Bibliography M-O

Subpage of Bibliography

2435. Ma, Y.L., H.X. Yang, and X.X. Dai, A theoretical study of the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys., 1992. 12: p. 171 (in Chinese).

First Author: Ma, Y. L.
All Authors: Ma, Y. L., Yang, H. X., Dai, X. X.
Keywords: theory, screening

2436. Ma, Q., et al. The Analysis of the Neutron Emission from the Glow Discharge in Deuterium Gas Tube. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ma, Q.
All Authors: Ma, Q., Chen, Y., Huang, G., Yu, W., Mo, D. W., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: neutron, Gas Discharge, Pd, critique, ICCF-4

2437. Ma, Q., et al. The Analysis of the Neutron Emission from the Glow Discharge in Deuterium Gas Tube. in ICCF4, Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ma, Q.
All Authors: Ma, Q., Chen, Y., Huang, G., Yu, W., Mo, D., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: neutron, Gas Discharge, Pd, critique

2438. Ma, Y.L., H.X. Yang, and X.X. Dai, Nuclear-fusion enhancement in condensed matter with impacting and screening. Europhys. Lett., 1993. 24: p. 305.

First Author: Ma, Y. L.
All Authors: Ma, Y. L., Yang, H. X., Dai, X. X.
Keywords: theory

2439. Macy, M., ICCCF15 in Rome, Italy. Infinite Energy, 2009(88): p. 11.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: review

The Fifteenth International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF15) took place in Italy on October 5-9, 2009 at Angelicum University. Angelicum resides in the heart of Rome just behind Trajan’s Markets, at the opposite end to the Colosseum and between the Roman Forums — the central area around which the ancient Roman civilization developed — and the Quirinale Palace, the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic.

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2440. Macy, M., Specifics of Andrea Rossi’s “Energy Catalyzer” Test, University of Bologna, January 14, 2011. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: heat

On January 14, 2011, Andrea Rossi submitted his “Energy Catalyzer” reactor, which burns hydrogen in a nickel catalyst, for examination by scientists at the University of  Bologna and The INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics). The test was organized by Dr. Giuseppe Levi of INFN and the University of Bologna and was assisted by other members of the physics and chemistry faculties. This result was achieved without the production of any measurable nuclear radiation. The magnitude of this result suggests that there is a viable energy technology that uses commonly available materials, that does not produce carbon dioxide, and that does not produce radioactive waste and will be economical to build.

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2441. Macy, M., Defkalion Press Conference in Athens Introduces Rossi Energy Catalyzer. Infinite Energy, 2011.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: History

Defkalion Green Technologies held a press conference and went online with a new website (xxxx://www.defkalion-energy.com) to formally introduce themselves as the Greek, Balkan and worldwide representatives of Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat), which they plan to market as Hyperion. Ampenergo is the North and South American representative.

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2442. Maddox, J., End of Cold Fusion in Sight. Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 15.

First Author: Maddox, J.
All Authors: Maddox, J.
Keywords: history

2443. Maddox, J., Farewell (not fond) to cold fusion. Nature (London), 1990. 344(6265): p. 365.

First Author: Maddox, J.
All Authors: Maddox, J.
Keywords: review

This paper is available from:xxxx://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v344/n6265/pdf/344365a0.pdfA copy is also available here:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/v2/inthenews/1990/Nature-Farewell.shtmlThese links along with some selected quotes from the paper are included in the version here.

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2444. Maeland, A.J. and T.R.P. Gibb, X-Ray Diffraction Observations of The Pd-H system Through the Critical Region. J. Phys. Chem., 1961. 65: p. 1270.

First Author: Maeland, A. J.
All Authors: Maeland, A. J., Gibb, T. R. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Lattice Parameter, Phase Diagram

2445. Magnouche, A. and R. Fromageau, Hydrogen Dissolution in Palladium: A Resistometric Study Under Pressure. J. Appl. Phys., 1984. 56: p. 1617.

First Author: Magnouche, A.
All Authors: Magnouche, A., Fromageau, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, solubility, Phase Diagram, resistivity

2446. Maizza, G., et al., Study on deuterium absorption of Pd at high-pressure D2 gas and low temperatures. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 14D: p. 27.

First Author: Maizza, G.
All Authors: Maizza, G., Nakamura, K., Fujitsuka, M., Kitajima, M.
Keywords: loading, pressure, Ti, Pd, resistivity, diffusion

2447. Malakoff, D., DOE to Review Nuclear Grant. Science, 1999. 285: p. 505.

First Author: Malakoff, D.
All Authors: Malakoff, D.
Keywords: history,

2448. Malhotra, S.K., M.S. Krishnan, and H.K. Sadhukhan, Material Balance of Tritium in Electrolysis of Heavy Water. 1989.

First Author: Malhotra, S. K.
All Authors: Malhotra, S. K., Krishnan, M. S., Sadhukhan, H. K.
Keywords: D2O, separation, tritium,

2449. Mallove, E., MIT Urgent Media Advisory. 1989.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

2450. Mallove, E., Fire From Ice. 1991, NY: John Wiley.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history, book

Here is the Preface and Prologue to the book Fire From Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor by Eugene F. Mallove, a reprint of 1991 Edition, 338 pp., Paperback. It is available from Infinite Energy Press, P.O. box 2816, Concord, NH 03302-2816, www.infinite-energy.com

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2451. Mallove, E., Classic Nasty, Incompetent, and Stupid Statements About Cold Fusion. 1991.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: History

Compiled from the Bad Mouthings of the Ignorant, Misinformed, and Arrogant Circa 1989 – 1991A Public Service by Dr. Eugene F. Mallove(Compiled from Fire from Ice and other sources.)

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2452. Mallove, E., Cold Fusion: Still a Hot Topic? Phys. Today, 1994. March: p. 93.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Letter to Physics Today, with a response by Williams. Letter begins:David Williams’s review of John R. Huizenga’s unrepentantly negative book Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century (January 1993, page 73) contains disturbing and false assertions. Williams says, “now investigations on so-called cold fusion are confined to only a few laboratories,” a claim that is entirely without foundation . . .

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2453. Mallove, E., Excess heat in cavitation devices: World-wide testing reports. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(3): p. 16.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: heat-, cavitation, untrasonic replication, Potapov

2454. Mallove, E., Alchemy Nightmare: Skeptic Finds Heavy Element Transmutation Cold Fusion Experiment! Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(2): p. 30.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: transmutation

At ICCF5 in April, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) cold fusion program direc­tor Dr. Tom Passell gave an overview of the cold fusion field. The biggest news from his talk, however, was the first public revelation of the results of the EPRI-funded work of physi­cist Dr. Kevin Wolf at Texas A&M University. This research occurred back in 1992, but oth­ers-including Dr. Wolf-have since tried to keep these results from surfacing. Why?

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2455. Mallove, E., Carl Sagan and Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1997. 13,14(3).

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Astronomer and science popularizer Dr. Carl Sagan, who lost his battle against a virulent disease this year, could have been a major force for truth about cold fusion research. Unfortunately, despite my sending him scientific articles on cold fusion since 1991, plus Infinite Energy Magazine since its inception, Carl chose to remain undecided.

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2456. Mallove, E., Reproducible Catalytic Fusion Process Announced by Dr. Les Case. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(19).

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: gas loading, heat+, catalytic, Case, replication

Dr. Leslie C. Case, an experienced chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT, surprised all of us at ICCF-7 by revealing his process of gasphase “catalytic fusion,” which he has developed over the past six years or so. He was inspired by the 1992 work at NTT labs by E. Yamaguchi –helium production and excess heat evolution from Pd in gas-phase cold fusion. (Ironically, Yamaguchi at ICCF-7 was less sanguine about the implications of his own work that can reproducibly generates excess heat from deuterium gas loading of thin-film palladium foil “sandwiches.” Yamaguchi is no longer of the opinion that his excess energy is a nuclear effect, but this conclusion may not be correct.)

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2457. Mallove, E., Progress in catalytic fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 9.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: Case, heat history

To the delight of many at the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7) in Vancouver, BC last April, a new approach to cold fusion emerged. Dr. Les Case, an experienced chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT, announced what he is calling “catalytic fusion” — to distinguish it somewhat from the original electrochemical approach. He had concluded that the electrochemical method of Fleischmann and Pons was going to continue to be limited by materials issues — palladium cracking, composition, etc. — and the inherent difficulties of working with electrochemical systems. Furthermore, he wanted to achieve the higher temperatures that are allowed by gas-phase systems.

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2458. Mallove, E., MIT Special Report. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 64.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

MIT has played an extraordinary role in the history of cold fusion. By acts of commission and omission it continues to do so. On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the startling announcement by Drs. Fleischmann and Pons on March 23, 1989, it is imperative that Infinite Energy explore the major role of MIT in shaping the history of the investigation of cold fusion.

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2459. Mallove, E., CSICOP: “Science Cops” at War with Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 54.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

The collective wisdom of the so-called Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is that cold fusion –and any other claim about an anomalous energy source not taught in the sacred halls of academe’is scientific heresy worthy of mockery and rebuke. That is the message, by commission and omission, that is conveyed in CSICOP’s ritualistic debunking of cold fusion and related low-energy transmutation discoveries.

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2460. Mallove, E. and J. Rothwell, The pseudoscientists of APS. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(25): p. 23.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

Not all attendees at the American Physical Society’s Centennial Meeting, held March 20-26 in Atlanta, Georgia, were scientists in the true sense of that word. Many of them were pseudoscientists, as their behavior proved. Some 1,000 physicists, including, we are informed, President Clinton’s Science advisor, were present as three pseudoscientists took turns mocking cold fusion at a session dubbed, “Science, Junk Science, and Pseudoscience,” Monday afternoon, March 22.

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2461. Mallove, E., The strange birth of the water fuel age: The cold fusion “miracle” was no mistake. Infinite Energy, 2000.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

2462. Mallove, E., The triumph of alchemy: Professor John Bockris and the transmutation crisis at Texas A&M. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(32): p. 9.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Texas A&M University, John O’M. Bockris, is one of the top two or three electrochemists of the twentieth century. He must be counted as a lineal intellectual descendant of one of the greatest scientists of all time, Michael Faraday, who was of humble birth but became a towering figure of nineteenth century science. Like Bockris, Faraday was raised in England and came to love many facets of science. In addition to his fundamental discoveries in electromagnetism, Faraday had much to do with the birth of electrochemistry. . . .

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2463. Mallove, E., Book Review: Biological Transmutations (Kervran). Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(34): p. 56.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review

Reading this translation and compilation of a number of Prof. Louis Kervran’s pre-1970 works is very disturbing, producing the disorientation that accompanies a possible deep paradigm shift in science. Kervran (1901-1983), a medical scientist and engineer with a high official position in the French research and occupational health community, had a life-long interest in the possibility of biological transmutations. His curiosity apparently began in his youth when he watched the hens pecking at specks of mica in the farmyard. His later professional observations concerned (in one small part) the anomalous reappearance of robust calcium-bearing eggshells in calcium-deprived chickens that had been administered dietary mica (a potassium-rich mineral). Over a century earlier (in 1799), French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin had noted this. The Kervran bio-transmutation story and its background is summarized eloquently in “Alchemists in the Garden,” a chapter of the best-selling book The Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkins and the late Christopher Bird.

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2464. Mallove, E., Ethics in the Cold Fusion Controversy. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(35): p. 4.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

Long time Infinite Energy readers are aware that we have repeatedly and vigorously discussed ethical issues that attend the multifaceted cold fusion controversy, a battle within the scientific community that has been roiling and boiling since March 1989. Thus, we were happy to receive a copy of the academic journal Accountability in Research (Vol. 8, Nos. 1-2, 2000), in which eight essays assess, in the words of Editor-in-Chief Dr. Adil E. Shamoo, “The Ethical Import of the Cold Fusion Controversy.” This material makes up 90% of this journal issue and is a worthwhile 162-page collection of comment and history. Unfortunately, the journal is not widely available except in specialized libraries.NOTE: All of the Accountability in Research papers were later added to the LENR-CANR.org library.

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2465. Mallove, E. LENR and “Cold Fusion” Excess Heat: Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: Theory

This paper is at:xxxx://www.infinite-energy.com/resources/iccf10.htmlIt begins:During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence- although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR- has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. . . .

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2466. Mallove, E., New Energy and Early Aeronautics: The Perils and Rewards of Visionaries. Infinite Energy, 2004. 9(54): p. 51.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

Last December the world celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers’ triumph: the first controlled flight of a heavier-than-air craft on December 17, 1903. In honor of that now well-recognized historic event, we are reprinting a reflection by Wilbur Wright himself, which appeared in the Aero Club of America Bulletin in April 1912. The great aviation pioneer was celebrating the work of the now (2004) and then (1912) little-known Louis Pierre Mouillard, whose 1881 book, Empire of the Air, apparently played a seminal role in the history that led to the Wrights’ accomplishment. It is a fascinating story that offers lessons for the struggling New Energy community. Sad to say, the very next month, on May 30, 1912, Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever. His brother, Orville, who had piloted the first flight, lived on to 1948.

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2467. Mallove, E., Intimations of Disaster: Glenn Seaborg, the Scientific Process, and the Origin of the “Cold Fusion War”. Infinite Energy, 2004. 10(55): p. 40.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Almost seven years ago in an issue of Infinite Energy (#15/16, July-November 1997), we discussed some of the material that follows. But in 2004, with the U.S. Department of Energy’s impending review of the past fifteen years of evidence for low-energy nuclear reactions (a.k.a. “cold fusion”), it is an appropriate time to review — in a fresh light — a most critical turning point in the saga of cold fusion. In an episode which occurred in the spring of 1989, we find the seeds of the disastrous DOE response to cold fusion. Upon further investigation, I later found that the false premises that gave rise to the “Cold Fusion War” were evident as far back as 1964.

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2468. Mallove, E., Historic Perspective on ICCF1: Dr. Mallove’s Commentary on the Conference. Infinite Energy, 2008. 14(80): p. 18.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Infinite Energy founding editor, the late Dr. Eugene Mallove, attended the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF1), unofficially representing the MIT News Office and also in part conducting research for his “on again/off again” book contract from John Wiley & Sons (the publisher cancelled, then reinstated the contract for Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor, which was ultimately released in May 1991).The conference ended on March 30; on April 1, Gene recorded notes to himself about the event. We present here excerpted portions of the transcript, which are testament to Gene’s commitment to and excitement for the cold fusion field from the very start.

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2469. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 307.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory, Schroedinger equation

2470. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Response to ‘Comments on ‘Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I”. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 112.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: critique, Rice

2471. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Electron Transitions on Deep Dirac Levels II. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 59.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory

2472. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Reply to ‘Letter to the Editor’ Fusion Technol. 27, 348 [1995]”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 386.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rice

2473. Mamyrin, B.A., L.V. Khabarin, and V.S. Yudenich, Anomalously High Isotope Ratio in Helium in Technical-Grade Metals and Semiconductors. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1978. 23: p. 581.

First Author: Mamyrin, B. A.
All Authors: Mamyrin, B. A., Khabarin, L. V., Yudenich, V. S.
Keywords: helium abnormal isotope

2474. Manduchi, C., et al., Anomalous effects during the interaction of subatmospheric D2(H2) with Pd from 900C to room temperature. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107 A: p. 171.

First Author: Manduchi, C.
All Authors: Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Milli, E., Riccardi, L., Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, CR-39, particle emission

2475. Manduchi, C., et al., Electric-field effects on the neutron emission from Pd deuteride samples. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1995. 108: p. 1187.

First Author: Manduchi, C.
All Authors: Manduchi, C., Salviato, S., Ciricillo, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G., Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, electromigration, loading

2476. Manuel, A.J. and J.M.P. St Quinton, The magnetic susceptibility of palladium and palladium-rhodium alloys from 1.85 to 293Ã…K. Proc. Royal Soc London, A, 1963. 273: p. 412.

First Author: Manuel, A. J.
All Authors: Manuel, A. J., St Quinton, J. M. P.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pd-Rh

2477. Manuel, A.J. and J.M.P. St Quinton, The magnetic susceptibility of palladium and palladium-rhodium alloys from 1.85 to 293K. Proc. Royal Soc London, A, 1963. 273: p. 412.

First Author: Manuel, A. J.
All Authors: Manuel, A. J., St Quinton, J. M. P.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pd-Rh

2478. Maoka, T. and M. Enyo, Hydrogen Absorption by Palladium Electrode Polarized in Sulfuric Acid Solution Containing Surface Active Substances- I. The Cathodic Region. Electrochim. Acta, 1981. 26(5): p. 607.

First Author: Maoka, T.
All Authors: Maoka, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2, overvoltage, resistance, pressure, electrolysis

2479. Marcus, H.L., AES Examination of CF Samples. 1990: letter.

First Author: Marcus, H. L.
All Authors: Marcus, H. L.
Keywords: surface analysis, tritium,

2480. Marcus, M., Cold fusion research is alive and well – but not in the mass media. St. Louis Journalism Rev., 1993. 22(153): p. 16.

First Author: Marcus, M.
All Authors: Marcus, M.
Keywords: history

2481. Marinelli, M., et al., Heat release from deuterated titanium-iron (TiFe) or lanthanum-nickel (LaNi5) on exposure to the air. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102: p. 959.

First Author: Marinelli, M.
All Authors: Marinelli, M., Morpurgo, G., Vitale, S., Olcese, G. L.
Keywords: Ti-Fe, D2, x-ray, negative

2482. Marini, P., et al., Protocollo innovativo per l’ ipercaricamento di catodi di Palladio con Idrogeno messo a punto all’INFN di Frascati, in 21mo Secolo. 1999.

First Author: Marini, P.
All Authors: Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: Review

Review in Italian.L’articolo espone, in linguaggio non strettamente specialistico, i risultati più recenti di una parte dell’attività sperimentale effettuata presso i Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

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2483. Marion, J.B., et al., A Versatile, High Efficiency 4 pi Neutron Detector. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1960. 8: p. 297.

First Author: Marion, J. B.
All Authors: Marion, J. B., Levesque, R. J. A., Ludemann, C. A., Detenbeck, R. W.
Keywords: neutron, method, apparatus

2484. Marmigi, A., et al. Anomalous heat Generation by surface oxidized Pd wires in a hydrogen atmosphere. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Marmigi, A.
All Authors: Marmigi, A., Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Stefano, V.
Keywords: excess heat, thin wires,

2485. Martin, S.E., Using expert sources in breaking science stories: A comparison of magazine types. Journalism Quarterly, 1991. 68: p. 179.

First Author: Martin, S. E.
All Authors: Martin, S. E.
Keywords: history

2486. Martynov, M.I., A.I. Mel’dianov, and A.M. Chepovskii, Experiments on the detection of nuclear reaction products in deuterated metals. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Termoyader Sintez, 1991(2): p. 77 (in Russian).

First Author: Martynov, M. I.
All Authors: Martynov, M. I., Mel’dianov, A. I., Chepovskii, A. M.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, particle emission, electrolysis, ion bombardment, Titanium

2487. Marwan, J., Study of the Nanostructured Palladium Hydride System, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 353-375.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J.
Keywords:

2488. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, eds. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, Oxford University Press.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2489. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, Acknowledgments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. xi-xiii.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2490. Marwan, J., Preface, Acknowledgments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. ix-xi.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J.
Keywords:

2491. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, eds. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, Oxford University Press.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2492. Marwan, J., et al., A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research: a response to Shanahan. J. Environ. Monit., 2010. 12(9): p. 1765-1770.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L., Miles, M. H., Swartz, M. R., Storms, Edmund, Iwamura, Y., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L. P. G.
Keywords:

In his criticisms of the review article on LENR by Krivit and Marwan, Shanahan has raised a number of issues in the areas of calorimetry, heat after death, elemental transmutation, energetic particle detection using CR-39, and the temporal correlation between heat and helium-4. These issues are addressed by the researchers who conducted the original work discussed in the Krivit and Marwan (K&M) review paper.

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2493. Mas, F., et al., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6118.

First Author: Mas, F.
All Authors: Mas, F., Paniagua, J. C., Puy, J., Salvador, J., Vilaseca, E.
Keywords: critique, Rosen, theory

2494. Massaron, M. and F. Lamperti, La fusione fredda (Cold fusion). Tecnol. Chim., 1990. 10(4): p. 98 (in Italian).

First Author: Massaron, M.
All Authors: Massaron, M., Lamperti, F.
Keywords: history

2495. Mastromatteo, U. Very Thin Nickel Layers Heated Over Curie Temperature Show High Temperature Spots in Hydrogen Loading Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Ni, H2, gas, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2496. Mastromatteo, U. An Energy Amplifier Device. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: method, layer, Ni, ICCF-8

2497. Mastromatteo, U. and R. Aina. Investigation of Anomalous Densities of High-energy Alpha-Particles Tracks in CR-39 Detectors during Electrolysis of Heavy Water on Palladium Cathodes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U., Aina, R.
Keywords:

Recently, several researchers claim the finding of anomalous alpha-particles generation during very simple electrolysis experiments with heavy water and palladium cathodes. The phenomenon seems to improve if deuterium formation on the cathode is associated with deposition of palladium nanostructures coming from chlorides of the same metal present in the electrolytic solution. Due to the relevance of the claims and considered the simplicity of the experimental apparatus, several tests have been performed in order to confirm the claimed results. The results of these tests will be the object of this scientific report.

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2498. Mastromatteo, U., A. Bertele, and F. Celani, Hydrogen Absorption and Excess Heat in a Constantan Wire with Nanostructured Surface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U., Bertele, A., Celani, F.
Keywords: Constantan, LASER, LENR, Palladium, Transmutations

To go beyond the important and encouraging results obtained in Pd-D and Pd-H systems, overcoming the limitations related to the relative rareness of Pd, several tests were made using constantan wires with nanostructured surface in hydrogen atmosphere and temperatures up to 350 deg C.

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2499. Mastromatteo, U., LENR Anomalies in Pd-H2 Systems Submitted to Laser Stimulation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Laser, LENR, Palladium, Transmutations

In a continuation of the research started in the late 1990s at the University of Lecce, and then repeated in 2004, recently in the second half of 2014 in the A.R.G.A.L. lab., it was decided to thoroughly investigate the LENR anomalies of Pd-H2 system (in gaseous environment), having as reference the preparation techniques and surface analysis used in the microelectronics industry, to demonstrate convincingly that material contamination was not affecting the transmutation findings. As previously, the activation of the anomalies occurred during irradiation by low power lasers (633 nm, 1 mW, or 403 nm, 3 mW) on 250 nm thick palladium layers deposited by high vacuum e-beam evaporation on silicon oxide substrates, and with 30 nm of Cr as adhesion layer. In summary we did the following: in a stainless steel chamber filled with hydrogen, through a glass viewport, the sample surface was irradiated for two weeks and then accurately inspected in a SEM equipped with an EDX microprobe. A reference sample was also accurately analyzed before irradiation.

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2500. Mathews, C.K., et al., On the possibility of nuclear fusion by the electrolysis of heavy water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 229.

First Author: Mathews, C. K.
All Authors: Mathews, C. K., Periaswami, G., Srinivas, K. C., Gnanasekaran, T., Babu, S. R., Ramesh, C., Thiyagarajan, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, titanium, Pd, D2O, gamma emission, H2O, neutron

2501. Mathews, S., et al., Surface Preparation of Materials for LENR: Femtosecond Laser Processing. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Mathews, S.
All Authors: Mathews, S., Nagel, D. J., Minor, B., Pique, A.
Keywords: Femtosecond lasers, LENR, Low energy nuclear reactions, Surface modification

Because surfaces have been shown to be important for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), their preparation for experiments or energy generators is naturally of interest. We demonstrate that irradiation of Pd with pulses from a femtosecond laser produces surface topography with features on both micro- and nano-meter size scales. Micrographs of these features were analyzed to obtain the spatial frequencies for later correlation with production of excess heat.

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2502. Mathur, M.S., et al. Recent Modifications to the Manitoba Deuterium Implantation Accelerator and a Study of the Properties of the Online Neutron Monitor Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mathur, M. S.
All Authors: Mathur, M. S., Johnston, H. L., Mirzai, A., McCkee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Furutani, K., Mayer, J. K., Yeo, Y. H., Hnatiuk, H., King, S., Hempel, A., Sharma, K. S., Williams, G.
Keywords: Pd, D2, ion implantation, method, ICCF-2

2503. Matschele, T. and R. Kirchheim, Hydrogen as a Probe for the Average Thickness of a Grain Boundary. Scr. Metall., 1987. 21: p. 1101.

First Author: Matschele, T.
All Authors: Matschele, T., Kirchheim, R.
Keywords: PdH, loading, grain Boundary, Phase Diagram

2504. Matsuda, J.I., T. Matsumoto, and K. Nagao, An attempt to detect (3)He from the cold nuclear fusion. J. Geochem., 1990. 24: p. 379.

