkalion Green Technologies (DGT) is not reliable to demonstrate the production of large amounts of energy with the use of the reactor R5. Experimental tests carried out using the same measurement system used by DGT in public demonstrations show that the measurement of excess of thermal energy carried out following the experimental protocol of DGT is obtainable regardless of the use of H2 and of the high voltage excitation.

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1329. Gammon, B.E., Cathode cooling by expansion of hydrogen in calorimetric tests for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 342.

First Author: Gammon, B. E.
All Authors: Gammon, B. E.
Keywords: theory, heat, Joule-Thompson critique

1330. Gann, V.V. and V.I. Pokhodyashchii, Metastable bound states of deuterium in palladium and its role in cold nuclear fusion. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990(1): p. 89 (in Russian).

First Author: Gann, V. V.
All Authors: Gann, V. V., Pokhodyashchii, V. I.
Keywords: Theory, effective mass, tunnelling

1331. Ganz, J. and J. Newman, Cold Fusion : Will It Be Harnessed?, in High Technology Careers Magazine. 1989. p. 60.

First Author: Ganz, J.
All Authors: Ganz, J., Newman, J.
Keywords: history, theory, muon

1332. Gao, J., W.-S. Zhang, and J.-J. Zhang, Effects of D/Pd Ratio and Cathode Pretreatments on Excess Heat in Closed Pd|D2O+D2SO4 Electrolytic Cells. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 42-59.

First Author: Gao, J.
All Authors: Gao, J., Zhang, W-S., Zhang, J-J.
Keywords: Current density, Surface roughness, Temperature, Transmutation

The resistance method was used in situ to determine the D/Pd ratio in the cathode of Pd|D2O+D2SO4 electrolytic-calorimetric systems. Thirty-three experimental runs with excess heat production indicated that there is no clear correlation between the excess power and the D/Pd ratio. Most excess heat occurs when the ratio is 0.5 < D/Pd < 0.7. Three different cathode pretreatments were tested. It is found that the excess heat reproducibility rate is 2/11 (18%), 21/32 (66%) and 25/50 (50%), and maximum excess power of 45 +/1 18 mW, 117 +/- 24 mW and 128 +/- 19 mW were achieved for samples etched in aqua regia, heated in D2SO4 and open electrolyzed in D2SO4, respectively, based on 93 runs of calorimetry with 25 Pd plates. This indicates that heating and open electrolyzing in D2SO4 are effective methods of pretreatment for excess heat production in subsequent electrolysis. Surface characterizations with 3D non-contact optical profiling, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) were performed for Pd samples of cold rolled, pretreated and electrolyzed. The results showed that the surface roughness of palladium increases prominently after pretreatment. New element silver was detected on Pd surface after electrolysis.

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1333. Gareev, F., I. Zhidkova, and Y. Ratis. Enhancement Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Zhidkova, I., Ratis, Yu.
Keywords: theory

1334. Gareev, F. and I. Zhidkova. New Cooperative Mechanisms of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Using Superlow Energy External Field. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory

1335. Gareev, F., G. Gareeva, and I. Zhidkova. Quantization of Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Gareeva, G., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory,

1336. Gareev, F., G. Gareeva, and I. Zhidkova. Common Mechanism of Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Integer and Fractional Hall Effects, and Cold Fusion. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Gareev, F.
All Authors: Gareev, F., Gareeva, G., Zhidkova, I.
Keywords: theory,

1337. Garfinkle, M., Ion implantation as a definitive means of investigating any possibility of intracrystalline nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 160.

First Author: Garfinkle, M.
All Authors: Garfinkle, M.
Keywords: Suggestion, ion implantation, method

1338. Garg, A.B., et al. Protocol for Controlled and Rapid Loading/Unloading of H2/D2 Gas in Self Heated Pd Wires to Trigger Nuclear Events. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Garg, A. B.
All Authors: Garg, A. B., Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Sankarnarayanan, T. K., Shyam, A., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, gas loading, autoradiography, ICCF-5

It has now been established that during electrolysis of LiOD using Pd cathodes a threshold loading ratio of at least 0.85 needs to be achieved before excess heat production can be expected, However for emission of neutrons and tritium and possibly charged particles and transmutation products too much lower D/Pd ratios, in the region of 0.4 to 0.7 appears to be adequate. This has been independently corroborated in a variety of electrolytic and gas loading experiments. It is not so much the magnitudes of the steady state loading ratio, but rather creation of non-equilibrium conditions which facilitates rapid migration/transport of deuterons within the Pd lattice that seems to be required. With this in view a systematic study has been undertaken using electrically self-heated 0.1 25 mm dia Pd wires in H2/D2 atmospheres to optimize the conditions under wh ich rap id load ing/unloading or H2 or D2 can be achieved. Pd wire was of 99.9% purity and was procured from Lieco Industries USA.

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1339. Garwin, R.L., Consensus on Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 616.

First Author: Garwin, R. L.
All Authors: Garwin, R. L.
Keywords: review, critique, history

1340. Garwin, R.L., SRI Deuterated Metals Project. 1993, Thomas J. Watson Research Center: Yorktown Heights, NY.

First Author: Garwin, R. L.
All Authors: Garwin, R. L.
Keywords: review

1341. Gdowski, G.E., T.E. Felter, and R.H. Stulen, Effect of Surface Temperature on the Sorption of Hydrogen by Pd(111). Surf. Sci. Lett., 1987. 181: p. L147.

First Author: Gdowski, G. E.
All Authors: Gdowski, G. E., Felter, T. E., Stulen, R. H.
Keywords: Pd, H, adsorption

1342. Gentsch, H., DD-fusion reactions at a PdAg(D) target in a minireactor. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1991. 95: p. 1283 (in German).

First Author: Gentsch, H.
All Authors: Gentsch, H.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd-Ag, ion beam, neutron, gamma emission, D2O,, tritium

1343. Gentsch, H., Reply to: R. Behrisch, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 96, 733 [1992]. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1992. 96: p. 734 (in German).

First Author: Gentsch, H.
All Authors: Gentsch, H.
Keywords: Polemic

1344. George, R., The cold fusion phenomenon — An interview with Dr. Mahadeva Srinivasan, in Cold Fusion. 1994.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: Review

Dr. Mahadeva Srinivasan was the head of the Neutron Physics Division and an Associate Director of the Physics Group of BARC (Bhabha Atomic Research Center) in Mumbai (Bombay), India when this interview was held on March 1, 1994 at SRI International in Menlo Park, California. At that time he was a visiting scientist there, participating in the Cold Fusion experiments underway at the laboratories of the Energy Research Center.

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1345. George, R., Production of He4 from deuterium via reaction on a palladium carbon hydrogenation catalyst at 200у. 1996.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: 4He, Pd-black, Case, heat+

1346. George, R. and R. Stringham, Technical report on the demonstration of new technology producing heat and nuclear products via cavitation induced micro-fusion in E-quest sciences Mark II research device. 1996.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R., Stringham, R.
Keywords: E-quest, sonofusion, cavitation, heat+, 4He+, transmutation,

1347. George, R., Observations of helium bubbles in thin palladium metal foil using scanning electron microscopy. 1997.

First Author: George, R.
All Authors: George, R.
Keywords: Pd, 4He, sonofusion, cavitation, ultrasonic

1348. Gerischer, H., Memorandum on the present state of knowledge on cold fusion. 1991, Fritz Harber Institute der Max Planke: Berlin.

First Author: Gerischer, H.
All Authors: Gerischer, H.
Keywords: review,

1349. Gerischer, H. Is Cold Fusion a Reality? The Impressions of a Critical Observer. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Gerischer, H.
All Authors: Gerischer, H.
Keywords: review, critique, history, ICCF-2, surface

“In spite of my earlier conclusion, — and that of the majority of scientists, — that the phenomena reported by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 depended either on measurement errors or were of chemical origin, there is now undoubtedly overwhelming indications that nuclear processes take place in the metal alloys.” Professor Heinz GerischerCOLD FUSION John O’M. Bockris Chemistry Dept., Texas A&M University College Station, TX  77843October 30, 1991A memorandum has been written on the present state of cold fusion research as of October, 1991, by Professor Heinz Gerischer. The significance of this memorandum arises from Professor Gerische-ڳ status.  He is widely recognized to be the leading physical electrochemist in Europe and would vie for the title on a still wider basis.  Apart from his long term involvement in electrochemistry he is well known as a physical chemist of the highest standing and was, until 1988, the Director of the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Berlin.

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1350. Gerlovin, I.L., R.K. Baranova, and P.S. Baranov, New approach to low-temperature nuclear fusion. Zh. Obshch. Khim., 1992. 62: p. 230 (in Russian).

First Author: Gerlovin, I. L.
All Authors: Gerlovin, I. L., Baranova, R. Kh., Baranov, P. S.
Keywords: Theory, suggestion

1351. Gernert, N. and R.M. Shaubach, Nascent Hydrogen: An Energy Source. 1993, Department of the Air Force.

First Author: Gernert, N.
All Authors: Gernert, N., Shaubach, R. M.
Keywords: heat

Anomalous heat was measured from a reaction of atomic hydrogen in contact with potassium carbonate on a nickel surface. The nickel surface consisted of 500 feet of 0.0625 inch diameter tubing wrapped in a coil. The coil was inserted into a pressure vessel containing a light water solution of potassium carbonate. The tubing and solution were heated to a steady state temperature of 249у using an FR heater. Hydrogen at 1100 psig was applied to the inside of the tubing. After the application of hydrogen, a 32у increase in temperature of the cell was measured which corresponds to 25 watts of heat. Heat production under these conditions is predicted by the theory of Mills where a new species of hydrogen is produced that has a lower energy state then normal hydrogen. ESCA analyses, done independently by Lehigh University, have found the predicted 55 eV signature of this new species of hydrogen. Work is continuing at Thermacore with internal funding to bring this technology to the marketplace.

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1352. Gerstein, S.S., The Critical Test Experiments in Cold Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Gerstein, S. S.
All Authors: Gerstein, S. S.
Keywords: theory, history

1353. Ghosh, S.K., H.K. Saidhukhan, and A.K. Dhara, A Theory of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Deuterium Loaded Palladium, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 4.

First Author: Ghosh, S. K.
All Authors: Ghosh, S. K., Saidhukhan, H. K., Dhara, A. K.
Keywords: theory,

1354. Ghosh, S.K., H.K. Sadhukhan, and A.K. Dhara, A theory of cold nuclear fusion in deuterium-loaded palladium. Pramana, 1989. 33: p. L339.

First Author: Ghosh, S. K.
All Authors: Ghosh, S. K., Sadhukhan, H. K., Dhara, A. K.
Keywords: Theory, screening, jellium

1355. Gibb, T.R.P., Lattice-Distension and the Magnetic Susceptibility of Palladium Hydride. 1966.

First Author: Gibb, T. R. P.
All Authors: Gibb, T. R. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Magnetic Susceptibility, lattice Parameter, density Of States,

1356. Gibbs, M., Cold Fusion Gets a Little More Real [Updated], in Forbes. 2012.

First Author: Gibbs, M.
All Authors: Gibbs, M.
Keywords: excess heat

1357. Gieryn, T.F., “The Social Dimensions of Science”, The ballad of Pons and Fleischmann: Experiment and narrative in the (un)making of cold fusion, ed. E. McMullin. 1992: U. Notre Dame Press, Gieryn, T.F. 214.

First Author: Gieryn, T. F.
All Authors: Gieryn, T. F.
Keywords: sociology, review, history

1358. Gillespie, L.J. and W.R. Downs, The Palladium-Deuterium Equilibrium. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1937. 61: p. 2494.

First Author: Gillespie, L. J.
All Authors: Gillespie, L. J., Downs, W. R.
Keywords: Phase Diagram, pressure, Pd, D, PdD

1359. Gillespie, D.J., et al., A search for anomalies in the palladium-deuterium system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 526.

First Author: Gillespie, D. J.
All Authors: Gillespie, D. J., Kamm, G. N., Ehrlich, A. C., Mart, P. L.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, neutron, heat-, D2O, dimension, resistivity

1360. Gimpel, R. Multicell Reactors. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Gimpel, R.
All Authors: Gimpel, R.
Keywords:

A growing body of experimental evidence in this last decade has shown that some types of low-energy-induced nuclear reactions are possible. Key cathode characteristics considered important for these non-Joule heating reactions, as documented in a US patent application, are discussed. These concepts are incorporated into an electrolytic reactor system to encourage these reactions while discourage Joule heating of the electrolyte. However, even the more efficient reactor designs appear to have diminishing returns upon scale up. The MultiCell unit’s unique design allows for repetitive replication of the unit (much like a component on a circuit board or computer chip) to acquire the desired power output while still maintaining the efficiency of the small MultiCell unit. The design uses a plurality of small cells arranged in an interconnected array, wherein each cell is characterized by having a relatively small cathode separated from a relatively large anode by a small gap.

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1361. Giordano, N., A.S. Arico, and V. Antonucci, Thermal effects during the electrolytic charging of deuterium in the palladium lattice. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 105.

First Author: Giordano, N.
All Authors: Giordano, N., Arico, A. S., Antonucci, V.
Keywords: theory, thermal conductivity

1362. Gittus, J. and J. Bockris, Explanations of cold fusion (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 105 (Scientific Correspondence).

First Author: Gittus, J.
All Authors: Gittus, J., Bockris, J.
Keywords: theory, polemic, Loading

1363. Gluck, P., Understanding Reproducibility: Topology Is The Key. Fusion Facts, 1992. 3(11).

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory

Lack of reproducibility was a kind of original sin and a rich source of troubles, despair and skeptics from the start of the cold fusion story. Now the situation is much improved, but the progress has resulted mainly from trial and error experiments and not from cause-effect considerations, principles, models or theories. This statement is valid even for the newly born light-water excess energy experiments [1]. The most developed theories, e.g. the T.R.M. model of Bush [2] must be combined with purely empirical descriptions of know-how and engineering data as those of Cravens [3] for electrochemical cells. Scaramuzzi [4] for gas-metal systems, Mills [5] (the experimental part) and Mallove [1] for light water experiments. An example of spectacular irreproducibility was obtained by the scientists of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center [6,7]: “not only are the anomalous fusion reactions found to take place in only a very few chips (obtained from the same piece of titanium) but even in those chips, tritium production is restricted to a small number of selected localized ‘hot spots’ only…”

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1364. Gluck, P., The surfdyne concept: an attempt to solve (or to rename) the puzzles of cold nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 122.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: Theory, surfdyne, catalysis, layer

1365. Gluck, P. Cold Fusion – A Logical Network Approach. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory

1366. Gluck, P., A new definition for ‘chemical element? Chem. Innov., 2001. 31(10): p. 44.

First Author: Gluck, P.
All Authors: Gluck, P.
Keywords: theory, Mills, hydrino

1367. Godes, R. Quantum Fusion Hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Godes, R.
All Authors: Godes, R.
Keywords: Theory

The field of cold fusion is not “fusion” as the current establishment defines it.A basic tenant of research is that correlation does not equal causation. The current assumption of Deuterium Deuterium (DD) fusion based on the excellent work of Dr. Michael McKubre showing a near perfect match of excess heat to helium produced is only a correlation. The assumption of DD fusion may be fallacious and leading to a dead end. In many cases the Pons Fleischmann reaction starts with deuterium and ends with helium. This would seem to indicate DD fusion, but this is assuming that correlation equals causation.

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1368. Godes, R., et al., Controlled Electron Capture and the Path toward Commercialization. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Godes, R.
All Authors: Godes, R., George, R., Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold neutrons, Electrolysis, Electron Capture, Excess Heat

We have run over 150 experiments using two different cell/calorimeter designs. Excess power has always been seen using Q pulses tuned to the resonance of palladium and nickel hydrides in pressurized vessels. Excess energies of up to 100% have been seen using this excitation method.

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1369. Godshall, N.A., et al., Calorimetric and thermodynamic analysis of palladium-deuterium electrochemical cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 229.

First Author: Godshall, N. A.
All Authors: Godshall, N. A., Roth, E. P., Kelly, M. J., Guilinger, T. R., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat, neutron, method, D2O, thermodynamic

1370. Goedkoop, J.A., Koude kernfusie in de vaste stof?” (Cold nuclear fusion in solids?). Energiespektrum, 1989. 13: p. 156 (in Dutch).

First Author: Goedkoop, J. A.
All Authors: Goedkoop, J. A.
Keywords: Review

1371. Gold, T., New ideas in science. J. Sci. Expl., 1989. 3(2): p. 103.

First Author: Gold, T.
All Authors: Gold, T.
Keywords: history

1372. Goldanskii, V.I. and F.I. Dalidchik, Mechanism of solid-state fusion (Title given by Letters editor). Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 231.

First Author: Goldanskii, V. I.
All Authors: Goldanskii, V. I., Dalidchik, F. I.
Keywords: theory

1373. Goldanskii, V.I. and F.I. Dalidchik, On the possibilities of ‘cold enhancement’ of nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 234: p. 465.

First Author: Goldanskii, V. I.
All Authors: Goldanskii, V. I., Dalidchik, F. I.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

1374. Goloborodsky, B., V. Ovchinnikov, and V. Semionkin, Long-Range Effects in the FePd2Au Alloy Under Ion Bombardment. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39(3 (May)).

First Author: Goloborodsky, B.
All Authors: Goloborodsky, B., Ovchinnikov, V., Semionkin, V.
Keywords: ion bombardment

1375. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., A possible mechanism for cold nuclear fusion. J. Kratk. Soobshch. Fiz., 1989(6): p. 56 (In Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kurakin, V. A., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

1376. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Possible mechanism of cold nuclear fusion. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 307: p. 99 (in Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kurakin, V. A., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

1377. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Correlation between nuclear, acoustic, and electromagnetic emissions during the electrolytic saturation of palladium with deuterium. Sov. Phys. – Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990(8): p. 31.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Merzon, G. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd accustic gamma emission, D2O

1378. Golubnichii, P.I., et al. Observation of Nuclear Particles and Their Correlation with Acoustic and Electromagnetic Emission from Palladium Targets Loaded by Deuterium. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsaric, A. A., Kovalchuk, E. P., Merzon, G. I., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: neutron, RF, Pd, D2O, acoustic, tritium, electrolysis

1379. Golubnichii, P.I., et al. Recording of Neutron and Acoustic Emissions From Palladium Target in a Low-Background Underground Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Philonenko, A. D., Tsaric, A. A., Kuzminov, V. V., Pritichenko, B. V., Merzon, G. I., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, acoustic, fractofusion, electrolysis

1380. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Verification of the accelerator model for low-temperature nuclear fusion. Sov. Phys. – Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1990. 9: p. 16.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A., Chechin, V. A.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

1381. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Detection of neutrons and tritium from solid palladium targets by electrolytic deuterium charging. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1990. 16(21): p. 46 (in Russian).

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Koval’chuk, E. P., Merzon, G. I., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, tritium, electroplate

1382. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Proton emission in low-temperature nuclear fusion. Sov. Phys. – Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1991. 12: p. 6.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kayumov, F. F., Merzon, G. I., Petrii, O. A., Tsarev, V. A., Tsirlina, G. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, particle emission, D2O

1383. Golubnichii, P.I., et al., Correlated neutron and acoustic emission from a deuterium-saturated palladium target. JETP Lett., 1991. 53: p. 122.

First Author: Golubnichii, P. I.
All Authors: Golubnichii, P. I., Kuz’minov, V. V., Merzon, G. I., Pritichenko, B. V., Filonenko, A. D., Tsarev, V. A., Tsarik, A. A.
Keywords: fractofusion, Pd, neutron, electrolysis, D2O, accustic

1384. Goncharov, A.I. and V.A. Kirkinskii. Theoretical Modeling Of Electron Flow Action On Probability Of Nuclear Fusion Of Deuterons. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Goncharov, A. I.
All Authors: Goncharov, A. I., Kirkinskii, V. A.
Keywords: theory

1385. Good, W.R., Comments on ‘Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells’. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 132.