First Author: Matsuda, J. I.
All Authors: Matsuda, J. I., Matsumoto, T., Nagao, K.
Keywords: electrolysis neutron, titanium, helium tritium, D2O, H2O

2505. Matsui, K. New Hydrogen Energy (NHE) Research Project in Japan. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Matsui, K.
All Authors: Matsui, K.
Keywords: Japan, NHE, organization ICCF-4

2506. Matsui, K., et al. Excess Heat Measurement and Nuclear Detection Experiments in the NHE Program. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Matsui, K.
All Authors: Matsui, K., Asami, N., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Kubota, A., Shimada, R., Miyashita, S., Lipson, A. G., Tripodi, P., Watanabe, H.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, NHE, He, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2507. Matsumoto, T., ‘Nattoh’ model for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 532.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, theory deuteron cluster

2508. Matsumoto, O., et al. Tritium Production Rate. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, T/n, electrolysis

2509. Matsumoto, T. Progress of NATTOH Model and New Particles Emitted During Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Theory Nattoh, iton new particle

2510. Matsumoto, T., Cold fusion observed with ordinary water. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 490.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, H2O

2511. Matsumoto, T., Observation of new particles emitted during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 356.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, iton, film, electrolysis, Pd

2512. Matsumoto, T., Prediction of new particle emission on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 647.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: iton, nattoh, theory new particle deuteron cluster

2513. Matsumoto, O., et al., Detection of neutrons in electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O solution by means of fission track method. Denki Kagaku, 1990. 58: p. 147.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2SO4, Pd, neutron

2514. Matsumoto, O., et al., Detection of tritium in cathode materials after the electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1990. 58: p. 471.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2SO4, tritium, Pd

2515. Matsumoto, T., Observation of quad-neutrons and gravity decay during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2125.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: quadneutron, film, iton

2516. Matsumoto, T., Microscopic observations of palladium used for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 567.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, Nattoh, surface, analysis, H2O, D2O

2517. Matsumoto, T. and K. Kurokawa, Observation of heavy elements produced during explosive cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 323.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T., Kurokawa, K.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, Helium surface analysis

2518. Matsumoto, O., et al. Detection of Neutron and Tritium during Electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O Solution. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T., Yamaguchi, A., Suenaga, O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron+, tritium+, T/n, electrolysis, ICCF-3

During the electrolysis of 0.5 M D2SO4-D2O solution using Pd as the cathode material and Pt as an anode material, the emission of neutron was detected by means of the fission track method and the production of tritium was investigated with a liquid scintillation method.The neutron emission rate was estimated to be comparable with the natural abundance of neutrons at the surface of the earth which was 2 neutrons cm^-2 s^-1 estimated by fission track method comparing with the neutron radiation from the 241Am-9Be neutron source. The tritium production rate was established to be 10^4 T atoms cm^-2 s^-1 in the Pd metal used as the cathode materials by the liquid scintillation method. The branching ratio (T/n) was established to be 10^4.

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2519. Matsumoto, T. Review for “Nottoh” Model and Experimental Findings during Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: theory, Nottoh, iton, ICCF-3

A review is described for the Nattoh model that provides the framework of the mechanisms of cold fusion. The model classifies the reactions into two categories: fundamental and associated reactions. The former involves the “hydrogen-catalyzed” fusion reaction and the chain reactions of hydrogens. And extremely exciting physics are involved in the latter. Furthermore experimental findings are described.

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2520. Matsumoto, T., Interference Phenomena Observed During Cold Fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 179.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: quadneutron, film, iton

2521. Matsumoto, T., Observation of gravity decays of multiple-neutron nuclei during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 164.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: iton Nattoh theory new particle

2522. Matsumoto, T., Searching for tiny black holes during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 281.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, iton, film

2523. Matsumoto, T., Observation of stars produced during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 518.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: film, iton, quadneutron, PdD

2524. Matsumoto, T. Cold Fusion Experiments by Using Electrical Discharge in Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, gas discharge, dineutron, plasma, ICCF-4

2525. Matsumoto, T., Observation of meshlike traces on nuclear emulsions during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 103.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, emission, new particle Nattoh, theory

2526. Matsumoto, T., Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foil. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 296.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Ni, film, electrolysis, radiation, particle emission, Nattoh

2527. Matsumoto, T., Experiments of one-point cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 332.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: gas discharge, ion bombardment, film, iton

2528. Matsumoto, T., Response to ‘Comments on ‘Experiments of one-point cold fusion”. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 347.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: critique, Fox, iton

2529. Matsumoto, T., Two Proposals Concerning Cold Fusion. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 1337.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: critique, review

2530. Matsumoto, T., Artificial Ball-Lightning. Photographs of Cold Fusion. 1995.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: BallLightning

2531. Matsumoto, T. Cold Fusion Experiments Using Sparking Discharges in Water. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: H2O, spark discharge, radiation, particle emission, ICCF-5

Experiments on the DC discharge associated with microsparks were performed in ordinary water. Thin metal wires of Pd, Ni, Ti, Fe, Cd, Mo, Pt and W were used as the electrodes. Numerous sparks appeared on the surface of the electrodes, in high voltage over 40 V, and simultaneously extraordinary phenomena were obseryed, such as ball-lightning like phenomena.

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2532. Matsumoto, T., Mechanisms of cold fusion: Comprehensive explanations by the Nattoh model. Mem. Fac. Eng. Hokkaido Univ., 1995. 19(2): p. 201.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Theory, Nattoh, iton new particle

2533. Matsumoto, T., Extraordinary Traces Produced during Pulsed Discharge in Water. Bull. Faculty of Eng., Hokkaido Univ, 1995. 175.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: H2O, radiation, gas discharge, film

2534. Matsumoto, T. Extraordinary traces on nuclear emulsions obtained during the Matsumae earthquakes in 1996. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: film, earthquake, radiation, ICCF-6

2535. Matsumoto, T. Carbon Tubes and Films Produced in a Lead Electrode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pb, spark discharge, arc, film, carbon, ICCF-7

2536. Matsumoto, T., Comments on “Evidence of micrometre-sized plasmoid emission during electrolysis cold fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 108.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: plasmoids theory Nattoh

2537. Matsumoto, T. Cold fusion like phenomena in natural fields. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: ICCF-9, ball lightning, theory, EV, electron clusters

2538. Matsunaka, M., et al. Studies of coherent deuteron fusion and related nuclear reactions in solid. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China.

First Author: Matsunaka, M.
All Authors: Matsunaka, M., Isobe, Y., Ueda, S., Yabuta, K., Ohishi, T., Mori, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, electron beam, transmutation

In order to induce coherent deuteron fusion in metal-deuteride, three kinds of experiments have been performed. In the closed type D2O /Pd electrolysis experiment, significant amount of helium-4 atom was detected in upper gas of electrolysis cell and inside the palladium cathode by QMS analysis. In the discharge type electrolysis experiment, anomalous elements were detected on the surface of cathode palladium by PIXE analysis after experiment. The detected elements are iron and zinc. Under electron beam irradiation to highly D-loaded palladium, anomalous spectra were taken in X-ray measurement.

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2539. Matsunami, N., Solid state effects on tunnelling probability for d+d nuclear fusion at room temperature. Radiat. Effects Defects Solids, 1990. 112: p. 181.

First Author: Matsunami, N.
All Authors: Matsunami, N.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2540. Matsunami, N. A Mechanism for Cold Nuclear Fusion: Barrier Reduction by Screening Under Transient Coherent Flow of Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsunami, N.
All Authors: Matsunami, N.
Keywords: theory, screening, ICCF-3

A mechanism for the cold nuclear fusion is suggested, based on reduction of the barrier penetration factor lambda due to screening by enhanced electron density around deuterium at excited/ionic states under transient coherent flow of d in metals. Four D- state, lambda ~ 70 or the rate of ~1 fusion/s*cm^3 is obtained. The effective region and probability of the transient coherent D- state are discussed.

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2541. Matsuzaki, A., T. Nishina, and I. Uchida, In situ low incident angle XRD technique with electrochemical methods. Application to deuterium charging into palladium cathode. Hyomen Gijutsu, 1994. 45: p. 106.

First Author: Matsuzaki, A.
All Authors: Matsuzaki, A., Nishina, T., Uchida, I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, x-ray diffraction, structure

2542. Maxwell, J. and T. Grimshaw, Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production in the U.S.: Technology Assessment of LENR Impacts. 2012, Center for International Energy & Environmental Policy, the University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Maxwell, J.
All Authors: Maxwell, J., Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

The introduction of technology can be viewed as throwing a rock into a body of water and the ripples which radiate outwards are the impacts to society with the strongest ripples being the structures of society which have a disturbance of the highest magnitude. Technology Assessment is one way that policymakers can predict where and how far those “ripples” will travel with the “splash” of a new technology.

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2543. Mayer, F.J., J.S. King, and J.R. Reitz, Nuclear fusion from crack-generated particle acceleration. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 269.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., King, J. S., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2544. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz. Summary of Progress in Hydron Physics. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, review, hydron, ICCF-2

2545. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, Nuclear energy release in metals. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 552.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

2546. Mayer, F.J., Comments on ‘Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 511.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J.
Keywords: critique, Mills, theory

2547. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, On very low energy hydrogenic nuclear reactions. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 367.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: hydron, theory, hydron

2548. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, Response to ‘Comments on “Nuclear energy release in metals”‘. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 95.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: critique, Bryan, hydron

2549. Mayer, R.E., et al., Neutron detection system for extremely low count rate. Calculation, construction and employment in search for ‘cold fusion’. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1993. 324: p. 501.

First Author: Mayer, R. E.
All Authors: Mayer, R. E., Patino, N. E., Florido, P. C., Gomez, S. E., Granada, J. R., Gillette, V. H.
Keywords: neutron, method

2550. Mazitov, R.K., On the detection of cold nuclear fusion. Koord. Khim., 1989. 15(9): p. 1294 (in Russian).

First Author: Mazitov, R. K.
All Authors: Mazitov, R. K.
Keywords: critique

2551. Mazitov, R.K., Possibility of nuclear transformation in chemical reactions. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 307: p. 1158 (in Russian).

First Author: Mazitov, R. K.
All Authors: Mazitov, R. K.
Keywords: theory, distance, heavy fermion

2552. Mazzetti, P. Basic Concepts on the Theory of the Magnetic Properties of Solids. in Magnetic Properties of Matter. 1986. Villa Gualino, Turin: World Scientific.

First Author: Mazzetti, P.
All Authors: Mazzetti, P.
Keywords: susceptibility theory

2553. Mazzolai, F.M., P.G. Bordoni, and F.A. Lewis, Elastic Energy Dissipation Effects in the Palladium-Hydrogen System. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 74: p. 137.

First Author: Mazzolai, F. M.
All Authors: Mazzolai, F. M., Bordoni, P. G., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, stress, deformation

2554. McAllister, J.W., Competition among scientific disciplines in cold nuclear fusion research. Science in Context, 1992. 5: p. 17.

First Author: McAllister, J. W.
All Authors: McAllister, J. W.
Keywords: history

2555. McBreen, J., Absorption of electrolytic hydrogen and deuterium by Pd: the effect of cyanide adsorption. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 279.

First Author: McBreen, J.
All Authors: McBreen, J.
Keywords: Pd, D, H, overvoltage, CN, absorption, surface

2556. McCarthy, W., Water-free Replication of Pons-Fleischmann LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: McCarthy, W.
All Authors: McCarthy, W.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Copper, Hydrogen, Nuclear reaction

Statistically significant heat is produced by a method similar to Pons and Fleischmann but not involving electrolysis or water. Instead of putting hydrogen into electrodes by operation for a few days, hydrogen solute is incorporated into electrode alloys by temperature and pressure, before the cell is assembled.

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2557. McCevoy, A.J. and C.T.D. O’Sullivan, Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: McCevoy, A. J.
All Authors: McCevoy, A. J., O’Sullivan, C. T. D.
Keywords: theory, muon

2558. McCracken, D.R., et al., In search of nuclear fusion in electrolytic cells and in metal/gas systems. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 121.

First Author: McCracken, D. R.
All Authors: McCracken, D. R., Paquette, J., Boniface, H. A., Graham, W. R. C., Johnson, R. E., Briden, N. A., Cross, W. G., Arneja, A., Tennant, D. C., Lone, M. A., Buyers, W. J. L., Chambers, K. W., McIlwain, A. K., Attas, E. M., Dutton, R.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, Titanium D2 neutron, gamma emission, tritium, heat-

2559. McCracken, G.M., et al., Experimental search for ‘cold fusion’ in the deuterium-titanium system. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1990. 23: p. 469.

First Author: McCracken, G. M.
All Authors: McCracken, G. M., Bailey, M., Croft, S., Findlay, D. J. S., Gibson, A., Govier, R. P., Jarvis, O. N., Milton, H. J., Powell, B. A., Sadler, G., Sene, M. R., Sweetman, D.R., van Belle, P., Watson, H. H. H.
Keywords: titanium D2 neutron diffusion

2560. McDonald, K.A., Energy Department Panel Remains Unconvinced by New Claims of Room-Temperature Fusion. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989: p. A1.

First Author: McDonald, K. A.
All Authors: McDonald, K. A.
Keywords: history

2561. McDonald, K.A., Claims of Proponents of Cold Fusion Still Spark Controversy a Year Later. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1990.

First Author: McDonald, K. A.
All Authors: McDonald, K. A.
Keywords: history, review

2562. McFee, R.W., Review of ICCF1, Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990.

First Author: McFee, R. W.
All Authors: McFee, R. W.
Keywords: history

2563. McIntyre, R. Proposal for an Experiment designed to seek evidence for cold fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McIntyre, R.
All Authors: McIntyre, R.
Keywords: gas loading

In experiments carried out in 1990 to investigate the application of the gas phase as a medium for cold fusion, a Pd vessel was exposed to deuterium gas, dissociated in an electric discharge at between -10 and -20 degrees C. The thickness of the metal was about one millimeter. In the first of a number of experiments positive indications of fusion were observed but these could not be repeated in subsequent experiments. The inability to repeat results has been found to occur in other cold fusion experiments and signifies that the processes involved are not understood (1). Since 1990, a number of results have been obtained which may put these earlier failures in a new light. In particular, the discovery by Miles (2), who reported positive results during electrolysis from 6mm thick rod after failure with Pd electrodes one mm thick. This introduces the bulk of the metal as a possible factor in the occurrence of cold fusion. Another noticeable feature of the absorption of deuterium in Pd is the obvious signs of cold work done on the metal. The surface is roughened, cracks appear and measurements show an apparent 15% increase in volume. With these factors in mind, a hypothesis has been formulated which seeks to explain how this might influence the process of cold fusion.

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2564. McKee, S.G., J.P. Magennis, and F.A. Lewis, Hydrogen Isotope Distribution Equilibria in the Pd/H2-H2O System. Surf. Technol., 1982. 16: p. 175.

First Author: McKee, S. G.
All Authors: McKee, S. G., Magennis, J. P., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, Separation Factor, resistivity

2565. McKee, S.G., et al., The Establishment of Equilibria in the Pd-H2-D2-H2O-D2O System. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 475.

First Author: McKee, S. G.
All Authors: McKee, S. G., Lewis, F. A., Magennis, J. P., Kelly, T. J.
Keywords: H2O, D2O, Pd, separation Factor

2566. McKee, J.S.C., et al. Neutron Emission from Low-Energy Deuteron Injection of Deuteron-Implanted Metal Foils (Pd, Ti, and In). in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: McKee, J. S. C.
All Authors: McKee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Kwok, C. B., Johnston, H. L., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., Mirzai, A., Yeo, Y. H., Sharma, K. S., Williams, G.
Keywords: ion implantation Pd, D2, titanium, neutron, x-ray

2567. McKee, J.S.C., et al., The role of fractofusion in the creation of anomalies in neutron production from deuterium-implanted solids. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1992. 67: p. 448.

First Author: McKee, J. S. C.
All Authors: McKee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Johnston, H. L., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., Mirzai, A., Yeo, Y. H., Hempel, A., Hnatiuk, H., King, S.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2568. McKibben, J.L., Can particles having both fractional electric charge and color charge with 1/r2 force be in existence since the big bang? 1989.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory, quark

2569. McKibben, J.L., Evidence for three primordially created particles and can one of them catalyze cold fusion? 1989.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory new particle

2570. McKibben, J.L., Explanation of low-intensity cold fusion. 1990.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory

2571. McKibben, J.L., Passed-Over Evidence for Fractionally-Charged Particles with Associated Color Change. 1990.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory fractional charge new particle

2572. McKibben, J.L., Particles as Standing Waves in a Superdense Aether. 1994.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory

2573. McKibben, J.L., The missed fractionally-charged particles. 1995.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory fractional charge new particle

2574. McKibben, J.L., Can Cold Fusion be Catalyzed by Fractionally-Charged Ions that have Evaded FC Particle Searches. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(4): p. 14.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory, hemitrons new particle

2575. McKibben, J.L., Strange-particle catalysis in the production of COH2 gas or iron. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(11): p. 37.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory new particle

2576. McKibben, J.L., Catalytic behavior of one (or two) subquarks bound to their nuclear hosts. Infinite Energy, 1997. 3(13/14): p. 103.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory new particle

2577. McKibben, J.L., Design of a nuclear-powered steam engine or jet for space propulsion. 1998.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory method heat

2578. McKibben, J.L., Recent observations that yield information on catalytic particles. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 70.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory, new particle

2579. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Calorimetry and Electrochemistry in the D/Pd System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Chao, J., Chexal, B., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, resistance, loading, autoradiograph, X-ray, ICCF-1

Experiments have been performed to examine the anomalous effects associated with the D/Pd system, and to discover some of the experimental variables that might be important to the effects. Experiments were concerned with calorimetry of the D/Pd system, but also monitored those experimental variables that might be important in causing the effects: the D/Pd ratio and its rate of change, interfacial phenomena such as the reduction of D2O, or reduction of contaminant species. . . .

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2580. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Crouch-Baker, S., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method, Current Density, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2

INTRODUCTIONAn experimental program was undertaken to explore the central idea proposed by Fleischmann et al. that heat, and possibly nuclear products, could be created in palladium lattices under electrolytic conditions.Three types of experiments were performed to determine the factors that control the extent of D loading in the Pd lattice, and to search for unusual calorimetric and nuclear effects. It is the purpose of this communication to discuss observations of heat output observed calorimetrically in excess of known sources of input heat. . . .

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2581. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Excess Power Observations in Electrochemical Studies of the D/Pd System; The Influence of Loading. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Riley, A. M., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, loading, Pd, D2, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Excess power measurements have been carried out on a deuterium-based electrochemical system of novel design. The excess power generation is reported as a function of electrochemical current and cathode loading. A phenomenological model for excess power production is introduced and briefly discussed.

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2582. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Loading, Calorimeteric and Nuclear Investigation of the D/Pd System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Bush, B. F., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Srinivasan, M., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S.
Keywords: heat+, loading, Pd, D2O, resistivity, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2583. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. An overview of excess heat production in deuterated palladium system. in IECEC Conference. 1994. Monterey, CA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

2584. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, TR-104195. 1994, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L., Smedley, S. I., Williams, M., Wing, S., Maly-Schreiber, M., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Searson, P. C., Pronko, J. G., Kohler, D. A.
Keywords:

The excess heat generated in electrochemical cells with palladium cathodes and heavy water electrolyte appears to be far too large to result from chemical or metallurgical transformation. The evidence implies that the heat source is a nuclear reaction of some as yet undetermined nature.This book is available here:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104195The LENR-CANR.org version is searchable.

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2585. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd and H/Pd Systems. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 55.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, method

Isothermal calorimetric studies of the D/Pd and H/Pd systems have been carried out at high deuterium (hydrogen) loadings (i.e. [D(H)]/[Pd] > 0.9) at approximately 30у. Under these conditions, the generation of “excess power” was observed in a series of deuterium-based experiments, but not in a hydrogen-based experiment. The results of these experiments enable several (tentative) conclusions to be reached concerning the conditions necessary for the reproducible observation of this anomalous thermal effect.

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2586. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Concerning Reproducibility of Excess Power Production. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A. K., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M. S., Wing, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, D2O, loading, method, electrolysis, heat+, Al, ICCF-5

An apparent irreproducibility in the production of an, as yet, anomalous excess power from Pd cathodes electrochemically loaded with D can be associated with irreproducibility in the attainment of several necessary starting conditions. Of these, the threshold loading (D/Pd atomic ratio) has received the most attention. A statistical analysis is presented of the results of 176 experiments intended to test the means of establishing reproducible control over D/Pd loading. A set of variables are examined, and procedures identified which permit the attainment of loading above the threshold necessary for excess heat production.Calorimetric results from two experiments are presented and analyzed. A mathematical function is identified which correlates closely with the time evolution of excess power. An important element of this correlation is the measured rate of change of the cathode resistivity. We have interpreted the resistance change as indicating the presence of an oscillation or “breathing” of the cathode loading induced by a flux of deuterons through the cathode/electrolyte interface.The observed functionality of excess power with deuteron flux above a loading threshold, conforms closely with theoretical predictions.

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2587. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. New Hydrogen Energy Research at SRI. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, loading, boiling, surface, ICCF-6

2588. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Energy Production Processes In Deuterated Metals. 1998, EPRI: Palo Alto.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S., Bush, B. F., McMahon, F., Srinivasan, M., Wark, A. W., Warren, D.
Keywords: Electrochemical power generation, Palladium, Heavy Water, Deuterium, Cold fusion, Heat source independent

2589. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Materials Issues of Loading Deuterium into Palladium and the Association with Excess Heat Production. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, loading, ICCF-7, electrolysis

Abstract The ability of palladium cathodes to attain and maintain high loading levels, at high current density and for long times, is controlled by two factors: the condition of the electrochemical interface which allows the attainment of high deuterium activity; the defect density and mechanical condition of the bulk material which permits the Pd lattice to withstand and contain high bulk deuterium activities when these equilibrate to produce extreme pressures of deuterium gas inside closed incipient voids within the metal.       Examples are given from a set of 26 intentionally similar current ramps which show three distinct Modes of loading performance: Mode A – a linear decrease of Pd resistance, beyond the resistance maximum, with logarithmic increase in electrochemical current; Mode B – an initial log-linear decrease on the Mode A trajectory, followed by a rapid increase in resistance when the resistance falls below a critical value; Mode C –  a shallow decrease in resistance with approximately symmetric increase as the [log] current density is increased beyond a threshold value similar to that for Mode B. Mode A is most frequently associated with the appearance of calorimetrically determined excess heat.

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2590. McKubre, M.C.H., S. Crouch-Baker, and F.L. Tanzella, Conditions for the observation of excess power in the D/Pd system. 1999.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, loading

2591. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Finite Element Modeling of the Transient Colorimetric Behavior of the MATRIX Experimental Apparatus: 4He and Excess of Power Production Correlation through Numerical Results. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Violante, V.
Keywords: heat+, D2, calalyst, method replication Case, ICCF-8

2592. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd System: Evidence for 4He and 3He Production. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: heat+, He, D2, D2O, Pd-black, catalyst, replication Arata, ICCF-8

Introduction             Numerous observations have been made of apparent anomalies in carefully performed experimental studies of D/Pd and H/Pd systems.  Such anomalies include:  prompt emission of electrons and charged particles; unexplained heat in excess of known input sources; the residual presence of light elements (notably 3H, 3He and 4He); the possible occurrence of isotope anomalies in higher mass elements (including the host metal); unusual electrical conductance effects both stable and transient (not discussed in this paper).  The features that unify these apparently disparate observations are the common elements of the needed experimental stimuli, and the requirement for extended lattice coherent processes in any obvious explanation.

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2593. McKubre, M.C.H. Closing comments summerizing the status and progress of experimental studies. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review, ICCF-9

McKubre summarizes his impressions and reports on experiments at the ICCF-9 conference, Beijing, China, 2002.

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2594. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Progress towards replication. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Violante, V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, helium, Arata, tritium

ABSTRACT A collaborative effort has been established formally between SRI International in Menlo Park, California, and ENEA (Frascati) in Italy.  In addition to providing a framework for an International replication effort, this collaboration is intended to focus the complementary skills of the two laboratories on carefully selected problems of Pd/D studies.

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2595. McKubre, M.C.H. Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: dd fusion, excess heat, review

PowerPoint slides presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.

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2596. McKubre, M.C.H. The Need for Triggering in Cold Fusion Reactions. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: dd fusion, excess heat, review

It has long been recognized that initiation of the cold fusion heat effect observed in heavy water electrolysis at palladium cathodes requires simultaneous attainment of three conditions: (i) high loading or chemical potential of D within the Pd lattice; (ii) an initiation time at least ten times larger than the D diffusion time constant: (iii) a minimum or threshold electrochemical surface current or current density that is not correlated to the bulk D loading. In 1995 a fourth condition was added with the recognition [5] that (iv) deuterium flux plays an important role in determining the excess heat power density.

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2597. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Using resistivity to measure H/Pd and D/Pd loading: method and significance. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: loading

The resistance ratio method is the most frequent technique used to determine the extent of interstitial loading of hydrogen or deuterium atoms into palladium electrodes, or extended structures used in electrolytic or gas phase cold fusion experiments. Specifically, advantage is taken of an empirical relationship between the measured resistance, R, normalized to that of the same body at the same temperature in the absence of hydrogen isotope, RЬ hence R/RЬ and the atomic fraction occupancy of octahedral interstitials, x = H/Pd or D/Pd. This method was first suggested and employed in cold fusion studies by the present authors [1], and received immediate and widespread acceptance because of the ease with which this experimental technique could be used to make insitu, real-time measurements of a parameter, D/Pd, anticipated [2] or hypothesized [3-6] at that time to relate to cold fusion heat excess or nuclear production.

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2598. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion at SRI (PowerPoint slides). in APS March Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: sonofusion

Cold Fusion at SRI An 18 Year Retrospective (and brief Prospective)

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2599. McKubre, M.C.H. The Importance of Replication. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: excess heat, replication

Much discussion in the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science or “Cold Fusion” fields centers on the subject of replication. It is a topic that comes up in essentially every conversation about the Fleischmann Pons Effect (FPE). Assembled here is a set of essentially personal views on this subject of replication.

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2600. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Mass Flow Calorimetry. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Discussion of the Mass Flow first principles calorimeter in this paper is based primarily on the analysis and experience gained at SRI in answering the question: “is there a Fleischmann Pons heat effect (FPE)”? Subsequently other mass flow calorimeters, or more generically heat balance calorimeters, were designed to answer this same question and some comment will be directed to the technical differences resulting from different design philosophies, specifically those designed and operated by ENEA, and Energetics Technologies. Discussion will be undertaken of ideal and non-ideal calorimeter operation, design principles and practical implementation including long and short term accuracy and sensitivity as well as limitations of heat balance calorimeters as the vehicle chosen to study the FPE.

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2601. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Replication of Condensed Matter Heat Production, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 219-247.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Dardik, I., El-Boher, A., Zilov, T., Greenspan, E., Sibilia, C., Violante, V.
Keywords:

2602. McKubre, M.C.H., F.L. Tanzella, and V. Violante. The Significance of Replication (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Violante, V.
Keywords: Excess heat

What have we learned in 18 years of experiments performed at SRI, about the experimental conditions for success and reasons for failed replication?

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2603. McKubre, M.C.H. COLD FUSION, LENR, the Fleischmann-Pons Effect; ONE PERSPECTIVE on the STATE of the SCIENCE (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

With recent publicity outside the GRINS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?

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2604. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion (LENR) One Perspective on the State of the Science. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

Abstract. With recent publicity outside the CMNS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?In this Foreword to the Proceedings of ICCF15 I lean heavily on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators (ENEA Frascati, Energetics and MIT) with a view to define experiment-based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides.

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2605. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion (LENR) One Perspective on the State of the Science (Japanese version). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

Japanese version.Abstract. With recent publicity outside the CMNS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?In this Foreword to the Proceedings of ICCF15 I lean heavily on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators (ENEA Frascati, Energetics and MIT) with a view to define experiment-based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides.

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2606. McKubre, M.C.H. Excess Power Observations in Electrochemical Studies of the D/Pd System; the Operating Parameter Space. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

The research activity into the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, FPE [1] at SRI has now accumulating more than 60 man-years of research. Here we focus attention on aspects of that work that lead to an improved understanding of the parameter space in which the FPE occurs.

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2607. McKubre, M.C.H., What Happened to Cold Fusion (PowerPoint slides). 2011, Cafe Scientifique, SRI International Building.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

These are the PowerPoint slides from a lecture by Michael McKubre of SRI, Inc.A look at McKubre’s own work and at some of the major trends in the field, especially the gas-loading approach pioneered by Arata and Piantelli, which and now the focus of the field, especially with Rossi. It is available as an 8-part video on YouTube:1. Introduction xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtweR_qGHEc 2. Major Segments xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MeikEgjC1qg 3. Department of Energy Reference xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqeA8n37XFg 4. Necessary but Not Sufficient Conditions xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_XN52jXl78 5. Gas-Loading Experiments xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYZfgvSFYDM 6. Experiments by Italian Scientists xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3N3dWlIPUQ 7. Recap xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1QhIWrA4pGI 8. Q&A Discussion xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWkVyg_iul4

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2608. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, Cold Fusion, LENR, CMNS, FPE: One Perspective on the State of the Science Based on Measurements Made at SRI. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 32-44.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cold fusion, Excess heat

Our object is to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low-Energy or Lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence, we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community? Progress in the LENR field will be reviewed with primary focus on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators with a view to defining experiments based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides. Particular attention is directed to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, nuclear level heat from the deuterium-palladium, and the associated nuclear products: 4He, 3He and 3H.

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2609. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, What is needed in LENR/FPE studies? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cold fusion, Deuterium, Electrochemistry, Excess heat, Helium, Palladium

ICCF16 marks nearly 22 years of research into the phenomenon first called “cold fusion”. This newfield has expanded in breadth to the point that numerous acronyms compete to describe overlapping effects. Two of these are: LENR(LowEnergy Nuclear Reactions) and its subset FPE (the Fleischmann Pons Effect). Research to elucidate the basic processes and shed light on mechanisms has proceeded effectively continuously since March 1989 at SRI and elsewhere, and diligently and as “time and funds” have allowed at numerous other accomplished institutions worldwide. It is now clear to a well-informed but relatively small group of scientifically interested individuals that the deuterium-palladium systems conceals a heat source with energy exceeding by several orders of magnitude mechanical, lattice storage or chemical energy effects. Evidences of possible dd fusion products have been widely and numerously observed, at least partially ratifying the original speculative designation of “cold fusion”. The effect, however, is apparently not limited to deuterium as a fuel, to helium as a product or to palladium as a matrix, hence the classification of the field as Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) to differentiate these “new” effects from those observed in the rarified environments of particle and plasma physics. The materials-related issues associated with the so-called irreproducibility of CMNS effects presents the greatest barrier to the advancement and acceptance of the field. Precisely because we are dealing with condensed matter, micro-structural and micro-impurity control is difficult and expensive, requiring specialized equipment, control and skill. Problems of similar scale (and origin) have been faced and overcome in the past in the development of technologies having similar significance for mankind. Two (of many) examples are: the development of solid-state semiconductors; implementation of conventional nuclear power (and weapons). Absent another Bell Labs or Manhattan Project how should the CMNS field best proceed? Several overlapping options will be discussed. It is well within the capability of “mainstream” scientists and engineers in academia, and in national and private laboratories to resolve the materials issues and the questions of whether or not specific products are or are not present. Without funding they will not be encouraged to do so; without (a higher degree of) acceptance, adequate funding will not be made available. This paper will address various options and strategies to surmount this logical dilemma.

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2610. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold Fusion; 25 years of research at SRI, in NTVA – Tekna, Can LENR provide cheap and clean energy? 2014: Oslo, Norway.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Excess heat, history

The slides from a presentation given at Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) on November 5, 2014. See:xxxx://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue119/norway.html

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2611. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Calorimetric Studies of the Destructive Stimulation of Palladium and Nickel Fine Wires. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Bao, J., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: deuterium, hydrogen, nickel, palladium

An experimental program was designed and performed to test three aspects of CMNS studies. A fourth objective was added in the light of reports from Rossi regarding large scale heat release from the nickel – natural hydrogen system, that prompted re-evaluation of earlier work on this system performed by Piantelli, and later claims by Defkalion

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2612. McKubre, M.C.H., A Brief History and Introduction to the International Conference Series. 2015, ICCF-19 Website.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: history

2613. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, Flux Effects in Metal Hydrogen Loading: Enhanced Mass Transfer. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15: p. 1.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords:

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2614. McKubre, M.C.H., Personal Recollections of John O’Mara Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Graham Hills, John Bockris, John Tomlinson, Martin Fleischmann, Physical electrochemistry

Nobody contributed more to the development of physical electrochemistry than John Bockris. He did this directly through his thinking, research and teaching, and indirectly through his numerous publications and by taking responsibility for the training of the next generations of electrochemists in Europe, North America (twice) and Australia / New Zealand. My career might have been impossible, and would certainly have been greatly different, were it not for the direct and indirect contributions that John Bockris made to my life and learning. For this I am eternally grateful. Some details are described.

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2615. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold fusion: comments on the state of scientific proof. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Fleischmann, Pons, scientific proof

2616. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold Fusion – CMNS – LENR; Past, Present and Projected Future Status. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Excess heat, Helium, LENR, Reproducibility

A brief overview of the SRI effort over 26 years is provided as a precursor to suggestions on how we might best proceed to validate the vision of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, and proceed towards its logical conclusion.

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2617. McKubre, M.C.H., CMNS Research – Past, Present and Future. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 15-24.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: CMNS, Cold fusion, Excess heat, Helium, LENR, Tritium

As a community, we have invested a great deal of time and money in investigating claims of anomalous heat first asserted by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons in 1989. Despite this effort, we remain unable to specify the phenomenon or phenomena revealed. Although it is clear within the LENR community that the effect is of nuclear origin and is exo-energetic, we have yet to define with confidence the pathway to practical technology that seemed implicit in the original announcement. Bringing this community together largely is the belief that such a path is possible, or even imminent. What is taking us so long?

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2618. McKubre, M.C.H., LENR – What We must Do to Complete Martin Fleischmann’s Undertaking. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 1-14.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Demonstration prototype, Fleischmann, Heat effect, Pons

It is clear to most who have studied the matter carefully that condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS) expresses a real and new phenomenon in physics. The efforts to communicate this reality outside a rather small group have not been very convincing. For something of such potential importance this dichotomy seems strange. How might we improve this situation? A working theory could certainly help, and better correlation between experimental variables, both input and output. A working demonstration that stood alone even as a toy could help facilitate communication directly with influential technical but non-specialist individuals and groups. Some thoughts on the possibilities and constraints are offered below.

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2619. McNally, J.R., On the possibility of a nuclear mass-energy resonance in deuterium + deuterium reactions at low energy. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 237.

First Author: McNally, J. R.
All Authors: McNally, J. R.
Keywords: theory, resonance

2620. McNeil, J.A. Relativistic Hyperfine Interaction and the Spence-Vary Resonance. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McNeil, J. A.
All Authors: McNeil, J. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2, resonance

2621. Mebrahtu, T., et al., Observations on the surface composition of palladium cathodes after D2O electrolysis in LiOD solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 267: p. 351.

First Author: Mebrahtu, T.
All Authors: Mebrahtu, T., Rodriguez, J. F., Bothwell, M. E., Cheng, I. F., Lawson, D. R., McBride, J. R., Martin, C. R., Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: surface analysis, electrolysis, Pd, loading, D2O

2622. Melendez, L., et al., Titanium deuteration with neutron emission through electrical discharges. Fusion Technol., 1998. 35: p. 71.

First Author: Melendez, L.
All Authors: Melendez, L., Chavez, E., Lopez, R., Cruz, G. J., Olayo, M. G.
Keywords: titanium, neutron, gas discharge, ion bombardment

2623. Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Some Lessons from 3 Years of Electrochemical Calorimetry. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Melich, M. E.
All Authors: Melich, M. E., Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: critique, Harwell, heat, error, ICCF-3

An analysis of the time series data from the 16 Harwell FPH electrochemical cells is being conducted. Using generally accepted calorimetric principles and detailed numerical analysis, the behavior of “cold fusion” output data is used to estimate the instrumental sensitivity and the time varying accuracy of the results of the experiments. In Harwell’s D2O Cell 3 there are more than ten time intervals where an unexplained power source or energy storage mechanism may be operating. A comparison to a previous analysis of Pons and Fleischmann data is made.

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2624. Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Back to the Future, The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in 1994. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Melich, M. E.
All Authors: Melich, M. E., Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: review, critique, ICCF-4

Abstract From its initial public announcement on 23 March 1989, the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE) has been attributed to: nuclear fusion nuclear fission exotic chemistry some previously unidentified law of nature instrumental error.Highly public as well as private efforts were made in 1989 to decide if an FPE existed and if so, what caused it. This paper reevaluates some of the factual bases for the scientific and management judgments of 1989 with the advantage of what has been learned after four years of worldwide experimentation and analysis. We conclude that there is an FPE and its signature is heat. Data existed in 1989 that could have lead to this conclusion. The source of the excess heat is still not understood. Scientific progress was not made through this debate, which was largely uninformed by appropriate experimentation, and patent considerations may have played a determining role in the scientific progress associated with the FPE.

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2625. Mellican, R.E., From fusion frenzy to fraud: Reflections on science and its cultural norms. Bull. Sci. Tech. Soc., 1992. 12: p. 1.

First Author: Mellican, R. E.
All Authors: Mellican, R. E.
Keywords: history

2626. Mendes, R.V., Ergodic motion and near collisions in a Coulomb system. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1991. 5: p. 1179.

First Author: Mendes, R. V.
All Authors: Mendes, R. V.
Keywords: theory, cluster

2627. Menegus, F. Nuclear and Electronic Structure of Atoms. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Menegus, F.
All Authors: Menegus, F.
Keywords:

The plot of Extra Neutron number against the Z number of natural elements reveals a trend that shows the same periodicity observed in the chemical properties of elements. Nuclei appears to direct the electronic structure of atoms.

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2628. Mengoli, G., et al. Tritium and Neutron Emission in Conventional and Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis of D2O at Pd and Ti Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O neutron, tritium, titanium ICCF-2

2629. Mengoli, G., et al., The observation of tritium in the electrolysis of D2O at palladium sheet electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 304: p. 279.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Veronesi, F., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, tritium, loading

2630. Mengoli, G., et al., Tritium and neutron emission in D2O electrolysis at Pd and Ti cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 322: p. 107.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Buffa, A.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, electrolysis, tritium, neutron, D2O

2631. Mengoli, G., et al., Surface and bulk effects in the extraction of hydrogen from highly loaded Pd sheet electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 350: p. 57.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Pd, loading, diffusion

2632. Mengoli, G., et al., Absorption-desorption of deuterium at Pd95%-Rh5% alloy. I: Environment and temperature effects. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 390: p. 135.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: loading, Pd-Rh, overvoltage

2633. Mengoli, G., et al., Absorption-desorption of deuterium at Pd95%-Rh5% alloy. II: Neutron emission. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 395: p. 249.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Pd-Rh, neutron, electrolysis, loading, D2O

2634. Mengoli, G., et al. The nickel-K2CO3, H2O system: an electrochemical and calorimetric examination. in Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1997. Societa Italiana Di Fisica.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Comisso, N., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: electrolysis, H2O, Ni, heat+

2635. Mengoli, G., et al., Anomalous heat effects correlated with electrochemical hydriding of nickel. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 20 D: p. 331.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: electrolysis, H2O, Ni, heat+

Summary. The hydrogen evolution reaction at sintered nickel in H2O-K2CO3 electrolyte was investigated by electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. Hydrogen evolution was accomplished with surface conversion of Ni into β-Ni-hydride, the extent of this reaction being strongly enhanced by temperature. Isoperibolic or isothermal calorimetry measurements show that electrochemical hydriding, especially at a temperature close to the boiling point of the electrolyte, is paralleled by anomalous heat evolution in large excess of electric power input. Electrochemically activated Ni electrodes, led in open circuit, keep on doing heat.

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2636. Mengoli, G., et al., Calorimetry close to the boiling temperature of the D2O/Pd electrolytic system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 444: p. 155.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Calorimetry; Temperature; D20/Pd electrolytic system

The electrolytic insertion of deuterium into Pd at 95у was investigated by a simple calorimetric technique. This involved continuous feeding of heating power to the electrolytic cell to maintain it isothermal with an external thermostatic bath: any extraneous thermal phenomenon taking place inside the cell is directly determined by the lack of balance of the original heating power input. It was thus found that Pd loading by deuterium is always paralleled by excess power generation, which largely exceeds the electrolytic power input. After prolonged electrolysis the loaded electrodes were found to continue heat generation in open circuit (o.c.) conditions. The reproducibility of the thermal phenomenon allowed its dependence on several experimental parameters to be investigated.

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2637. Menlove, H.O., et al. Measurement of Neutron Emission From Cylinders Containing Titanium With Pressurized Deuterium Gas. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Mayer, A., Miller, M. C., Ryan, R. R.
Keywords: titanium D2, Pd, neutron

2638. Menlove, H.O. High-Sensitivity Measurements of Neutron Emission From Ti Metal in Pressurized D2 Gas. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, D2 ICCF-1

2639. Menlove, H.O., et al. Reproducible Neutron Emission Measurements From Ti Metal in Pressurized D2 Gas. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Paciotti, M. A., Claytor, T. N., Maltrud, H. R., Rivera, O. M., Tuggle, D. G., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

During the past year, we have measured neutron emission from samples of titanium (Ti) metal and sponge in pressurized D2 gas. In January 1990, we improved our sample preparation procedure and our detector sensitivity level so that the neutron-emission measurements are now reproducible, but not yet predictable. We have measured excess neutron emission from the majority of our most recent samples using our high-sensitivity neutron detectors. The improved sensitivity in our new detector system was obtained by using low-radioactive-background stainless steel tubes, a small detector volume with high efficiency, and additional cosmic-ray shielding. Our most sensitive detector consists of two independent segments making up inner and outer rings of 3He tubes. The combined total efficiency is 44%. In addition to inner and outer ring segments, we have three separate detector systems operating in parallel control experiments to monitor environmental change. We have measured neutron bursts from a variety of samples containing Ti metal and D2 gas. The low-multiplicity bursts, emitting from 2 to 10 n, occur much more frequently than the higher multiplicity bursts. By measuring high-mass samples (300 g Ti) over several weeks, with many liquid nitrogen temperature cycles, we have detected neutron emission above the background from most of the samples with a significance level of 3 to 9 σ.

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2640. Menlove, H.O., et al., The measurement of neutron emission from Ti plus D2 gas. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 215.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Mayer, A., Miller, M. C., Ryan, R. R., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

2641. Menlove, H.O., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from Ti and Pd in pressurized D2 gas and D2O electrolysis cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 495.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Miller, M. C., Paciotti, M. A., Ryan, R. R., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, electrolysis, neutron, D2O

2642. Menlove, H.O. and M.C. Miller, Neutron-burst detectors for cold-fusion experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1990. 299: p. 10.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Miller, M. C.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, method, D2

2643. Menlove, H.O., et al. Low-background Measurements of Neutron Emission from Ti Metal in Pressurized Deuterium Gas. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Paciotti, M. A., Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron method ICCF-2

A wide variety of neutron detector systems have been used at vari­ous research facilities to search for anomalous neutron emission from deuterated metals. Some of these detector systems are summarized here together with possible sources of spurious signals from electronic noise. During the past two years, we have performed experiments to measure neutron emission from pressurized D2 gas mixed with various forms of titanium metal chips and sponge. Details concerning the neutron detec­tors, experimental procedures, and results have been reported previ­ously. Our recent experiments have focused on increasing the low-level neutron emission and finding a way to trigger the emission. To improve our detection sensitivity, we have increased the shielding in our count­ing laboratory, changed to low-background 3He tubes, and set up addi­tional detector systems in deep underground counting stations. This re­port is an update on this experimental work.

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2644. Merriman, B. and P. Burchard, An attempted replication of the CETI cold fusion experiment. 1996.

First Author: Merriman, B.
All Authors: Merriman, B., Burchard, P.
Keywords: CETI, replication, Ni, H2O

2645. Metzler, F., P.L. Hagelstein, and S. Lu, Developing Phonon-Nuclear Coupling Experiments with Vibrating Plates and Radiation Detectors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Metzler, F.
All Authors: Metzler, F., Hagelstein, P. L., Lu, S.
Keywords: Karabut experiment, kHz and MHz transducers, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Radiation detection, Up-conversion

Excess heat has been reported in cold fusion experiments since 1989; however, there is at present no accepted explanation for what mechanisms are involved. Over the past decades a general theory has been developed which seems applicable to excess heat and other anomalies systematically; but in this case we do not yet have unambiguous experimental support for the phonon-nuclear coupling and enhanced up-conversion and down-conversion mechanism. This has motivated experimental studies with which we hope to develop relevant experimental results from which clear tests of theory can be made. A facility has been developed with which we are able to induce vibrations in metal plates from about 10 kHz up to about 10 MHz and then measure the relative displacement. With a high-power piezo transducer we have driven a steel plate at 2.23 MHz to produce a vibrational power of 100 W. We are able to detect X-rays with film, scintillator and camera, with low-cost sensitive scintillator/PMT detectors, and with an Amptek X-123 detector. We also have detectors that can see gamma and neutron emission.

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2646. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha. Tunneling Beneath the 4He Fragmentation Energy (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords: Theory

Abstract At ICCF-14, we presented the means whereby the repulsive Coulomb barrier between hydrogen (deuterium) nuclei is reduced in length, perhaps by orders of magnitude. This mechanism, involving optical phonons and electric fields (internally or externally generated) in a lattice that induce the formation of H- H+ (D- D+) pairs, increases the tunneling probability by more than 100 orders of magnitude. It has additional major consequences.The lattice constraints and collision processes force the ions into a temporary, but cyclic, 1-D configuration that greatly deepens the electron ground-state potential well. The tightly-bound and energetic electron pair (a local-charged Boson – the lochon) becomes more than strong screening, it becomes a binding force between the nuclei. Thus, the Coulomb-barrier height is reduced as well as its length. With this greatly enhanced barrier-penetration probability, the energy level of nuclei with reasonable tunneling probability drops from the multi-100 keV range down into the eV range. . . .

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2647. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha. Tunneling beneath the 4He* fragmentation energy. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords:

The repulsive Coulomb barrier between deuterium nuclei is reduced in length and height by a catalytic mechanism involving optical phonons and electric fields in a lattice. If the mechanism induces the formation of D- D+ pairs, the tightly-bound and energetic electron pair (in the D- ion) becomes a binding force between the nuclei. The lattice constraints and slow collision processes, force the ions into a near 1-D configuration that deepens the electron ground-state potential well. This permits the electron pair to remain closely bound to one deuteron and to do work in bringing the D- D+ pair together. These tightly-bound electrons may remain as a pair, attached to a single deuteron, during the fusion process. In reducing the Coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons, these electrons bring down the total energy of the fusing D- D+ pair and raise the fragmentation energy level. This process accounts for the observations in CMNS of excess heat (in both p-p and d-d reactions) and for the differing observations (or their absence) of tritium, 3He, neutrons, and 4He in the d-d reaction. Thus, all major observed CMNS processes are explained.

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2648. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha, Tunneling Beneath the 4He∗ Fragmentation Energy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 241-255.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords: CMNS, Catalyst, Deuterium, LENR, Phonon-assisted, Tight-binding

The repulsive Coulomb barrier between deuterium nuclei is reduced in length and height by a catalytic mechanism involving optical phonons and electric fields in a lattice. If this mechanism induces the formation of D− D+ pairs, the tightly bound and energetic electron pair (a “lochon” in the D− ion) becomes an attractive force between the nuclei. The lattice constraints and slow collision processes force the ions into a near 1-D configuration within the lattice that deepens the electron ground-state potential well. This permits the electron pair to remain closely bound to one deuteron and to do work in bringing the D− D+ pair together. The work done reduces the nuclear-mass deficit (transferring it to electron kinetic and field energy) and that, along with the reduced Coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons, brings down the helium nuclear-energy levels of the fusing pair and raises the 4He fragmentation level. The proposed model accounts for the observations in condensed-matter nuclear science (CMNS) of excess heat (in both p-p andd-d reactions) and the differing observations (or for the absence) of tritium, 3He, neutrons, and 4He. The variation (unpredictability) of results (inherent in the many experiments) and evidence for transmutation, heretofore stumbling blocks to acceptability of CMNS, is now perhaps a validation of its existence. All major observed CMNS processes are addressed by the model.

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2649. Meulenberg, A., Review of Storms Paper. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: theory, critique

Edmund Storms’ paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View,” has some serious flaws, but it also has some good points.A major flaw of the paper is its dependence on a hypothesis of “two-in-two-out.” The argument is flawed and is based on physics quite different than that suggested in the paper. It is used throughout the paper and, by it being incorrect, thereby vitiates the value of the paper. . . .

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2650. Meulenberg, A., From the Naught Orbit to the 4He Excited State. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Electron-capture, Internal-conversion, LENR, Lochon, Muon-catalysis, Naught-orbit

An electron pair (lochon) in a deep hydrogen ‘naught’ orbit (n = 0) has similarities to muonic hydrogen in that it has a small orbital radius that allows the protons in molecular hydrogen to be very much closer together than is possible in a normal molecule. There are also significant differences between lochon- and muon-catalyzed fusion (e.g., one leads to ‘cold’ fusion and the other the ‘hot’ fusion). However, since muon-catalyzed fusion is an accepted phenomenon and Lattice-assisted Nuclear Reaction (LANR) or Low-energy Nuclear Reaction ( LENR) is not, we will examine the similarities and differences in various mechanisms with the fusion of deuterons in mind. We start with the assumption that both solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation are actually real and the one that has here-to-for been rejected correctly identifies a single deep orbit below the n = 1 ground state. (It is generally accepted that, at least for spinless bosons such as the lochon, this solution of the Klein-Gordon equation holds.) We then compare the creation model and characteristics of these two naught orbits with those of the muonic orbits (both atomic and molecular). The similarities lead both naught-orbit and muonic-orbit molecules to fusion. The differences lead the non-relativistic (but >100 MeV excess energy) muon-induced fusion of deuterons to the fragmentation of excited helium nuclei and the relativistic (but <10 eV excess energy) lochon-induced D-D fusion to an excited helium 4He* state that is below these fragmentation levels. The reason for this different response to the respective “tight” orbits is described along with some of the consequences, e.g., electron capture. In addition, internal conversion, a known physical process involving nucleon interaction with atomic electrons, is compared with the Extended Lochon Model to provide a means of de-exciting 4He* without production of energetic particles or radiation.

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2651. Meulenberg, A., Femto-Atoms and transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep-electron levels, Femto-atoms, Fusion, Transmutation

The low-energy nuclear-reaction fusion process for a deep-electron orbit femto-hydrogen atom, H# , with an atomic nucleus yields new isotopes and femto-atoms. The multi-body interaction, strong near-field radiation from tightly bound electrons, and low input energies, make energetic particle emission less common than for normal fusion or neutron-activation processes.