First Author: Good, W. R.
All Authors: Good, W. R.
Keywords: critique, Shkedi

1386. Goods, S.H. and S.E. Guthrie, Mechanical Properties of Palladium and Palladium Hydride. 1991.

First Author: Goods, S. H.
All Authors: Goods, S. H., Guthrie, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, strength, stress, strain, hardness,

1387. Goodstein, D., Pariah Science. Whatever Happened to Cold Fusion? The American Scholar, 1994. 63(4): p. 527.

First Author: Goodstein, D.
All Authors: Goodstein, D.
Keywords: history

1388. Goodstein, D., Whatever Happened to Cold Fusion? Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Goodstein, D.
All Authors: Goodstein, D.
Keywords: history

The article that follows was written in 1994, and first appeared in The American Scholar (vol. 63 p. 527).  In the three years since then much has happened, but little has changed.  There have been reports of increasingly reliable production of excess heat, and of the detection of 4He residue, and much more.  Nevertheless, the most remarkable fact remains that cold fusion has neither been accepted by mainstream science, nor has it withered away.  The general situation that the article describes still seems to be in place today.

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1389. Goodwin, I., Fusion in a Flask: Expert DOE Panel Throws Cold Water on Utah Discovery. Physics Today, 1989. December: p. 43.

First Author: Goodwin, I.
All Authors: Goodwin, I.
Keywords: history

1390. Goon, E.J., The Non-Stoichiometry of Lathanum Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1959. 63: p. 2018.

First Author: Goon, E. J.
All Authors: Goon, E. J.
Keywords: Lattice Parameter, La, H, structure, Phase Diagram

1391. Gorodetskii, V.G., et al., Emission of neutrons and gamma quanta from palladium upon its saturation with deuterium in the gas phase. Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 1991(7): p. 176 (in Russian).

First Author: Gorodetskii, V. G.
All Authors: Gorodetskii, V. G., Polosukhin, B. G., Sulimov, E. M., Novikov, P. I., Bychin, V. P.
Keywords: D2, Pd, neutron, gamma emission

1392. Goryachev, I.V. Registration of synthesis of 45Rh102 in media of excited nuclei of 28Ni58. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, transmutation, electron bombardment

For the purpose of searching for heavy nuclei generated in the result of low energy nuclear processes we used samples of 28Ni58 which were bombarded with 27 MeV electrons from the Resonance accelerator MI-30. The samples of nickel of 48 mm in diameter and 20 mm thick were irradiated with electrons to the level of absorbed energy of around 2.5 106 J/cm^3 which is approximately 5 times exceeds the minimum specific energy at which as it followed from the authors’ theoretical model the process of generating transmuted elements will become quite noticeable.

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1393. Goryachev, I.V. Abnormal results of experimenting with excited substances and interpretation of the discovered effects within the frames of the model of collective interactions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory

During a number of years there were carried out experiments to investigate interactions of excited substances with radiation, gravity and other kinds of fields. Converting atoms of the substances into excited state was fulfilled by means of bombarding the samples used with intensive beams of electrons with energy of 27 MeV and the accompanying bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the substances and intermediate targets.

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1394. Goryachev, I.V. and Y. Bazhutov. Organization, current status and main results of Russian research in cold fusion and transmutation of chemical elements. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Goryachev, I. V.
All Authors: Goryachev, I. V., Bazhutov, Y.
Keywords: ICCF-9, review

We can not help remembering that in the Soviet Union investigations of a number of abnormal phenomena which later were related to the problem of Cold Nuclear Fusion were carried out long before Fleischmann and Pons announced their experiments at the American University of Utah.At present these kind of research works are widely carried on in Russia despite the absence of any state support and while part of the official scientific community remains skeptical.In total there are more than 30 groups of scientists engaged in research in this field in Russia . . .

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1395. Gottesfeld, S., et al. Experiments and Nuclear Measurements in Search of Cold Fusion Proceses. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Gottesfeld, S.
All Authors: Gottesfeld, S., Anderson, R. E., Leonard, E. M., Springer, T. E., Baker, D. A., Zawodzinski, T., Bolton, R. D., Butterfield, K. B., Garzon, F. H., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission, heat-

1396. Gottesfeld, S., et al., Experiments and nuclear measurements in search of cold fusion processes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 287.

First Author: Gottesfeld, S.
All Authors: Gottesfeld, S., Anderson, R. E., Baker, D. A., Bolton, R. D., Butterfield, K. B., Garzon, F. H., Goulding, C. A., Johnson, M. W., Leonard, E. M., Springer, T. E., Zawodzinski, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, gamma emission, heat, D2O, Titanium, D2

1397. Gou, Q., Z. Zhu, and Q. Zhang, Possible mechanism of cold fusion and experimental research. Yuanzi Yu Fenzi Wuli Xuebao, 1990. 7: p. 1491 (in Chinese).

First Author: Gou, Q.
All Authors: Gou, Q., Zhu, Z., Zhang, Q.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, heat, He, Pd, Ti, D2O

1398. Gou, Q., Further discussion on the mechanism of cold fusion and cold fusion materials. Chin. J. At. Mol. Phys., 1998. 15(1): p. 7 (in Chinese).

First Author: Gou, Q.
All Authors: Gou, Q.
Keywords: theory, TiD2, PdD

1399. Govorov, B.V., et al., Neutron Emission from Palladium Alloys Saturated with Deuterium. Russ. J. Phys. Chem., 1990. 64(2): p. 287.

First Author: Govorov, B. V.
All Authors: Govorov, B. V., Gryaznov, V. M., Eremin, N. V., Karavanov, A. N., Roshan, N. R., Tulinov, A. F., Tyapkin, I. V.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, D2, Pd-Sm, Pd-Ru, fractofusion

1400. Gozzi, D., et al., Neutron and Tritium Evidences in the Electrolytic Reduction of Deuterium on Pd Electrodes. 1989.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium

1401. Gozzi, D., et al. First Results from a Ten Electrolytic Cells Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, electrolysis

1402. Gozzi, D., et al., Nuclear and thermal effects during electrolytic reduction of deuterium at palladium cathode. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 241.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., De Maria, G., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Tabet, E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, neutron, gamma emission, tritium, D2O

1403. Gozzi, D., et al., Evidences for associated heat generation and nuclear products release in palladium heavy-water electrolysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 103: p. 143.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Petrucci, L., Tomellini, M., De Maria, G., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, neutron+, gamma emission, D2O

1404. Gozzi, D., et al. Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-Related Events in Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O neutron tritium gamma emission heat+ Current density ICCF-2 electrolysis

1405. Gozzi, D., et al. Experiments with Global Detection of Cold Fusion Byproducts. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Caputo, R., Tomellini, M., Balducci, G., Gigli, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-3, negative

On the line of the previous experiments carried out in a multicell electrochemical system, we will present the results obtained with an improved experimental apparatus recently assembled. In the present experimental configuration, we have a 60 3He tubes neutron counter from Jomar/Canberra (Los Alamos, NM) in which the ten cells system is located. In this way the efficiency of the neutron detection has been increased from 5x 10^-5 to 0.22. The sixty tubes are divided in twelve groups to localize which cell is generating neutrons owing to the counting of the twelve separated scalers. 4He detelmination by mass-spectrometry is another feature recently added to our experiment.Preliminary results confirm what we already obtained and presented at ICCF2 last year. They are essentially the production of excess heat up to 43% without any appreciable neutron and tritium excesses compared to the respective backgrounds. A carefull check of the neutron data, through the analysis and dating of the single pulse shape, is still in progress to identify if intense spikes observed in the R+A count are due to a real in situ nuclear phenomena or background or artifact effects.

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1406. Gozzi, D., et al., Neutron and tritium evidence in the electrolytic reduction of deuterium on palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 60.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Ghio, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, tritium, D2O

1407. Gozzi, D., et al. Excess Heat and Nuclear Product Measurements in Cold Fusion Electrochemical Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, He, neutron, heat+, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-4

We present the results of a new experiment with our multicell set-up implemented with mass spectrometric measurements of 4He and a highly improved neutron detector. The excess heat measured is in linea with the our previous results as well as with other laboratories while no neutrons, and a tritium excess lower than expected from power excess were found. 4He has been measured in the electrolysis gases and a tentative correlation of 4He with excess power is presented and discussed.

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1408. Gozzi, D., et al. Helium-4 Quantitative Measurements in the Gas Phase of Cold Fusion Electrochemical Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: He, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, Pd, ICCF-4

1409. Gozzi, D., et al., Calorimetric and nuclear byproduct measurements in electrochemical confinement of deuterium in palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 91.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, neutron, He, tritium, D2O

1410. Gozzi, D., et al., Quantitative measurements of helium-4 in the gas phase of Pd + D2O electrolysis. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 109.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Caputo, R., Cignini, P. L., Tomellini, M., Gigli, G., Balducci, G., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Garibaldi, F., Jodice, M., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, Helium, D2O, method

1411. Gozzi, D., et al., X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D/Pd system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 452: p. 251.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray, heat+, He

Abstract The energy balance between heat excess and 4He in the gas phase has been found to be reasonably satisfied even if the low levels of 4He do not give the necessary confidence to state definitely that we are dealing with the fusion of deuterons to give 4He. In the melted cathode, the data of which are reported, no 4He was found at the achieved sensitivity. X-ray film, positioned at 50 mm from the cell, roughly gave the image of the cathode through spots. Extended considerations have been made to explain this evidence on the basis of the bundle nature of the cathode. From these considerations, the energy of the radiation and the total energy associated to it have been estimated as 89 keV and 12 kJ, respectively. This value is :0.5% of the energy measured by calorimetry in the same interval of time. The highest values of energy and excess power are 8.3 MJ and 10 W, respectively.

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1412. Gozzi, D., et al., Erratum to “X-ray, heat excess and 4He in the D/Pd system” [J. Electroanal. Chem. 435 (1997) 113]. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 452: p. 251.

First Author: Gozzi, D.
All Authors: Gozzi, D., Cellucci, F., Cignini, P. L., Gigli, G., Tomellini, M., Cisbani, E., Frullani, S., Urciuoli, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray, heat+, He

1413. Grabowski, K.S., et al. Evaluation of the Claim of Transmutation of Cesium to Praseodymium with the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) Structure — Part 1 (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Grabowski, K. S.
All Authors: Grabowski, K. S., Kidwell, D., Cetina, C., Carosella, C.
Keywords:

The MHI claim to transmute elements upon permeation of deuterium though a specific multilayer structure was carefully evaluated. Initially, an attempt was made to replicate the work at NRL in collaboration with MHI. When replication proved difficult, another set of experiments were conducted at MHI in three sets consisting of two control blanks and one positive foil (that should have transmuted Cesium to Praseodymium) per set. Foil samples were split for analysis at both NRL and MHI. Extensive analytical work was performed to characterize the foils and the blanks. When extracted at MHI, low nanogram amounts of Pr were found by ICP-MS on 3 of 3 foils that should have had Pr whereas the 6 controls were blank. Split solutions of these extracts were also tested independently at NRL and the presence of Pr was confirmed. The Pr found did not have the characteristic rare earth contamination expected if the Pr was from the environment and thus looked like it was produced in the experiment. Unfortunately, we could not find Pr at NRL (even at trace levels) on our split foil samples no matter what extraction method was employed. After considering and evaluating several unlikely scenarios for these disparate results, we visited MHI and participated in the extraction process on new foils. These extracts were blank when tested at both laboratories. Environmental samples were obtained at various locations where samples were handled. Pr was found in large amounts at one location used in sample preparation and this Pr had the signature of pure material rather than an inadvertent contaminate. No record of how it got there could be established. Other rare and characteristic impurities also were found in the extracts from MHI that were present in the laboratory environment. Thus, we concluded that the transmutation of Cs to Pr when deuterium permeated MHI’s multilayer structure could not be firmly established, as contamination during the foil production or during the foil analysis could not be ruled-out. The design of the replication experiments, the lessons learned, and the results will be discussed.

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1414. Grabowski, K.S., et al. Robust Performance Validation of LENR Energy Generators (PowerPoint slides). in 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2011. Chennai, India.

First Author: Grabowski, K. S.
All Authors: Grabowski, K. S., Knies, D., Melich, M. E., Moser, A. E., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Motivation: Develop a robust test for a “Black Box” device, to show that more energy is produced than can be explained by conventional physics and chemistry

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1415. Graesjo, L. and M. Seo, Measurement of absorption of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium during electrolysis by a quartz crystal microbalance. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 233.

First Author: Graesjo, L.
All Authors: Graesjo, L., Seo, M.
Keywords: Pd, loading, method, frequency

1416. Granada, J.R., et al. Neutron Measurements on (Pd-D2O) Electrolytic Cells Under Pulsed Current Conditions. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Florido, P. C., Guido, G., Gillette, V. H., Gumez, S. E., Patino, N. E., Larreteguy, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, pulsed, neutron, H2O

1417. Granada, J.R., et al., Neutron measurements on electrolytic cells (Pd-D2O) performed under very low background conditions. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27(4): p. 379.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Florido, P. C., Gillette, V. H., Gomez, S. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, neutron, Pd, D2O, pulsed current

1418. Granada, J.R., et al., Thermal neutron measurements on electrolytic cells with deuterated palladium cathodes subjected to a pulsed current. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27(3): p. 30.

First Author: Granada, J. R.
All Authors: Granada, J. R., Mayer, R. E., Guido, G., Florido, P. C., Larreteguy, A., Gillette, V. H., Patino, N. E., Converti, J., Gomez, S. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, pulsed current, Pd, neutron, D2O, H2O

1419. Graneau, P. and N. Graneau, The role of Ampere forces in nuclear fusion. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 165: p. 1.

First Author: Graneau, P.
All Authors: Graneau, P., Graneau, N.
Keywords: ampere forces, filament fusion, theory

1420. Graneau, P. and N. Graneau, Ampere force calculation for filament fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 174: p. 421.

First Author: Graneau, P.
All Authors: Graneau, P., Graneau, N.
Keywords: ampere forces, filament fusion, theory

1421. Granite, E. and J. Jorne, A novel method for studying electrochemically induced cold fusion using a deuteron-conducting solid electrolyte. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 317: p. 285.

First Author: Granite, E.
All Authors: Granite, E., Jorne, J.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, solid electrolyte, layer, heat-, 4He, tritium, photon conductor

1422. Grant, P.M., et al., Hydrocarbon oil found in the interior of a ‘cold fusion’ electrolysis cell after fatal explosion. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 207.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Alcaraz, A., Haas, J. S., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI

1423. Grant, P., Author response:” (to the polemic by E.S. Shanley, ibid, same page). Chem. Health & Saf., 1995. 2(2): p. 4.

First Author: Grant, P.
All Authors: Grant, P.
Keywords: critique, SRI, accident, Shanley

1424. Grant, P.M., R.E. Whipple, and B.D. Andresen, Comprehensive forensic analyses of debris from the fatal explosion of a ‘cold fusion’ electrochemical cell. J. Forensic Sci., 1995. 40: p. 18.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI

1425. Grant, P.M., et al., Search for evidence of nuclear involvement in the fatal explosion of a ‘cold fusion’ experiment. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1995. 193: p. 165.

First Author: Grant, P. M.
All Authors: Grant, P. M., Whipple, R. E., Bazan, F., Brunk, J. L., Wong, K. M., Russo, R. E., Andresen, B. D.
Keywords: accident, SRI, radioactivity

1426. Grant, P., et al., Advanced techniques in physical forensic science. Physics Today, 1998: p. 32.

First Author: Grant, P.
All Authors: Grant, P., Chambers, D., Grace, L., Phinney, D., Hutcheon, I.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method, accident, SRI

1427. Greber, T., et al. Cold Fusion Experiments in Fribourg. in Understanding Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989.

First Author: Greber, T.
All Authors: Greber, T., Fischer, A., Rheme, C., Drissi, S., Osterwalder, J., Kern, J., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: Pd, Surface Analysis, neutron, x-ray, gamma emission, transmutation, D2O, electrolysis

1428. Green, J.A.S. and F.A. Lewis, Overvoltage Component at Palladized Cathodes of Palladium and Palladium Alloys Prior to and During Bubble Evolution. Trans. Faraday Soc., 1964. 60: p. 2234.

First Author: Green, J. A. S.
All Authors: Green, J. A. S., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Overvoltage, Pd, H2, resistivity, deloading, bubbles

1429. Green, T.A. and T.I. Quickenden, Electrolytic preparation of highly loaded deuterides of palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 121.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Quickenden, T. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat, loading, method, review, resistance, D2O

1430. Green, T.A. and T.I. Quickenden, Calorimetric studies of highly loaded deuterides and hydrides of palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 389: p. 91.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Quickenden, T. I.
Keywords: heat-, loading, Pd, D2O, H2O, electrolysis

1431. Green, T.A. and D. Britz, Kinetics of the deuterium and hydrogen evolution reactions at palladium in alkaline solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 412: p. 59.

First Author: Green, T. A.
All Authors: Green, T. A., Britz, D.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, PdH, loading

1432. Green, B.A., High-yields assisted fusion from heavy-quasiparticle production in Ti with a D/O welder. 1997.

First Author: Green, B. A.
All Authors: Green, B. A.
Keywords: theory, quasiparticle

1433. Green, B.A., Quantitative determination of high-Tc superconductivity from the lattice polarization, structure effect and approach. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 227: p. 372.

First Author: Green, B. A.
All Authors: Green, B. A.
Keywords: superconductivity, theory

1434. Greenland, T., Numbers off an envelope. Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 16.

First Author: Greenland, T.
All Authors: Greenland, T.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1435. Greenland, T., Issues connected with cold fusion: a room temperature mechanism for the production of x-rays. J. Phys B, 1990. 23: p. 1679.

First Author: Greenland, T.
All Authors: Greenland, T.
Keywords: Theory, X-ray

1436. Greiner, W. and A. Sandulescu, New Radioactivities. Sci. Am., 1990. March: p. 58.

First Author: Greiner, W.
All Authors: Greiner, W., Sandulescu, A.
Keywords: theory

1437. Griessen, R. and D.G. deGroot, Effect of anharmonicity and Debye-Waller Factor on the Superconductivity of PdHx and PdDx. Helv. Phys. Acta, 1982. 55: p. 699.

First Author: Griessen, R.
All Authors: Griessen, R., deGroot, D. G.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, superconductivity

1438. Griggs, J.L. A Brief Introduction to the Hydrosonic Pump and the Associated “Excess Energy” Phenomenon. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Griggs, J. L.
All Authors: Griggs, J. L.
Keywords: heat+, sonic, acoustic, cavitation, ICCF-4

1439. Grimshaw, T., Cold Fusion — A Cogent Topic for Rigorous Policy Analysis. 2006.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion burst upon the scene in 1989 as a major scientific breakthrough with enormous promise as a source of unlimited and virtually free energy to meet society’s needs. In the ensuing weeks tremendous fervor in the scientific and political arenas at first gradually and then rather suddenly gave way to disillusion, marginalization and even ridicule. By early 1990 most “mainstream” scientists became convinced that the phenomenon did not exist, and politicians and the public generally followed suit. Since then nearly everyone, including scientists and energy policymakers, have believed that cold fusion is a dead issue. . . .

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1440. Grimshaw, T. Public Interest and Level-of-Evidence Considerations in Cold Fusion Public Policy (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: Review

Public Policy toward Cold Fusion: Approach 1. Focus on the Public Interest in Cold Fusion 2. Assess CF policy in Evidence-Based framework 3. Delineate 5 Levels of Evidence in rational framework 4. Consider evidence of CF specifically

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1441. Grimshaw, T. Open Source Science Applied to CMNS Research: A Paradigm for Enhancing Cold Fusion Prospects and the Public Interest. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: Review, history

Open Source Science (OSSc) is a collaborative, voluntary (uncompensated) and highly distributed method of research that emphasizes the power of new digital technologies, particularly the Internet. The OSSc paradigm grew out of the open source software movement of the last 20 years, which has resulted in wide availability of free software (such as the Linux operating system) as an alternative to proprietary software products. In many respects, OSSc represents a return to the concept that scientific research results are a public good rather than a proprietary product — an attitude clearly articulated in the 1940s by Robert Merton, the “father” of the sociology of science.