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2652. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, New Visions of Physics through the Microscope of Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

Cold-Fusion (CF) Research is not hindered as much by what we do not know as it is by what we know too well. This paper identifies several standard physics models, which must be extended beyond present practice, and indicates condensed-matter nuclear science (CMNS) work in this direction.

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2653. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, Deep-orbit-electron radiation emission in decay from 4H^*# to 4He. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

The process of nuclear energy transfer to the lattice involves near-field electromagnetic coupling of energy from energetic charged nuclei to deep-Dirac level electrons. From there, the energetic electrons near-field and far-field couple energy into adjacent Pd-bound electrons causing intense local ionization, but no energetic radiation beyond the multi-keV level.

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2654. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, Deep-electron orbits in cold fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

The lochon models of cold fusion, among others, propose deep-energy electrons as necessary for low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Relativistic Schrodinger equations, e.g., the Klein-Gordon (K-G) and Dirac equations, have â€ËŢirregular’ solutions that predict such levels at ~500 keV. The basis for such a level and its implications are presented.

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2655. Meulenberg, A., Femto-Helium and PdD Transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Femto-atoms, Femto-molecules, Deep-Dirac levels, Neutral-alpha, Selective fusion

Extensive evidence exists for cold fusion to produce transmutation products as well as excess heat. This paper deals with the palladium-deuteride (PdD) structure that is generally modeled with a deuterium-to-helium (D + D ) 4He) cold-fusion process. How this process results in transmutation is based on the extended-lochon model that predicts deep-orbit electrons that are tightly bound to the 4He nucleus and thus make the equivalent of a neutralized alpha particle. This model is compared with the NiH system (H + H)D, H##2 , or 2H#/ described earlier and distinguishes long-range from short-range transmutation (distance from the fusion site) as well as the relative excess energies from fusion vs. transmutation. The model predicts the probable transmutation process(es) and products in the palladium system and explains other observed results of cold-fusion experiments.

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2656. Meulenberg, A., Pictorial Description for LENR in Linear Defects of a Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Coulomb potential, Linear array, Nuclear Coulomb potential, Spin–spin coupling Variable lattice spacing

This note provides a pictorial description of several new concepts in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and thereby provides an image for both theoreticians and experimentalists to better grasp the differences with the old. Recent work on the concept of a ‘linear hydrogen molecule within a lattice defect’ is emphasized by showing how the interatomic spacing of the unusual molecule is no longer bound by the lattice spacing. A concept of the nature of the Coulomb potential for finite-sized charges at nuclear distances is pictured so that people stop clinging to the point- and separated-charge descriptions that are no longer appropriate. A known force, spin-spin coupling, may be important when dimensions approach those of the nucleus. The strong magnetic moment of the electron, indicating the importance of this effect at larger distances, is also pictured.

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2657. Meulenberg, A., Radiation Coupling: Nuclear Protons to Deep-Orbit-Electrons, then to the Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Deep-Dirac levels, Non-photonic coupling, Nucleon radiation, Potential shapes

This paper [1] explores the properties of the tightly bound electrons predicted by the anomalous solution to the Dirac equations. Starting with the assumption that electrons can exist in these deep-Dirac levels (DDLs) with orbits in the femtometer range and 500 keV binding energies, the electromagnetic radiation fields and their coupling to both nuclear and atomic-electrons are identified. The shapes of both the nuclear potentials and the potential at the bottom of the Coulomb regime have a major role in the coupling between excited nucleons and the DDL electrons. The many orders-of-magnitude differences in frequency of the nucleons, the DDL electrons, and the atomic electrons account for the small interactions under normal circumstances. The changes in these frequencies in radioactive nuclides and for excitation of the DDL electrons account for many of the observed phenomena in cold fusion.

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2658. Meulenberg, A., Extensions to physics: what cold fusion teaches. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords:

2659. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Nature of the Deep-Dirac Levels. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Anomalous solution, Dirac equations, Electron deep levels, Hydrogen atom, Relativity

Maly and Va’vra (M&V) in 1993 and 1995 presented a computational evaluation of the Dirac equations that included the ‘anomalous’ solution. The regular solutions of these equations are the basis for modern quantum mechanical predictions for comparison with the experimental values of atomic-electron orbital energies. The other solution, discussed in the literature for over 55 years, is relativistic and considered anomalous because its predicted levels are very deep (up to 511 keV) and have never been observed. Nevertheless, the existence of these deep levels provides a ready explanation of the mechanism for penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the means of D-D fusion below the 4He fragmentation levels. Since these levels also provide the basis for all of the other cold fusion observations (both PdD and NiH systems), it is important that arguments for and against the Dirac model be examined. The theoretical support for this anomalous solution is provided in a companion paper in this conference. This presentation seeks: to update the deep-orbit information provided in a poster at ICCF-17, to describe the nature of these deep-Dirac levels (DDLs), to report on additional, but unpublished, results presented by Va’vra in 1998, and to correct some interpretations of the model that Va’vra has provided in 2013. There are some unusual properties of the DDLs relative to those of the known atomic orbitals. Interpretation of the DDL properties, based on the non-relativistic solutions, leads to misunderstandings and further rejection of the concept of the deep levels. We hope to clarify this situation and indicate the importance of the calculations for cold fusion models. Cold fusion results provide a basis for understanding the DDLs and the proposed new fields of femto-physics and femto-chemistry.

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2660. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Basis for Femto-molecules and -Ions Created from Femto-atoms. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Deep-Dirac levels, Femto-hydrides, Halo nuclei, Isotopic anomalies, Medium-range nuclear binding

Starting with the assumption of validity of the Dirac equations (relativistic quantum mechanics), which are fundamental to much of atomic physics today, we also assume that the anomalous solutions to these equations are valid. If they are valid, then short-lived femto-atoms with electron orbitals in the low femto-meter range should exist. If femto-atoms exist, then the existence of femtomolecules could be expected. This paper addresses the possibility and nature of the femto-molecules and the nature of the forces creating them. The approach is that of Feynman’s molecular-hydrogen ion derivation using the Yukawa potential. The result is a molecular ion with femto-meter order spacing between the nuclei and an attractive potential identical with a medium-range Yukawa potential for an exchange particle with the mass of an electron. There are significant implications for both cold fusion and for nuclear physics and chemistry.

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2661. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Implications of the Electron Deep Orbits for Cold Fusion and Physics – Deep-orbit-electron Models in LENR: Present and Future. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 214-229.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Femto-atoms, 500 keV binding energies, Near-field interactions, Nuclear remediation, Relativistic bound electrons, Sub-restmass nucleons, Transmutation

Relativistic deep-orbit electrons (D-O-Es) have previously been identified as the probable mechanism in the development of lowenergy nuclear reaction (LENR) theories based on experimental Cold Fusion (CF) results. This present paper highlights how relativity and the near-field interactions (of deep-orbit electrons with both the nucleus and the lattice) predict accepted and many reported, but not-yet-accepted, CF observations. Included in the former category are: all of the new fragmentation ratios for the D+D => 4He CF nuclear reaction; a high-probability p-e-p => d reaction; a ‘fast’ decay process for transitions from excited to ground nuclear states; and a means of transferring excess nuclear energy to the lattice. Included in the latter category are: energy transfer from s-orbit atomic electrons to low-lying nuclear states; the formation of femto-atoms and femto-molecules – a basis for transmutations without the known ‘hard’ radiation (particulate or photonic) characteristic of neutron activation processes; selective attraction of femto-atoms/molecules to radio-nuclides (nuclear remediation); and the ‘preferred’ transmutation pathways in CF. Other effects, based on the published deep-orbit models, are predicted. Because of the successes of these models in explaining so much of CF, their mathematical basis is presently being explored beyond previous work(s). The physical bases for, and the consequences of, the mathematical predictions are proposed and described here. These include: special relativity and binding energy; the deBroglie term and spin-axis precessions; the deep-orbit quantum number, k; and deep-level splitting from spin-orbit, spin-spin, momentum and magnetic interactions. Theoretical concepts such as: symmetry breaking, ‘sequestration’, and elementary-particle mass changes to below their rest mass are also addressed. The new results and their interpretation, while incomplete, provide both satisfaction (in resolving prior issues) and surprises (in the magnitude and variety of near-nuclear effects).

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2662. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Physical Reasons for Accepting the Deep-Dirac Levels- Physical Reality vs Mathematical Models in LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 230-235.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Deep-electron orbits, Hydrogen atom, Relativistic equations, Singularities

Limitations to contemporary models of Coulomb and nuclear interactions have previously been identified in the development of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) theories based on experimental Cold Fusion (CF) results. However, relativistic quantum mechanics has already provided a means to overcome these limitations. Nevertheless, this ‘anomalous’ solution has been repeatedly rejected, based on the mathematical formalism of an assumed singular potential, simply because it has not been necessary heretofore in the description of available physical data. The physical realities of a non-singular potential and its interaction with a relativistic electron are not new physics and provide a solid theoretical basis for CF (as indicated in another paper in this conference, and the references therein) and for new fields in femto-physics and nuclear chemistry. This present paper is essentially a reasoned complaint against those critics who proclaim the limitations of the anomalous solution, yet ignore the inapplicability of their chosen potential to the real world where they claim the solution(s) fail. It also castigates those physicists who accept the mathematical limitations as applicable to the real world even when presented with the evidence of assumptions made where they are no longer valid. The paper picks a few of these alleged limitations and shows how relativity and near-field interactions alter predictions based on the mathematical models and approximations used to characterize the conventionally accepted observations. It identifies where the simple models fail, or violate physical reality, and points to the implications of extending the models to better fit the real world and to properly understand the physical mechanism(s) involved.

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2663. Meyerhof, W.E. Statistical Analysis of a Cold Fusion Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Meyerhof, W. E.
All Authors: Meyerhof, W. E.
Keywords: critique, Yagi

2664. Meyerhof, W.E., Statistical Analysis of a ‘Cold Fusion’ experiment. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 153: p. 391.

First Author: Meyerhof, W. E.
All Authors: Meyerhof, W. E.
Keywords: critique, Yagi

2665. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on the possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Xuebao. Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30(1): p. 39 (in Chinese).

First Author: Miao, B.
All Authors: Miao, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium, D2O, heat

2666. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30: p. 44 (in Chinese).

First Author: Miao, B.
All Authors: Miao, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat tritium, neutron, titanium Helium

2667. Michrowski, A., Advanced transmutation processes and their application for the decontamination of radioactive nuclear waste. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 122.

First Author: Michrowski, A.
All Authors: Michrowski, A.
Keywords: transmutation, Brown’s gas, reduce radioactivity

2668. Middleton, R., J. Klein, and D. Fink, Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1990. 47: p. 409.

First Author: Middleton, R.
All Authors: Middleton, R., Klein, J., Fink, D.
Keywords: tritium, method, titanium, D2 TiD

2669. Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell. Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies of the Cold Fusion Effect. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Park, K. H., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, method, electrolysis, ICCF-1

Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd/D2O cells and the controls. For example, the ratio of heat out to Joule heat in was 1.00 Ѱ.04 for one study and 1.065 Ѱ.04 for another study in LiOD/D2O compared to 1.075 Ѱ.07 in LiOH/H2O. The use of a much thicker palladium rod (99.96%, d = 0.635 cm) from Johnson Matthey, however, resulted in calorimetric evidence for excess enthalpy in five out of six cells. The excess rate of heating averaged 0.39 W/cm^3 over a 9-day period in one experiment. The total excess enthalpy observed was 110,000 J. This excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by chemical reactions. Similar experiments conducted in H2O did not produce significant amounts of excess enthalpy. Possible experimental errors in these calorimetric studies are being investigated.

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2670. Miles, M. and R.E. Miles, Theoretical neutron flux levels, dose rates, and metal foil activation in electrochemical cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 295: p. 409.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Miles, R. E.
Keywords: theory, neutron, method

2671. Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell, Electrochemical calorimetric evidence for cold fusion in the palladium-deuterium system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 241.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Park, K. H., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, tritium

2672. Miles, M., et al. Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Ostrom, G. S., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: heat+ Helium Pd D2O electrolysis

2673. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Search for Anomalous Effects Involving Excess Power and Helium During D2O Electrolysis Using Palladium Cathodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: helium Pd D2O heat+ electrolysis ICCF-3

Eight electrolysis gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production in two identical cells showed the presence of 4He. Six control samples gave no evidence for helium. Various studies of helium diffusion intoour Pyrex glass sample flasks established a minimum helium detection limit of 3 x 10^13 4He/500 mL (3 ppb) for our experiments. This places our rate of 4He production at 10^11 – 10^12 4He/s * W which is the correct magnitude for typical fusion reactions that yield helium as a product. Simultaneous evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation was present in these experiments. Progress relating to helium measurements have been hindered by difficulties in obtaining large excess power effects.

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2674. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Calorimetric Principles and Problems in Pd-D2O Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: error critique, heat+ ICCF-3

Most of the laboratories involved with the question of excess enthalpy in Pd-D2O electrolysis experiments have employed isoperibolic calorimetric techniques. A careful re-examination of earlier results from several laboratories (California Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harwell Laboratory) is needed in terms of our present understanding of electrochemical calorimetry. Error sources in their experiments are discussed. There is possible evidence for excess power production in the Pd-D2O electrolysis experiments at one of these laboratories. A significant experimental problem in many isoperibolic calorimetric studies is the fact that the decrease in the electrolyte level due to electrolysis produces a significant decrease in the calorimetric cell constant if the temperature is measured in the electrolyte of the electrochemical cell. Furthermore, heat conduction pathways out of the top of the cell can produce large errors, especially at low power levels. There is no steady state in electrochemical calorimetry, hence accurate results require the evaluation of all terms in the differential equation governing the calorimeter.

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2675. Miles, M. and C.P. Jones, Cold fusion experimenter Miles responds to critic. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1992. Spring: p. 75.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Jones, C. P.
Keywords: critique Jones Miles, He heat

2676. Miles, M., Letter to Steven E. Jones. 1993.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

2677. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: D2O heat+, electrolysis, helium Pd ICCF-4

2678. Miles, M., et al., Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 346: p. 99.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Hollins, R. A., Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J., Miles, R. E.
Keywords: heat+ electrolysis Pd, D2O, He layer, H2O tritium

A critical issue in determining whether or not the anomalous effects that occur during D2O electrolysis are of nuclear origin is the measurement of nuclear products in amounts sufficient to explain the rate of excess enthalpy generation. Calorimetric evidence of excess power up to 27% was measured during the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium cathodes. Maximum excess power was 0.52 W (1.5 W/cm^3) at 250 mA/cm^2. Eight electrolysis gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production in two identical cells and analysed by mass spectrometry showed the presence of 4He. Furthermore, the amount of helium detected correlated qualitatively with the amount of excess power and was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical estimate of helium production based upon fusion of deuterium to form 4He. Any production of 3He or neutrons in these experiments was below our detection limits. However, the exposure of dental X-ray films placed outside the cells suggests the emission of radiation. Control experiments performed in exactly the same way but using H2O + LiOH in place of D2O + LiOD gave no evidence of helium, excess power or radiation.

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2679. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and J.J. Lagowski, Anomalous effects involving excess power, radiation, and helium production during D2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 478.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: heat+ He electrolysis Pd D2O diffusion, pyrex

2680. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush, Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 156.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: heat He Pd, D2O, electrolysis

2681. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and D.E. Stilwell, Calorimetric principles and problems in measurements of excess power during Pd-D2O electrolysis. J. Phys. Chem., 1994. 98: p. 1948.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat, method, critique, Lewis

2682. Miles, M. The Extraction of Information From an Integrating Open Calorimeter in Fleischmann-Pons Effect Experiments. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, ICCF-5

Our first 5 months of investigating the Fleischmann-Pons effect in 1989 experiments produced no significant excess enthalpy. The November 1989 report of the Energy Research Advisory Board to the U.S. Department of Energy listed China Lake with MIT, Cal tech, Harwell, and other laboratories as one of the groups

    not

observing excess heat. Later experiments using palladium from another source (Johnson-Matthey), however, produced up to 30% excess power and 1,400 kJ of excess enthalpy. This amount of excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by any chemical reaction. Numerous experiments have shown that there is no recombination of the D2 and O2 electrolysis gases when fully-submerged palladium cathodes are used. Recombination can occur when palladium particles are exposed to the gas phase. In this case, our experiments prove that this recombination can be readily detected and easily corrected. In general, only about 20% of our experiments have produced measurable amounts of excess enthalpy. The cathode material used is apparently a major factor since successful experiments cluster around Johnson-Matthey supplied palladium.

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2683. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems, Final Report. 1996, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, 4He

Excess power was measured in 28 out of 94 electrochemical experiments conducted using palladium or palladium-alloy cathodes in heavy water. Reproducibility continues to be the major problem in this controversial research area. Based on our experiments, this lack of reproducibility stems from unknown variables in the palladium metal. The best reproducibility for excess power was obtained using palladium-boron materials supplied by the Naval Research Laboratory. Our basic isoperibolic calorimeters were capable of measuring excess power with a sensitivity of ѱ% of the input power or Ѳ0 mW, whichever was larger. Calorimeters that are capable of detecting excess power levels of 1 watt per cubic centimeter of palladium are essential for research in this field. Results from our laboratory indicate that helium-4 is the missing nuclear product accompanying the excess heat. Thirty out of 33 experiments showed a correlation between either excess power and helium production or no excess power and no excess helium. The collection of the electrolysis gases in both glass and metal flasks place the helium production rate at 10^11 to 10^12 atoms per second per watt of excess power. This is the correct magnitude for typical deuteron fusion reactions that yield helium-4 as a product. Anomalous radiation was defected in some experiments by the use of X-ray films, Geiger-Mueller counters, and by the use of sodium iodide detectors. There was never any significant production of tritium in any of our experiments.

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2684. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Electrochemical insertion of hydrogen into metals and alloys. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5 & 6): p. 68.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, deloading, boron

Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd/D2O cells and the controls. For example, the ratio of heat out to Joule heat in was 1.00 Ѱ.04 for one study and 1.065 Ѱ.04 for another study in LiOD/D2O compared to 1.075 Ѱ.07 in LiOH/H2O. The use of a much thicker palladium rod (99.96%, d = 0.635 cm) from Johnson Matthey, however, resulted in calorimetric evidence for excess enthalpy in five out of six cells. The excess rate of heating averaged 0.39 W/cm^3 over a 9-day period in one experiment. The total excess enthalpy observed was 110,000 J. This excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by chemical reactions. Similar experiments conducted in H2O did not produce significant amounts of excess enthalpy. Possible experimental errors in these calorimetric studies are being investigated.

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2685. Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Electrochemical loading of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium and palladium-boron alloys. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, D2O, Pd-B, ICCF-6

Excess power production and other anomalous effects have been observed during the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium and palladium-boron alloys as the cathode materials. This study focused on hydrogen and deuterium loading into palladium and palladium-boron alloys. Improved calorimetry provided for the detection of the exothermic heat of absorption of deuterium into palladium and palladium-alloy cathodes. The addition of boron to palladium does not significantly affect the initial loading rate but slows further loading to higher levels. The presence of boron in the palladium significantly slows the rate of the deloading process. Cracks or other surface defects prevent high loading levels of hydrogen or deuterium into palladium or palladium-boron alloys.

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2686. Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Heat and Helium Measurements Using Palladium and Palladium Alloys in Heavy Water. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: heat+ Helium electrolysis D2O Pd ICCF-6

2687. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson. Improved, Open Cell, Heat Conduction, Isoperibolic Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: method, isoperibolic, heat+, ICCF-6

2688. Miles, M., Electrochemical calorimetric studies of palladium and palladium alloys in heavy water. 1998: Sapporo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, tritium,

2689. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Radiation Measurements at China Lake:Real or Artifacts? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, heat, ICCF-7

Anomalously high radiation counts were observed using several different Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors as well as sodium iodide (NaI) detectors during electrolysis experiments with palladium cathodes in heavy water. These high radiation counts were often observed in co-deposition experiments where palladium metal is deposited from a D2O solution onto a copper cathode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. The anomalous radiation counts reached values as high as 73 sigma above normal background counts. The anomalous radiation would appear within a few hours in the co-deposition experiments where the palladium is loaded with deuterium as it deposits from solution. In contrast, the appearance of anomalous radiation required days of electrolysis for the palladium rods that load much slower. The real or artifact question stems mainly from the fact that two similar GM detectors often gave different results in monitoring the excess radiation. A few experiments, nevertheless, gave simultaneous anomalous effects from two different radiation detectors.

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2690. Miles, M., Reply to ‘Examination of claims of Miles et al. in Pons-Fleischmann-type cold fusion experiments’. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3642.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: critique, Jones Miles

2691. Miles, M., Reply to ‘An assessment of claims of excess heat in cold fusion calorimetry’. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3648.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Miles, critique, Jones

2692. Miles, M. Production of helium in the cold. in 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration. 1999. Albuquerque, NM.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: He heat, Pd, electrolysis D2O

2693. Miles, M. Calorimetric Studies of Palladium Alloy Cathodes Using Fleischmann-Pons Dewar Type Cells. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, Pd-B, Pd-Ce-B, Pd-Ce, critique, ICCF-8

My first three experiments conducted at NHE using the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) Dewar type cells investigated the Pd-Ce-B, Pd-B, and Pd-Ce alloy cathodes. Significant excess power was produced from the cells using the Pd-B and Pd-Ce alloy cathodes. The Pd-Ce-B alloy, in contrast, showed no measureable excess power effects. Previous experiments at China Lake using similar Pd-B alloy cathodes prepared by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) produced excess heat in seven out of eight experiments. The same Pd-Ce cathode that was used at NHE also produced significant excess power in previous experiments at China Lake. Due to the controversy over methods of data analysis for the F-P cells (see ICCF-5 Proceedings, 1995, pp. 105-115), I developed my own methods while at NHE. As I refined my methods for evaluating the calorimetric measurements, they approached more closely the methods outlined by Fleischmann and Pons in their Icarus Systems handbooks available at NHE. The method previously developed by NHE for the analysis of the F-P cells showed no excess heat for any of these same three experiments. The major problem with the NHE method is that a single calibration was used in determining the effective radiative heat transfer coefficient for the cell. An incorrect heat transfer coefficient can readily confuse the excess heat effect with the calorimetric error for the system. Calorimetric results for the same experiment using the NHE method, my method, and the F-P method for data analysis are compared. The fact that the alternative NHE method showed no excess heat for F-P cells illustrates the problem in transferring calorimetric methods from one laboratory to another. The second laboratory often fails to follow directions and makes changes that compromise the calorimetry. Similar problems were encountered in the attempt to transfer the China Lake calorimetry to NRL, hence excess heat was not observed.

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2694. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann. “Case Studies” of Two Experiments Carried Out With the ICARUS Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, method, critique, ICCF-8

The publication of the Final Report of the New Hydrogen Energy (N.H.E.) Group on their investigations of the Pd/D systems (1) prompts us to analyse a number of experiments carried out with the ICARUS Systems (2), (3). As the reproducibility of such experiments remains low, our analyses rely on a series of “Case Studies” which use appropriate parts of the methodologies developed for these systems (2), (3) (see) also (4), (5), (6), (7), (8).In this paper we present selected parts of such “Case Studies for two experiments carried out in the N.H.E. Laboratories; full details will be given elsewhere (9). The first experiment, designated as FP2 – 9506203 – 5561 used a 2 mm diameter × 12.5 mm length Pd cathode supplied by the IMRA-Materials Laboratory; the second FP2-97120402-M7C2, was carried out by one of us (M.H.M.) also in the N.H.E. Laboratories. This experiment used a 4.75 mm diameter × 20.1 mm length Pd – 0.5%B cathode (prepared by M.A.I. in the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.). Contrary to the conclusions reached in the N.H.E. report (1) we find that these experiments show “Heat-after-Death” and excess enthalpy generation at temperatures close to the boiling points of the electrolytes. The experiment using the Pd-B cathode also shows excess enthalpy generation in other temperature regions as well as the very early development of “positive feedback” (compare (10), (11), (12)). Such “positive feedback” complicates the analyses of the experiments. The “Case Studies” of these experiments also lead to the identification of errors in the execution and analyses of the experiments carried out by the N.H.E. Group.

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2695. Miles, M., Report on Calorimetric Studies at the NHE Laboratory in Sapporo, Japan. Infinite Energy, 2000. 5(30): p. 22.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Experiments using China Lake type calorimetric cells produced excess power in three out of three experiments and no excess power in three control studies.  A detailed analysis is presented for two experiments using the China Lake cells.  Anomalous thermistor signals in Cell A suggest the emission of electromagnetic radiation from the active palladium cathode.  Experiments in Fleischmann-Pons type calorimetric cells produced excess power in six out of eight experiments.  These studies involved palladium alloy cathodes, co-deposition of palladium and deuterium from the solution, and electromigration using thin palladium wires.

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2696. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Excess heat and helium production in the palladium-boron system. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 2000. 83(371): p. 72.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

2697. Miles, M., Calorimetric studies of Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2000. 482: p. 56.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Pd, method

New experiments in sensitive calorimeters displayed the characteristics of the excess power effect during seven different occasions. These measurements clearly show the anomalous increase in the cell temperature despite the steadily decreasing electrical input power during Pd/D2O+LiOD/Pt electrolysis. This strange behavior can be modeled by the use of an anomalous excess power term in the calorimetric equations. Two thermistors used in each calorimetric cell always show nearly identical temperature changes, thus errors due to temperature gradients within the cell are unlikely. The onset of the excess power apparently develops in a gradual manner. There were never any large, abrupt increases in the excess power. The addition of D2O with its sudden cooling of the cell generally dissipated the excess power effect. No clear triggering events for the excess power could be identified. Possible chemical explanations for the excess power are discussed. Normal behavior was always observed for a similar experiment conducted as a control.

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2698. Miles, M., M. Fleischmann, and M.A. Imam, Calorimetric Analysis of a Heavy Water Electrolysis Experiment Using a Pd-B Alloy Cathode. 2001, Naval Research Laboratory: Washington. p. 155.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, Pd-B, electrolysis, critique

A Pd-B alloy prepared at NRL was studied at both China Lake (NAWCWD) and at NHE in Japan and was found to produce excess energy both times.

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2699. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric analysis of a heavy water electrolysis experiment using a Pd-B alloy cathode. Proc. Electrochem. Soc., 2001. 2001-23: p. 194.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Experimental, electrolysis, Pd alloy, heat, res+

2700. Miles, M., et al. The Elevation of Boiling Points in H2O and D2O Electrolytes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University.: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Arman, H. D., Carrick, J. D., Gren, C. K., Haggerty, K. A., Kim, H. Y., Ky, A. G., Markham, J. E., Meeks, C. F., Noga, D. E.
Keywords: Pd,, D2O,, electrolysis,, heat,, boiling point,, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT The excess enthalpy effect in cold fusion experiments for Pd/D2O + LiOD systems is subject to positive feedback, i.e., increasing the cell temperature increases the excess enthalpy. Therefore, the largest excess enthalpy effects are often observed near or at the boiling point corresponding to that of the electrolyte solution in the cell. The exact boiling temperatures at different electrolyte concentrations are needed for cold fusion experiments. These studies of LiOH in H2O and LiOD in D2O both show boiling point elevations at higher concentrations that are significantly lower than theoretical calculations based on ideal solutions. Activity coefficients of LiOD in D2O at the boiling point of D2O (101.42у) are also reported. These boiling point measurements suggest a purity problem with heavy water samples that may contribute to the reproducibility problem for excess enthalpy.

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2701. Miles, M., et al. Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-deposition. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Pd co-deposition, heat electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT The thermal behavior of a polarized Pd+D electrode prepared by the co-deposition technique and serving as the cathode in the Fleischmann-Pons (F/P) Dewar-type electrochemical cell/calorimeter was investigated at the NHE Laboratory in Sapporo, Japan. These measurements show that (i) excess enthalpy is generated during and after the completion of the co-deposition process, (ii) rates of excess enthalpy generation are somewhat higher than when Pd wires or other forms of Pd electrodes are used and (iii) positive feedback and heat-after-death effects were present in this system.

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2702. Miles, M. Correlation Of Excess Enthalpy And Helium-4 Production: A Review. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Review

Three different sets of experiments conducted in the Navy Laboratory (NAWCWD) at China Lake, California (1990-1994) clearly established that helium-4 is the main fusion product in the Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis system.  A correlation between excess enthalpy and excess helium-4 was measured in 18 out of 21 experiments.  The observation of no excess enthalpy was correlated with no excess helium-4 in 12 out of 12 experiments.  Thus 30 out of 33 experiments agree with the hypothesis that the excess enthalpy produced in cold fusion studies is correlated with helium-4 production:  D + D –> 4He + 23.8 MeV.  Furthermore, the measured rate of helium-4 production was always in the appropriate range of 10^10 to 10^12 atoms per second per watt of excess power.

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2703. Miles, M. Fluidized Bed Experiments Using Platinum And Palladium Particles In Heavy Water. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, fluidized bed

These experiments were designed to give the dynamic electrolysis conditions of fluidized beds by the use of small palladium particles.  Both direct current electrolysis and pulse power electrolysis methods were used in this study.  The excess power observed was 90 mW for direct current electrolysis in D2O + 0.1 M LiOD (I=0.300 to 0.400 A).  For pulse electrolysis (pulse width 1.0 ms, pulse frequency 5 KHZ, peak voltage 98 V), the excess power increased to 250 mW.  No excess power was observed for similar experiments using platinum particles in D2O + 0.1 M LiOD.

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2704. Miles, M., NEDO Final Report – Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies Of Palladium And Palladium Alloys In Heavy Water. 2004, University of La Verne.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

The main feature of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is excess heat production.  My experiments designed to measure excess heat focused on the use of two types of isoperibolic calorimeters.  Cells A and B transfer heat mainly by conduction while the three Fleischmann-Pons type cells transfer heat mainly by radiation.  The first set of experiments in cells A and B used palladium cathodes.  Small levels of excess power were observed in Cell A but none in Cell B.  This result is in agreement with previous experiments at China Lake, California using the same two palladium cathodes.  There were also periods of unusual fluctuations in the temperature readings in Cell A for the thermistor closest to the cathode that persisted for several weeks.  These sudden temperature increases occurred during the same time period as when the excess heat was observed.  The switching of these experiments to pulse electrolysis also produced an excess heat effect in Cell A but not in Cell B.

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2705. Miles, M. Simultaneous Excess Power and Anomalous Radiation (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat,

2706. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Precision and Accuracy of Cold Fusion Calorimetry (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

The cold fusion controversy centers on the precision and accuracy of the calorimetric systems used to measure excess enthalpy generation. For open, isoperibolic calorimetric systems, there is no true steady state during D2O+LiOD electrolysis.  Exact calorimetric measurements, therefore, require modeling by a differential equation that accounts for all heat flow pathways into and out of the calorimetric systems. The improper use and misunderstanding of this differential equation is a major source of confusion concerning cold fusion calorimetric measurements.

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2707. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Excess heat

Important advantages exist for selecting a Dewar type isoperibolic calorimeter for measurements of anomalous excess enthalpy produced by the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE). These advantages include a wide dynamic range for both the cell temperature and cell input power, direct visual observations inside the cell during calorimetric experiments, relative low cost, self-purification of the system, the safety of an open system, and heat transfer mainly by electromagnetic radiation.  Various generations of this calorimetry are described along with the mathematical modeling.  The use of control or “blank” experiments, such as replacing palladium by platinum, show that anomalous excess power is measurable to within Ѱ.1 mW using this electrochemical calorimetry.  The application of this Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry at other laboratories such as NHE (Japan), Grenoble (France) and Harwell (U.K.) is discussed.  Variations of isoperibolic calorimetry used by China Lake, Caltech, and M.I.T. are also examined where the main heat transfer pathway is by conduction.  An improved version of the China Lake isoperibolic calorimeter is capable of measuring the small excess power (6.5 mW) produced at the beginning of an experiment by the exothermic absorption of deuterium into palladium.

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2708. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Twenty Year Review of Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review,

2709. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann, Accuracy of Isoperibolic Calorimetry Used in a Cold Fusion Control Experiment, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 153-171.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

2710. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. New approaches to isoperibolic calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Desired Features of Isoperibolic Calorimeters * Simple Construction / Low Costs * Wide Dynamic Range   – Cell Temperature (20у –> Boiling)   – Cell Input Power (0 –> 10 Watts) * Required kc= 0.13 W/K or kR= 0.83 x 10-9W/K^4 * Self-Purifying (H Removed Preferentially to D) * Inherent Safety (D2, O2 Exit Cell) * Direct Visual Observation Inside Cell (Dewar Cell) * High Accuracy (ѱ mW, Ѱ.1%) * Heat Transfer Mainly By Conduction or Radiation * Stable Cell Constants Independent of Electrolyte Level

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2711. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. New approaches to isoperibolic calorimetry. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

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2712. Miles, M. Investigations of co-deposition systems. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

Electrochemical studies of co-deposition show that the palladium deposited onto a copper substrate produces very high capacitance values (370 Farads/g) equal to those of supercapacitor materials. This large electrode capacitance causes a collapsing and tilting of the cyclic voltammograms that approaches Ohm’s Law behavior. Results for the electrochemistry, chemistry, and calorimetry of the 0.025 M PdCl2+0.15 M NH4Cl+0.15 M NH4OH system and its deuterium analog are reported.

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2713. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann, Measurements of Excess Power Effects In Pd/D2O Systems Using a New Isoperibolic Calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 45-55.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Electrolysis, Heat capacity, Heat conduction, Nitrates, Shuttle reactions, Temperature, Thermistors

Relatively inexpensive isoperibolic calorimeters have been designed and constructed with the goal of obtaining a constant heat transfer coefficient that is insensitive to normal changes in the electrolyte level during electrolysis. Four prototypes were constructed from copper tubing and used different insulating materials. Preliminary tests on two of these new calorimeters show excellent stability for the cell temperature measurements, stable heat transfer coefficients during electrolysis, and precise power measurements. Initial applications include nitrate electrolytes and co-deposition systems. There was no evidence for any shuttle reactions in these experiments.

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2714. Miles, M., Investigations of Possible Shuttle Reactions in Co-deposition Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Ammonia, Calorimetry, Electrochemistry, Excess Power, Palladium

Experiments in the 0.025 M PdCl2 + 0.15 M ND4Cl + 0.15 M ND4OD/D2O co-deposition system produced anomalous excess power in three out of three prior experiments in Japan. Completely new experiments have produced even larger excess power effects for this deuterated co-deposition system. The largest excess power effect in D2O produced 1.7Wor about 13 W/g of palladium (160 W/cm3). These large excess power effects were absent in extensive studies of H2O controls. Excess power was also absent in various experiments involving the co-deposition of ruthenium (Ru), rhenium (Re), and nickel (Ni) in both H2O and D2O ammonia solutions. The statistical analysis of all 18 co-deposition experiments yields a probability of greater than 99.9989 % that the co-deposition excess power effect requires both palladium metal and D2O. Shuttle reactions have been proposed to explain the reproducible excess power effect in this ammonia co-deposition system. However, various electrochemical studies show no evidence for any shuttle reactions in this ammonia system. Nevertheless, the initial chemistry for the Pd system is complex leading to large pH changes, chlorine (Cl2) evolution, and the formation of nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) during the first few days. However, the large excess power effects are observed later in the experiments after this chemistry is completed. A better understanding of the chemistry should be helpful in the reproduction of anomalous excess power in co-deposition systems.

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2715. Miles, M. and P.L. Hagelstein, New analysis of MIT Calorimetric Errors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Accuracy, Heat, Insulation, Temperature,Work

Accurate isoperibolic calorimetry requires a well-defined heat transfer pathway from the calorimetric cell to a constant temperature water bath. The MIT isoperibolic calorimetric results published in 1990 had a major impact in convincing scientists, as well as US Patent officials, that the anomalous excess enthalpy reported in 1989 by Fleischmann and Pons in Pd/D systems was due to various calorimetric errors. Additional information about the MIT calorimetry has allowed a more detailed analysis. The major new finding is that the walls of the MIT calorimetric cell were so well insulated with glass wool (2.55 cm thickness) that the major heat transfer pathway was out of the cell top into the room air rather from the cell into the constant temperature water bath. This helps to explain the reported sensitivity of 40mWfor the MIT calorimetry versus the sensitivity of 0.1mWachieved for the Fleischmann-Pons Dewar calorimetry. The evaluation of calorimetric designs, accuracy of temperature measurements, electrolyte level effects, calorimetric equations, and data analysis methods leads to the clear conclusion that the Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry was far superior to that of MIT. Therefore, the results of the MIT calorimetry cannot be used as a refutation of the Fleischmann-Pons experiments.

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2716. Miles, M., Co-Deposition of Palladium and other Transition Metals in H2O and D2O Solutions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimetry heat, nickel

The co-deposition of palladium, ruthenium, rhenium, nickel, and iridium were investigated in H2O and D2O ammonia systems (NH4Cl / NH3). Significant amounts of excess power were observed only in the deuterated Pd / D2O system. There was no excess power observed for the co-deposition of ruthenium, rhenium or nickel in any H2O or D2O experiment.

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2717. Miles, M., Examples of Isoperibolic Calorimetry in the Cold Fusion Controversy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method, Caltech, Harwell, MIT, Power

The Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry developed by Fleischmann and Pons can achieve an accuracy of Ѱ.1 mW. This accuracy requires the use of seven power terms to adequately describe the rate of enthalpy flowing into and out of the calorimetric system. The isoperibolic calorimetry reported by Caltech, MIT, and Harwell neglected important power terms leading to large errors.

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2718. Miles, M., Thermodynamic and Kinetic Observations Concerning the D + D Fusion Reaction for the Pd/D System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

Activation energy, Diffusion, Double layer, Eyring rate theory, Fusion reaction zones, Helium

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2719. Miles, M., Introduction To “A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems” (published in 1996). 2016: Washington.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Review

Two U.S. Navy laboratories reported important cold fusion results in 1991 at ICCF-2 in Como, Italy. Stan Szpak and Pam Boss reported studies involving co-deposition, and this author, along with Ben Bush, reported correlations at China Lake between the excess heat effect and helium-4 production. In January 1992, a Navy program began that was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and involved NCCOSC-NRaD in San Diego (now SPAWAR), NAWC in China Lake, and NRL inWashington, D.C. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is recognized worldwide as a top research facility, and a major publication from NRL on positive cold fusion results would have been a game-changer for this field in 1992 and equivalent to the CalTech, Harwell and MIT negative cold fusion publications in 1989. Even today, a publication in a major scientific journal from NRL supporting cold fusion would likely have a dramatic effect on the acceptance of this new science.

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2720. Miles, M. The Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetric Methods And Equations (PowerPoint slides). in Satellite Symposium of the 20th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2016. Xiamen, China.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

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2721. Miles, M. and R. Cantwell, Data from Melvin Miles’ July 2016 experiment. 2016.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Cantwell, R.
Keywords:

A document linking a spreadsheet and two papers describing Melvin Miles’ July 2016 experiment.

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2722. Miles, M., Excerpts from Martin Fleischmann Letters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cell temperature, Critics, Excess enthalpy, Helium

There were many letters exchanged between Martin Fleischmann and this author that reveal Fleischmann’s scientific thoughts about various cold fusion topics. These topics included possible critical factors for excess enthalpy effects in the palladium/deuterium system, errors in the CalTech, MIT and Harwell calorimetry, helium-4 production, critics such as Morrison, Taubes and Jones, and the advantages of using integrated forms of the calorimetric equations. Furthermore, Fleischmann mathematically shows that there is never a true steady state in the cell temperature for an open isoperibolic calorimetric system because both the cell heat transfer coefficient and the heat capacity of the cell change with time. Therefore, an important power term involving the change of the cell temperature with time has often been neglected by various groups using isoperibolic calorimetry. This power term is especially important when there are large changes in the cell temperature with time such as when the cell is first turned on.

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2723. Miles, M., The Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetric Methods, Equations and New Applications. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 1-14.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Cell cooling, Cell heating, Deuterium oxide, Differential equations, Excess power, Lower bound method, Palladium

The Fleischmann-Pons Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry remains the most accurate system for measuring excess power in cold fusion experiments. The use of mathematical modelling and numerical integration of the experiment data, along with appropriate averaging methods, can achieve a calorimetric accuracy of 0.1 mW. The Fleischmann-Pons “Lower Bound Method” can be used to determine the heat-transfer co-efficient during an experiment and yields accurate results. Important information can be obtained from time periods where the cell is first turned on and when the cell is shut off. Periods of large cell temperature changes are accurately modelled by the differential equations. These Fleischmann-Pons calorimetric methods and equations are applied to a new experiment where excess power is produced in the Pd/D2O + 0.1 M KNO3 systems. A heat conduction calorimeter was used in this study, but the same methods and equations apply.

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2724. Miles, M. Excess power measurements for palladium-boron cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: excess heat, palladium, boron

One of the major goals of the U.S. Navy cold fusion program (1992-1995) was to produce our own palladium cathode materials at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). However, none of these Navy palladium metals and alloys were successful in producing the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) excess power effect during the first two years. This all changed with the NRL preparation of palladium-boron (Pd-B) alloy cathodes in 1994. Seven out of eight experiments using these NRL Pd-B cathodes produced significant excess power in calorimetric studies at the Navy laboratory at China Lake, California (C/L). The one failure was related to a folded over metal region which acted as a long crack on the electrode surface. This success with Pd-B alloys made by NRL came too late to prevent the closure of the U.S. Navy cold fusion program in 1995, but these results are documented in a Navy report.

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2725. Miley, G.H., O. Barnouin, and B. Temple. Detection of Reaction Products Induced in Plasma Focus Electrodes. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Barnouin, O., Temple, B.
Keywords: ion implantation, gas discharge, method

2726. Miley, G.H., M. Ragheb, and H. Hora. On Aspects of Nuclear Products. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Hora, H.
Keywords: theory, nuclear Reaction, energy, ICCF-1

2727. Miley, G.H., Book Review: Cold Fusion,The Making of a Scientific Controversy by F. D. Peat. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 730.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: history, Book Review

2728. Miley, G.H., et al. Multilayer Thin Film Electrodes for Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Patel, J. U., Javedani, J., Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Tompkins, J.
Keywords: theory, thin Film, ICCF-3

The application of the ” swimming electron layer” theory to the design of multilayer electrodes is discussed. A key advantage of this approach is that the enhanced reaction rate at interfaces between select metals results in a high power density throughout the volume of the electrode.Design criteria and fabrication techniques devised for the multilayer thin films are discussed. Initial experiments using a dense plasma focus (DPF) for loading these targets are described along with the design of an electrolytic cell intended to test scaling to high powers.

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2729. Miley, G.H. Comments About Nuclear Reaction Products. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, energy, nuclear reaction, review, ICCF-4

2730. Miley, G.H., et al. Energy Amplifier with Multilayer Thin Film Electrodes. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Batyrbekov, E. G., Hora, H., Patel, J. U., Tompkins, J., Zich, R. K.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, layer, heat+ method

2731. Miley, G.H., et al., Electrolytic Cell with Multilayer Thin-Film Electrodes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 313.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Batyrbekov, E. G., Zich, R. L.
Keywords: thin layer, electrolysis, D2O

2732. Miley, G.H. and J.A. Patterson, Nuclear transmutations in thin-film nickel coatings undergoing electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 5.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: transmutation, Ni, H2O, electrolysis

Experiments using 1-mm plastic and glass microspheres coated with single and multilayers of thin films of various metals such as palladium and nickel, used in a packed-bed electrolytic cell (Patterson Power Cell ™ configuration), have apparently produced a variety of nuclear reaction products. The analysis of a run with 650-Å film of Ni is presented here. Following a two-week electrolytic run, the Ni film was found to contain Fe, Ag, Cu, Mg, and Cr, in concentrations exceeding 2 atom % each, plus a number of additional trace elements. These elements were at the most, only present in the initial film and the electrolyte plus other accessible cell components in much smaller amounts. That fact, combined with other data, such as deviations from natural isotope abundances, seemingly eliminates the alternate explanation of impurities concentrating in the film.

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2733. Miley, G.H., et al. Quantitative observations of transmutation products occuring in thin-film coated microspheres during electrolysis. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Narne, G., Williams, M. J., Patterson, J. A., Nix, J., Cravens, D., Hora, H.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd, ICCF-6

2734. Miley, G.H., Possible Evidence of Anomalous Energy Effects in H/D-Loaded Solids-Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRS). J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 6.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: transmutation,, heat,, H2O

2735. Miley, G.H. Product Characteristics and Energetics in Thin-Film Electrolysis Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, theory, ICCF-7

2736. Miley, G.H. Emerging physics for a breakthrough thin-film electrolytic power unit. in Space Technol. Applic. Int. Forum. 1999.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: critique, review, heat+, transmutation, Ni, H2O, Pd

2737. Miley, G.H. On the Reaction Product and Heat Correlation for LENRs. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, H2O, transmutation, heat+, Ni, ICCF-8

Abstract“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions”, or LENRs, typically involve electrolytes containing light water along with electrodes made of metals such as Ni, Ti and Pd.  In these experiments a variety of reaction products (isotopes), with masses both higher and lower than that of the host electrode material, have been observed at the University of Illinois (U of IL). Related results, often termed “transmutation” studies, have been reported by other researchers.  These observations suggest that proton-metal initiated reactions occur in such LENR cells. This paper discusses evidence that the production of these reaction products is correlated with the excess heat also frequently observed in LENR cells. Such a correlation for LENR reactions would be equivalent, in principle, to the correlation of He-4 with excess heat that is reported for heavy water-Pd experiments where a D-D reaction is postulated.

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2738. Miley, G.H., et al. Advances in Thin-Film Electrode Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Selvaggi, G., Tate, A., Okuniewski, M., Williams, M. J., Chicea, D., Horn, H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: layer, Pd, Ni, H2O, heat+, ICCF-8

2739. Miley, G.H., Some personal reflections on scientific ethics and the cold fusion ‘episode’. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 121.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: history

This note was prepared in response to Dr. Scott Chubb’s invitation to discuss issues concerning ethics in scientific research that I may have observed during the hectic period following the public announcement of “Cold Fusion” (CF) by Drs. Pons and Fleischmann in 1989. I would like to preface this note with some reflections on select “events” I was personally involved in as editor of Fusion Technology (FT) and as one of the early researchers in CF (who has persistently kept going!). Then I will discuss several ethical “issues” relating to scientific conduct from my viewpoint as an editor and researcher in the field.

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2740. Miley, G.H., et al. Progress in Development of a Low Energy Reaction Cell for Distributed Power Applications. in 10th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. 2002. Arlington, Virginia, USA: ASME.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Castano, C. H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Luo, N.
Keywords: heat, thin film, nickel, palladium

2741. Miley, G.H., et al. Progress in thin-film LENR research at the University of Illinois. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Luo, N., Castano, C. H., Woo, T.
Keywords: ICCF-9, thin-film, heat, charged particle, x-ray

The research described here includes work on fabrication techniques for reproducible thin-film electrodes. Runs with these electrodes in a newly fabricated high sensitivity calorimetry bank is shown to provide added support for earlier excess heat production observed with ultra-high proton loadings in thin film electrodes. In addition, new in-situ radiation emission studies have discovered MeV alpha-proton emission, supporting earlier reaction product evidence of the nuclear origin of the excess heat. Recent experiments and lattice simulation studies have provided added insight into highly loaded thin film phenomena, including possible H- effects associated with anomalous resistivity effects at ultra-high loadings. . . .

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2742. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Review Of Transmutation Reactions In Solids. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation

Transmutation reactions in highly loaded hydrides have been reported by a number of research groups. These studies are briefly summarized with emphasis on common systematics and key “signatures”. Transmutations divide into two types: heavy intermediate compound nucleus reactions yielding an array of products with a large spectrum of masses; direct reactions between H/D and the electrode metal or impurity atoms yielding isolated “single” products. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the products and the ability to overcome the extremely large Columbic repulsion of the high-Z elements involved.  Here we briefly consider a model involving orbital mixing and virtual neutron formation associated with charge accumulation and hydrogen/deuteron flow at highly loaded interfaces.

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2743. Miley, G.H., et al. Intense non-linear soft x-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Helgeston, W., Hora, H., Luo, N., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Smith, R.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment

Radiation emission from Low Energy Nuclear Radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and x-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft x-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An x-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm^2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm^2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that x-ray energies > 600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The x-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

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2744. Miley, G.H., et al. Intense non-linear soft x-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Helgeston, W., Hora, H., Luo, N., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Smith, R.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same title.

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2745. Miley, G.H., et al. On Aspects of Complex Nuclei in LENR Relative to Transmutation Reactions and X-ray Emission from Localized Clusters. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Hora, H.
Keywords: theory

2746. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Overview of Light Water/Hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation, excess heat, light water

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same name.

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2747. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Overview of Light Water/Hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation, excess heat, light water

This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

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2748. Miley, G.H., G. Narne, and T. Woo, Use of combined NAA and SIMS analyses for impurity level isotope detection. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 2005. 263(3): p. 691-696.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Narne, G., Woo, T.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method

2749. Miley, G.H. Preparata Medal Lecture – A Tribute to Giuliano Preparata, a TRUE Pioneer in Cold Fusion Theory. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: review, history,

2750. Miley, G.H., et al. Cluster Reactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Leon, H., Shrestha, J.
Keywords: theory,

2751. Miley, G.H., et al. Future Power Generation by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes (PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Luo, N., Shrestha, J.
Keywords: Neutron

PowerPoint slides from the ACS 233rd Annual Meeting, Chicago, Il March 29, 2007

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2752. Miley, G.H. Summary of the Transmutation Workshop held in association with ICCF-14. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: review,

2753. Miley, G.H., H. Hora, and X. Yang. Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Yang, X.
Keywords: theory

In this paper we first point out evidence for condensed matter cluster formation based on thin-film electrolysis. Next, measurements of superconductivity in condensed matter deuterium “clusters” in dislocation sites loaded-deloaded palladium thin films are briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of techniques under study to increase the number of such sites per unit volume of the electrodes. Estimates for resulting “cluster reaction” rates — flow enhanced Pycnonuclear fusion are given. If successful, this approach offers a “Roadmap” for future power unit based on thin films and clusters.