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1442. Grimshaw, T., Evidence-Based Public Policy Toward Cold Fusion: Rational Choices for A Potential Alternative Energy Source. 2008, LBJ School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion (CF) is a possible phenomenon in which energy-producing nuclear reactions occur at earth-surface temperatures rather than at high temperatures that are characteristic of hot fusion, such as in the interior of the sun. CF was dramatically and unexpectedly announced at a press conference in 1989. For a variety of reasons, including the method of announcement and difficulties in experimental replication, CF was rejected by mainstream science within a year. Continued experimental success under highly marginalized conditions in the years since rejection indicates, with reasonable probability, that CF may eventually be found to be a real phenomenon. The scientific results accumulated in the years since rejection include over 300 verifications of CF-related phenomena.

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1443. Grimshaw, T. Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production. in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: LENR public policy, technology assess-ment for LENR impacts, LENR disruptive innovation, LENR impact mitigation

Cold fusion (LENR) may soon be deployed as a major energy source. Despite its immense public welfare benefit, CF/LENR will likely have adverse secondary impacts that must be addressed through proactive public policy planning. Technology Assessment is a proven method of dealing with the impacts of emerging technologies like CF/LENR.

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1444. Grimshaw, T. Evidence-Based Public Policy for Support of Cold Fusion (LENR) Development (Poster). in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Six Questions to Guide Rational Policy Decisions1. What is the potential public welfare benefit of CF/LENR?•Cheap, unlimited energy•Elemental transmutation•Other direct benefits (e.g. dispersed units, low O&M)•Many indirect benefits (e.g. reduced energy related environmental impacts)

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1445. Grimshaw, T. Evidence-Based Public Policy for Support of Cold Fusion (LENR) Development. in 17th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2012.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold fusion (LENR) has enormous potential public welfare benefit. The level of public support for its development should be determined by evidence-based policymaking. The CF/LENR level of evidence mandates its support with other emerging energy technologies. The evidence may even indicate that a crash program is the most rational policy.

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1446. Grimshaw, T., Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production in the U.S.: Technology Assessment of LENR Impacts. 2012, University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: LENR public policy, technology assessment for LENR impacts, LENR disruptive innovation, LENR impact mitigation

Cold fusion (LENR) may soon be deployed as a major energy source. Despite its immense public welfare benefit, CF/LENR will likely have adverse secondary impacts that must be addressed through proactive public policy planning. Technology Assessment is a proven method of dealing with the impacts of emerging technologies like CF/LENR.

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1447. Grimshaw, T., et al. Verifications of Francesco Celani’s LENR Observations in Nickel-Copper Alloy (Constantan) and Hydrogen Experiments (Poster). in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T., Concezzi, S., Wenzel, L., Glass, B.
Keywords:

A list of attempted replications of the Celani constantan experiment.

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1448. Grimshaw, T. Cold Fusion Public Policy: Rational — and Urgent — Need for Change (PowerPoint slides). in Cold Fusion/LANR Colloquium at MIT. 2014. Cambridge, MA.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Cold Fusion Energy Policy Two Main Questions•How do we get it?•How do we deal with it when it gets here?•That is…•Public support for R&D•Dealing with secondary impacts

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1449. Grimshaw, T. Integrated Policymaking for Realizing Benefits and Mitigating Impacts of LENR (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

Setting the Stage…ll LENR potential as energy source understood since 1989ll Changing landscape since rejection by mainstream sciencell Four lines of argument for LENR policy changes1. Number and location of researchers2. Large body of evidence3. Advances in LENR explanation4. Recent developments (e.g., proposed devices)

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1450. Grimshaw, T., Integrated Policymaking for Realizing Benefits and Mitigating Impacts of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords:

The potential benefits of LENR as a source of energy have been well understood since its announcement in 1989. The improved prospects of LENR in the past few years are indicated by the significant numbers and varied locations of researchers in several countries, a large body of accumulated evidence, major advances in explanation and theory development, and recent favourable occurrences, including a plethora of proposed energy-producing devices. The changing landscape creates policymaking opportunities for supporting LENR to realize its potential benefits, planning proactively to deal with anticipated adverse secondary impacts, and integrating the updates in a comprehensive policy program. The first policymaking opportunity, updates of current policies for LENR support, may best be accomplished in a framework of evidence-based policymaking. The level of evidence for the existence of LENR is at least a preponderance of evidence (greater than 50% probability). There may even be clear and convincing evidence (greater than 70%). Correspondingly, the policy response should be at least reinstatement and research comparable to other emerging energy technologies. Enhanced support, perhaps on a par with hot fusion, is indicated if there is clear and convincing evidence. The second policymaking opportunity related to LENR’s changing landscape is to address potential adverse secondary impacts with proactive planning. Broad deployment of LENR for energy supply may be expected to have major secondary impacts as a disruptive technology. Direct impacts will take place on all phases of the energy chain – supply, transport, storage, and consumption. Indirect impacts will be felt most by the components of society that are closely tied to the energy cycle, such as sectors of the workforce and energy-based communities. Technology assessment is a mature and readily available methodology for identifying secondary impacts and developing mitigative measures. A third policymaking opportunity is to integrate LENR policy updates that are needed as demonstrated by its changing landscape. Policies for mitigating adverse secondary impacts, for example, can be formulated based on policies for LENR support and the resulting pace of its development and deployment. New and updated policies may also be integrated at the national and international level and between the public and private sectors. The public interest will be served by update and integration of LENR policies for its development and mitigating its impacts. However, many challenges must be overcome to achieve the update and integration objectives. The world desperately needs new sources of clean and inexpensive energy. The case of cold fusion would perhaps be a curiosity in the history of science if the stakes were not so high.

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1451. Grimshaw, T., Policy Interests Interests of U.S. Government Agencies in Emerging Energy Technologies – Review for Potential Cold Fusion Contributions. 2017, University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Grimshaw, T.
All Authors: Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: LENR public policy, technology assessment for LENR impacts

Many agencies of the U.S. Government have energy policy responsibilities. These responsibilities include both development and realization of emerging energy technologies and dealing with their secondary impacts. A paper has been prepared to describe the potential role that cold fusion may play in helping agencies accomplish their missions in realizing the benefits of new energy sources and mitigating their secondary impacts.This White Paper serves as an underpinning of the above paper by identifying the most significant energy policymaking agencies of the U.S. Government, describing their overall missions and responsibilities, and delineating their interests specifically in emerging energy technologies. The stage is then set for assessing the potential role of cold fusion. A rigorous attempt is made to characterize the energy interests of the agencies “in their own words” by extensive review of publicly-available information (primarily websites) made available by the agencies themselves.

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1452. Groenlund, F., Electrolysis in calorimetry. J. Thermal Anal., 1992. 38: p. 229.

First Author: Groenlund, F.
All Authors: Groenlund, F.
Keywords: critique, review, Fleischmann

1453. Grotz, T., Investigation of reports of the synthesis of iron via arc discharge through carbon compounds. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 106.

First Author: Grotz, T.
All Authors: Grotz, T.
Keywords: transmutation, carbon, arc, critique

1454. Gruber, J., “Cold Fusion” and space energy technology. 1996.

First Author: Gruber, J.
All Authors: Gruber, J.
Keywords: review, CETI

1455. Gryaznov, V.M., et al., Palladium Alloys as Hydrogen Permeable Catalysts in Hydrogenation and Dehydrogenation Reactions. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 529.

First Author: Gryaznov, V. M.
All Authors: Gryaznov, V. M., Ermilova, M. M., Morozova, L. S., Orekhova, N. V., Polyakova, V. P., Roshan, N. R., Savitsky, E. M., Parfenova, N. I.
Keywords: Pd-Re, H, Pd-Ni

1456. Gryzinski, M., Low-temperature fusion of light nuclei in the Fleischmann-Pons reaction. Inz. Aparat. Chem., 1989. 28(5): p. 3 (in Polish).

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: Commentary, history

1457. Gryzinski, M., Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 712.

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

1458. Gryzinski, M. Theory of Electron Catalyzed Fusion in Pd Lattice. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Gryzinski, M.
All Authors: Gryzinski, M.
Keywords: theory

1459. Gu, A.G., et al., Preliminary experimental study on cold fusion using deuterium gas and deuterium plasma in the presence of palladium. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 248.

First Author: Gu, A. G.
All Authors: Gu, A. G., Teng, R. K. F., Miller, M. S., Sprouse, W. J.
Keywords: D2, Pd, ion bombardment, neutron

1460. Gu, A.G., et al., Experimental study on cold fusion using deuterium gas and deuterium ion beam with palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 329.

First Author: Gu, A. G.
All Authors: Gu, A. G., Teng, R. K. F., Miller, M. S., Sprouse, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2, high pressure, ion bombardment, neutron

1461. Guffey, M.J., Y. Tang, and P.J. King, Attempted Replication of Excess Heat in the Letts Dual-laser Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Guffey, M. J.
All Authors: Guffey, M. J., Tang, Y., King, P. J.
Keywords: Dual-laser experiment, Phonon, THz, Triggering

By attempting a nearly exact replication of prior published work, we test the claim that release of non-chemical excess heat from loaded palladium deuteride (PdD) can be triggered by the application of two laser beams with wavelengths selected at specific difference frequencies around 8, 15 and 20 THz. No significant excess heat events were observed in 231 laser triggered trials across 9 cathode runs. The average excess heat rate observed from all runs was 6.1  21.6 mW with 10 W of input electrical power. We found no evidence of excess heat on the order of 100 mW reported by Letts. Calorimetry artifacts stemming from apparatus design issues often exceeded 100 mW and contributed to larger-than-desired uncertainties on individual excess heat measurements.

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1462. Guggeler, H.W., et al., Cold Fusion Reactions with 48Ca. Nucl. Phys. A, 1989. 502: p. 561c.

First Author: Guggeler, H. W.
All Authors: Guggeler, H. W., Jost, D. T., T’rler, A., Armbruster, P., Br’chle, W., Folger, H., Hebberher, F. P., Hofmann, S.
Keywords: fusion, Ca, ion bombardment

1463. Guilinger, T.R., et al., Investigation of Fusion Reactions in Palladium and Titanium Tritide Using Galvanostatic, Coulometric, and Hydrogen Permeation Techniques. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 299.

First Author: Guilinger, T. R.
All Authors: Guilinger, T. R., Kelly, M. J., Scully, J. R., Christensen, T. M., Ingersoll, D., Knapp, J. A., Ewing, R. I., Casey, W. H., Tsao, S. S.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, tritium, D2O, neutron

1464. Guinan, M.W., G.F. Chaplin, and R.W. Moir, Catalysis of Deuterium Fusion in Metal Hydrides by Cosmic Ray Muons. 1989: Los Alamos.

First Author: Guinan, M. W.
All Authors: Guinan, M. W., Chaplin, G. F., Moir, R. W.
Keywords: muon, D, Ti, Pd, D2O, theory,

1465. Gulko, A.G., The Mechanism of Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 2001. 7(40): p. 52.

First Author: Gulko, A. G.
All Authors: Gulko, A. G.
Keywords: theory fractional hydrogen fission

1466. Gupta, M. and J.P. Burger, The electronic structure and its relationship to superconductivity in NiH. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1980. 10: p. 2649.

First Author: Gupta, M.
All Authors: Gupta, M., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: NiH, theory, superconductivity

1467. Gupta, S.D. and J.K. Jacobs, Process and apparatus for generating high density hydrogen in a matrix. 1991: US patent # 4,986,887.

First Author: Gupta, S. D.
All Authors: Gupta, S. D., Jacobs, J. K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, patent,

1468. Gur, T.M., et al. Experimental Considerations in Electrochemical Isoperibolic Calorimetry. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat, method, apparatus, ICCF-1

1469. Gur, T.M., et al. Experimental Considerations Involved in the Generation of Excess Power as a Result of the Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen and Deuterium in Palladium. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat+, apparatus, method

1470. Gur, T.M., et al., An isoperibolic calorimeter to study electrochemical insertion of deuterium into palladium. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 487.

First Author: Gur, T. M.
All Authors: Gur, T. M., Schreiber, M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat, method

1471. Gurrath, M., et al., Palladium Catalysts on Activated Carbon Supports, Influence of Reduction Temperature, Origin of the Support and Pretreatments of the Carbon Surface. Carbon, 2000. 38: p. 1241.

First Author: Gurrath, M.
All Authors: Gurrath, M., Kuretzky, T., Boehm, H. P., Okhopkova, L. B., Lisitsyn, A. S., Likholobov, V. A.
Keywords: carbon,, Case,, caralyst

1472. Guruswamy, S. and M.E. Wadsworth. Metallurgical Aspects in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Guruswamy, S.
All Authors: Guruswamy, S., Wadsworth, M. E.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, metallurgy, heat+, ICCF-1

Deuterium loading of palladium cathodes in Pons-Fleischmann type electrolytic cells has been observed to result in generation of excess heat on several occasions. Metallurgical examination of some of the electrodes showed extensive damage associated with deuterium loading. Surfaces have been found to be covered with large number of impurities. Initiation and sustaining these heat bursts, monitoring of nuclear products and materials aspects of these electrolytic cells have been the focus of our current efforts. As D/Pd loading appear to be critical, the measurement of deuterium loading using dilatometry as a function of current density, surface and heat treatment of the cathode and poisoning are currently being investigated.

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1473. Guthrie, S.E., Helium Effects on Palladium Hydride Equilibrium Properties. 1990.

First Author: Guthrie, S. E.
All Authors: Guthrie, S. E.
Keywords: PdT, 3He, phase diagram, PdH

1474. Gygax, F.N. and A. Schenck, Local Hydrogen Arrangement Around the µ+ in a PdH0.74 Single Crystal. Hyperfine Interactions, 1986. 31: p. 75.

First Author: Gygax, F. N
All Authors: Gygax, F. N, Schenck, A.
Keywords: PdH, muon, structure

1475. Hagans, P.L., D.D. Dominguez, and M.A. Imam. Surface composition of Pd cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagans, P. L.
All Authors: Hagans, P. L., Dominguez, D. D., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, electrolysis, ICCF-6, D2O

Results will be presented for the surface analyses of cathodes before and after electrolysis using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Composition as a function of depth was obtained by employing argon ion sputtering to gradually erode away the surface. Although most of the emphasis will be on Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Pd (i.e., Johnson Matthey high purity sponge processed into rod and plate at NRL), data will also be presented from other Pd sources and from reported excess heat-producing cathodes provided by SRI International and NAWC, Naval Air Warfare Center at China Lake, CA. XPS results will be compared with bulk sample cathode and anode analyses obtained by Glow Discharge Mass Spectroscopy (GDMS) and with electrolyte solution analyses obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy.

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1476. Hage, H., Boundary conditions in electrochemical measurements of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen in a-palladium. Materials Transactions JIM, 1990. 31(10): p. 842.

First Author: Hage, H.
All Authors: Hage, H.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, H2

1477. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent Fusion Theory. in Winter Annual Meeting of Am. Soc. Mechan. Eng. 1989. San Francisco, CA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

1478. Hagelstein, P.L., Phonon Interactions in Coherent Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

1479. Hagelstein, P.L., Rates for Neutron and Tritium Production in Coherent D-D Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

1480. Hagelstein, P.L., A Simple Model for Coherent D-D Fusion in the Presence of a Lattice. 1989.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

1481. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent Fusion Mechanisms. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

1482. Hagelstein, P.L. Status of Coherent Fusion Theory. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1, coherent

1483. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent fusion theory. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 451.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

1484. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent and Semi-coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2

1485. Hagelstein, P.L. Coherent and Semi-Coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

Neutron transfer reactions are proposed to account for anomalies reported in Pons-Fleischmann experiments. The prototypical reaction involves the transfer of a neutron (mediated by low frequency electric or magnetic fields) from a donor nucleus to virtual continuum states, followed by the capture of the virtual neutron by an acceptor nucleus. In this work we summarize basic principles, recent results and the ultimate goals of the theoretical effort .

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1486. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent and semicoherent neutron transfer reactions I: The interaction Hamiltonian. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 172.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

1487. Hagelstein, P.L., Summary of ICCF3 in Nagoya, Feb. 16, 1993. 1993.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Trip Report, ICCF3, history

Abstract We review highlights of the international cold fusion conference that was held recently in Nagoya, Japan. Excess heat results in heavy water electrolysis experiments constitute the observations with the most important potential applications. Experiments in gas phase systems exhibit fast particle and gamma emission that make progress toward elucidating mechanisms. The evidence in support of a light water heat effect has improved.

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1488. Hagelstein, P.L. Lattice-Induced Atomic and Nuclear Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

1489. Hagelstein, P.L. and S. Kaushik. Neutron Transfer Reactions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Ma: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Kaushik, S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

1490. Hagelstein, P.L., Coherent and semicoherent neutron transfer reactions III: Phonon frequency shifts. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 353.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

1491. Hagelstein, P.L. Update on Neutron Transfer Reactions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

We discuss progress in our studies of two new basic physical mechanisms that may be relevant to recent experiments that exhibit anomalies in metal hydrides and deuterides.Anomalous energy transfer from phonon modes to the constituents of a lattice may occur through frequency-shifting phonon modes that are highly excited. . . .

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1492. Hagelstein, P.L. Anomalous Energy Transfer between Nuclei and the Lattice. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, lattice induced, ICCF-6

1493. Hagelstein, P.L. Anomalous Energy Transfer. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, energy transfer, ICCF-7

1494. Hagelstein, P.L. A Unified Model for Anomalies in Metal Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

1495. Hagelstein, P.L. A unified model for anomalies in metal deuterides. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, phonon

Nuclear reactions in a lattice are described using an extension of the resonating group method to include the lattice explicitly.  Phonon exchange during fusion and dissociation reactions is predicted   Second-order site-other-site reactions are predicted under conditions where the reactions at each site exchange phonons with a common phonon mode.  The null reaction in which a dd-fusion at one site is coupled to 4He dissociation at another site is modeled. Coupled-channel equations are developed for the two-site problem, as an illustration of the application of the lattice resonating group method. We have proposed previously that there should exist compact state solutions of the coupled-channel equations, as the associated exchange potential can be attractive.  Such states have been proposed to account for the Kasagi effect, and to provide a foundation for many of the anomalies that are seen in metal deuterides.  Our analysis of the two-site system suggests so far has not yielded compact state solutions.  Preliminary results for the many-site problem are presented, which leads to evidence in support of the stability of the compact states, and which leads to a new overall picture for the anomalies.

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1496. Hagelstein, P.L. Unified Phonon-Coupled SU(N) Models For Anomalies In Metal Deuterides. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

We present a systematic, but abbreviated, account of issues and models for anomalies in metal deuterides. To interact, deuterons must get close to one another, and we consider conditions under which this occurs and the ramifications. Within the general picture under discussion, anomalies are ultimately a consequence of phonon exchange that occurs when nuclear reactions take place in the solid state. We review the generalization of the resonating group method for reactions in vacuum to include solid state effects, and discuss implications for experiment. Phonon exchange in the case of a much simplified scalar Gaussian nuclear model is reviewed. The coupling of reactions at different sites is explored, and connections are made with recent experiments on alpha emission. The fastest site-other-site reactions are null reactions in which fusion reactions and their inverses are coupled. A consideration of these processes leads to the conclusion that compact states should be present stabilized by phonon exchange, and that these may be responsible for anomalies in recent beam experiments with metal deuterides. Energy exchange between nuclei and the lattice can be very efficient, according to results from idealized models for null reactions involving many sites. Aspects of excess heat production and other effects appear to be addressed by the new models.