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2754. Miley, G.H. and J. Shrestha, Transmutation Reactions and Associated Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Effects in Solids, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 173-218.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, J.
Keywords:

2755. Miley, G.H., A Fascinating Review of the Emerging Science of LENRs. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 2008. 61.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Review

World Scientific’s advertisement for this book explains that, “One of the most important discoveries of this century — cold fusion — was summarily rejected by science and the media before sufficient evidence had been accumulated to make a rational judgment possible. Enough evidence is now available to show that this rejection was wrong and that the discovery of a new source of clean energy may help solve some serious problems currently facing mankind. The book catalogues and evaluates this evidence and shows why the initial reaction was driven more by self-interest than fact.”

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2756. Miley, G.H., et al., Radiochemical Comparisons on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Uranium, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 235-252.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Philberth, K., Lipson, A., Shrestha, P. J.
Keywords:

2757. Miley, G.H., et al. Clusters with Picometer Distance of Deuterons and LENR (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H., Andersson, L., Holmlid, L., Lipson, A.
Keywords: Theory

The probability of pm-Ms reactions for low energy nuclear reactions LENR and the semiempirical derivation of 2 pm deuteron screening on palladium with a reduction factor 14 in Coulomb repulsion compared with a usual plasma factor 5 was confirmed later by direct experiments. Generation of 2pm distance clusters of about 150 deuterons based on this screening and possibly by a Casimir force permitted understanding of compound reactions as measured with the 155 nucleon minimum measured at LENR. These kinds of deuteron clusters were directly measured by SQUID. Based on screening and comparable values of a Wigner-Seitz radius for very dense deuteron clusters of stable Rydberg matter in defects of iron oxide with measured 2.3 pm nuclear distance is another access which may lead to an understanding of the LENR processes.

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2758. Miley, G.H., X. Yang, and H. Hora. Bose-Einstein type D-cluster Electrode Development. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H.
Keywords:

Our recent research has developed a technique for imbedding ultra high density deuterium “clusters” (D cluster) in Palladium (Pd) thin film. Experiments have shown that in Pd these condensed matter state clusters approach metallic conditions, exhibiting super conducting properties. Using Temperature Programmed Desorption TPD system, the local concentration of hydrogen in the dislocation core is found to be [H]/[Pd]~1.8. At near 70 ºK Pd foil with abundant D clusters also show class II superconductivity, indicating the trapped hydrogen condensed into a metallic-like phase. Room temperature cluster formation is found to be adequate for the desired “nuclear reactive” sites. By careful calculation and experimentation, it is found the D cluster has a Bose Einstein Condensation state when a high deuteron diffusion flux is triggered. The resulting momentum transfer initiates reactions. The trigger can be electrochemical, giving LENR reactions. Thus this configuration can provide a small LENR power cell. Currently, we are searching for new methods to improve the volume density of dislocations. These methods mainly involve modifying Pd thin film with multi-layer structure.

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2759. Miley, G.H., X. Yang, and H. Hora, Ultra-High Density Deuteron-cluster Electrode for Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 256-268.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H.
Keywords: Deuterium cluster, Electrolysis, Glow discharge, Laser triggering, Low-energy nuclear reaction, Rydberg matter

This paper reviews new and previous theoretical and experimental studies of the possibility of nuclear events in clusters created in multilayer thin film electrodes, including the correlation between excess heat, transmutations, and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under study. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intended to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to achieve Rydberg Matters. Various methods of exciting (triggering) cluster reactions are also discussed. Based on these insights, the design of Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) power cells is proposed. While still in the research stage, this approach promises ultimate development of “green” nuclear powered “batteries” offering remarkable energy densities well beyond present technology.

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2760. Miley, G.H. LENR Reactions Using Clusters (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory

Our previous experimental results have demonstrated the formation of ultra high-density hydrogen/deuterium nanoclusters with 10E24 atom/cm^3 in metal defects. Both experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that due to the close distance between ions in the cluster, they can easily be induced to undergo intense nuclear reactions among themselves and some neighboring lattice atoms. In view of their multi-body nature, such reactions are termed Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) — a terminology generally accepted by workers in the cold fusion field. Since the interacting ions have little momentum, the compound nucleus formed in these reactions is near the ground state so few energetic particles are emitted from it’s decay. Triggering excess heat generation, thus nuclear reactions in LENR experiments has been accomplished in various ways, all involving the loading of protons or deuterons into a solid metal or alloy material.

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2761. Miley, G.H., et al., Use of D/H Clusters in LENR and Recent Results from Gas Loaded Nanoparticle-Type Clusters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 411-421.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Kim, K-J., Hora, H.
Keywords: Gas-loading system, Low-energy nuclear reaction, Nanoparticles

Anomalous heat, attributed to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs), is obtained by pressurizing metal alloy nanoparticles with deuterium gas. The reactions are enhanced by creation of ultra high density deuterium clusters in the nanoparticles. Experiments comparing various nanoparticles and plans for a proof-of-principle unit are presented.

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2762. Miljanic, S., et al., An attempt to replicate cold fusion claims. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 340.

First Author: Miljanic, S.
All Authors: Miljanic, S., Jevtic, N., Pesic, S., Ninkovic, M., Nikolic, D., Josipovic, M., Petkovska, L. J., Bacic, S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, CR-39, D2, titanium

2763. Miller, R.J., T.O. Brun, and C.B. Satterthwaite, Magnetic Susceptibility of Pd-H and Pd-D at Temperatures Between 6 and 150 K. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1978. 18: p. 5054.

First Author: Miller, R. J.
All Authors: Miller, R. J., Brun, T. O., Satterthwaite, C .B.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, magnetic Susceptibility, PdH, PdD

2764. Mills, R.L. and J.J. Farrell, A New Atomic Theory. 1990.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Farrell, J. J.
Keywords: theory

2765. Mills, R.L. and P. Kneizys, Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 65.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Kneizys, P.
Keywords: theory, hydrino, Ni, H2O, heat, Pd, D2O

2766. Mills, R.L., Reply to ‘Comments on “Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion”‘. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 96.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: critique, Mayer

2767. Mills, R.L., W.R. Good, and R.M. Shaubach, Dihydrino molecule identification. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 103.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R., Shaubach, R. M.
Keywords: theory, hydrino

2768. Mills, R.L. and W.R. Good, Fractional quantum energy levels of hydrogen. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1697.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, hydrino, x-ray, Ni, H2O, surface analysis

2769. Mills, R.L., Comments on ‘Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope’. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 384.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: Polemic, critique, Dufour, hydrino, hydrex

2770. Mills, R.L. and W.R. Good, various papers. 1999: Blacklight Power.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, hydrino,

2771. Mills, R.L., Lower-energy hydrogen methods and structures. 2000: US 6,024,935.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: hydrino, theory, patent,

2772. Mills, R.L., Novel Hydrogen Compounds from a Potassium Carbonate Electrolytic Cell. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 157.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: H2O. electrolysis hydrino

2773. Mills, R.L., et al., Identification of compounds containing novel hydride ions by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2001. 26: p. 965.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Dhandapani, B., Nansteel, M., He, J., Voigt, A.
Keywords: hydrino NMR preparation

2774. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, Spectral Emission of Fractional Quantum Energy Levels of Atomic Hydrogen from a Helium-Hydrogen Plasma and the Implications for Dark Matter. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 301.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: hydrino,, Mills,, theory

2775. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, Vibrational Spectral Emission of Fractional-Principal-Quantum-Energy-Level Hydrogen Molecule Ion. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 533.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: hydrino,, Mills,, theory

2776. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 565.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: theory,, Mills,, hydrino

2777. Mills, R.L., et al., Comparison of excessive Balmer alpha line broadening of glow discharge and microwave hydrogen plasmas with certain catalysts. J. Appl.Phys., 2002. 92: p. 7008.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P. C., Dhandapani, B., Mayo, R. M., He, J.
Keywords: Experimental, hydrinos, plasma emissions, res+

2778. Mills, R.L., Author’s Response to a Letter to the Editor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 359.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: Polemic

2779. Milton, R., Forbidden science. Suppressed research that could change our lives. 1994, London: Fourth Estate.

First Author: Milton, R.
All Authors: Milton, R.
Keywords: history,

2780. Minari, T., et al. Experiments on Condensed Matter Nuclear Events in Kobe University. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Minari, T.
All Authors: Minari, T., Nishio, R., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: deuteron beam

We review three kinds of experimental work underway in our laboratory to investigate nuclear events in solid or liquid materials. The largest effort has been given to experiments to confirm the 7Li(d,n2a) reaction rate enhancement reaching 10^15 in liquid lithium which was reported by H. Ikegami et al. [4] Li liquid droplets are formed as targets, and to keep them as pure as possible, we built a liquid Li loop. Thus far, in all cases of irradiation at the temperature from 520 to 570 K with 10 – 24 keV deuterons, we have not been able to reproduce the Ikegami enhancement for the 7Li(d,n2a) reaction.

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2781. Minato, J., et al. Materials/Surface Aspects of Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading into Pd Cathode. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monac: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Minato, J.
All Authors: Minato, J., Nakata, T., Denzumi, S., Yamamoto, Y., Takahashi, A., Aida, H., Tsuchida, Y., Akita, H., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, Pd-Rh, resistivity, D/Pd, electrolysis, ICCF-5

Electrolytic hydrogen and deuterium loading into Pd and Pd-Rh alloys have been investigated applying various modes of surface modification: thiourea on Pd and Pd-Rh, Pd black on Pd and Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh deposit on Pd. From these systematic data role of the bulk and surface properties of the cathode in determining the maximum loading has been discussed. The cathode loading is improved for Pd and Pd-Rh with a surface modified by thiourea and Pd modified by Pd-Rh deposit, while reduction of the cathode loading was observed when the surface of the Pd-Rh alloy cathode was modified by P d -black. These results show clearly importance of controlling the surface catalytic property of the cathode in controlling and improving the maximum cathode loading. It has been found that DlP d > 0 . 95 can be achieved reproducibly in electrolyte solutions containing thiourea at high concentrations. However, electrolysis in solutions containing thiourea can be conducted successfully only when the anode and cathode are separated by an ion exchange membrane in order to avoid theconsumption of thiourea by anodic oxidation at the anode.

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2782. Mintmire, J.W., et al., Chemical forces associated with deuterium confinement in palladium. Phys. Lett. A, 1989. 138(1,2): p. 51.

First Author: Mintmire, J. W.
All Authors: Mintmire, J. W., Dunlap, B. I., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Ladouceur, H. D., Schmidt, P. P., White, C. T., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: theory, distance

2783. Miskelly, G.M., et al., Analysis of the published calorimetric evidence for electrochemical fusion of deuterium in palladium. Science, 1989. 246: p. 793.

First Author: Miskelly, G. M.
All Authors: Miskelly, G. M., Heben, M. J., Kumar, A., Penner, R. M., Sailor, M. J., Lewis, N. S.
Keywords: review, critique, Fleischmann

2784. Mitsuishi, N., T. Yuki, and I. Ichihara, Characteristics of the Permeation of Hydrogen-Inlet Gas Mixtures Through a Palladium Alloy Tube Wall. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 415.

First Author: Mitsuishi, N.
All Authors: Mitsuishi, N., Yuki, T., Ichihara, I.
Keywords: PdH, diffusion, Pd-Ag

2785. Miura, H. Study On Formation Of Tetrahedral Or Octahedral Symmetric Condensation By Hopping Of Alkali Or Alkaline-Earth Metal. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miura, H.
All Authors: Miura, H.
Keywords: theory

Formation of tetrahedral or octahedral condensation related to the experiments on electrolysis or deuterium permeation was studied.  We obtained the scenario about the formation that alkali or alkaline-earth metal ions infiltrating into the host metal made cavities there when they hopped onto the other sites of the crystal lattice of it, then through squeezing of H+/D+ ions in the cavity tetrahedral or octahedral condensation of protons/deuterons is caused.

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2786. Miura, H. Study On Formation Of Tetrahedral Or Octahedral Symmetric Condensation By Hopping Of Alkali Or Alkaline-Earth Metal (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miura, H.
All Authors: Miura, H.
Keywords: theory

2787. Miyake, M., et al. Absorption and Desorption Behavior of Hydrogen by Neutron Irradiated Titanium. in 2nd Topical Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. 1981. Seattle.

First Author: Miyake, M.
All Authors: Miyake, M., Hirooka, Y., Shinmura, H., Yamanaka, S., Sano, T., Higashiguchi, Y.
Keywords: H2, titanium, loading

2788. Miyamaru, H. and A. Takahashi. Periodically Current-Controlled Electrolysis of D2O/Pd System for Excess Heat Production. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miyamaru, H.
All Authors: Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, electrolysis, Tanaka, ICCF-3

For the purpose of clarifying the correlation between current density and excess heat production in the D2O/Pd electrolysis, a new measurement system with an open type calorimeter was constructed. And electrolysis cell was specially designed and applied current was changed every few hours. Some palladium plates were electrolyzed with various current densities. A slight excess heat was observed during step-up mode electrolysis of the palladium plate called the first batch. No excess heat was observed with other palladium plates. Though the relation between applied current patterns and excess heat level was not clear, this study suggests that palladium material feature has an important role in excess heat production.

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2789. Miyamaru, H., et al. Search for Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miyamaru, H.
All Authors: Miyamaru, H., Chimi, Y., Inokuchi, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, Helium, hardness loading ICCF-4 electrolysis

2790. Miyamoto, S., et al. Measurement of Protons and Observation of the Change of Electrolysis Parameters in the Galvanostatic Electrolysis of the 0.1M-LiOD/D2O Solution. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miyamoto, S.
All Authors: Miyamoto, S., Sueki, K., Iwai, H., Fujii, M., Shirakawa, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Nakamitsu, Y., Chiba, M., Hirose, T., Nakahara, H.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, particle emission, layer, ICCF-2, electrolysis

In order to confirm the cold fusion phenomenon, measurements of protons in the galvanostatic electrolysis of the 0.1M-LiOD/D2O solution have been carried out. The upper limits of fusion rates was deduced to be 1.35×10^-24 fusion/d-d/sec with an assumption of the atomic ratio D/Pd of unity. No charge particles predicted by Takahashi for d-d-d fusions were observed. The Li content of the electrolyte was measured by ICP-AES after the electrolysis and found to be appreciably reduced in the electrolyte; the rest being found mostly in the 0.5%-Pd alumina catalyst used for recombination of D2 and O2 and partly in the Pd cathode.

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2791. Miyamoto, S., et al. Movement of Li During Electrolysis of 0.1M-LiOD/D2O Solution. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miyamoto, S.
All Authors: Miyamoto, S., Sueki, K., Kobayashi, K., Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Nakahara, H., Shirakawa, T., Kobayashi, T., Yanokura, M., Aratani, M.
Keywords: Pd, Li, D2O, analysis, surface, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2792. Miyamoto, M., et al. Deuterium ion beam irradiation of palladium under in situ control of deuterium density. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miyamoto, M.
All Authors: Miyamoto, M., Awa, Y., Kubota, N., Tamiike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, ion beam, D2, Pd, implanation, Au, charged particle

2793. Miyoshi, Y., et al., Effect of Forced Oxidation on Hydrogen Isotope Absorption/Adsorption Characteristics of Pd-Ni-Zr Oxide Compounds. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 46-62.

First Author: Miyoshi, Y.
All Authors: Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Deuterium absorption, Differential heat of hydrogen uptake, Forced oxidation, Isotope effect

Deuterium and protium gas absorption/adsorption by 0.1-μm! Pd powder (PP), Pd-black (PB), Pd nano-particles (“10nm!) admixed with ZrO2 (PZ) and Pd·Ni binary nano-particles (“2 nm!) dispersed in ZrO2 holder-flakes (PNZ2B) has been examined. For the PP, the PB and the PZ samples, both the deoxidized samples and those reused without baking process showed essentially the same values of the loading ratio D(H)/Pd, the specific output energy E1 and the hydridation energy QD(H) which are consistent with the published values for bulky samples. For the as-received and oxidized samples both D(H)/Pd and E1 are increasing functions of fineness of the Pd surface, and exceeds 2.0 and 1.5 eV/atom-Pd, respectively, for the PZ sample, giving the hydridation energy larger than the published value of the surface adsorption energy of 0.5 eV for bulky Pd samples. A rather large isotope effect in the differential heat of sorption, “D(H), has sometimes been observed in the 1a-phase characteristic of the oxygen-treated samples. The Pd0.04Ni0.29Zr0.67 oxide composite sample, PNZ2B, has unique properties: Both D(H)/[Pd·Ni] # 3.0 and E1 # 1.4 eV/atom- [Pd·Ni] for the as-received, the oxidized and deoxidized sample runs are very large, while QD(H) = 0.50Ѡ0.1 eV/atom-D(H) for all cases is modest. It is inferred that the Pd atoms act as a catalyst for the hydrogen isotope absorption/adsorption of Ni at room temperature. From the fact that the No. 2 run after the forced deoxidation has essentially the same values of the absorption parameters as those of the No. 1 and No. 3 runs, it is inferred that the surface adsorption potential is made shallower in the PNZ2B sample than in Pd-based samples. The ratio “D/”H is sometimes greater than 1.5, which appears to be suggesting the existence of heat component of nuclear origin.

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2794. Mizuno, T., T. Akimoto, and N. Sato, Neutron evolution from annealed palladium cathode in LiOD-D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1989. 57: p. 742.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Sato, N.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

2795. Mizuno, T., et al., Tritium evolution during cathode polarization of palladium electrode in D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1991. 59: p. 798 (in Japanese).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Sato, N.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

2796. Mizuno, T., et al. Cold Fusion Reaction Products and Behavior of Deuterium Absorption in Pd Electrode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, D/Pd, loading, ICCF-3

Excess heat generation from Pd electrode during cathodic polarization in D2O LiOD solution was investigated as a function of D/Pd loading ratio. The excess heat was observed when a Pd sample was filled with deuterium in D/Pd ~0.90 by cathodic charging. The excess heat increased with D/Pd in an exponential manner: the heat was of the order of magnitude of 0.1 Watt/cm^2 at D/PD ~1.0.

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2797. Mizuno, T., et al., Diffusion rate of deuterium in Pd during cathodic charging. Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1992. 60: p. 405 (Japanese, with English abstract).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, loading, phase diagram gamma phase

2798. Mizuno, T., et al. Anomalous Heat Evolution from SrCeO3-Type Proton Conductors during Absorption/Desorption in Alternate Electric Field. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Enyo, M., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K.
Keywords: SrCeO3, D2, Proton Conductor, heat+, ICCF-4

2799. Mizuno, T., et al., Formation of 197Pt radioisotopes in solid state electrolyte treated by high temperature electrolysis in D2 gas. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(4): p. 9.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Inoda, K., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation proton conductor gamma emission radioactivity, D2

2800. Mizuno, T., Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere during Applied Field. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 79.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation,, proton conductor,, D2

A proton conductor, the solid state electrolyte, made from oxide of strontium, cerium, niobium and yttrium can be charged in a hot D2 gas atmosphere to produce excess heat. Anomalous heat evolution was observed for 12 in 80 cases of the samples charged by alternating current for 5 to 45 Volts at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700(C. Several kinds of alkali metals, Ca, Mg, Bismuth, Lantanides and Aluminum were locally segregated and distributed around the melted and swelled parts of the samples that generated an excess heat.

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2801. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo, Isotopic changes of the reaction products induced by cathodic electrolysis in Pd. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 31.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

It was confirmed by several analytic methods that reaction products with mass numbers ranging from 6 to 220 are deposited on palladium cathodes subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, high temperature, and high current density for one month. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Isotopic distributions for the produced elements were radically different from the natural ones.

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2802. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo, Anomalous Isotopic Distribution in Palladium Cathode After Electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 37.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis,, transmutation,, Pd

2803. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous heat evolution from a solid-state electrolyte under alternating current in high-temperature D2 gas. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 385.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K.
Keywords: metal oxide D2, heat+, proton conductor, solid electrolyte

A coin-shaped proton conductor made from metal oxides of strontium and cerium can be charged in a hot D2 gas atmosphere to produce excess heat. Anomalous heat evolution was observed from the proton conductors charged with alternating current at 5 to 45 V at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700у. The anomalous heat produced temperature increases as much as 50у. Excess heat was estimated as a few watts in most cases, totaling up to several kilojoules.

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2804. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous isotopic distribution of elements deposited on palladium induced by cathodic electrolysis. Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1996. 64: p. 1160 (in Japanese).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Kurokawa, K., Akimoto, T., Kitaichi, M., Inoda, K., Azumi, K., Shimokawa, S., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd

It was confirmed by several analytic methods that reaction products with mass number ranging from 20 to 28, 46 to 54, and 72 to 82 are produced in palladium cathodes subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, high temperature, and high current density for one month. Isotopic distributions were radically different from the natural ones.

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2805. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous gamma peak evolution from SrCe solid state electrolyte charged in D2 gas. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1997. 22: p. 23.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Inoda, K., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: proton conductor D2, gamma emission transmutation

2806. Mizuno, T., Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion. 1998, Concord, NH: Infinite Energy Press.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation history

The announcement of cold fusion in March 1989 at the University of Utah was greeted with worldwide hysteria. Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons had claimed that an electrochemical cell with heavy water electrolyte and a palladium cathode put out so much excess energy that the mysterious phenomenon had to be nuclear, and was probably a process related to nuclear fusion. Newspapers and magazines said it might be a major scientific discovery with the potential to end the energy crisis and revolutionize society. For a few heady weeks the public took it seriously and waited anxiously for laboratories to replicate the results. Many scientists quickly took sides for or against cold fusion – mostly against. Then, by the end of the summer of 1989 the official word came, in an authoritative report written by a select panel of experts under the auspices of the Department of Energy: cold fusion was a bust. It did not exist. It was an experimental error. It could not be reproduced. Nearly every scientific journal, magazine and newspaper on earth reported this, and cold fusion abruptly dropped out of the headlines. The story, it seemed, was over. Actually, it had barely begun. Only a few thousand electrochemists in the world were qualified to do the experiments, and most of them were too busy or not interested in trying. In that autumn as public interest faded and the U.S. Department of Energy pronounced a death sentence, a small number of experienced scientists prepared serious, full-scale experiments. One of them was Tadahiko Mizuno, an assistant professor who had been doing similar electrochemical experiments for more than twenty years.

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2807. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and T. Akimoto. Probability of Neutron and Heat Emission from Pt Electrode Induced by Discharge in Alkaline Solution. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T.
Keywords: neutron, heat+, plasma discharge, Pt, ICCF-7

2808. Mizuno, T. and T. Ohmori, Neutron and Heat Generation Induced by Electric Discharge. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 33.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T.
Keywords: neutron,, heat,, gas discharge

2809. Mizuno, T., et al., Confirmation of the changes of isotopic distribution for the elements on palladium cathode after strong electrolysis in D2O solutions. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 45.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, transmutation Xe

2810. Mizuno, T. Experimental Confirmation of the Nuclear Reaction at Low Energy Caused by Electrolysis in the Electrolyte. in Proceedings for the Symposium on Advanced Research in Energy Technology 2000. 2000. Hokkaido University.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation electrolysis Pd D2O

Section 1.  Confirmation with a palladium electrode in the heavy water electrolyte.1.1 SummaryMany elements on Pd electrodes were confirmed by several analytic methods; reaction products with the mass number up to 208 are deposited on palladium cathodes, which were subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, temperature, and current density for prolonged time. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Extraordinary changes of their isotopic distributions in the produced elements were observed; these were radically different from the ones found in nature. Essentially the same phenomenon was confirmed eight times with high reproducibility at high cathodic current density, above 0.2 A/cm^2. All the possibilities of contamination had been carefully eliminated by several pretreatments for the sample and electrolysis system. . . .

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2811. Mizuno, T., et al. Confirmation of Heat Generation and Anomalous Element Caused by Plasma Electrolysis in the Liquid. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Azumi, K., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: plasma discharge, heat, transmutation, ICCF-8

Plasma was formed on the electrode surface in a liquid electrolyte when a metal cathode was polarized in high voltage electrolysis in the solution. During the plasma electrolysis large amounts of heat are sometimes generated. The heat can exceed input substantially, in some cases by up to 200 percent of input power. At the same time, anomalous elements are detected in the electrolyte and on the electrode surface. Based on the heat and the product, we hypothesize a nuclear reaction can be induced by photon activation on the cathode element.

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2812. Mizuno, T., et al., Production of Heat During Plasma Electrolysis. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2000. 39: p. 6055.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: heat+, plasma discharge, H2O

Plasma was formed on the surface of an electrode in a liquid solution when metal cathodes underwent high-voltage electrolysis. A real-time heat calibration system was designed for detecting the amount of heat generated during plasma electrolysis. The measured heat exceeded the input power substantially, and in some cases 200% of the input power. The heat generation process depended on the conditions for electrolysis. There was no excess heat at the beginning of plasma electrolysis. However, after plasma electrolysis for a long time, a large amount of heat was generated. The reproducibility would be 100% if all factors such as temperature, voltage and duration were optimized. Based on the heat and the products, we hypothesize that some unique reaction occurs on the cathode surface. This reaction may not occur at energy levels available during electrochemical electrolysis.

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2813. Mizuno, T., et al., Neutron Evolution from a Palladium Electrode by Alternate Absorption Treatment of Deuterium and Hydrogen. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2001. 40(9A/B): p. L989-L991.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Takahashi, A., Yamada, H., Numata, H.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, D2O H2O

We observed neutron emissions from palladium after it absorbed deuterium from heavy water followed by hydrogen from light water. The neutron count, the duration of the release and the time of the release after electrolysis was initiated all fluctuated considerably. Neutron emissions were observed in five out of ten test cases. In all previous experiments reported, only heavy water was used, and light water was absorbed only in accidental contamination. Compared to these deuterium results, the neutron count is orders of magnitude higher, and reproducibility is much improved.

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2814. Mizuno, T., et al. Relation Between Neutron Evolution and Deuterium Permeation With a Palladium Electrode. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: neutron Pd electrolysis D2O H2O, ICCF-9

Abstract We observed neutron emissions from palladium after it absorbed deuterium from heavy water followed by hydrogen from light water. The neutron count, the duration of the release and the time of the release after electrolysis was initiated all fluctuated considerably. Neutron emissions were observed in five out of ten test cases. In all previous experiments reported, only heavy water was used, and light water was absorbed only in accidental contamination. Compared to these deuterium results, the neutron count is orders of magnitude higher, and reproducibility is much improved.

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2815. Mizuno, T., T. Akimoto, and T. Ohmori. Confirmation of anomalous hydrogen generation by plasma electrolysis. in 4th Meeting of Japan CF Research Society. 2003. Iwate, Japan: Iwate University.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, hydrogen generation, current efficiency, heat

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas is usually obtained by the electrolysis. Pyrolysis decomposition of water occurs at high temperatures, starting at ~3000ºC. As we have already reported, anomalous hydrogen is sometimes generated during plasma electrolysis. Excess hydrogen usually appears once certain difficult conditions during high temperature glow discharge electrolysis are met. Here, we show that anomalous amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gas are generated during plasma electrolysis excess gas generation, presumably from pyrolysis. This is indirect proof that exceptionally high temperatures have been achieved. (Direct measurement of the reaction temperature has proved difficult.) Continuous generation of hydrogen above levels predicted by Faraday’s law is observed when temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface meet certain conditions. Although only a few observations of excess hydrogen gas production have been made, production is sometimes 80 times higher than normal Faradic electrolysis gas production.

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2816. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and T. Akimoto. Generation of Heat and Products During Plasma Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, pyrolysis, hydrogen generation, current efficiency

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult to achieve in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas can be usually obtained by electrolysis and a pyrolysis reaction at high temperatures above 3700 degrees Celsius. However, as we have alreadyreported, anomalous heat generation during plasma electrolysis is relatively easy to obtain under the right simultaneous conditions of high temperature and electrolysis. In this paper we discuss the anomalous amount of hydrogen and oxygen gas generated during plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen in amounts exceeding Faraday’s law is continuously observed when the conditions such as temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface are suitable. Non-Faradic generation of hydrogen gas is sometimes 80 times higher than the gas from normal electrolysis. Excess hydrogen has proved difficult to replicate by other laboratories, although we are able to reproduce it regularly.

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2817. Mizuno, T., et al. Neutron emission from D2 gas in magnetic fields under low temperature. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A., Celani, F.
Keywords: neutron

SummaryWe observed neutron emissions from pure deuterium gas after it was cooled in liquid nitrogen and placed in a magnetic field. Neutron emissions were observed in ten out of ten test cases. Neutron burst of 5.5 c/s were 1000 times higher than the background counts. These bursts occurred one or two times within a 300 second interval. The total neutron emission can be estimated from the counting efficiency, and it was 104 ~ 105 c/s. The reaction appears to be highly reproducible, reliably generating high neutron emissions. We conclude that the models proposed heretofore based upon d-d reactions are inadequate to explain the present results, which must involve magnetic field nuclear reactions.

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2818. Mizuno, T., et al. Generation of Heat and Products During Plasma Electrolysis. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Chung, D., Sesftel, F., Aoki, Y.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, glow discharge, hydrogen generation, transmutation

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas can be usually obtained by electrolysis or by a pyrolysis reaction at high temperatures, starting at approximately 3700ºC. However, as we have already reported, anomalous heat generation can occur during plasma electrolysis, and this process makes it rather easy to achieve both electrolysis and pyrolysis simultaneously. In this paper we describe anomalous amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gas generated during plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen far in excess of amounts predicted by Faraday’s law is continuously observed when conditions such as temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface are suitable. Non-Faraday generation of hydrogen gas sometimes produces more than 80 times as much hydrogen as normal electrolysis does. Unfortunately there have been few claimed replications of excess hydrogen, even in rare cases in which excess heat is claimed. In most cases, no excess heat or hydrogen is observed. The reaction products found after electrolysis were different after excess heat generation.

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2819. Mizuno, T. and Y. Toriyabe. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Toriyabe, Y.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter

We experienced an explosive energy release during a conventional electrolysis experiment. The cell was a 1000 cc Pyrex glass vessel that has been in use for 5 years. It contained 700 cc of 0.2 M K2CO3 electrolyte; a platinum mesh anode; and a tungsten cathode wire 1.5 mm in diameter, 29 cm long, with 3 cm exposed to the electrolyte. The estimated heat out was 800 times higher than input power, based on the data recorded up to the moment of the event. There were many elements deposited on the electrode surface. The major elements were Ca and S and the total mol was roughly estimated as 10^-6.

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2820. Mizuno, T., et al., Hydrogen Evolution by Plasma Electrolysis in Aqueous Solution. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2005. 44(1A): p. 396-401.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Ohmori, T., Aoki, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry, excess hydrogen

Hydrogen has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to environmental and energy problems. If hydrogen should be considered an energy storage medium rather than a natural resource. However, free hydrogen does not exist on earth. Many techniques for obtaining hydrogen have been proposed. It can be reformulated from conventional hydrocarbon fuels, or obtained directly from water by electrolysis or high-temperature pyrolysis with a heat source such as a nuclear reactor. However, the efficiencies of these methods are low. The direct heating of water to sufficiently high temperatures for sustaining pyrolysis is very difficult. Pyrolysis occurs when the temperature exceeds 4000ºC. Thus plasma electrolysis may be a better alternative, it is not only easier to achieve than direct heating, but also appears to produce more hydrogen than ordinary electrolysis, as predicted by Faraday’s laws, which is indirect evidence that it produces very high temperatures. We also observed large amounts of free oxygen generated at the cathode, which is further evidence of direct decomposition, rather than electrolytic decomposition. To achieve the continuous generation of hydrogen with efficiencies exceeding Faraday efficiency, it is necessary to control the surface conditions of the electrode, plasma electrolysis temperature, current density and input voltage. The minimum input voltage required induce the plasma state depends on the density and temperature of the solution, it was estimated as 120V in this study. The lowest electrolyte temperature at which plasma forms is ~75ºC. We have observed as much as 80 times more hydrogen generated by plasma electrolysis than by conventional electrolysis at 300 V.

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2821. Mizuno, T., Jyouon kakuyuugou purojekuto (cold fusion project). 2006: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Review

An e-book in Japanese reviewing the field. Describes Mizuno’s own research, as well as projects at Osaka University, NTT, Iwate University, Nagoya University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

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2822. Mizuno, T., Transmutation Reactions in Condensed Matter, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 271-294.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords:

2823. Mizuno, T. and S. Sawada. Anomalous Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Carbon (Phenanthrene). in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Sawada, S.
Keywords: heat

When phenanthrene (a heavy oil fraction) is subjected to high pressure and heat in a reactor with a metal catalyzer, it produces a markedly anomalous reaction. It produces excess heat and weak radiation, specifically x-rays and gamma-rays. Furthermore, after the reaction finishes, mass spectroscopy reveals what appears to be 13C. It is very difficult to explain the total energy generation as a conventional chemical reaction. After the experiment, almost all phenanthrene and hydrogen gas remains in the same condition they were initially. There are few reaction products such as other chemical compounds. However, the formation enthalpies for these compounds are all negative. The heat generation sometimes reaches 0.1 kW and has continued for several hours. There is a reasonably significant correspondence between the heat generation and the gamma emission. We have confirmed the same result with high reproducibility by controlling temperature and pressure.

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2824. Mizuno, T. Confirmation of Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Oil (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Excess heat

We have confirmed unusual reaction when heavy oil is heated in high pressure hydrogen gas with a metal catalyzer. Excess heat and weak radiation that assumed to be x-rays and gamma-rays were observed. After the test, almost of the sample and hydrogen gas remains in the same condition they were initially. There are reaction products such as other chemical compounds. However, the formation enthalpies for these compounds are estimated as endothermic. The heat generation sometimes reaches 0.1kW and has continued for several hours. There is a reasonably significant correspondence between the heat generation and the radiation emission. We have confirmed the same result with high reproducibility by controlling temperature and pressure. The anomalous energy generation cannot be the product of a conventional chemical reaction for the following reasons: At these temperatures, hydrogenation reactions are endothermic, not exothermic. The total heat release far exceeded any known chemical reaction with this mass of reactants. There is virtually no chemical fuel in the cell. There were few chemical reaction products. The components and chemical species in the cell including oil and hydrogen gas remained essentially as they were when experiment began, except that the platinum screen was coated with carbon. The emissions are thought that had been generated from some nuclear reaction. The reaction is reliably triggered by raising temperatures above the threshold temperature of ~530у and the hydrogen pressures above 60 atm. It can be quenched by lowering the temperature inside the cell below ~500у. When the necessary conditions are achieved, generation of heat is observed with high reproducibility. However, the amount of heat generated is not stable. Only a small amount of reactant is consumed during the experiment, presumably by conventional chemical reactions. We conclude the following: Anomalous heat generation was confirmed during heating of sample in high pressure H2 gas. Sporadic emission was confirmed during high temperature experiment. A weak correlation was observed between heat and the emissions.

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2825. Mizuno, T. Confirmation of Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Oil. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords:

The study was devoted to replicating and controlling that excess heat effect during hydrogenation of hydrocarbon. The reactant is phenanthrene, a heavy oil fraction, which is reacted with H2 gas of high pressure and high temperature in the presence of a metal catalyst. This results in the production of excess heat and radiation. After the reaction, an analysis of residual gas reveals a variety of hydrocarbons, but it seems unlikely that these products can explain the excess heat. Most of them form endothermically, and furthermore heat production reached 60 W. Overall heat production exceeded any conceivable chemical reaction by two orders of magnitude.

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2826. Mizuno, T., Heat and Radiation Generation during Hydrogenation of CH Compound. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2011. 5(8): p. 1017.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Heat

Abstract: Securing new sources of energy has become a major concern, because fossil fuels are expected to be depleted within several decades. In some of the major wars of the 20th century, control of oil was either a proximate cause or a decisive factor in the outcome. Especially in Japan and Germany, a great deal of research was devoted to making liquid fuels from coal. In one such experiment, a large amount of excess heat was observed. The present study was devoted to replicating and controlling that excess heat effect. The reactant is phenanthrene, a heavy oil fraction, which is subjected to high pressure and high heat in the presence of a metal catalyst. This results in the production of excess heat and strong penetrating electromagnetic radiation. After the reaction, an analysis of residual gas reveals a variety of hydrocarbons, but it seems unlikely that these products can explain the excess heat. Most of them form endothermically, and furthermore heat production reached 60 W. Overall heat production exceeded any conceivable chemical reaction by two orders of magnitude.

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2827. Mizuno, T. Method of controlling a chemically-induced nuclear reaction in metal nanoparticles. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

A nuclear reaction can occur when metal nanoparticles are exposed to hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. When hydrogen isotopes (light hydrogen and deuterium) enter the nanoparticles and are exposed to electron irradiation, the hydrogen reacts inside the lattice, producing energy. The reaction also produces neutrons, gamma rays and transmutations. Normally, electron irradiation does not produce anomalous heat or radiation. A reaction occurs when hydrogen acts as a heavy fermion (a heavy electron) inside metal nanoparticles below a certain particle size, allowing protons or deuterons to approach one another closely.

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2828. Mizuno, T. and J. Rothwell. Poster for ‘Method of controlling a chemically-induced nuclear reaction in metal nanoparticles’. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

Excess heat is observed when nanoparticles of nickel or palladium undergo glow discharge electrolysis in hydrogen or deuterium gas. After glow discharge ends, when additional gas is admitted to the cell, another burst of heat is sometimes observed.This method produces nanoparticles by bombarding the electrodes with electrons during ~30 hours of glow discharge. The nanoparticles are created in situ in electrodes. The electrodes have already been cleaned and purified, and they are kept in a high-purity gas environment, so the nanoparticles have little contamination on the surface and they are highly absorbent. With other methods, the nanoparticle material is fabricated elsewhere and exposed to air and contamination before being placed in the cell.

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2829. Mizuno, T., Method of Controlling a Chemically Induced Nuclear Reaction in Metal Nanoparticles. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 422-431.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Gas loading, Heat, Nanoparticles

A nuclear reaction can occur when metal nanoparticles are exposed to hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. When hydrogen isotopes (light hydrogen and deuterium) enter the nanoparticles and are exposed to electron irradiation, the hydrogen reacts inside the lattice, producing energy. The reaction also produces neutrons, gamma rays and transmutations. Protons and heavy electrons take part in the reaction. The method of control and the experimental results are reported here.

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2830. Mizuno, T., PREPRINT Observation of excess heat by activated metal and deuterium gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Ni metal, surface activation, deuterium gas, heat generation

Reports of heat-generating cold fusion reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system have been increasing. The reactions mainly involve nickel with other additive elements. The authors of these reports emphasized the importance of an extremely clean system in the electrolytic tests in which excess heat was generated. Therefore, we attempted to detect excess heat after reducing impurities to a minimum by cleaning the electrode carefully and then fabricating nanoparticles in situ in our test system, without ever exposing them to air. As a result, energy far exceeding input was continuously obtained. In the best results obtained thus far, the output thermal energy is double the input electrical energy, amounting to several hundred watts. The generated thermal energy follows an exponential temperature function. When the reactor temperature is 300у, the generated energy is 1 kW. An increase of the temperature is expected to greatly increase the output energy.We have recently improved the preparation of the electrode material. This enhanced reproducibility and increased excess heat. The new methods are described in an appendix.

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2831. Mizuno, T., Observation of excess heat by activated metal and deuterium gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 1-25.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Ni metal, surface activation, deuterium gas, heat generation

Reports of heat-generating cold fusion reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system have been increasing. The reactions mainly involve nickel with other additive elements. The authors of these reports emphasized the importance of an extremely clean system in the electrolytic tests in which excess heat was generated. Therefore, we attempted to detect excess heat after reducing impurities to a minimum by cleaning the electrode carefully and then fabricating nanoparticles in situ in our test system, without ever exposing them to air. As a result, energy far exceeding input was continuously obtained. In the best results obtained thus far, the output thermal energy is double the input electrical energy, amounting to several hundred watts. The generated thermal energy follows an exponential temperature function. When the reactor temperature is 300у, the generated energy is 1 kW. An increase of the temperature is expected to greatly increase the output energy.We have recently improved the preparation of the electrode material. This enhanced reproducibility and increased excess heat. The new methods are described in an appendix.

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2832. Mizuno, T. and J. Rothwell. Excess heat generation by simple treatment of reaction metal in hydrogen gas (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Reports of heat generation of reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system recently are increasing. These reactions mainly occurred with nickel together with other additive elements and hydrogen gas. We carefully cleaned the reactants and reactor and then processed in situ in the test system without exposure to air and have detected the excess heat. In these test, the thermal energy greatly exceeding the input and was continued for long time. In the best results so far, the output heat energy is twice of the input electric energy and can be lasted for several month. For example, when the input was 500 W, the excess heat can be continued for several hundred watts. It was found that the rise in temperature can be increased the output energy. We recently improved the method of preparing reactive materials and heat generation technic. This makes easier to obtain the excess heat. Here, we report the results of the new method for reactant preparation and results.

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2833. Mo, W., et al. Search for Precursor and Charged Particles in “Cold Fusion”. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mo, W.
All Authors: Mo, W., Liu, Y. S., Zhou, L. Y., Dong, S. Y., Wang, K. L., Wang, S. C., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2, particle emission ICCF-2

2834. Mo, D.W., et al. Real Time Measurements of the Energetic Charged Particles and the Loading Ratio (D/Pd). in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Mo, D. W.
All Authors: Mo, D. W., Zhang, L., Chen, B. X., Liu, Y. S., Doing, S. Y., Yao, M. Y., Zhou, L. Y., Huang, H. G., Li, X. Z., Shen, X. D., Wang, S. C., Kang, T. S., Huang, N. Z.
Keywords: Pd, D2, particle emission, resistivity, ICCF-3

A loading D2 gas system was built, which can measure the gas pressure, the temperature, the loading ratio, the charged particles and bursts, in real-time. The charged particles and burst was searched and the reproducible condition was found preliminary.

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2835. Mo, D.W., et al. The Evidence of Nuclear Transmutation Phenomeno in Pd-H System Using NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mo, D. W.
All Authors: Mo, D. W., Cai, Q. S., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. Z.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2836. Moagar-Poladian, G. A Possible Mechanism For Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Moagar-Poladian, G.
All Authors: Moagar-Poladian, G.
Keywords: theory

We describe a mechanism for cold fusion that is able to explain how two hydrogen ions may come close enough so as to fusion as well as many of the different and independent experimental observations made during years of experiments. We present the mechanism, its weak points, the way it explains the respective phenomena and suggest some experiments that may validate further the model described by us.

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2837. Moagar-Poladian, G. A Possible Mechanism For Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Moagar-Poladian, G.
All Authors: Moagar-Poladian, G.
Keywords:

We describe a mechanism for cold fusion that is able to explain how two hydrogen ions may come close enough so as to fusion as well as many of the different and independent experimental observations made during years of experiments. We present the mechanism, its weak points, the way it explains the respective phenomena and suggest some experiments that may validate further the model described by us.

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2838. Moffatt, W.G., Pd-Li Phase Diagram. 1978: General Electric.

First Author: Moffatt, W. G.
All Authors: Moffatt, W. G.
Keywords: Pd, Li, Phase Dagram,

2839. Moir, R.W., Application of Muon-Catalyzed Fusion in Metal Hydrides For Isotope Production. 1989: Los Alamod.

First Author: Moir, R. W.
All Authors: Moir, R. W.
Keywords: theory,

2840. Moizhes, B.Y., Formation of a compact D2 molecule in interstitial sites – a possible explanation for cold nuclear fusion. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1991. 17: p. 540.

First Author: Moizhes, B. Ya.
All Authors: Moizhes, B. Ya.
Keywords: theory, structure, D2, dimer, gamma phase

2841. Montereali, R., et al. A Novel LiF-Based Detector For X-Ray Imaging In Hydrogen Loaded Ni Films Under Laser Irradiation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Marolo, T., Vincenti, M., Sarto, F., Sibilia, C., Castagna, E., Violante, V.
Keywords: x-ray detection

A novel soft X-ray imaging film detector, based on optically stimulated luminescence of active color centers in lithium fluoride, LiF, has been used to obtain the image of radiation emitted from a nickel film hydride loaded by electrolysis, under light coupling with an He-Ne laser.

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2842. Montereali, R., et al. Lithium Fluoride X-Ray Imaging Film Detectors for Condensed Matter Nuclear Measurements (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Bonfigli, F., Castagna, E., Sarto, F., Vincenti, M., Violante, V.
Keywords: x-ray detection

Lithium Fluoride, LiF, is a radiation sensitive alkali halide material well known as dosimeter and as active medium in light-emitting devices and lasers. Point defects can be produced in LiF crystals and films by different kinds of radiation. Some of these electronic defects, known as colour centres, are optically active, with broad absorption and emission bands in the visible spectral range. Novel thin-film imaging detectors for soft X-rays, based on photoluminescence from aggregate colour centres in LiF, have been proposed and are currently under development, successfully extending their operation also in the hard X-ray region, up to 10 keV. Recently their use was proposed and preliminarily tested to obtain the image of radiation emitted from a nickel film hydride loaded by electrolysis, under light coupling with an He-Ne laser.

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2843. Montereali, R., et al. Lithium Fluoride X-ray Imaging Film Detectors for Condensed Matter Nuclear Measurements. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Castagna, E., Bonfigli, F., Vincenti, M.
Keywords:

A novel thin-film imaging detector for X-rays, based on photoluminescence from aggregate color centers in lithium fluoride, has been proposed and tested. The detector consists in a radiation-sensitive thin film of lithium fluoride thermally evaporated on a glass substrate. The morphological properties of the lithium fluoride thin films, which influence the detector performances, have been investigated.

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2844. Montgomery, J.R., et al. Correlated Nuclear and Thermal Measurements in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Montgomery, J. R.
All Authors: Montgomery, J. R., Jeffery, R., Amiri, F., Adams, J.
Keywords: Pd, D, neutron

2845. Monti, R.A., Low energy nuclear reactions: Experimental evidence for the alpha extended model of the atom. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 131.

First Author: Monti, R. A.
All Authors: Monti, R. A.
Keywords: transmutation, theory

2846. Monti, R.A. Nuclear Transmutation Processes of Lead, Silver, Thorium, Uranium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Monti, R. A.
All Authors: Monti, R. A.
Keywords: transmutation, arc, H2O, ICCF-7

2847. Moon, D., A Cold Fusion Theory. 1993.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: theory

2848. Moon, D., Addendum to “Mechanisms of a disobedient science”. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5/6): p. 89.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: Theory dineutron

2849. Moon, D., Review of a cold fusion theory: Mechanisms of a disobedient science. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(28): p. 33.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: theory review dineutron

2850. Moon, D. The Nucleovoltaic Cell. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords:

Described in this paper is a cold fusion device that is conceptually designed to convert the energy release, from deuteron-deuteron fusion, directly to electricity at an efficiency worthy of commercial development. The working element is an N-type semiconductor which has been coated with a thin film (a few hundred angstroms) of hydrogen-active metal, for example palladium, and which is joined to a P-type semiconductor at the

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2851. Moore, G.A. and D.P. Smith, The Occlusion and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals. A. Metallographic Study of Nickel-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1937. LXXI: p. 545.

First Author: Moore, G. A.
All Authors: Moore, G. A., Smith, D. P.
Keywords: Ni, H2, Phase Diagram, metallography

2852. Moore, A., The Comportment of Palladium-Hydrogen System Toward Alternating Electric Current. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1939. LXXV: p. 237.

First Author: Moore, A.
All Authors: Moore, A.
Keywords: Excess Volume, Pd, H2, dimension, PdH

2853. Morgan, J.D. and H.J. Monkhurst, Simple model for accurate calculation of Coulomb-barrier penetration factors in molecular fusion rates. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1990. 42(9): p. 5175.

First Author: Morgan, J. D.
All Authors: Morgan, J. D., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, distance

2854. Morgan, J.D., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6115.

First Author: Morgan, J. D.
All Authors: Morgan, J. D.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rosen

2855. Morioka, S., Nuclear fusion triggered by positron annihilation at vacancies in deuterated metals. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107A: p. 2755.

First Author: Morioka, S.
All Authors: Morioka, S.
Keywords: Theory, positron annihilation

2856. Morrey, J.R., et al., Measurements of helium in electrolyzed palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 659.

First Author: Morrey, J. R.
All Authors: Morrey, J. R., Caffee, M. W., Farrar IV, H., Hoffman, N. J., Hudson, G. B., Jones, R. H., Kurz, M. D., Lupton, J., Oliver, B. M., Ruiz, B. V., Wacker, J. F., van Veen, A.
Keywords: helium Pd review

2857. Morrison, D.R.O., A view from CERN. Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 17.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: critique, review

2858. Morrison, D.R.O., The Rise And Decline of Cold Fusion. Physics World, 1990: p. 35.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review, critque, history

2859. Morrison, D.R.O. Review of Cold Fusion. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: history

Experimental results on Cold Fusion are reviewed. Most experiments find no effect and the upper limits are appreciably lower than the positive effects claimed in some experiments. It is concluded that (a) there is no excess heat production, (b) the balance of evidence is strongly against fusion products. A curious Regionalisation of Results is observed where only negative results are found in some parts of the world and only positive results in other pans. Further the ratio of positive to negative results varies with time. Previous studies of Palladium indicate that fusion should not occur inside the metal. Cold Fusion is best explained as an example of Pathological Science.

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2860. Morrison, D.R.O., Review of cold fusion. Sov. Phys. Usp., 1991. 34: p. 1055.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review

2861. Morrison, D.R.O., Review of Progress in Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 48.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review, history, critique

2862. Morrison, D.R.O., Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by Fleischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 185: p. 498.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

2863. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Metal Hydrogen System: Interphase Participation in H-Transport. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT&E Division.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S.
Keywords: hydride, hydrogen transport

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The metal/hydrogen system is a key element in the construction of ecologically preferred energy conversion/storage devices. Although reduced to practice decades ago, its effectiveness requires further examination of a number of issues, among them the role that the electrode/electrolyte interphase plays during the charging/discharging processes. In this communication the following topics are considered: Thermodynamics and kinetics of the structure of the interphase, the identity and components of the driving force(s) for the absorption/desorption of hydrogen, and the discussion of the applicable transport equation. Agreement between theoretical results and observed behavior is illustrated and selected design approaches affecting cell performance are explored.

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2864. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Pd/(n)H system: transport processes and development of thermal instabilities. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 577.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S.
Keywords: Theory, hot spot, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

Summary. — Surface temperature distribution associated with excess enthalpy production during the codeposition process is presented. The interpretation is sought via the multilayer concept of the electrode/electrolyte interphase. The effect of gas evolution on activities within the interphase is considered.