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1497. Hagelstein, P.L. Resonant Tunneling and Resonant Excitation Transfer. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

Issues involved in the tunneling of deuterons in metal deuterides are considered in relation to experimental claims of anomalies in metal deuterides. From earlier studies, screening is thought to be similar to the case of molecular D2 . Resonant tunneling has been advocated in the literature as a possible mechanism to achieve tunneling enhancements. We develop a two-level system for a piecewise constant potential model for resonant tunneling that matches the energy levels in the vicinity of a level crossing, arguing that such models are applicable for more general potential models. Resonant tunneling effects and dynamics, including acceleration due to coherence, are accounted for in the model. The model is extended to include relaxation effects, and it is found that one would not expect to find coherent effects associated with tunneling in the case of two deuterons in a metal lattice. We present a simple model for the transfer of excitation from a collection of deuterons to a collection of helium nuclei, a model closely related to resonant tunneling and also to new phonon-coupled SU(N) models under development. The excitation transfer models show coherent enhancements as well as collective effects.

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1498. Hagelstein, P.L. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: thermoelectric, Energy Conversion

As research in the area of excess power production moves forward, issues associated with thermal to electric conversion become increasingly important. This paper provides a brief tutorial on basic issues, including the Carnot limit, entropy, and thermoelectric conversion. Practical thermal to electric conversion is possible well below the Carnot limit, and this leads to a high threshold for self-sustaining operation in Pons-Fleischmann type experiments. Excess power production at elevated temperatures will become increasingly important as we move toward self-sustaining devices and energy production for applications. Excess power production in heatproducing systems that do not require electrical input have an enormous advantage over electrochemical systems. Such systems should be considered seriously within our community in the coming years.

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1499. Hagelstein, P.L. Forward. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: review

The Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion was held at the Royal Sonesta Hotel in Cambridge, about a mile from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, August 24-29, 2003. More than 150 people registered for the conference. There were 113 abstracts submitted prior to the conference, and several talks were added during the conference. About 60 oral presentations were scheduled with 25 minutes allowed for most talks. All oral presentations were given in the main hall, and there were no parallel sessions. Abstracts were submitted for talks on excess heat and related topics, tritium, transmutation, nuclear emissions, theory, and a small number of other topics. . . .

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1500. Hagelstein, P.L., et al. New Physical Effects in Metal Deuterides. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Nagel, D. J., Chubb, T. A., Hekman, R.
Keywords: Review

The experimental evidence for anomalies in metal deuterides, including excess heat and nuclear emissions, suggests the existence of new physical effects.

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1501. Hagelstein, P.L. Models for anomalies in condensed matter deuterides. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory

Models based on phonon exchange for excess heat production in Fleischmann-Pons experiments are considered. In the case that sufficient phonon exchange occurs to stabilize intermediate states containing a neutral, then a model in which excitation is transferred from the D2 /4He system to a strongly coupled quantum system made up of an oscillator (highly-excited phonon mode) and a Dicke system (ground state and excited state receiver nuclei) seem appropriate. We find that a coupled Dicke system and oscillator can support energy coupling in the case of strong coupling. We present evolution equations for resonant coupled Dicke systems, augmented with loss. An update is provided on phonon exchange in nuclear calculations.

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1502. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Excitation transfer and energy exchange processes for modeling the Fleischmann-Pons excess heat effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory

The absence of energetic particles commensurate with the energy produced is the single most notable feature of the Fleischmann-Pons experiment for theory, assuming that a new nuclear process is involved.  We discuss briefly energy exchange between two-level systems and a low energy oscillator, concluding that spin-boson models augmented with loss are able to describe coherent energy exchange involving a large number of oscillator quanta.  Since the coupling between deuterons and the lattice is weak, the excitation must be transferred to a different system with stronger coupling, in order to develop a simple model relevant for heat production.  The resulting toy model can be used for simulation, and we describe briefly ongoing efforts to develop a computational model.

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1503. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Models Relevant to Excess Heat Production in Fleischmann-Pons Experiments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 249-267.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

Observations of excess heat in the absence of commensurate energetic charged particles challenges local energy and momentum conservation, a foundation of nuclear physics. We have explored models based on excitation transfer, in which global energy is conserved but local energy conservation is violated. We present recent results on both excitation transfer and anomalous energy exchange within the context of lossless spin-boson models. We introduce a rotation that allows us to isolate terms in the rotated Hamiltonian responsible for both processes. Spin-boson type models augmented with loss appear to be sufficiently strong to account for the excess heat effect.

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1504. Hagelstein, P.L., et al. A Theoretical Formulation for Problems in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R.
Keywords: Theory,

1505. Hagelstein, P.L., M.E. Melich, and R. Johnson. Input To Theory From Experiment In The Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R.
Keywords: Theory

Excess heat in the Flesichmann-Pons effect constitutes a new physical effect unlike other physical processes with which we are familiar. Many groups have proposed theoretical mechanisms to account for the effect, but at present none has been generally accepted. This motivates us to review what experiment tells us about theory. There exists a relatively large body of experimental results, and it is possible to connect many of these individual results to theoretical statements, which might then be used as the basis for the development of new theoretical models.

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1506. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Electron mass shift in nonthermal systems. J. Phys. B, 2008. 41(12).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

1507. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Modeling excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory

Over the past several years we have described models based on the linear coupling between two-level systems and an oscillator which are able to convert a large energy quantum into a large number of small energy quantum. At ICCF14 we presented a formula that can be used to calculate the phonon exchange matrix element for a nuclear reaction occurring in a lattice; in this presentation we report on our progress in the brute force computation of the matrix element based on realistic nuclear models. We consider also the development of semiclassical models which can approximate the dynamics of the quantum model. Finally, we describe the use of these models in a numerical simulation of the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. In these models a bottleneck occurs associated with helium diffusion out of the active region. We find that if the active region is thin (100 nm or less) that helium diffusion is fast, and excess heat production can occur in a steady state mode. If the active region is thick (500 nm or greater), then helium diffusion is slow and excess heat in these models occurs in bursts.

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1508. Hagelstein, P.L., D. Letts, and D. Cravens. Progress on two-laser experiments (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: Laser stimulation, excess heat

Goal: to see if Pxs responds to the beat frequency* In previous years Letts and Cravens showed that a laser could trigger excess heat* Hope was that two lasers might trigger excess heat* If so, then could study the dependence of excess heat on the difference frequency* Possible method to see whether optical phonons involved

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1509. Hagelstein, P.L., M.C.H. McKubre, and F.L. Tanzella. Electrochemical models for the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords:

The loading of Pd by hydrogen isotopes in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment does not seem to be well described by the hydrogen/deuterium evolution reaction model that is commonly used for hydrogen in metals. We consider modified versions of the model that may be more relevant to the loading of deuterium in Pd.

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1510. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary. Arguments for dideuterium near monovacancies in PdD. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

Molecular D2 does not form in bulk PdD because the electron density sufficiently high so that antibonding orbitals are occupied. The electron density can be lower in the vicinity of a vacancy. We examine the possibility that sigma-bonded dideuterium can occur at the lowered electron density near a monovacancy in PdD.

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1511. Hagelstein, P.L., Simple Parameterizations of the Deuteron-Deuteron Fusion Cross Sections. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 31-34.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: dd-Fusion cross section, Fitting functions for cross section, Nuclear fusion, Numerical fits

Simple parameterizations of the deuteron-deuteron fusion cross sections are given in a form suitable for numerical calculations.

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1512. Hagelstein, P.L., NeutronYield for Energetic Deuterons in PdD and in D2O. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 35-40.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons effect, Correlation of neutrons with heat, Neutron yield for deuterons in PdD, Energy exchange with deuterons

To account for the excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, it has been proposed that the reaction energy can be shared among a large number of deuterons. In order to help quantify how many deuterons are required to be consistent with experiment, we have computed the neutron yield for deuteron-deuteron fusion reactions in both PdD and in D2O.

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1513. Hagelstein, P.L., Secondary NeutronYield in the Presence of Energetic Alpha Particles in PdD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 41-49.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Secondary neutron yield, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Aneutronic fusion, Correlation of excess power and neutrons

It has been proposed that energy can be released in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment as energetic alpha particles in aneutronic fusion reactions. In this scenario, the energetic alpha particles could be “hidden” since they have a relatively short range in PdD. We evaluate the yield of secondary neutrons which result from deuteron-deuteron fusion reactions from energetic deuterons produced in collisions with energetic alpha particles.

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1514. Hagelstein, P.L., On the connection between K&alpha; X-rays and energetic alpha particles in Fleischmann-Pons experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 50-58.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons experiments, K-alpha emission, Gamma-emission, 478 keV line of 7Li

X-ray emission at Kα energies has been reported in Fleischmann-Pons experiments, and alpha particle emission has been reported in others. It is possible for energetic alpha particles to result in Kα radiation following impact ionization. As a result, one might imagine that Kα radiation is a signature of energetic ions in these experiments. We have calculated yields for Kα X-rays as a function of the energetic alpha particle energy in PdD. As a result of these calculations, we conclude that it is unlikely that these X-rays are a result of energetic alpha particles. We note that energetic alpha particles can produce excitation in lithium at 478 keV, and that the relative line strength of the Pd Kα, the Pt Kα and the Li 478 keV line can be used as a consistency check for energetic alpha particles.

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1515. Hagelstein, P.L., D. Letts, and D. Cravens, Terahertz difference frequency response of PdD in two-laser experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 59-76.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D., Cravens, D.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons experiment, 2-Laser stimulation, Optical phonon modes, THz difference frequency

The cell responded to three difference frequencies in the THz range at 8.2 THz, at 15.1 THz, and at 20.8 THz. The first two of these frequencies can be associated with optical phonon frequencies of PdD with zero velocity. We examine the conjectures that the response at 20.8 THz is due to deuterium in vacancies in the gold coating, or due to hydrogen contamination.

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1516. Hagelstein, P.L. and D. Letts, Analysis of some experimental data from the two-laser experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 77-92.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D.
Keywords: Data analysis, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Optical phonons, Two-laser experiment

We consider simple relaxation models for fitting data from two-laser experiments. The approach has been used to analyze the data systematically from many data sets. A result of the fitting is that we find that the excess power responds quickly near 8 THz, and slowly near 15 and 21 THz.

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1517. Hagelstein, P.L., Constraints on energetic particles in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Naturwiss., 2010. 97(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: particle emission

In recent Fleischmann-Pons experiments carried out by different groups, a thermal signal is seen indicative of excess energy production of a magnitude much greater than can be accounted for by chemistry. Correlated with the excess heat appears to be 4He, with the associated energy near 24 MeV per helium atom. In nuclear reactions, the energy produced is expressed through the kinetic energy of the products; hence it would be natural to assume that some of the reaction energy ends up as kinetic energy of the 4He nucleus. Depending on the energy that the helium nucleus is born with, it will result in radiation (such as neutrons or x-rays) that can be seen outside of the cell. We have computed estimates of the expected neutron and x-ray emission as a function of helium energy, and compared the results with upper limits taken from experiments. Experimental results with upper limits of neutron emission between 0.008 to 0.8 n/J are found to correspond to upper limits in alpha energy between 6.2 keV and 20.2 keV.

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1518. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Energy Exchange Using Spin-Boson Models with Infinite Loss. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 202-212.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Excess power, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Lossy-spin boson model, Phonon exchange

From experiment we know that energy is produced in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, and that commensurate 4He is observed, with about 24 MeV per helium atom. From the absence of neutrons in experiments producing excess heat, we know that the helium nuclei are born with less than 10 keV energy on average. This results in the key theoretical problem associated with the Fleischmann-Pons experiment: where does the energy go? In the lossy spin-boson model, a large energy quantum is converted into many small quanta. Here we present a new analysis of the lossy spin-boson model.

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1519. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Energy Exchange In The Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 52-71.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is observed without commensurate energetic particles, which is inconsistent with known nuclear reactions. Any proposed model must address this at the outset. At present, we recognize are two general approaches to the problem: mechanisms which transfer the reaction energy directly to a condensed matter mode, which requires the fractionation of a large quantum into many small quanta; mechanisms in which the large energy quantum is converted to kinetic energy over a very large number of neighboring nuclei. We have focused on the first approach, and we have found a model that seems to accomplish this. Here we introduce the model, which we call the “lossy spin-boson model”. We find that energy exchange in the lossless spin-boson model is hindered due to destructive interference effects. Augmenting the model with loss removes the destructive interference, and we use perturbation theory on a specific example for illustration. Feshbach projection operators and the Brillouin-Wigner formalism which we adopt to describe loss in the model are reviewed in Appendix A.

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1520. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Dynamics in the Case of Coupled Degenerate States. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 72-86.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent dynamics, Degenerate states, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment has been observed in a great many experiments, and we have been working toward the development of a theoretical model to account for it. In the experiments, excess heat is correlated with 4He, but there are no commensurate energetic particles. This has motivated us to consider models in which the excess energy is communicated directly to low energy degrees of freedom associated with the solid state environment. We have found relatively simple models which are capable of splitting up a large energy quantum into a very large number of much smaller energy quanta. In order to analyze these new models, we are motivated to consider the dynamics associated with a set of ordered degenerate states with nearest neighbor coupling.

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1521. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Second-order Formulation and Scaling in the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 87-101.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

In the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, energy is produced without commensurate energetic reaction products. To account for this we have proposed new models in which coherent energy exchange occurs between two-level systems with a large energy quantum, and an oscillator with a much smaller characteristic energy. In earlier work we demonstrated using perturbation theory that the lossy spin-boson model is capable of efficient coherent energy exchange when many oscillator quanta are exchanged for a two-level system quanta on resonance. Here we introduce a formulation that isolates nearly degenerate states in the lossy spin-boson model, and allows the computation of the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements. From calculations of simple lossy spin boson models we establish a scaling law and define the dimensionless coupling constant g for the system. Direct calculations using this approach is not possible for large models in which a great many oscillator quanta are exchanged, but the formulation provides a foundation for understanding this kind of model, and will allow us to develop more powerful approximate methods.

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1522. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Local Approximation for the Lossy Spin-boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

We are interested in the problem of coherent energy exchange in the spin-boson model augmented with loss, in the limit of infinite loss. This model is interesting because it predicts rapid coherent energy exchange under conditions when the transition energy of the two-level systems is much greater than the characteristic energy of the oscillator. Here we introduce the local approximation, in which we assume that the matrix elements change little when an energy exchange event occurs. This approximation results in a periodic system when a resonance condition is satisfied, which is much easier to solve than the original problem. We consider a model problem where we analyze the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements numerically and in the local approximation, with good agreement. Systematic results from the local approximation are obtained for the self-energy and indirect coupling matrix elements in models where 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 quanta are exchanged.

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1523. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Coherent Energy Exchange in the Strong Coupling Limit of the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 116-139.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

We focus on the lossy spin-boson model since it is capable of efficient energy exchange between two-level systems and an oscillator under conditions where the characteristic energy of the oscillator is small compared to the transition energy of the two-level systems. We are considering this model as the essential component for a theoretical understanding of the excess heat effect in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. We introduce an iterative algorithm that allows the numerical calculation of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the coefficient eigenvalue equation that arises in the local approximation. From systematic calculations in the strong coupling limit we establish scaling laws for the self-energy and for the indirect coupling matrix element in the local approximation. These results are used to study the system dynamics for simple strong coupling models.

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1524. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Generalization of the Lossy Spin-Boson Model to Donor and Receiver Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 140-154.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent Fusion, Donor-receiver Model, Excitation Transfer, Theory Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment

Energy in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is produced without commensurate energetic particles, and 4He is seen in amounts proportional to the energy produced (with a ratio of energy to number near 24 MeV). Correspondingly we focus on the D2/ 4He transition as a two-level system coupled to an oscillator, in order to make a connection with the lossy spin-boson model considered in previous work. Because of the strong Coulomb repulsion between the deuterons, the associated coupling matrix element is very small, and there is no possibility of converting the transition energy to oscillator quanta within a simple lossy spin-boson model. This motivates us to generalize to more complicated model that includes a set of (donor) two-level systems for the D2/ 4He transition, and a set of (receiver) two-level systems that are strongly coupled to the oscillator. We analyze the resulting model in the limit that the receiver system is very strongly coupled. Within this formulation, the associated dynamics can be interpreted in terms of a transition from D2 to 4He with direct conversion (and fractionation) of the large energy quantum to the oscillator, once the coupling with the receiver system is sufficiently strong.

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1525. Hagelstein, P.L. Modeling Karabut’s collimated x-rays, and excess heat in the Piantelli NiH exp’t (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

Take away message* Excess heat seen in NiH* Electrochemical systems, gas systems* Harder to load* Easier to make vacancies* HD formation good* Donor-receiver model happy* Is some D in H* Larger interaction matrix element since Gamow factor smaller

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1526. Hagelstein, P.L. Modeling excess heat and related issues (PowerPoint Slies). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Theory

Take away message* If d+d -> 4He, would expect 24 MeV for Q-value* But experiments need to weigh in (might be other reactants)* 4He retention problem* Results from (2) experiments with scrubbing give 24 MeV* Consistent with d+d -> 4He (but not proof of)* Need more experiments (prevented by lack of support)* Theoretical issues loom large since no 24 MeV gamma

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1527. Hagelstein, P.L., Bird’s EyeView of Phonon Models for Excess Heat in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 169-180.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Excess heat, Coherent energy exchange, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Theory

Over the past several years, we have been developing models relevant to excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Here we review some of the key issues, and give an account of some of the progress that we have made. The excess heat effect is prodigious, and 4He seems to be correlated with the energy, but there are no energetic particles seen in amounts commensurate with the energy. This motivated us to seek models which fractionate a large energy quantum, and the lossy spin-boson model appears to do the job. Coherent energy exchange in the fractionation limit and excitation transfer are the mechanisms required which allow us to describe a new set of reactions and associated models which seem to be relevant to the experiments. The resulting models allow us to develop interpretations for numerous experimental observations.

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1528. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Including Nuclear Degrees of Freedom in a Lattice Hamiltonian. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory, Condensed matter nuclear science, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Fundamental Hamiltonian, Lattice-nuclear coupling, Relativistic effects, Spin-boson model

Motivated by many observations of anomalies in condensed matter systems, we consider a new fundamental Hamiltonian in which condensed matter and nuclear systems are described initially on the same footing. Since it may be possible that the lattice will respond to the mass change associated with a excited nuclear state, we adopt a relativistic description throughout based on a many-particle Dirac formalism. This approach has not been used in the past, perhaps due to the difficulty in separating the center of mass and relative degrees of freedom of the nuclear system, or perhaps due to an absence of applications for such a model. In response to some recent ideas about how to think about the center of mass and relative separation, we obtained from the Dirac model a new fundamental Hamiltonian in which the lattice couples to different states within the composite nuclei within the lattice. In this description the different nuclear states have different mass energies and kinetic energies, as we had expected. In addition there appear new terms which provide for nuclear excitation as a result of coupling to the composite momentum. This new effect comes about because of changes in the composite nuclear state as a result of the dynamical Lorentz boost in the lattice.

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1529. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Errata and Comments on a Recent Set of Papers in Journal of Condensed Matter in Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 7.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Theory, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Spin-boson model

Recently we published a series of papers that focused on coherent energy exchange in the context of the lossy spin-boson model in this journal. Minor errors have been identified, and we provide corrections here. In addition, we give additional discussion of some of the issues.

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1530. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Pulse and Amplitude Approximation for the Lossy Spin-Boson Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 30-49.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Fleischmann-Pons effect, Lossy spin-boson model, Phonon exchange, Quantum fractionation

The lossy spin-boson model is of interest to us since it predicts efficient energy exchange between identical two-level systems and an oscillator when the transition energy is a large (odd) multiple of the the oscillator energy. This model is not so easy to solve directly in the strong coupling regime, so we have developed approximate versions of the model that are easier to analyze. Here we introduce the pulse and amplitude approximation which compares very well with exact numerical solutions when the coupling is strong, and when the characteristic oscillator energy is much less than the transition energy. We examine discrete and continuum versions of the approximation, and find that they give good results for the solutions and for the self-energy. We show that the indirect coupling matrix element can be estimated from differences in the eigenvalue of the pulse optimization constraint for solutions with different phases.

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1531. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Coupling between a Deuteron and a Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 50-63.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: a · cP interaction, Deuteron, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Quantum fractionation, Phonon exchange matrix element

We recently put forth a new fundamental lattice Hamiltonian based on an underlying picture of electrons and deuterons as elementary Dirac particles. Within this model there appears a term in which lattice vibrations are coupled to internal nuclear transitions. This is interesting as it has the potential to provide a connection between experiment and models that describe coherent energy transfer between two-level systems and an oscillator. In this work we describe a calculation of the coupling matrix element in the case of the deuteron based on the old empirical Hamada-Johnston model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The triplet S and D states of the the deuteron in the rest frame couples to a singlet P state through this new interaction. The singlet P state in this calculation is a virtual state with an energy of 125 MeV, and a coupling matrix element for z-directed motion given by 2.98 × 10−3 MJ cPˆz .

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1532. Hagelstein, P.L., On Theory and Science Generally in Connection with the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Review

I was encouraged to contribute to an editorial generally on the topic of theory in science, in connection with publication of a paper focused on some recent ideas that Ed Storms has put forth regarding a model for how excess heat works in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Such a project would compete for my time with other commitments, including teaching, research and family-related commitments; so I was reluctant to take it on. On the other hand I found myself tempted, since over the years I have been musing about theory, and also about science, as a result of having been involved in research on the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. As you can see from what follows, I ended up succumbing to temptation.

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1533. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Central and Tensor Contributions to the Phonon-exchange Matrix Element for the D2/4He Transition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 15-58.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: D2/4H phonon exchange matrix element, Excess heat, Fleischmann-Pons effect, Nuclear physics calculation, Phonon exchange, Selection rules

The biggest theoretical problem associated with excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment in our view has been the absence of energetic particles in amounts commensurate with the energy produced. In response we have pursued models in which the large nuclear energy quantum is fractionated into a great many lower energy quanta. To connect these idealized models to the physical system we need to evaluate the associated coupling matrix elements. Recently we have found a new coupling mechanism that arises when a lattice model is derived starting from a Dirac description of individual nucleons; this coupling mechanism can be considered a generalization of spin-orbit coupling and produces interactions between the center of mass dynamics and internal nuclear degrees of freedom. In this work we develop a simplified model for 4He and molecular D2 states with which we evaluate the phonon exchange matrix element for D2/4He transitions based on the new interaction. We restrict our calculation to the central and tensor contributions of the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential, which are the strongest, and find coupling between ground state 4He and triplet P and F molecular states. This interaction matrix element can be used in generalized lossy spin-boson models for the calculation of excess heat production in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment.

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1534. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Lossy Spin-boson Model with an Unstable Upper State and Extension to N-level Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 59-92.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Coherent energy exchange, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Lossy spin-boson model, Theory

In the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, excess heat is thought to have a nuclear origin due to the amount of energy produced, yet there are no commensurate energetic particles. This has motivated us over the years to focus attention on models in which a large quantum is fractionated into a great many small quanta. We have found that many two-level systems with a large transition energy are able to exchange energy coherently with an oscillator with a much smaller characteristic energy as long as decay channels are present in the vicinity of the two-level transition energy. In previous work we analyzed this basic model, and obtained estimates for the coherent energy exchange rate in the strong coupling limit. In this work we consider a version of this model where the upper states of the two-level systems are unstable. In this case, there is no coherent energy exchange, but instead we find a dynamical polarization effect which we have analyzed. We extend the model to the case of three-level systems, and generalize the result to apply to general N-level systems. Coherent energy exchange is possible within the context of a donor and receiver model, where the receiver transitions have unstable upper states. We give results for the donor dynamics in this case. This model provides a foundation for a new kind of model that we put forth recently for which the predictions appear to be closely connected to experiment.

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1535. Hagelstein, P.L., Electron Mass Enhancement and the Widom-Larsen Model. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 18-40.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Electric field fluctuations, Increased electron mass, LENR theory, Weak interaction models, Widom–Larsen theory

Widom and Larsen have put forth a model to describe excess heat and transmutation in LENR experiments. This model is the single most successful theoretical model that the field has seen since it started; it has served as the theoretical justification for a program at NASA; and it has accumulated an enormous number of supporters both within and outside of the condensed matter nuclear science community. The first step in the model involves the proposed accumulation of mass by electrons through Coulomb interactions with electrons and ions in highly-excited coupled plasmon and optical phonon modes. Historically for us this mass increase has been hard to understand, so we were motivated in this study to understand better how this comes about. To study it, we consider simple classical models which show the effect, from which we see that the mass increase can be associated with the electron kinetic energy. The basic results of the simple classical model carry over to the quantum problem in the case of simple wave packet solutions. Since there are no quantum fluctuations of the longitudinal field in the Coulomb gauge, the resulting problem is conventional, and we find no reason to expect MeV electron kinetic energy in a conventional consideration of electrons in metals. We consider the numerical example outlined in a primer on the Widom-Larsen model, and find that multiple GW/cm2 would be required to support the level of vibrational excitation assumed in the surface layer; this very large power per unit area falls short by orders of magnitude the power level needed to make up the expected energy loss of the mass-enhanced electrons. We note that the mass enhancement of an electron in a transverse field is connected to acceleration, so that the electron radiates. A similar effect is expected in the longitudinal case, and a very large amount of easily detected X-ray radiation would be expected if an MeV-level mass enhancement were present even in a modest number of electrons

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1536. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Born-Oppenheimer and Fixed-point Models for Second-order Phonon Exchange in a Metal. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 69-104.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Phonon theory, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, phonon fluctuations, fractionation

We have been interested in the development of a model for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science, and over the past few years we have developed new models that describe coherent phonon exchange between a highly-excited vibrational mode and nuclei under conditions of fractionation. When we modeled collimated X-ray emission in the Karabut experiment, we found that the conditions required by the model did not match the conditions of the experiment. One possible reason for this might be the neglect of phonon fluctuations due to coupling with conduction electrons. We would like to add a description of this effect to our phonon-nuclear model; however, models normally used for electron-phonon interactions in metals are based on the Bloch picture, and we were concerned that it may not be well suited to the problem. This has motivated us to develop a new model for phonon fluctuations in a metal that is based on the Born-Oppenheimer picture, within the context of a Brillouin-Wigner formulation. The Born-Oppenheimer results are complicated, so we have reduced them in a simpler fixed-point picture (which is based on a Taylor series expansion of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation around fixed nuclear equilibrium points). In order to verify the resulting formalism, we constructed a simplified model for the monatomic crystal phonon dispersion relation, which is well known in the Bloch picture literature. From this model we are able to extract the longitudinal dielectric constant. We find that the fixed-point dielectric constant at second order is more accurate than the Bloch picture equivalent, and that it includes dynamic corrections that match the result from field theory up to O(ω2). This model is used in a subsequent paper for the development of phonon fluctuation models, where it is found that the Bloch picture is appropriate when the metal sample is micron scale or larger, and that the Born-Oppenheimer picture is appropriate for nano-scale samples.

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1537. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Phonon-nuclear Coupling for Anomalies in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 105-142.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Phonon theory, fractionation, Fleischmann-Pons experiment, Karabut experiment, fundamental Hamiltonian

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment is thought to have a nuclear origin, yet there are no energetic particles observed in amounts commensurate with the energy produced. This in our view is the most fundamental issue in connection with theory. In earlier work we developed a mathematical model (the lossy spin-boson model) which shows coherent energy exchange between two-level systems and an oscillator under conditions of fractionation. Recently, we have found an interesting physical model that is closely connected, and which is capable of coherent energy exchange with fractionation; this model is based on a relativistic description of composite nuclei in a lattice. In this work we present a much stronger development of the model directly from field theory than given previously. In the lossy spin-boson model, the ability of the model to fractionate a large quantum depends on the presence of suitable loss mechanisms; the same is true in the case of the new physical model. The new model predicts anomalies such as excess heat without energetic nuclear radiation, 4He production, low-level gamma emission, and collimated X-ray emission in the Karabut experiment; however, as yet we have not demonstrated agreement between theory and experiment. Last summer we concluded (erroneously) that coupling with strong static transitions might impact the fractionation power of the model on dynamic transitions, and the resulting model appeared to be in agreement with our interpretation of the experiment. Here we review this kind of model more carefully, and find that no such enhancement is present. Our conclusion in the end is that the theory, model, and interpretation are “close” to the experimental results in the case of the Karabut experiment, but some problem remains.

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1538. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Models for Phonon-nuclear Interactions and Collimated X-ray Emission in the Karabut Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Collimated X-rays, Fractionation, Karabut experiment, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Phonon theory

Excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment occurs without commensurate energetic nuclear radiation, which motivated us to seek mechanisms capable of fractionating a large quantum, resulting in the lossy spin-boson model. Collimated x-ray emission in the Karabut experiment we interpreted as demonstrating the conversion of vibrational energy to nuclear excitation, as predicted from the lossy spin-boson model; this motivated us to seek physical models that could account for the effect. We found that the coupling strength associated with electron-nuclear and electron-electron coupling was too weak to fractionate keV quanta into 100 MHz vibrations, which motivated us to seek a theory in which nuclear transitions coupled directly to vibrations. These considerations led us to a lattice model with a relativistic description of compound nuclei, in which a strong phonon-nuclear interaction is present. This interaction is normally rotated out with the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, but in the presence of strong loss mechanismsthis transformation becomes unhelpful. The model that results describes the coupling of vibrational energy to nuclear excitation, but earlier efforts to apply it to the Karabut experiment resulted in inconsistencies. This motivated us to analyze fluctuations due to electron-phonon coupling in metals, which we find here to be a weak effect for Bloch picture phonon exchange, and a somewhat stronger effect with Born-Oppenheimer phonon exchange. As no new physics were found to substantially enhance fractionation, we returned to the basic theory, and carried out a systematic analysis of the three different degrees of freedom that result from simple product approximations for the wavefunction. We find that when there are more virtual phonons than real, a significant enhancement of the coupling strength occurs, corresponding to a new anomalous regime. Conditions on the coupling matrix element and relative state occupation are derived for the anomalous regime, which favors strongly-coupled low energy transitions which constitute a largefraction of all nuclei present. The fractionation power of a sample in the anomalous regime is very much constrained, which allows us to be able to make predictions with the new model. We find that the 30.77 keV transition in 93Nb is likely to be in the anomalous regime in a Nb cathode; that the threshold fractionation energy is too low for excitation of the 30.77 keV transition; but that the threshold fractionation energy is high enough to result in the excitation of the 1565 eV transition in 201Hg, and x-ray emission in the few keV regime consistent with Karabut’s observations.

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1539. Hagelstein, P.L. and D. Letts, Temperature Dependence of Excess Power in Two-laser Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Letts, D.
Keywords: Active site blocking by helium, Letts 2-laser experiment, Temperature dependence of excess heat

Data published previously on the two-laser experiment shows that the excess heat depends on temperature, and is mostly zero in the absence of a magnetic field. A new experiment shows higher excess power at higher temperature. We augment our previous empirical model with temperature dependence. A picture for the temperature dependence is described in terms of the elimination of 4He which blocks active sites when the excess power is high.

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1540. Hagelstein, P.L., Molecular D2 Near Vacancies in PdD and Related Problems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Donor and receiver model, Excess heat production, Lossy spin–boson model, Theory

Excess heat is observed correlated with 4He in PdD excess heat experiments, consistent with proposed D2/4He reaction mechanisms. The electron density is too high in PdD for molecular D2 to form, so we consider the problem of D2 formation in a monovacancy, and related problems involving other metal deuterides and hydrides.

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1541. Hagelstein, P.L., Equation of State and Fugacity Models for H2 and for D2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Equation of state, Fugacity, Gaseous H2 and D2, Nonideal gas, Quantum cellmodel

When Pd is in equilibrium with H2 or D2 in gas, the chemical potentials are equal, and this allows a determination of the chemical potential and other thermodynamic properties of palladium hydride and palladium deuteride. At high loading near room temperature, the gas pressure must be very high, and an ideal gas law no longer applies. In this case a knowledge of the fugacity is required to interpret and understand the results. We examine empirical models for the equation of state and fugacity of H2 which are relevant to the high pressure regime of interest, including an old model of Holley et al (1958), and the more modern models of Spycher and Reed (1988), Tkacz and Litwiniuk (2002), and Joubert (2010). At high pressure the more recent models are best, but the model of Tkacz and Litwiniuk diverges from the ideal gas equation of state at low pressure, which leads to an offset in the fugacity. We examine the difference between the equation of states for H2 and D2 in recent models, and find that the small difference at high pressure in the models of Tkacz and Litwiniuk agree best with experiment, while the larger difference in the models of Joubert (2010) and Joubert and Thiebaut (2011) is probably not reliable. We examine the possibility of developing a difference correction for the fugacity theoretically. It may be possible to account accurately for the zero-point contribution; however, accounting forthe difference in inter-molecular potentials due to the different degrees of rotational excitation requires the development of new potential models.

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1542. Hagelstein, P.L., Deuterium Evolution Reaction Model and the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Deuterium evolution reaction, D/Pd loading, Overpotential, Tafel reaction, Volmer reaction

The hydrogen evolution reaction model was proposed many years ago by the founders of modern electrochemistry. The closely related deuterium evolution reaction model describes deuterium loading in Pd cathodes in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. We were interested in what issues were involved in the development of a high D/Pd loading, since over the years the importance of obtaining a high D/Pd ratio to obtain excess heat has been emphasized. In order to simplify things, we focus on the Volmer and Tafel reactions, and develop a steady state adsorption isotherm for the Vomer-Tafel regime. The adsorption isotherm is extended to become an absorption isotherm within a simplified picture that takes the surface sites to be equivalent to the bulk sites. While not a particularly good approximation, this allows us to model the D/Pd loading simply as a function of the overpotential, and hence the electrochemical current density. From a Tafel curve we can get some of the parameters for the Volmer current model, and from other eletrochemical data we can estimate the remaining Volmer and Tafel parameters. The resulting model fits the experimental data used well at low current density. Cathodes that load more highly with this approach require new models, potentially one for each cathode. We examine our earlier proposal that the differences in loading seen in experiment is due in part to large variations in the rate for internal D2 leaks. Consequently, we modify the Tafel reaction current model to account for internal leaks separately from the surface gas loss, and take advantage of data from the most highly loaded cathodes to estimate the surface Tafel reaction rate. Using this approach, the reference cathode that we used for our fits initially must have an internal leak rate more than two orders of magnitude higher than the rate of surface D2 loss. We conclude that minimizing the internal leaks is important in achieving high loading. Probably a key reason that there were so many negative results early in the field was because the cathode internal leak rate was very high in the cathodes used.

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1543. Hagelstein, P.L., Empirical Models for Octahedral and Tetrahedral Occupation in PdH and in PdD at High Loading. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Empirical models, Resistance ratio, Solubility of PdH and PdD at high loading, Statistical mechanics model, Tetrahedral occupation

High D/Pd loading is known to be a requirement for producing excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, and much work has in recent years been focused on electrochemical protocols and cathode processing in order to achieve D/Pd loadings approaching unity routinely. However, we know very little about PdD at a loading near unity, and almost nothing about what happens when the loading exceeds unity. It may be that when the octahedral sites are fully occupied, additional interstitial deuterium atoms occupy tetrahedral sites, a proposal which at this point has little experimental support. It is nevertheless possible to construct an empirical model for this scenario, and to make use of available experimental data to fit the associated model parameters. We worked with empirical models for both PdD and PdH that assume an O-site energy quadratic in loading, and an O-site to T-site excitation which is either constant in loading, or else taken as an empirical function fit to estimates inferred from the analysis of experimental data. There are two empirical models, each with four or more free parameters; and insufficient experimental data from which to choose each parameter or function independently. We add supplementary constraints that presume the models for PdH and PdD must be very similar, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom within the models. This allows data from PdH to be used to construct a model for PdD, and vice versa. The models which result are interesting; they suggest these complicated systems might be understood based on a simple underlying picture; they indicate that there is more T-site occupation than has been appreciated previously in the literature; they indicate that the resistance ratio calibrations for PdH and PdD are inconsistent; and finally, measurements of the chemical potential at high loading have the potential to provide information about the O-site to T-site excitation energy.

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1544. Hagelstein, P.L., O-site and T-site Occupation of alpha-phase PdHX and PdDX. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Empirical model, Mean-field lattice gas model, Solubility, !-phase PdHx and PdDx , Tetrahedral occupation

An important study of the solubility of hydrogen in α-phase PdHX and deuterium in α-phase PdDX over a wide temperature range was published by Clewley et al. (J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1: Phy. Chem. Condensed Phases 69 (1973) 449-458). An analysis of the data based on an empirical solubility model based on O-site occupation allows for an understanding of the data at low temperature, but probably is not a good starting place for understanding the solubility at high temperature. We have applied a recently developed empirical model for both O-site and T-site occupation to this data set, and find good agreement between data and a basic version of the model which assumes that the O-site and T-site partition functions are taken to be harmonic oscillator partition functions. Even better agreement is obtained when a more realistic O-site partition function is used. A range of optimum models with different assumptions about the T-site partition function is considered, and it is found to be possible to select one that matches the T-site occupation at zero loading inferred from neutron diffraction measurements of Pitt and Gray (Europhys. Let. 64 (2003) 344). The O-site to T-site excitation energy is assumed independent of temperature in these models, and we obtain specific model values of 105.3 meV for α-phase PdDX and 106.5 meV for α-phase PdHX.

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1545. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Phonon models for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords:

1546. Hagelstein, P.L., Directional X-ray and gamma emission in experiments in condensed matter nuclear science. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

1547. Hagelstein, P.L., Current Status of the Theory and Modeling Effort based on Fractionation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

The theoretical problems associated with excess heat in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment were once viewed as insurmountable; nevertheless, some progress has been made in the past quarter century. Conceptually the problem can be split into one area involving new physics which is needed to address the microscopic physics of the reaction process; and a second area involving known physics which allows one to connect with the different practical issues involved in the experiments and observations. We review the ideas and progress first in the area of new physical mechanisms, in which models that describe the down-conversion of the large nuclear quantum allowing for coherent energy exchange of the nuclear energy into vibrational energy. These ideas provide a connection between excess heat experiments with Pd and Ni, with D or a mixture of H and D; experiments where tritium or low-level nuclear emission is seen, and other experiments with collimated X-ray emission. In the area of conventional physics mechanisms, we are interested in the basic physics of PdH and PdD; modeling cathode loading and understanding why some cathodes loaded very poorly in the early days; understanding active sites which we attribute to monovacancies in PdD and NiH; figuring out how active sites are created; triggering excess heat; and removing the helium made in the new reactions.

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1548. Hagelstein, P.L., Models for the Phase Diagram of Palladium Hydride Including O-site and T-site Occupation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Mean field model, Palladium hydride, Phase diagram, Statistical mechanics, T-site occupation

Early statistical mechanics models for palladium hydride allowed for a good description of the phase diagram based on a simple parameterization of the O-site energy. In this work we study generalizations of these models to include higher-order dependence on loading, temperature-dependent O-site energies, and also to include T-site occupation. xperimental data sets for 10 isotherms were assembled, and augmented with additional extrapolated points for the low-pressure α-phase region as well as the high pressure β-phase region. Loading-dependent O-site energies are optimized by minimizing the mean square error in the chemical potential between the model and data set. The resulting models give a good match to the phase diagram. If the O-site energy is allowed to be temperature dependent then the fit is better, but the resulting optimum is a mathematical optimum not so closely connected with the physical system. Models were studied in which O-site and T-site occupation occurs. When optimized these models are able to provide a good match to the phase diagram. When the O-site to T-site excitation energy is fixed according to estimates developed in earlier studies, the resulting temperature-dependent O-site energies are physically plausible. When the excitation energy are optimized together with the O-site energy, the resulting optimum is a mathematical one much less connected to the physical system. An earlier analysis of solubility in the α-phase led to a strong argument that T-site occupation occurs in palladium hydride and in palladium deuteriude; the present study supports this conclusion based on an independent data set.

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1549. Hagelstein, P.L., Quantum Composites: A Review, and New Results for Models for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Center of mass, Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Quantum composite

A composite is made up of constituent particles; the center of mass dynamics is that of a single particle, and the composite can have many internal states and degrees of freedom. The notion of a quantum composite is foundational to atomic, molecular, nuclear and particle physics; in our view it is also foundational to condensed matter nuclear science. It comes as a surprise that there do not appear to be review papers that discuss quantum composites. Here we consider elementary particles models, which are used to model composites; the most widely used example is that of the Dirac phenomenology for protons and neutrons. Quantum composite models can be developed from many-particle models, in some cases simply by rewriting in terms of center of mass and relative operators, and in other cases through a reduction or transformation. We have proposed models for anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science which rely heavily on the notion of a relativistic quantum composite. In the nonrelativistic case there is a clean separation of center of mass and internal degrees of freedom, so that any coupling between them must occur through external field interactions. The relativistic composite has a sizeable coupling between the center of mass motion and internal degrees of freedom, which we have proposed is responsible for the anomalies in condensed matter nuclear science. We have developed a newmodel in which the center of mass dynamics is modeled as nonrelativistic, but the internal structure is kept relativistic; this kind of model is much better adapted to problems in condensed matter nuclear science. Our approach has been strongly criticized, since in a Poincaré invariant theory the center of mass motion separates from the internal degrees of freedom in free space. We are able to rotate out the strongest part of this coupling in free space, consistent with Poincaré invariance. However, in the lattice the problem is in general much more complicated, and more powerful tools are required to diagonalize this relativistic coupling. The spin-boson type of models that we have considered previously for this are the simplest idealized models that can be diagonalized; they describe rich dynamics not present in the free-space version of the problem.

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1550. Hagelstein, P.L., Probabilistic Models for Beam, Spot, and Line Emission for Collimated X-ray Emission in the Karabut Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 53-73.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Beam formation, Collimated X-ray emission, Karabut experiment, Phase coherence, Up-conversion

Collimated X-ray emission near 1.5 keV in the Karabut experiment is an anomaly that cannot be explained by conventional solid state, atomic, or nuclear physics. In order for the X-rays to be collimated, there must either be an X-ray laser present, or else a phased-array collimation effect produced by emitting dipoles that radiate in phase. Although there have been arguments made in support of an X-ray laser origin of the effect, from our perspective this approach suffers from an absence of a plausible mechanism, short excited-state electronic lifetimes, high power requirements, and an incompatibility between the experimental geometry and the need for an elongated laser medium for beam formation. In this work we consider a model for beam formation due to many emitting dipoles randomly positioned within a circle on a mathematically flat surface. When the emitting dipole density is low, a speckle pattern is produced. Above a critical emitting dipole density beam formation occurs. The average intensity of the speckle and beam is estimated from simple statistical models at low and high dipole density, and combined to develop an empirical intensity estimate over the full range of dipole densities which compares well with numerical simulations. Beam formation occurs above a critical number of emitting dipoles, which allows us to develop an estimate for the minimum number of emitting dipoles present in the Karabut experiment. The effect of surface deformations is considered; constant offsets do not impact beam formation, and locally linear offsets direct the beam slightly off of normal. Minor displacements quadratic in the surface coordinates can produce focusing and defocusing effects, leading to a natural explanation for intense spot and line formation observed in the experiments.

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1551. Hagelstein, P.L., Statistical Mechanics Models for PdHx and PdDx. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 87-97.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Mean field model, Palladium hydride, Phase diagram, Solubility, Tetrahedral occupation

In recent years we have developed simple empirical mean-field statistical mechanics models for PdHx and PdDx that include both O-site and T-site occupation. A brief account of this work is given here. At low loading it is impossible to fit solubility data over a wide range of temperature assuming only O-site occupation; however, with T-site occupation a good fit is obtained and an O-site to T-site excitation energy near 105 meV is found. Results from neutron diffraction studies at modest loading, and resistance and solubility measurements at high pressure and high loading, are used to infer O-site to T-site excitation energies and develop a smooth fit. The resulting statistical mechanics models have been optimized to provide systematic results at high loading for PdH and PdD, and also to fit the isotherms of the phase diagram of PdH. Estimates for the O-site energy as a function of loading and temperature have been developed in the latter case.

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1552. Hagelstein, P.L. and I. Chaudhary, Coupling between the Center of Mass and Relative Degrees of Freedom in a Relativistic Quantum Composite and Applications. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 114-122.

First Author: Hagelstein, P. L.
All Authors: Hagelstein, P. L., Chaudhary, I.
Keywords: Down-conversion, Excitation transfer, Mössbauer effect, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Theory

If we consider the nucleus as a relativistic composite, then we are able to derive from a many-particle Dirac model a coupling between the center of mass motion and internal nuclear degrees of freedom. This interaction can be rotated out in free space, but has the potential to give rise to new physics when two or more nuclei exchange phonons with a common vibrational mode. The simplest example of such a system is a homonuclear diatomic molecule in a frozen matrix, for which we are able to develop an expression for the second-order phonon-nuclear interaction that can result in a splitting of the nuclear energy levels as a result of excitation transfer between the nuclei. The phonon-nuclear coupling is an E1 interaction, so the low energy 6.237 keV E1 transition in 181Ta is special; this motivates an interest in molecular 181Ta2 as a candidate for a Mossbauer experiment where the splitting might be observable. We also consider excitation transfer in the case of a macroscopic a Ta plate.

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1553. Hagi, H., Diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in palladium films prepared by RF sputtering. Materials Transactions JIM, 1990. 31(11): p. 954.

First Author: Hagi, H.
All Authors: Hagi, H.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd, H2

1554. Hajdas, W., et al., Search for cold fusion events. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72: p. 309.

First Author: Hajdas, W.
All Authors: Hajdas, W., Kistryn, S., Lang, J., Sromicki, J., Jenny, B., Wachter, P.
Keywords: D2O, Pd neutron, gamma emission LaNi5

1555. Hale, G.M., R.D. Smith, and T.L. Talley, Nuclear reactions and screened-Coulomb fusion rates. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 187.

First Author: Hale, G. M.
All Authors: Hale, G. M., Smith, R. D., Talley, T. L.
Keywords: Theory

1556. Hale, G.M. and T.L. Talley. Deuteron-Induced Fusion in Various Environments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hale, G. M.
All Authors: Hale, G. M., Talley, T. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

1557. Halley, J.W. and J.L. Valles, Estimate of nuclear fusion rates arising from a molecular-dynamics model of palladium deuteride. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(9): p. 6072.

First Author: Halley, J. W.
All Authors: Halley, J. W., Valles, J. L.
Keywords: Theory, coherency, tunelling

1558. Hama, H., Welcome Address, ICCF20 Conference. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Hama, H.
All Authors: Hama, H.
Keywords:

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1559. Hambling, D., Cold fusion: smoke and mirrors, or raising a head of steam?, in wired.co.uk. 2012.

First Author: Hambling, D.
All Authors: Hambling, D.
Keywords:

1560. Hamm, S., et al. Electrochemical Analysis of Palladium Cathodes towards the Advancement of Reproducibly High H/Pd Loading Ratios (PowerPoint slides). in ICCF19 conference. 2015.

First Author: Hamm, S.
All Authors: Hamm, S., Dmitriyeva, O., Knies, D., Cantwell, R., McConnell, M.
Keywords:

Motivation:• A strong correlation has been found between surface impurities and H/Pd (D/Pd) loading. Impurities that promote increased loadings are referred to as “promote-ݠimpurities.• Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of these impurities since it is believed there is a higher probability of observing the Fleischmann-Pons Effect when D/Pd>0.9.• It is also important to determine how pure Pd in a pure electrolyte theoretically behaves, and whether it would be possible to achieve high loading in such a configuration.Experimental Approach:• We are studying the electrochemical properties of surface impurities and how they affect loading/de-loading behavior using impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronopotentiometry(CP). Unless otherwise noted, experiments were performed in 0.1 M LiOH in H2O. . . .

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1561. Hanawa, T. X-ray Spectroscropic Analysis of Carbon Arc Products in Water. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hanawa, T
All Authors: Hanawa, T
Keywords: carbon arc, water plasma, transmutation, ICCF-8

1562. Hanawa, K., Welcome Address, ICCF20 Conference. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Hanawa, K.
All Authors: Hanawa, K.
Keywords:

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1563. Handel, P. Influence of Surface Tension, Nucleation Centers, and Electron Effective Mass on the Achievable Level of Electrolytic Deuterium Loading. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: Pd, loading, reaction, bubbles

1564. Handel, P. Reformulation of the Cold Fusion Problem: Heterogeneous Nucleation – A Likely Cause of the Irreproducibility and Intermittency of Cold Fusion Observations. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: surface, theory, ICCF-1

1565. Handel, P., Intermittency, irreproducibility, and the main physical effects in cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 512.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: theory, gas bubble

1566. Handel, P. Subtraction of a New Thermo-Electromechanical Effect from the Excess Heat, and the Emerging Avenues to Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: theory, Peltier, critique, ICCF-4

1567. Handel, P., Thermoelectric excess heat effect in electrolytic cells. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1994. 95: p. 489.

First Author: Handel, P.
All Authors: Handel, P.
Keywords: Theory, Peltier, critique

1568. Hanksworth, M.R. and J.P.G. Farr, Cold Neutron Radiography of Hydrogenated Palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1981. 119: p. 49.

First Author: Hanksworth, M. R.
All Authors: Hanksworth, M. R., Farr, J. P. G.
Keywords: autoradiography, Pd, H2, diffusion, structure

1569. Hansen, W.N. Report to the Utah State Fusion/Energy Council on the Analysis of Selected Pons Fleischmann Calorimetric Data. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: heat, critique, Pd, D2O, Pons, Fleischmann, ICCF-2

Here is reported my analysis of a series of electrochemical experiments run by Pons and Fleischmann, P/F. This series produced some remarkable results which were revealed only through a careful analysis.

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1570. Hansen, W.N. and M.E. Melich. Pd/D Calorimetry- The Key to the F/P Effect and a Challenge to Science. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: critique, analysis, heat, Pons, Fleischmann, ICCF-4

Abstract The main issue before this conference can be stated as a simple question: Question #1: Can large amounts of heat be generated at a significant rate by Pd/D interaction as announced by Fleischmann and Pons? By now there have been many experimental results claiming to answer “yes” and which force us to take that possibility very seriously. As used here the “large amounts” are much larger than can possibly be explained by chemistry or metallurgy as known today. Up to now the only practical way of answering this question is by Pd/D calorimetry. . . .

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1571. Hansen, W.N. and M.E. Melich, Pd/D Calorimetry- The Key to the F/P Effect and a Challenge to Science. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 355.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Melich, M. E.
Keywords: critique, analysis, heat, Pons, Fleischmann

1572. Hansen, L.D., et al., COOPERATIVE INVESTIGATION OF ANOMALOUS EFFECTS IN Pd/LiOD ELECTROLYTIC CELLS. 1995.

First Author: Hansen, L. D.
All Authors: Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Thorne, J. M., Shelton, D. S., Taylor, S. F., Storms, E.
Keywords: proposal, DOE, reproducibility

1573. Hansen, L.D., S.E. Jones, and D.S. Shelton, A response to hydrogen + oxygen recombination and related heat generation in undivided electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 447: p. 225.

First Author: Hansen, L. D.
All Authors: Hansen, L. D., Jones, S. E., Shelton, D. S.
Keywords: critique, recombination, Will

1574. Hansen, W.N., G. Hansen, and D. Glenn. Analysis of Some Electrochemical Calorimetry Data. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Hansen, W. N.
All Authors: Hansen, W. N., Hansen, G., Glenn, D.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

To demonstrate our techniques for analyzing the calorimetric data of an electrochemical cell, we use three sets of data taken at the NEH laboratory in Sapporo, Japan, copies of which were kindly given to us by Dr. Melvin Miles who was personally involved in their taking.

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1575. Hanson, A.O. and J.L. McKibben, A Neutron Detector Having Uniform Sensitivity from 10 Kev to 3 MeV. Phys. Rev., 1947. 72(8): p. 673.

First Author: Hanson, A. O.
All Authors: Hanson, A. O., McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: neutron, method, apparatus

1576. Harb, J.N., W.G. Pitt, and H.D. Tolley, Statistical analysis of neutron burst size and rate during electrolysis of LiOD solutions. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 669.

First Author: Harb, J. N.
All Authors: Harb, J. N., Pitt, W. G., Tolley, H. D.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, statistics, neutron, D2O, heat

1577. Hargitai, C., Considerations on cold nuclear fusion in palladium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(1): p. 17.

First Author: Hargitai, C.
All Authors: Hargitai, C.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1578. Hargrave, C., Cold Fusion: A Glimpse into the Future. Share International, 1992. 11: p. 17.

First Author: Hargrave, C.
All Authors: Hargrave, C.
Keywords: history

1579. Harith, M.A., et al., Theoretical and experimental studies on the cold nuclear fusion phenomena”. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 704.

First Author: Harith, M. A.
All Authors: Harith, M. A., Palleschi, V., Salvetti, A., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P., Vaselli, M.
Keywords: Theory, screening

1580. Hasegawa, H. and K. Nakajima, Effect of Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of Pd. J. Phys. F, 1979. 9(6): p. 1035.

First Author: Hasegawa, H.
All Authors: Hasegawa, H., Nakajima, K.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, strength

1581. Hasegawa, N., et al. Observation of Excess Heat during Electrolysis of 1 M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Kunimatsu, K., Ohi, T., Terasawa, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, loading, overvoltage, OCV, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Measurement of the excess heat generation during electrolysis of 1 M LiOD has been conducted in a closed cell pressurerized by deuterium gas in which a fuel cell type gas diffusion electrode was employed as an anode, and a platinized platinum electrode served as the RHE for determination of hydrogen overvoltage at the palladium cathode. This has allowed us simultaneous determination of both excess heat generation and deuterium loading ratio, D/Pd, in the course of long term electrolysis which lasted for nearly two months.Dependence of excess heat generation on D/Pd has been observed up to D/Pd = 0.88 with the maximum outpuVinput ratio of 1 .35. The minimum O/Pd to produce the excess heat has been found around 0.83-0.84.Dependence of O/Pd on the overvoltage and the dependence of the excess heat generation on the O/Pd suggest that the dependence of the excess heat generation on the current density reported originally by Fleischmann and Pons and later by Storms can be interpreted in terms of the dependence of the loading ratio on the electrolysis current density. In other words, higher current density is necessary to maintain the high loading ratio.

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1582. Hasegawa, N., et al. Observation of Excess Heat during Electrolysis of 1 M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Hayakawa, N., Tsuchida, Y., Yamamoto, Y., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, loading, overvoltage, OCV, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Measurements of electrolytic deuterium loading into Pd and Pd-Rh alloy cathodes and excess heat during electrolysis in 1M LiOD have been conducted simultaneously in closed cells with a fuel cell anode pressurized by deuterium gas. The excess heat up to 4-5W/Pd cc has been reproduced by using Pd rod cathodes from various sources. Excess heat increases with electrolysis current density higher than ca. 0.1-0.2 A/cm^2, cathode overvoltage and D/Pd higher than 0.80-0.84, but its dependence on D/Pd or D/M appears to be specific to each cathode material in the region of high cathode loading, where the current density or overvoltage appears to be a more important parameter to control the amount of excess heat than the cathode loading.

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1583. Hasegawa, N., et al. Electrolytic Deuterium Absorption by Pd Cathode and a Consideration for High D/Pd Ratio. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Hasegawa, N.
All Authors: Hasegawa, N., Sumi, M., Takahashi, M., Senjuh, T., Asami, N., Sakai, T., Shigemitsu, T.
Keywords: single crystal, loading, Pd, heat+, surface, pressure, deloading, ICCF-5, electrolysis

Using several kinds of Pd electrodes, electrolysis were performed in “Fuel-Cell Type Closed Cell”. Initial deuterium absorption (DIP d) at the first period o f electrolysis of 50 mNcm’ current density. Maximum DlPd during electrolysis and deuterium desorption were measured. Single crystal Pd electrode reached the highest initial deuterium absorption, DlPd=0.89, and the highest M aximum DlPd, 0.89, during electrolysis. Except single crystal one of high purity, more than 99 .99%, Pd electrodes annealed at 850у reached the highest DlPd, 0.87. And this electrodes showed excess heat of 13 % of input power.The results of metallographical examinations of Pd electrodes after electrolysis suggest that the electrodes of high purity, annealed at 850у , and machined & etched to remove surface defects will be preferable to reach higher DlPd.

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1584. Hassam, A.B. and A.N. Dharamsi, Deuterium molecule in the presence of electronic charge concentrations: implications for cold fusion. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40(11): p. 6689.

First Author: Hassam, A B.
All Authors: Hassam, A B., Dharamsi, A. N.
Keywords: Theory, Born-Oppenheimer

1585. Hatt, P., Cold Nuclear Transmutations. Distribution of Binding Energy within Nuclei. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 45-53.

First Author: Hatt, P.
All Authors: Hatt, P.
Keywords: Alpha particle, Deuterium, Dineutron, He3, Tritium

In 1936 Bethe and Bacher and in 1938 Hafstad and Teller predicted that α particle structures could be present in atomic nuclei. In the course of developing a theory of nuclear structure based on the assumption of closest packing of clusters of nucleons, Linus Pauling found that the magic numbers have a very simple structural significance. He assumed that in nuclei the nucleons may, as a first approximation, be described as occupying localized 1s orbitals to form small clusters. These small clusters, called spherons, are usually helions (i.e. α particles), tritons and dineutrons. In nuclei containing an odd number of neutrons, an He3 cluster or a deuteron may serve as a spheron. The close-packed-spheron model differs from the conventional liquid-drop model of the nucleus in having spherons rather than nucleons as the units. . . .

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1586. Haug, A. and H. Hoegaasen, Sonoluminescence in heavy water. Phys. Scr., 1996. 54: p. 197.

First Author: Haug, A.
All Authors: Haug, A., Hoegaasen, H.
Keywords: sonoluminescence, neutron, D2O

1587. Hawkins, N., et al. Investigations of Mechanisms and Occurrence of Meteorologically Triggered Cold Fusion at The Chinese Academy of Sciences. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Hawkins, N.
All Authors: Hawkins, N., Xi, S. Sh., Qi, X. Zh., Li, X. D., Wang, L., Zu, Q. X.
Keywords: electron Strings weather, Pd, D2O, Abrikosov vortices

1588. Hawkins, N., Possible natural cold fusion in the atmosphere. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2112.

First Author: Hawkins, N.
All Authors: Hawkins, N.
Keywords: atmosphere, Ball Lighting

1589. Hayden, M.E., et al., High precision calorimetric search for evidence of cold fusion using in situ catalytic recombination of evolved gases. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 161.

First Author: Hayden, M. E.
All Authors: Hayden, M. E., Naerger, U., Booth, J. L., Whitehead, L. A., Hardy, W. N., Carolan, J. F., Wishnow, E. H., Balzarini, D. A., Brewer, J. H., Blake, C. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat-, D2O

1590. He, J., et al. A Study on Anomalous Nuclear Fusion Reaction by Using a HV Pulse Discharge. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J., Zhang, Y., Ren, G., Zhu, G., Dong, X., Chen, D., Han, H., Wang, L., Jin, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, gas discharge, particle emission, gamma emission ICCF-4

1591. He, J., et al., Study of anomalous nuclear fusion reaction by using HV pulse discharge. Chin. Phys. Lett., 1993. 10(11): p. 652.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J., Zhang, Y., Ren, G., Zhu, G., Qian, Z., Dong, X., Dai, C., Hu, S., Wang, L., Yi, S.
Keywords: gas discharge, neutron, gamma emission Pd, ion bombardment D2

1592. He, J., Nuclear fusion inside condense matters. Front. Phys. China, 2007. 1: p. 96-102.

First Author: He, J.
All Authors: He, J.
Keywords: review

1593. Heming, G., Cold Fusion In search of Infinite Energy. MURJ, 2001. 4: p. 63-67.

First Author: Heming, G.
All Authors: Heming, G.
Keywords: review,

1594. Hemmes, H., B.M. Geerken, and R. Griessen, Contribution of optical phonons to the thermal expansion of PdHx and a’-PdDx. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1984. 14: p. 2923.

First Author: Hemmes, H.
All Authors: Hemmes, H., Geerken, B. M., Griessen, R.
Keywords: thermal expansion, PdD, PdH

1595. Henderson, R.A., et al., More searches for cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 475.

First Author: Henderson, R. A.
All Authors: Henderson, R. A., Czerwinski, K. R., Hall, H. L., Lesko, K. T., Norman, E. B., Sur, B., Hoffman, D. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd neutron, gamma emission, radioactivity Titanium, D2O, H2O

1596. Henis, Z., S. Eliezer, and A. Zigler, Cold nuclear fusion rates in condensed matter: a phenomenological analysis. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1989. 15: p. L219.

First Author: Henis, Z.
All Authors: Henis, Z., Eliezer, S., Zigler, A.
Keywords: Theory

1597. Henry-Couannier, F., From Dark Gravity to LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Henry-Couannier, F.
All Authors: Henry-Couannier, F.
Keywords: Anti-gravity, Field discontinuities, Janus field, LENR, Negative energies, Time reversal

Dark Gravity (DG) theories are extensions of General Relativity having a stable anti-gravitational sector. From the beginning, the motivation for such an extended framework was not only phenomenological, trying to address several well-known enigmatic cosmological discoveries in an alternative way: missing mass effects, universe acceleration, … but also theoretical, and the main achievement is that indeed, it is possible to avoid most if not all generic instability issues which are well known to prevent the introduction of negative masses in General Relativity. Moreover it was also shown that such constructions are not arbitrary but can be entirely derived following the alternative mathematical choice for understanding the Time Reversal Symmetry, that of a Unitary T operator in QFT, needing a complete rehabilitation of negative energies in theoretical physics. All versions of DG theories studied so far unsurprisingly share many phenomenological outcomes, but here we shall focus on one which, for the first time, very naturally leads us to investigate the likely existence of genuine field discontinuities. The resulting phenomenology started to be explored. The first part of the article is a reminder of the main steps that led us to Dark Gravity. The second part focuses on discontinuities to show that these are all we need to explain in an unifying and very simple way many if not all of the well known so called “LENR miracles”: Large eXcess Power (XP) not possibly of chemical origin with extremely low levels of nuclear radiations (alpha, beta, gamma, neutrons) as compared to what would be expected from nuclear processes producing the same amount of energy, Transmutations and isotopic anomalies in cold conditions, Incredible properties such as huge inertia anomalies and temperature discontinuities of a new category of objects produced in association with LENR and behaving as extremely magnetic micro ball lightnings.

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1598. Henry-Couannier, F., The Dark side of Gravity and LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 59-80.

First Author: Henry-Couannier, F.
All Authors: Henry-Couannier, F.
Keywords: Anti-gravity, Field discontinuities, Janus field, LENR, Negative energies, Time reversal

A previous article paved the way from a dark gravity theory (DG) toward LENR. This article is intended to go beyond the conceptual foundations (which will only be briefly summarized), and to provide a more technical detailed road map. An important revision of the theory was also made necessary by the recent direct detection of gravitational waves by Ligo. Finally, justifications will be given for adopting a slightly modified view of the process that triggers the formation of micro lightning balls, those enigmatic objects being produced in association with (and arguably responsible for) LENR, as we have recently identified the key role being played by a local increase of the density of electrons by various methods including a high luminosity beam (pulse) of electrons on a target.

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1599. Herbst, H., Ist der Aufbau des Heliums aus Wasserstoff gelungen? (Was the production of helium from hydrogen succesful?). Chemiker-Zeitung, 1926. 50: p. 905 (in German).

First Author: Herbst, H.
All Authors: Herbst, H.
Keywords: helium critique, history

1600. Herrero, C. and F.D. Manchester, Location of the Low Temperature Resistivity Anomaly in Pd-D. Phys. Lett. A, 1981. 86: p. 29.

First Author: Herrero, C.
All Authors: Herrero, C., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: PdD, resistivity

1601. Herrmann, G., Five Decades Ago: From the “Transuranics” to Nuclear Fission. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 1990. 29: p. 481.

First Author: Herrmann, G.
All Authors: Herrmann, G.
Keywords: review, history

1602. Herzog, R.F., Fusion in a Solid: A Pump Primer, in Phys. Today. 1990. p. 120.

First Author: Herzog, R. F.
All Authors: Herzog, R. F.
Keywords: application, fusion, Ti, D2, Pump, neutron

1603. Hietschold, M., Electric field control for cold nuclear fusion? – a suggestion. Wiss. Z. TU Karl-Marx-Stadt, 1989. 31: p. 635.

First Author: Hietschold, M.
All Authors: Hietschold, M.
Keywords: theory, layer, ion trapping

1604. Higashiyama, Y., et al. Replication of MHI transmutation experiment by D2 gas permeation through Pd complex. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Higashiyama, Y.
All Authors: Higashiyama, Y., Sakano, M., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: transmutation

Unusual nuclear transmutation reactions have been reported by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). In their experiment, D2 gas permeates through a Pd complexes, which consists of a thin Pd layer, alternating CaO and Pd layers and bulk Pd. When they used sample Pd complexes with additional Cs on the surface, Pr emerged on the surface while Cs decreased after the sample was subjected to D2 gas permeation at 343 K and 1 atm for about one week. The elemental analysis was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This phenomenon was reproduced qualitatively in the present replication experiment.We performed D-permeation experiments similar to the MHI’s experiment three times, and we confirmed the production of Pr. Pd complex samples were provided to us by MHI. The surface was electrolytically cleaned to remove hydrocarbons before depositing Cs. D2 gas was permeated through the Pd complexes at 343 K and 1 atm for about 5 days. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed to analyze the existence of the elements (Cs and Pr) and the mass distribution. The results showed the existence of Pr. And we also confirmed the existence of Pr by using fast Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) in Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI).As a result, we confirmed that the nuclear transmutation reaction, from 133Cs to 141Pr, was occurred. This transmutation suggests that the mass numbers and atomic numbers increase 8 and 4, respectively. The model of multi-body resonance fusion of deuterons proposed by A. Takahashi2 can explain this mass-8-and-charge-4 increased transmutation.

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1605. Higgins, R. and D. Letts. Modeling & Simulation of a Gas Discharge LENR Prototype (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Higgins, R.
All Authors: Higgins, R., Letts, D.
Keywords: simulation, calorimetry

Experimental results from a stainless-steel LENR prototype reactor in a large thermal mass Seebeckcalorimeter are modeled to accurately simulate experimental results. The well-known SPICE simulatoris used for this work, where thermal properties of the apparatus are converted to lumped electricalcircuits for simulation. Lumped electrical analogues for thermal components allow well developedelectrical simulation technologies to quickly solve time domain thermal problems. Once the thermalmodel for a system is extracted, the simulation is accurate enough to detect possible experimental errorsand inconsistencies. In addition, the unknown excess heat can be readily de-embedded from thetypically long time constant of the calorimeter, enabling better time alignment of the excess heatresponse to the inputs that may have been the proximate cause for the effect.

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1606. Higgins, R. and D. Letts. Modeling & Simulation of a Gas Discharge LENR Prototype (Preprint). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Higgins, R.
All Authors: Higgins, R., Letts, D.
Keywords: Thermal modeling, SPICE, deconvolution, non-Fourier heat propagation

Modeling of a thermal system is described using circuit analogues and the highly developed SPICE simulator operating in nonlinear transient mode. Thermal circuit modeling is shown to provide a good fit in a Seebeck calorimeter, even for complex experimental thermal behavior. Component values are either derived or extracted for the calorimeter. The resulting model is used to correct for experimental measurement deficiencies, and to deconvolve the excess heat waveform (residual) from the output response. Model computation time is less than 5 seconds for typical circuits on an average contemporary personal computer. Also, during the course of modeling the calorimeter, experimental evidence was found for the obscure phenomenon of non-Fourier heat transfer.

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1607. Hill, J.C., et al., Search for cold fusion using Pd-D2O cells and Ti-D mixtures. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 305.

First Author: Hill, J. C.
All Authors: Hill, J. C., Stassis, C., Shinar, J., Goldman, A. I., Folkerts, R., Schwellenbach, D. D., Peterson, D. T., Widrig, C., Porter, M., Benesh, C. J., Vary, J. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2, Titanium neutron, gamma emission, D2O H2O

1608. Hioki, T., et al. Influence of Deuterium Gas Permeation on Surface Elemental Change of Sr-88 Ion-Implanted Pd and Pd/CaO multi-layer system. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Gao, J., Takahashi, N., Hibi, S., Murase, A., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: transmutation, gas permeation,

1609. Hioki, T., et al. Hydrogen/Deuterium Absorption Property of Pd Fine Particle Systems and Heat Evolution Associated with Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Azuma, H., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Gao, J., Hibi, S., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords:

Hydrogen absorption capacity and heat evolution upon loading with hydrogen/deuterium gas were measured for Pd-ZrO2 nanocomposite obtained from Santoku Corporation. In order to examine the influence of oxidized Pd on both hydrogen absorption capacity and heat evolution, the measurements were performed three times repeatedly. Prior to each measurement, the samples were heat treated in vacuum at 523K for more than 2 hours. The first time measurement gave an apparent H/Pd ratio of 2.6 and a heat evolution of 2.6eV/Pd. During the first time measurement, the oxidized Pd was reduced to metallic Pd. It was found that the H/Pd ratio at 1MPa was slightly smaller than that of Pd bulk. It was also noted that Pd nanoparticles grow significantly during the cycles of absorption and desorption of hydrogen. When the sample was loaded with deuterium, intermittent heat evolutions as small as at most 0.1W were observed in the second stage where heat evolutions arising from chemical reactions were hardly expected.

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1610. Hioki, T., et al., Absorption Capacity and Heat Evolution with Loading of Hydrogen Isotope Gases for Pd Nanopowder and Pd/Ceramics Nanocomposite. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 69-80.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Azuma, H., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Hibi, S., Gao, J., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: Calorimeter, CMNS, Deuterium absorption, Heat evolution, Hydrogen storage, Pd nanoparticle

Using Sievert’s method, the hydrogen (/deuterium) absorption capacitywas measured for Pd nanopowder with particle size 10-20 nm and for Pd-γAl2O3 nanocomposites with Pd particle size 2-5 nm. In order to eliminate the influence of oxidized Pd particles on the absorption capacity, measurements were repeated three or four times without exposing the samples to air. For both nano-Pd materials, the absorption capacity at 1MPa was found to be slightly smaller than that of Pd bulk. The difference in the absorption capacity between hydrogen and deuterium, i.e., the isotope effect, was negligible within the experimental error. It was found that the average size of the Pd particles was significantly increased after the repeated measurements of the absorption capacity. The heat generated upon pressurizing the materials with deuterium or hydrogen up to 1MPa was measured using a flow calorimeter. Similar to the measurements of absorption capacity, the heat measurements were also conducted repeatedly. The observed heat generation was composed of two stages, i.e., the first stage during pressurizing the samples from 0 to 1 MPa and the second stage, where the sample was kept under a fixed pressure of 1 MPa. The heat generated in the first stage was much larger at the time of the first measurement than at the second or third. The heat generated in the first stage was largely explained by taking into account two chemical reactions, i.e., the water formation reaction and the deuteride formation reaction. It was noted that in the second stage, where the heat generated from chemical reactions was hardly expected to occur, a small heat power was observed intermittently. This heat evolution was observed frequently when the samples were loaded with deuterium.

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1611. Hioki, T., et al., Effects of Self-poisoning of Pd on the Deuterium Permeation Rate and Surface Elemental Analysis for Nuclear Transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 64-76.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Takahashi, N., Gao, J., Murase, A., Hibi, S., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: Deuterium permeation, Pd metal, Poisoning, S impurity, Transmutation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

Factors affecting the deuterium permeation rate through Pd foils at a temperature as low as 70◦C have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that the surface segregation of S from the interior of Pd bulk during the permeation process causes a significant lowering of permeation rate with increasing permeation time, although the concentration of S impurity in Pd bulk is probably less than 10 ppm. The surface accumulated S during D2 permeation also gives rise to a difficulty in detecting small amount of elements on the surface of Pd after deuterium permeation treatment. For selected nuclear transmutation from Sr to Mo reported by Iwamura group, we have successfully observed Mo on the surface of Sr ion-implanted Pd after a deuterium permeation treatment, by adding a process that removes the sulfur accumulated on the surface of the Pd foil. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) study on the origin of the observed Mo will be described in a separate paper.

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1612. Hioki, T., et al., Isotope Effect for Heat Generation upon Pressurizing Nano-Pd/Silica Systems with Hydrogen Isotope Gases. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Sugimoto, N., Nishi, T., Itoh, A., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: Heat, Isotope effect, Nano-palladium, Porous silica

The isotope effect for heat generation upon pressurization with hydrogen isotope gases was clearly observed in a reproducible manner for nano-Pd/silica systems. For Pd/zeolite, the isotope effect decreased with increasing cycle of pressurization and almost disappeared at several cycles, whereas the effect was observed up to 15 cycles or more for Pd/FSM. Pd particles with sizes less than 2 nm are suggested to be essential for the isotope effect to be clearly observable.

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1613. Hioki, T., A. Ichiki, and T. Motohiro, Stabilization of Nano-sized Pd Particles under Hydrogen Atmosphere. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 123-129.

First Author: Hioki, T.
All Authors: Hioki, T., Ichiki, A., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: Elevated temperature, Hydrogen atmosphere, Hydrogen absorption capacity, Mesoporous silica, Nano-size, Pd nanoparticles, Stabilization, Synthesis

To enhance the reproducibility of anomalous heat effects reported in gas loaded experiments using nano-sized metal particle systems, stabilization of the nano-sized metal particles under hydrogen atmosphere and at elevated temperatures seems to be important. In this paper, the synthesis of nano-Pd particles embedded in the meso-pores of a mesoporous-silica is reported. We have succeeded in synthesizing nano-Pd particle systems with an average Pd particle size of 3.60 nm and a standard deviation of 0.64 nm. It was found that the synthesized nano-Pd particle system is very stable, i.e., the average size of the Pd particle is unchanged when exposed to a hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to 773 K. The hydrogen absorption capacity of the nano-Pd particles in the mesoporous silica host at room temperature was smaller than that of the Pd bulk.

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1614. Hirabayashi, T., Y. Yoshida, and Y. Aradono, Verification of room temperature nuclear fusion. 2. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 31 (in Japanese).

First Author: Hirabayashi, T.
All Authors: Hirabayashi, T., Yoshida, Y., Aradono, Y.
Keywords: Review

1615. Hirooka, Y., M. Miyake, and T. Sano, A Study of Hydrogen Absorption and Desorption By Titanium. J. Nucl. Mater., 1981. 96: p. 227.

First Author: Hirooka, Y.
All Authors: Hirooka, Y., Miyake, M., Sano, T.
Keywords: H2, Ti, loading

1616. Ho, N.S. and F.D. Manchester, The Electrical Resistivity of Palladium-Hydrogen and Palladium-Deuterium Alloys between 4 and 300 K. Can. J. Phys., 1968. 46: p. 1341.

First Author: Ho, N. S.
All Authors: Ho, N. S., Manchester, F. D.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, resistivity

1617. Hoare, J.P. and S. Schuldiner, Mechanisms of hydrogen producing reactions on palladium. III. Hydrogen overvoltage on the polarization and diffusion sides of a cathode-diagram. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1956. 103(4): p. 237.

First Author: Hoare, J. P.
All Authors: Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S.
Keywords: PdH, overvoltage, loading

1618. Hoare, J.P., S. Schuldiner, and G.W. Castellan, Electrochemical behavior of the palladium-hydrogen system(III). Gas-charged palladium alloys. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 22.

First Author: Hoare, J. P.
All Authors: Hoare, J. P., Schuldiner, S., Castellan, G. W.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, overvoltage, loading, PdH

1619. Hodgkinson, N., Nuclear Confusion, in The Sunday Times (UK). 1993: LondonEditor.

First Author: Hodgkinson, N.
All Authors: Hodgkinson, N.
Keywords: newspaper, review, history

1620. Hodko, D. and J. Bockris, Possible excess tritium production on Pd codeposited with deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 353: p. 33.

First Author: Hodko, D.
All Authors: Hodko, D., Bockris, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O, coplating

1621. Hoffman, N.J., Book Review of Taubes Book. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 225.

First Author: Hoffman, N. J.
All Authors: Hoffman, N. J.
Keywords: history, Book, Review

1622. Hoffman, N., A Dialogue on Chemically Induced Nuclear Effects. A Guide for the Perplexed about Cold Fusion. 1995, La Grange Park, Ill: American Nuclear Society.

First Author: Hoffman, N.
All Authors: Hoffman, N.
Keywords: history, book,

1623. Hoffmann, B., H. Baumann, and F. Rauch, Hydrogen Uptake by Palladium-Implanted Titanium Studied by NRA and RBS. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1989. 15: p. 361.

First Author: Hoffmann, B.
All Authors: Hoffmann, B., Baumann, H., Rauch, F.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2, loading, Pd-Ti

1624. Holleck, G.L. and T.B. Flanagan, The mechanism for the isotopic exchange between deuterium and acidic solutions on palladium surfaces. J. Phys. Chem., 1967. 71: p. 3110.

First Author: Holleck, G. L.
All Authors: Holleck, G. L., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O

1625. Holst-Hansen, P. and D. Britz, Can current fluctuations account for the excess heat claims of Fleischmann and Pons? J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 388: p. 11.

First Author: Holst-Hansen, P.
All Authors: Holst-Hansen, P., Britz, D.
Keywords: critique, heat, method, current fluctuation Pons-Fleischmann

1626. Hongyu, Z., et al. Some Results on Cold Fusion Research. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hongyu, Z.
All Authors: Hongyu, Z., Chenlin, W., Yanin, R., Guoying, F., Hua, Y., Weidong, Z., Dachun, W., Ming, H., Shuzen, L., Zhuen, H., Zhongda, W., Runhu, Y., Zhenghao, L., Guoxiao, R.
Keywords: Pd, Ti, D2O, D2, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-2

1627. Hora, H., et al. Surface Models for Cold Fusion and the Possibilities of Multilayered Cells for Energy Production. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Scharmann, A.
Keywords: theory

1628. Hora, H., et al., Plasma and surface tension model for explaining the surface effect of tritium generation at cold fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1990. 12D(3): p. 393.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Cicchitelli, L., Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Scharmann, A., Scheid, W.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron

1629. Hora, H., et al., Screening in cold fusion derived from D-D reactions. Phys. Lett. A, 1993. 175: p. 138.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Patel, J. U., Prelas, M. A., Miley, G. H., Tompkins, J. W.
Keywords: Theory, swimming electron

1630. Hora, H. and J.A. Patterson, The d and p reactions in low-energy nuclear fusion, transmutation, and fission. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 1996. 76: p. 144.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: Theory, screening, transmutation, fission

1631. Hora, H., J.C. Kelly, and G.H. Miley, Energy gain and nuclear transmutation by low-energy p- or d-reaction in metal lattices. Infinite Energy, 1997. 2(12): p. 48.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

1632. Hora, H., et al. Nuclear Shell Magic Numbers Agree With Measured Transmutation by Low-Energy Reactions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Narne, Y.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, swimming electron, magic number, ICCF-7

1633. Hora, H., Magic numbers and low energy nuclear transmutation by protons in host metals. Czech. J. Phys., 1998. 48(3): p. 321.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H.
Keywords: Theory, magic number, swimming electron

1634. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, New magic numbers from low energy nuclear transmutations predict element (306)X(126) for compound reactions. Czech. J. Phys., 1998. 48: p. 1111.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation, magic number

1635. Hora, H., et al., Proton-metal reactions in thin films with Boltzmann distribution similar to nuclear astrophysics. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 331.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Salvaggi, G., Tate, A., Osman, F., Castillo, R.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

1636. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and J. Kelly. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions of Protons in Host Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: theory, transmutation, ICCF-8

1637. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, Heavy nuclide synthesis by neutrons in astrophysics and by screened protons in host metals. Czech. J. Phys., 2000. 50: p. 433.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

1638. Hora, H. Summary about theoretical results of the 9th international conference on cold fusion. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H.
Keywords: theory, review, ICCF-9

For summarizing theoretical papers of the ICCF9 conference, a short reminder should be given about some significant experimental results that can form a basis for a theory of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). For a more historic view, the motivation for the Fleischmann-Pons experiment or the Preparata effect were well explained while-as an unusual view-L. Case reported that experiments may be understood by a simple chemical process involving catalytic surface properties. This could also explain why heat production happens in some cases and not in other cases. Contrary to this is the history of the observation of neutron emission from palladium compounds [1] or from deuterated palladium [2] that indicate nuclear processes. Today we have the significant result of Tian, Li et al [3] that the reaction of palladium wires after reacting with a hydrogen atmosphere during a current discharge, when the energy input was stopped and the gas evacuated, generated “heat after dead” for 43 hours producing about 3.6kW/cm^3 or 13 keV/atom Pd . . .

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1639. Hora, H., et al. Shrinking of hydrogen atoms in host metals by dielectric effects and Inglis-Teller depression of ionization potentials. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J. C., Osman, F.
Keywords: ICCF-9, theory, swimming electron

ABSTRACT         Conversion of deuterium to tritium in palladium has been clearly confirmed by the Arata-Zhang experiments. Endothermic element synthesis in Pd. and/or Ni layers due to high proton concentration, in analogy to stellar synthesis can be seen from the generation of very rare elements such as terbium. A convincing explanation is necessary. It was concluded phenomenologically that the reaction of the protons or deuterons by fusion or with the nuclei of the host metal occurs at a distance of about picometers with a reaction time of about megaseconds. It was noted that the Bohr radius rB of hydrogen atoms in a dielectric with refractive index n is changed to rBn2. such that with the electron concentration of the host metals a plasma refractive index of 0.076 results in a value of 3pm. In order to understand the subsequent dielectric modification of the ionization energy, we apply the model of depression of this energy by the Inglis-Teller effect for which a model with the best agreement with plasma experiments was presented before. For our model of the dielectrically shrunk picometer hydrogen atoms, the low ionization energies result in a reasonable relation between dielectric properties and the effective Debye length. Preference of the reaction at surfaces or interfaces between different host metals are due to the same reduction of the dielectric response as observed with surface plasmons. For the swimming electron layer theory, the spreading of the double layer for metal interfaces was discussed.

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1640. Hora, H., et al. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions resulting as picometer interactions with similarity to K-shell electron capture. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Li, X. Z., Kelly, J., Osman, F.
Keywords: theory

Since the appeal by Brian Josephson at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004, it seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium. Some reflections to Rutherford’s discovery of nuclear physics, the Cockroft-Oliphant discovery of anomalous low energy fusion reactions and the chemist Hahn’s discovery of fission had to be included. Using gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant results were seen e.g. from the “life after death” heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect – preferably in the swimming electron layer – may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the appearance of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quark-gluon plasmas.

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1641. Hora, H. and G.H. Miley, Maruhn-Greiner Maximum of Uranium Fission for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers. J. Fusion Energy, 2007. 26: p. 349-355.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Fission of excited nuclei  Low energy nuclear reactions in metals  Compound nuclei  Coulomb screening by small Debye length  Swimming electron layer, Pd, Coehn, heat+, D2 O, electrolysis, resistivity, loading, ICCF-8

One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons of very high concentration in host metals as palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum of the reaction probability depending on the nucleon number A of generated elements at A = 153 where a local maximum was measured. This is similar to the fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows from the Maruhn-Greiner theory if the splitting nuclei are excited to about MeV energy. The LENR generated elements can be documented any time after the reaction by SIMS or K-shell X-ray excitation to show the very unique distribution with the local maximum. An explanation is based on the strong Debye screening of the Maxwellian deuterons within the degenerate rigid electron background especially within the swimming electron layer at the metal surface or at interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of about 2 picometers. They may form clusters due to soft attraction in the range above thermal energy. Clusters of 10 pm diameter may react over long time probabilities (megaseconds) with Pd nuclei leading to a double magic number compound nucleus which splits like in fission to the A = 153 element distribution.

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1642. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and K. Philberth. Radiochemical Observations for Comparison of Uranium Fission with Low Energy Nuclear Reactions LENR. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Philberth, K.
Keywords: theory

The discovery of nuclear fission by Hahn and Straßmann was based on a very rare microanalytical result what initially could not indicate the very complicated details of this most important process. A similarity is discussed for the low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) being proved from analogies of measurements of uranium fission. The distribution of the elements with uranium fission is similar to the element distribution with LENR. This was observed repeatedly and reproducibly with high density deuteron concentration in palladium. This discussion is specifically focussed to the Maruhn-Greiner local maximum of the distribution within the large-scale minimum if the fission nuclei are excited. The consequences of the complications in uranium fission are discussed in comparison with LENR with respect to the studies of a hypothetical fissioning compound nuclear reaction via a concluded element 306X126 with double magic numbers.

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1643. Hora, H., et al., Quark-Gluon Model for Magic Numbers Related to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 219-234.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Ghahramani, N., Miley, G. H., Ghanaatian, M., Hooshmand, M., Philberth, K., Osman, F.
Keywords:

1644. Hora, H., G.H. Miley, and X. Yang, Bose-Einstein Condensation and Inverted Rydberg States in Ultra-high Density Deuterium Clusters Related to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Hora, H.
All Authors: Hora, H., Miley, G. H., Yang, X.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Generalized Bohr model, Lowenergy nuclear reactions, Rydberg matter, Ultra-high density deuterium clusters

Results about low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) are related to very high density clusters of deuterons where properties of Bose-Einstein condensation and/or inverted Rydberg states are compared. A modification of Boh-ڳ atom model is used to overcome the problem that a quantum state with n = 1 does not emit radiation from an “orbiting” electron. This permits then the description of the inverted state of Rydberg matter in agreement with the recent measurements of Holmlid et al. for deuterium clusters with ultra-high deuteron densities in the range of 1029cm−3. A virtual oscillation model for laser excitation clusters explains the low intensity ionization threshold in clusters. MeV particle emission from LENR can then be compared with measurements from inverted Rydberg states.

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1645. Horanyi, G., Some doubts about the occurrence of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 889.

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: critique

1646. Horanyi, G., Open questions concerning the Fleischmann-Pons experiment. Magy. Kem. Fol, 1989. 95: p. 140 (in Hungarian).

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: Discussion

1647. Horanyi, G., Some basic electrochemistry and the cold nuclear fusion of deuterium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1989. 137(1): p. 23.

First Author: Horanyi, G.
All Authors: Horanyi, G.
Keywords: critique, overvoltage

1648. Horowitz, C.J., Cold nuclear fusion in metallic hydrogen and normal metals. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1989. 40: p. R1555.

First Author: Horowitz, C. J.
All Authors: Horowitz, C. J.
Keywords: Theory, cosmology, p-d fusion

1649. Horowitz, C.J., Cold nuclear fusion in dense metallic hydrogen. Astrophys. J., 1991. 367: p. 288.

First Author: Horowitz, C. J.
All Authors: Horowitz, C. J.
Keywords: theory, metallic hydrogen

1650. Howald, R.A., Calculations on the Palladium-Lithium System for Cold Fusion. CALPHAD, 1990. 14: p. 1.

First Author: Howald, R. A.
All Authors: Howald, R. A.
Keywords: Phase Diagram, Pd-Li

1651. Hrushovetz, S.M. Particles, Primes, and “Cold Fusion”. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Hrushovetz, S. M.
All Authors: Hrushovetz, S. M.
Keywords: theory, muon, ICCF-7

1652. Hsu, C.L., C.M. Wan, and F.R. Chen. TEM Investigation of Hydrogen Ordering in Pd. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Hsu, C. L.
All Authors: Hsu, C. L., Wan, C. M., Chen, F. R
Keywords: order, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, molten salt, TEM, ICCF-3, structure

TEM was used to study the microstructure of Pd electrodes before and after electrochemical reaction in molten salt and heavy water cells. Hydrogen ordered structure in the non-stoichiometric PHx was observed in the Pd specimens annealed in air, vacuum and hydrogen furance. On the contrary, high density of dislocations and subgrains and no superlattice structure was observed in the Pd specimens after electrochemical reactions. The reason why no superlattice structure in the electrochemically reacted Pd may be due to traping of hydrogen atoms by defects.

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1653. Hu, C.C. and T.C. Wen, Effect of pH and anion on hydrogen sorption/desorption at/within oxide-derived Pd electrodes. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1995. 142(5): p. 1376.

First Author: Hu, C. C.
All Authors: Hu, C. C., Wen, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, loading, PdCl2 electrolysis

1654. Huang, N., et al. A Flow Calorimeter Used in Duplication of ‘Cold Fusion’. in Special Session Cold Fusion, Electrochemical Society. 1989. Hollywood, Fl: Electrochemical Society.

First Author: Huang, N.
All Authors: Huang, N., Gao, Q. H., Liaw, B. Y., Liebert, B. E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, method

1655. Huang, N. Effect of Light Water Additions on Excess Heat Generation of Palladium Deuterium System. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Huang, N.
All Authors: Huang, N.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, D2O, heat+, H2O addition effect of H2O

1656. Huang, C.Y. and M. Rabinowitz, Some New Aspects of Super-High Temperature Superconductors. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(9): p. 567.

First Author: Huang, C. Y.
All Authors: Huang, C. Y., Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: review, superconductivity

1657. Huang, G., et al. The Measurements and the Control of Loading Ratio of Deuterium in Palladium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Huang, G.
All Authors: Huang, G., Mo, D., Yu, W., Yao, M., Xi, X., Liaw, B.
Keywords: Pd, D, loading, method, ICCF-4, electrolysis, D2O

1658. Huang, G.S. and X.Z. Li. A possible phase transition in a gas-loading D/Pd system. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Huang, G. S.
All Authors: Huang, G. S., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2, resistivity, ICCF-6

A resistance jump is identified at the loading ratio, DPd, approaching 0.58 in a gas-loading DPd system. This jump may be related with the transition between the alpha phase and the beta phase of the deuteride. Its implication for measuring the loading ratio is discussed.

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1659. Hubler, G.K., Anomalous Effects in Hydrogen-Charged Palladium – A review. Surf. Coatings Technol., 2007.

First Author: Hubler, G. K.
All Authors: Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: Review

1660. Hubler, G.K., Anomalous Effects in Hydrogen-Charged Palladium – A review (PowerPoint slides). Surf. Coatings Technol., 2007.

First Author: Hubler, G. K.
All Authors: Hubler, G. K.
Keywords:

Abstract and PowerPoint slides describing the paper of the same title.

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1661. Hubler, G.K., et al., Sidney Kimmel Institute for Nuclear Renaissance. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Hubler, G. K.
All Authors: Hubler, G. K., El-Boher, A., Azizi, O., Pease, D., He, J., Isaacson, W., Gangopadhyay, S., Violante, V.
Keywords: Anomalous heat effect, excess energy, hydrogen, palladium

1662. Huggins, R.A., Statement before the Committee on Science, Space, and Technolgy. 1989.

First Author: Huggins, R. A.
All Authors: Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: congress, statement, history

1663. Huggins, R.A. Fundamental Considerations Relating to the Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen and Palladium into Mixed Conductors. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Huggins, R. A.
All Authors: Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, method, electrolysis

1664. Huggins, R.A., Fundamental considerations relating to the insertion of hydrogen isotopes into mixed conductors at high activities. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 1991. 210: p. 317.

First Author: Huggins, R. A.
All Authors: Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: theory, catalysis

1665. Huggins, R.A. Materials Aspects of the Electrochemical Insertion of Hydrogen and Deuterium into Mixed Conductors. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Huggins, R. A.
All Authors: Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, review, loading, electrolysis, dislocation, ICCF-4

AbstractA number of features of the presence of interstitial species in metals and alloys relevant to “solid state fusion” experiments are discussed. These include experimental evidence for very high virtual pressures under certain conditions, and the influence of promotors and surface blockers. Dislocation generation and motion can result from the large stresses accompanying composition gradients and phase transformations. Because of preferential segregation of interstitial species to dislocations, transport along dislocations can be much faster than through the bulk crystal, and dislocation motion can cause unusually rapid interstitial solute transport and both entry and emission from surfaces. Mechanical effects related to the presence of hydrogen often are sporadic and can have long delay times. It is possible that some of the same microstructural features and phenomena that are responsible for delayed mechanical behavior play an important role in the “solid state fusion” observations. Two dislocation mechanisms are presented that can produce transient local hyperloading.

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1666. Huggins, R.A. and W.D. Nix, Decrepitation Model For Capacity Loss During Cycling of Alloys in Rechargeable Electrochemical Systems. Ionics, 2000. 6: p. 57.

First Author: Huggins, R. A.
All Authors: Huggins, R. A., Nix, W. D.
Keywords: Electrochemistry

Abstract. Mechanisms that are involved in the loss of capacity upon the cycling of electro­chemical cells are discussed. The inherent instability of the electrochemical interface and the resul­tant geometrical changes are characteristic of electrodes in which the reactant is a pure element. On the other hand, decrepitation can play an important role in the case of polyphase electrodes in which significant changes in specific volume occur. A simple one-dimensional model is presented that shows the mechanism and the important parameters that are involved in particle fracture. It predicts that decrepitation will lead to a terminal particle size, as is found experimentally.

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1667. Hugo, M. A Home Cold Fusion Experiment. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Hugo, M.
All Authors: Hugo, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd-Ag, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-4

1668. Huizenga, J.R., Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. 1992, Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

First Author: Huizenga, J. R.
All Authors: Huizenga, J. R.
Keywords: history, critique, book,

1669. Huizenga, J.R., Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century. 1993, New York: Oxford University Press.

First Author: Huizenga, J. R.
All Authors: Huizenga, J. R.
Keywords: history, critique, book,

1670. Huke, A., et al. Evidence for a Target-Material Dependence of the Neutron-Proton Branching Ratio in d+d Reactions for Deuteron Energies below 20 keV. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Huke, A.
All Authors: Huke, A., Czerski, K., Dorsch, T., Heide, P.
Keywords: neutron

Angular distributions and the neutron-proton branching ratio of the mirror reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He have been investigated using different deuterized metallic targets at projectile energies ranging from 5 to 60 keV. Whereas the experimental results obtained for Al, Zr, Pd and Ta targets do not differ from those known from gas-target experiments, an enhancement of the angular anisotropy in the neutron channel and a quenching of the neutron-proton branching ratio have been observed for Li and Sr targets at deuteron energies below 20 keV. Both effects can be explained assuming an induced adiabatic polarization of the reacting deuterons in the crystal lattice.

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1671. Huke, A., K. Czerski, and P. Heide. Accelerator Experiments and Theoretical Models for the Electron Screening Effect in Metallic Environments. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Huke, A.
All Authors: Huke, A., Czerski, K., Heide, P.
Keywords: theory

An overview of our experiments and their results concerning the electron screening effects in metallic environments are presented. The measurements of the reactions 2H(d,p)3H and 2H(d,n)3He were performed with an electrostatic accelerator at incident deuteron energies between 5 and 60keV at different self-implanted target materials. The resulting screening energy values are about one order of magnitude larger compared to gas target experiments and exceed significantly the theoretical predictions. A thorough investigation of the processes in the targets under ion irradiation shows that there are multi-parameter collateral effects which are crucial for the correct interpretation of the observed enhancements. They mainly originate from target surface contaminations due to residual gases in the vacuum as well as from inhomogeneities in the deuteron density distribution in heterogeneous targets. For the special situation of deuterium in the metallic environment an improved analysis method has been developed beyond the standard procedures. Experimental evidence for the influence of such effects and a mathematical model for their assessment are given and compared with the results of other groups. We also present a numerical model of the electron screening effect in metallic lattices based on an ab-initio Hartree-Fock simulation.

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1672. Huke, A., et al., Evidence for a host-material dependence of the n/p branching ratio of low-energy d+d reactions within metallic environments. Eur. Phys. J. A, 2006. 27(s01): p. 187-192.

First Author: Huke, A.
All Authors: Huke, A., Czerski, K., Dorsch, T., Biller, A., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G.
Keywords: Theory, branching ratio, critique

1673. Huke, A., et al., Enhancement of the Deuteron-Fusion Reactions in Metals and its Experimental Implications. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 2008. 78(1).

First Author: Huke, A.
All Authors: Huke, A., Czerski, K., Heide, P., Ruprecht, G., Targosz, N., Zebrowski, W.
Keywords: ion-bombardment, d-d, cross section

Recent measurements of the reaction 2H(d,p)3H in metallic environments at very low energies performed by different experimental groups point to an enhanced electron screening effect. However, the resulting screening energies differ strongly for diverse host metals and different experiments. Here, we present new experimental results and investigations of interfering processes in the irradiated targets. These measurements inside metals set special challenges and pitfalls that make them and the data analysis particularly error prone. There are multiparameter collateral effects that are crucial for the correct interpretation of the observed experimental yields. They mainly originate from target surface contaminations owing to residual gases in the vacuum as well as from inhomogeneities and instabilities in the deuteron density distribution in the targets. To address these problems an improved differential analysis method beyond the standard procedures has been implemented. Profound scrutiny of the other experiments demonstrates that the observed unusual changes in the reaction yields are mainly due to deuteron density dynamics simulating the alleged screening energy values. The experimental results are compared with different theoretical models of the electron screening in metals. The Debye-Hückel model that has been previously proposed to explain the influence of the electron screening on both nuclear reactions and radioactive decays can be clearly excluded.

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1674. Hunter, G.W., et al., A Dewar Calorimeter for Electrochemical Studies. 1990.

First Author: Hunter, G. W.
All Authors: Hunter, G. W., Pond, G. R., Werth, J., Balko, E. N.
Keywords: method, heat

1675. Hurlbert, R.C. and J.O. Konecny, Diffusion of hydrogen through palladium. J. Chem. Phys., 1961. 34: p. 655.

First Author: Hurlbert, R. C.
All Authors: Hurlbert, R. C., Konecny, J. O.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion

1676. Hurtak, J.J. and P.G. Bailey, Cold fusion research: Models and potential benefits. 1997: www.padrak.com/ine/.

First Author: Hurtak, J. J.
All Authors: Hurtak, J. J., Bailey, P. G.
Keywords: review,

1677. Hurtak, J.J., Cold Fusion Research: Models and Potential Benefits. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 128.

First Author: Hurtak, J. J.
All Authors: Hurtak, J. J.
Keywords: review, theory

1678. Huston, E.L. and G.D. Sandrock, Engineering Properties of Metal Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 74: p. 435.

First Author: Huston, E. L.
All Authors: Huston, E. L., Sandrock, G. D.
Keywords: pressure, Phase Diagram

1679. Hutchinson, D.P., et al., Initial Calorimetry Experiments in the Physics Division -ORNL. 1990: Oak Ridge, TN.

First Author: Hutchinson, D. P.
All Authors: Hutchinson, D. P., Bennet, C. A., Richards, R. K., Bullock, J., Powell, G. L.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, 6Li, recombination

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