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2865. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System (1), ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 1 A Decade of Research at Navy Laboratories. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Chubb, S. R., Fleischmann, M., Imam, M. A., Miles, M., Szpak, S.
Keywords:

Twelve years have passed since the announcement on 23 March 1989 by professors Fleischmann and Pons that the generation of excess enthalpy occurs in electrochemical cells when palladium electrodes, immersed in D2O + LiOH electrolyte, are negatively polarized. The announcement, which came to be known as “Cold Fusion,” caused frenzied excitement. In both the scientific and news communities, fax machines were used to pass along fragments of rumor and “facts.” (Yes, this was before wide spread use of the internet. One can only imagine what would happen now.) Companies and individuals rushed to file patents on yet to be proven ideas in hopes of winning the grand prize. Unfortunately, the phenomenon described by Fleischmann and Pons was far from being understood and even factors necessary for repeatability of the experiments were unknown. Over the next few months, the scientific community became divided into the “believers” and the “skeptics.” The “believers” reported the results of their work with enthusiasm that at times overstated the significance of their results. On the other hand, many “skeptics” rejected the anomalous behavior of the polarized Pd/D system as a matter of conviction, i.e., without analyzing the presented material and always asking “where are the neutrons?” Funding for research quickly dried up as anything related to “Cold Fusion” was portrayed as a hoax and not worthy of funding. The term “Cold Fusion” took on a new definition much as the Ford Edsel had done years earlier. Dr. Frank E. Gordon, Head, Navigation and Applied Sciences Department, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

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2866. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and M. Fleischmann, Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System (2), ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 2. Simulation of the Electrochemical Cell (ICARUS) Calorimetry. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

FOREWORD The calorimetry of any electrochemical cell involves two types of activities: data collection and data evaluation. The required data are the cell potential-time and cell temperature-time series. The evaluation is based on conservation laws subject to constraints dictated by cell design and the adapted experimental procedure. Volume 2 of this report deals with the modeling and simulation of the Dewar-type calorimeter. It was written by Professor Fleischmann to provide an authoritative discussion of the calorimetry of electrochemical cells. The emphasis is on the interpretation of data and the accuracy of the determination of the excess enthalpy generation via the appropriate selection of heat transfer coefficients. The discussion of the calorimetry of the Dewar-type cells is presented in the form of technical report for a number of reasons, among them: (i) its length would likely prohibit publication in topical journals, (ii) to clarify misunderstandings regarding the principles of calorimetry as applied to electrochemical cell in general and to the cell employed by Fleischmann and his collaborators, in particular. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss, eds.

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2867. Mosier-Boss, P.A., S. Szpak, and F. Gordon. Production of High Energy Particles Using the Pd/D Co-Deposition Process (PowerPoint slides). in APS March Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: sonofusion

PowerPoint slides from the American Physical Society March 2007 conference.

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2868. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al. Pd/D Co-Deposition: Excess Power Generation and Its Origin (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L., Phillips, G.
Keywords: Neutron

Early Pd/D co-deposition experiments demonstrated excess enthalpy, formation of hot spots, emission of low intensity radiation, and production of tritium.Excess enthalpy is generated by highly energetic fast reactions that resemble “mini-explosions”. This view is supported by IR imaging (hot spots) and by the response of the pressure/temperature sensitive substrates (piezoelectric material) onto which the Pd/D films are co-deposited.An external electric/magnetic field changes the shape of the individual globules of the “cauliflower” structure of the Pd/D co-deposited material.New elements are observed that are associated with the morphological features formed by the action of the external E/B fields.Using CR-39 detectors, tracks are obtained that are consistent with both nuclear charged particles and neutron knock-on tracks.

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2869. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2007. 40: p. 293-303.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

The use of CR-39, a solid state nuclear track detector, to detect the emission of energetic charged particles during Pd/D co-deposition is demonstrated. The pits observed in the CR-39 are attributed to the Pd/D cathode and are not due to radionuclide contamination in the cell components; nor to the impingement of D2 bubbles on the surface of the CR-39; nor to chemical attack by D2, O2, or Cl2. The features (i.e., optical contrast, shape, and bright spot in the center of the pit) of the pits generated during Pd/D co-deposition are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin.

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2870. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Detection of Energetic Particles and Neutrons Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 311-334.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords:

2871. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Reply to Comment on ‘The Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-deposition Experiments’: A Response to Kowalski. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2008. 44: p. 287-290.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Earlier we reported, in this journal, that the pits generated in CR-39 detectors during Pd/D co-deposition experiments are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin. Recently, that interpretation has been challenged. In this communication, additional experimental data and further analysis of our earlier results are provided that support our original conclusions.

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2872. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pdâ€â€ŢD Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons. Naturwiss., 2008. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0449-x(96): p. 135-142.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2873. Mosier-Boss, P.A., F. Gordon, and L. Forsley, Characterization of Energetic Particles Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition for Use in a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 119-135.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords:

Earlier we reported that the pits generated in CR-39 detectors during Pd/D co-deposition experiments are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin. Spacer experiments and track modeling have been done to characterize the properties of the particles that generated the tracks in the CR-39 detectors. The effect of water on the energetics of the particles and their resultant tracks is discussed.

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2874. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Characterization of tracks in CR-39 detectors obtained as a result of Pd/D Co-deposition. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2009. 46.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2875. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and F. Gordon, Comments on Co-deposition Electrolysis Results: A Response to Kowalski. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 4-8.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F.
Keywords: CR-39, Pd/D co-deposition

In 2009, it was reported that the tracks observed on the front surface of CR-39 detectors as a result of co-deposition were due to 0.45-0.97 MeV protons, 0.55-1.25 MeV tritons, 1.40-3.15 MeV 3He, and/or 1.45-3.30 MeV alphas. Recently those conclusions have been challenged. In this communication, additional experimental data and further analysis of our earlier results are provided that support our original conclusions.

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2876. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Comparison of Pd/D co-deposition and DT neutron generated triple tracks observed in CR-39 detectors. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2010. 51.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2877. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Review of TwentyYears of LENR Research Using Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 173-187.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F., Forsley, L., Miles, M.
Keywords: Nuclear products, Pd/D co-deposition

In the Pd/D co-deposition process, working and counter electrodes are immersed in a solution of palladium chloride and lithium chloride in deuterated water. Palladium is then electrochemically reduced onto the surface of the working electrode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. Electrodes prepared by Pd/D co-deposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces consisting of small spherical nodules. Because of this high surface area and electroplating in the presence of deuterium gas, the incubation time to achieve high D/Pd loadings necessary to initiate LENR is orders of magnitude less than required for bulk electrodes. Besides heat, the following nuclear emanations have been detected using Pd/D co-deposition: X-ray emission, tritium production, transmutation, and particle emission. Experimental details and results obtained over a twenty year period of research are discussed.

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2878. Mosier-Boss, P.A., F. Gordon, and L. Forsley, Characterization of Neutrons Emitted during Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 13-23.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Co-deposition, CR-39 detectors, Heterostructures, Photomicrographs, Triple tracks

Experiments using CR-39 detectors have shown that energetic particles and neutrons are emitted during Pd/D co-deposition. Using 6 μm Mylar between the CR-39 and the cathode, it has been shown that the majority of the tracks formed have energies on the order of 1-3 MeV. This conclusion was supported by computer analysis of the pits using the ‘Track_Test’ program developed by Nikezic and Yu. In this communication, additional analysis of the detectors will be discussed. In particular, it will be shown that the size distribution of the neutron-generated tracks on the back side of the CR-39 detectors are consistent with the occurrence of DD and DT fusion reactions. This is supported by the presence of triple tracks in the CR-39 as well as the energies of the charged particles as determined in the Mylar experiments.

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2879. Mosier-Boss, P.A., A Review on Nuclear Products Generated During Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 135-148.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Charged particles, Helium-4, Neutrons, Transmutation, X- and gamma rays

Given the response to the Fleischmann-Pons news conference in 1989, it became clear to many researchers in the field that excess heat was not convincing enough evidence to prove that nuclear processes were occurring inside a metal lattice. Skeptics attributed the excess heat to recombination of deuterium and oxygen gases and/or poor calorimetry, despite the fact that control experiments showed that this was not the case. Consequently, a number of researchers redirected their efforts from measuring heat to looking for nuclear products such as neutrons, charged particles, X- and gamma rays, and transmutation. The results of these efforts are discussed in this communication.

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2880. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and F. Gordon, How the Flawed Journal Review Process Impedes Paradigm Shifting Discoveries. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Discovery, Flawed journal review, Nuclear diagnostics, Review process, Scientific breakthrough, Scientific policy

The purpose of scientific journals is to review papers for scientific validity and to disseminate new theoretical and experimental results. This requires that the editors and reviewers be impartial. Our attempt to publish novel experimental results in a renowned physics journal shows that in some cases editors and reviewers are not impartial; they are biased and closed-minded. Although our subject matter was technical, its rejection was not: it was emotionally charged. It was an agenda-laden rejection of legitimate experiments that were conducted in US DoD and DoE laboratories. This paper describes the ?awed journal review process, detailing our own case and citing others. Such behavior on the part of editors and reviewers has a stifling effect on innovation and the diffusion of knowledge.

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2881. Mosier-Boss, P.A., It is not Low Energy — But it is Nuclear. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: CR-39, Energetic particles, Pd/D co-deposition, Transmutation

In this communication, CR-39 track results obtained as a result of Pd/D co-deposition are discussed and criticisms of those results are addressed. Implications of the CR-39 results with reports of transmutation are explored.

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2882. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and P. McDaniel, The Use of CR-39 Detectors in LENR Experiments 29. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., McDaniel, P.
Keywords: Charged particles, CR-39, Neutrons, Real-time electronic detectors

In this communication, the use of CR-39 detectors to detect energetic charged particles and neutrons in LENR experiments is discussed. The main advantages of these detectors over real-time electronic detectors are its integration capability and its ability to speciate energetic particles. Unlike real-time detectors, CR-39 can be placed in close proximity to the cathode and can be used for both electrolysis experiments and gas loading. These advantages of CR-39 detectors over real time, electronic detectors are particularly important when energetic particle emissions occur either sporadically in bursts or at a low flux.

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2883. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Use of CR-39 detectors to determine the branching ratio in Pd/D co-deposition. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H., Earle, B., Zhou, D.
Keywords:

2884. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Condensed matter nuclear reaction products observed in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F., Letts, D., Cravens, D., Miles, M., Swartz, M. R., Dash, J., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Bao, J.
Keywords:

2885. Mosier-Boss, P.A., Introduction To “A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems” (published in 1996). 2016: Washington.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Review

In January 1992, NRL began an ONR-funded project to replicate experimental procedures provided by NAWC and NRaD (now SSC-Pac) to verify the results. At ICCF-2, Stan Szpak reported that thermometry showed that the heat source in Pd/D co-deposition was the cathode (this was later verified using infrared imagery), the emission of X-rays using photographic film, and tritium production. In the thermometry measurements done at NRaD, a large diameter cell was used and the anode and cathode were completely immersed in the electrolyte.

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2886. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and P. McDaniel, Investigation of Nano Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter, Final Report. 2016, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., McDaniel, P.
Keywords: Co-deposition, heat

On March 23, 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, professors of chemistry at the University of Utah, held a press conference to announce the results of electrochemical experiments that produced more heat than could be accounted for by chemical means. They speculated that the heat had a nuclear origin. The experiments were quickly dubbed “Cold Fusion” by the news media. The physics community noted that Fleischmann and Pons had not published their results in any journal prior to their announcement, there had been no reports of any replications of the effect, there was no mention of the generation of any nuclear ash, and that the reported results did not match theory. Despite these perceived irregularities scientists, worldwide, went into their laboratories to replicate the Fleischmann-Pons results. A few scientists succeeded but a great many more failed. It is now known that those failures were due to the fact that the experimental conditions necessary to achieve the effect, i.e., high D loading and high D flux inside the Pd lattice, had not been achieved. Ultimately, the lack of replication by others and the fact that Fleischmann and Pons were not able to defend their original claims caused most scientists to lose interest.

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2887. Mueller, D. and L.R. Grisham, Nuclear reactions products that would appear if substantial cold fusion occurred. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 379.

First Author: Mueller, D.
All Authors: Mueller, D., Grisham, L. R.
Keywords: theory, nuclear reaction, energy, review

2888. Muguet, F.F. and M.P. Bassez-Muguet, Ab initio computations of one and two hydrogen or deuterium atoms in the palladium tetrahedral site. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 383.

First Author: Muguet, F. F.
All Authors: Muguet, F. F., Bassez-Muguet, M. P.
Keywords: theory, tetrahedral, structure, PdD, distance

2889. Mukherjee, D. and A. Wordsworth, Stress relieving of palladium foils, controls its electro-catalytic properties. Tool & Alloy Steels, 1994: p. 323.

First Author: Mukherjee, D.
All Authors: Mukherjee, D., Wordsworth, A.
Keywords: Pd, OCV, corrosion, electrolysis, loading

2890. Mukhopadhyay, R., et al., Real time deuterium loading investigation in palladium using neutron diffraction. Solid State Commun., 1990. 75: p. 359.

First Author: Mukhopadhyay, R.
All Authors: Mukhopadhyay, R., Dasannacharya, B. A., Nandan, D., Singh, A. J., Iyer, R. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, phase diagram, lattice parameter, diffusion

2891. Muller, W. and F. Besenbacher, A Note on the 3He+D Nuclear-Reaction Cross Section. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1980. 168: p. 111.

First Author: Muller, W.
All Authors: Muller, W., Besenbacher, F.
Keywords: D2, fusion, Cross Section, branching ratio

2892. Murase, A., et al., TOF-SIMS Investigation on Nuclear Transmutation from Sr to Mo with Deuterium Permeation through Multi-layered Pd/CaO. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 34-43.

First Author: Murase, A.
All Authors: Murase, A., Takahashi, A., Hibi, S., Hioki, T., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: Deuterium permeation, Pd/CaO multilayer, Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, Transmutation, X-ray, photoelectron spectroscopy

The selective nuclear transmutation from 88Sr to 96Mo reported by Iwamura et al. was investigated replacing electrochemical deposition with ion implantation for seeding 88Sr+ and replacing a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a time of flight mass spectrometer for secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for analysis of possible transmuted products. At the surface of the Sr implanted Pd/CaO multilayer foil, Mo was clearly detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after deuterium gas permeation. After the D2 permeation, the sample was heat treated in the air to remove S which condensed at the surface during the permeation. After the successful removal of S, Mo could be clearly detected by XPS on the surface of the 88Sr+ implanted Pd/CaO multilayer foil. The isotopic abundance ratio of the surface Mo measured by TOF-SIMS was similar to that of natural Mo. However, after the removal of the outermost surface layer with ion sputtering, the observed isotopic abundance ratio of Mo changed from that of natural Mo with an isolatedly strong peak at a mass close to 96Mo. This result duly suggests that the transmutation from 88Sr to 96Mo had took place, although the peak of m/z = 96 might be also assigned to GaAl+, Ca2O+ or CaFe+, beside 96Mo+. By further analyses of the TOF-SIMS data from the viewpoint of accurate masses, depth profiles and isotopic abundances, it was clarified that the peak of m/z = 96 was assigned to Ca2O+ originated from Pd/CaO multilayer.

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2893. Muromtsev, V., V. Platonov, and I. Savvatimova. Neutrino-Dineutron Reactions (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. Y. Iwamura Effect). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Muromtsev, V.
All Authors: Muromtsev, V., Platonov, V., Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: transmutation

Anomalous elemental changes have been observed on the Pd complexes after D2 gas permeation. This effect — effect Y. Iwamura — belongs to a new category of nuclear reactions. The effect of Y. Iwamura can stimulate development of physics of electromagnetic interaction neutrino including physics of relic neutrino and physics of the dineutrons. It is possible to suggest that low-energy neutrino and even relic neutrino can initiate effect of transmutation in special cases. The suggested hypothesis application about new class ν− nuclear reaction existence can be useful for the problems: alternative energetic, radioactive isotopes reducing and rare isotopes production.

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2894. Murr, L.E., Palladium metallurgy and cold fusion: some remarks. Scr. Metallurg. Mater., 1990. 24: p. 783.

First Author: Murr, L. E.
All Authors: Murr, L. E.
Keywords: discussion, Pd, metallography

2895. Murthy, T.S., et al., Tritium Analysis of Samples Obtained from Various Electrolysis Experiments at BARC, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 9.

First Author: Murthy, T. S.
All Authors: Murthy, T. S., Iyengar, T. S., Sen, B. K., Joseph, T. B.
Keywords: tritium

The report summarises the methodology and techniques adopted for the determination of tritium content in various samples obtained during the initial sets of experiments conducted at Trombay in connection with studies on the feasibility of ‘Cold Fusion’.The analyses were carried out at the Isotope Division and Health Physics Division.

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2896. Musket, G., Effects of Contamination on the Interaction of H Gas with Pd : A Review. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 45: p. 173.

First Author: Musket, G.
All Authors: Musket, G.
Keywords: Pd, H, contamination, review, cleaning, method, PdO

2897. Myers, S.M., et al., Ion-Beam Studies of Hydrogen-Metal Interactions. J. Nucl. Mater., 1989. 165: p. 9.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Richards, P. M., Wampler, W. R., Besenbacher, F.
Keywords: review, ion implantation

2898. Myers, S.M., et al., Search for Cold Fusion in Superstoichiometric Palladium Deuteride Using Ion Implantation. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 263.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Follstaedt, D. M., Schirber, J. E., Richards, P. M.
Keywords: Pd, Zr, titanium, D2, implantion, negative

2899. Myers, S.M., et al., Superstoichiometry, accelerated diffusion, and nuclear reactions in deuterium-implanted palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 9503.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Richards, P. M., Follstaedt, D. M., Schirber, J. E.
Keywords: Pd, ion implanation, ion bombardment, neutron, loading, diffusion

2900. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. III. The Thermodynamic Study of Pd2H Between 15 and 303Ã… K. Evidence for the Tetragonal PdH4 Structure in Palladium Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3627.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Heat Capacity, pressure, Phase Diagram, PdH4

2901. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. I. The Thermodynamic Properties of Pd2H Between 273 and 345 K. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3619.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, thermodynamic, pressure PdH

2902. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. III. The Thermodynamic Study of Pd2H Between 15 and 303 K. Evidence for the Tetragonal PdH4 Structure in Palladium Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3627.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Heat Capacity, pressure, Phase Diagram, PdH4

2903. Nagasaki, T., R. Yamada, and H. Ohno, Ion-driven Permeation and Surface Recombination Coefficients of Deuterium for Silver. J. Nucl. Mater., 1992. 195: p. 324.

First Author: Nagasaki, T.
All Authors: Nagasaki, T., Yamada, R., Ohno, H.
Keywords: D2, Ag, recombination, Cu, D2, O2

2904. Nagel, D.J., The status of ‘cold fusion’. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 1998. 51: p. 653.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review

2905. Nagel, D.J., Fusion Physics and Philosophy. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 137.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: history

INTRODUCTIONThe advancement of science and technology normally occurs through evolutionary research and development. These activities and their fruits, knowledge and capabilities, might be very interesting and useful, but they normally do not challenge our overall view of the world. When something revolutionary comes to light, the potential paradigm shift, then we are forced to examine both our knowledge and our beliefs, which are intertwined. The topic called “cold fusion” caused reexamination of the physics of nuclear reactions and some aspects of the philosophy of science. We will consider these factors after a brief introductory survey of the complex experiments and results reported in the field, and the motivations for continued attention. “Cold fusion” is used here as an accepted label for the arena of interest, and not a statement about whatever processes might be involved.

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2906. Nagel, D.J. and M.A. Imam. Energetics Of Defects And Strains In Palladium. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: fractofusion, metalurgy

Pd employed as cathodes in cold fusion experiments contains various defects, each of which has an associated energy.  In principle, some of the energy in Pd due to defects that exist before a cold fusion experiment could be released as apparent excess heat during the experiment.  Energy densities were computed for high concentrations of vacancies, impurities (both substitutional and interstitial atoms), dislocations and grain boundaries, as well as for strains.  It is concluded that pre-existing defects and strains cannot account for the energies released during cold fusion experiments.  Nonetheless, defects may play other supporting or central roles in cold fusion.

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2907. Nagel, D.J., Program Strategy for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2006(69).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

2908. Nagel, D.J. Powers, Materials and Radiations from Low Energy Nuclear Reactions on Surfaces. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Nuclear reactions that occur at low kinetic energies produce thermal energy at some rate (powers), nuclear reaction products (materials) and, in some cases, energetic photons or particles (radiations). Experimental evidence indicates that low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) occur on or very near to the surfaces of solid lattices. The rates of such reactions depend on the total area of the lattices in an LENR experiment, the fraction of that area which is active and the number of reactions per area per second. The powers further depend on the energy per reaction. The production rates of materials are related to the masses of the reaction products. And, the fluxes of radiations depend on the fraction of the reactions that produce energetic quanta. These factors are examined in this paper. A simple, but useful graphical method to relate surface areas to output nuclear powers is presented. It is used to make the first estimate of the active fraction of a surface in LENR experiments. Optimization of power outputs from LENR experiments is discussed in relation to the various factors cited above and to past work. The several intersections between LENR and both nano-science and nanotechnology are examined. A new engineering discipline will be required to turn the current science of LENR into practical sources of energy, materials and maybe radiations.

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2909. Nagel, D.J. The Case for LENR At or Near Surfaces: More Experimental Evidence (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: theory

Introduction and AgendaThere is much experimental evidence, which indicates that LENR occur on surfaces of solid materials.Simple equations relate the reaction rates to the surface area, the active fraction & the number of reactions per active area per second.The equations are used to compute energy production rates (power) and the production rates for  nuclear ash or energetic radiations.This talk provides numerical and graphical means to compute power production at surfaces in LENR experiments.

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2910. Nagel, D.J., The Intersection of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions with Nanometer-Scale Science, Technology and Engineering. Infinite Energy, 2008(79).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: nano-particles

1. Introduction to NanotechnologyThe ability to make things out of molecules and atoms is something of a last frontier. They are the smallest neutral building blocks that can be joined to make materials and structures. Nuclei and sub-nuclear quanta are smaller, but they cannot be made into stable materials and structures. Just as things on the micrometer scale are a thousand times smaller than the visible millimeter scale, nanometer-scale items are another thousand times smaller than the micrometer scale. These relationships are illustrated in Figure 1.

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2911. Nagel, D.J., Scientific Overview of ICCF15. Infinite Energy, 2009(88): p. 21.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

The research topic which was first and poorly called “cold fusion” has been of international interest since its beginning in 1989. Hence, a series of International Conferences on Cold Fusion (ICCF) has been held on three continents during the past two decades. In recent years, the topic has come to be viewed as part of the larger field of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science; therefore conferences during the last few years have been called the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science even though the moniker of ICCF has been maintained. At present, the key reactions are often called Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), with the main scientific website on the topic being www.lenr.org. But there remains confusion not only about what to call the field, but about the several scientific riddles at the heart of the field.

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2912. Nagel, D.J., Questions and Answers About Lattice-Enabled Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2009(84).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

Asking questions is basic to many human functions. Without questions, the learning process in schools and universities would be vastly more difficult and less effective. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) are a standard part of many websites now. The posing of questions is also an activity fundamental to diverse planning activities, ranging from the formulation of programs to the design of cities. And, questions, commonly driven by “mere” curiosity, are the driving force behind science. So, one can ask: what questions are applicable to the field of low energy, or alternatively, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR)? That is one of the motivations behind this compilation of some questions, which are asked because they seem significant. The answers are largely the opinions of this author.

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2913. Nagel, D.J., T. Mizuno, and D. Letts. Diurnal Variations in LENR Experiments. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Mizuno, T., Letts, D.
Keywords:

Two very different LENR experiments exhibited daily variations in their characteristics or outputs. Comparison of the variations for the experiments forces the conclusion that the measured variations are artifactual. That is, they are not due to the influence of an external diurnal mechanism such as cosmic rays. However, the causes of the observed variations are not understood. Such understanding is important for the conduct of robust LENR experiments to obtain credible data. It is also critical to the reliable operation of eventual LENR power sources.

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2914. Nagel, D.J., et al., eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-14). Vol. 1. 2010.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R., Chubb, S. R., Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

As a result of the empirical knowledge now in hand, it is not unreasonable to imagine safe and green sources of nuclear power for homes, free of carbon emissions, which also will relieve stress on the power grid, because they might be small and distributed. LENR could be the basis for portable nuclear power sources, maybe even batteries. The production of clean drinking water by desalination or by purification of polluted river waters is one of the many, and perhaps the most attractive potential applications of LENR. The world health implications of clean water would be momentous. Those of us who work on the Fleischmann-Pons Effect find it an exciting and challenging field of research with remarkable practical potential. As a scientific effect, it is already historic. It remains to be seen if it will turn out to be a “game changing” practical source of energy. The field is indeed EXCITING NEW SCIENCE and it offers POTENTIAL CLEAN ENERGY.

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2915. Nagel, D.J., et al., eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-14). Vol. 2. 2010.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R., Chubb, S. R., Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

Proceedings continued from Volume 1.

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2916. Nagel, D.J., Check List for LENR Validation Experiments. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: heat

Focardi and Rossi demonstrated a boiler device on 14 January 2011, which converted water at about 13у to steam at 101у. It was said to involve nuclear reactions between nickel built into the device and input hydrogen gas. An electrical heater in the device consumed about 1000 W at startup. Later, once the reactions started and provided heat, the input power was reduced to about 400 W. Consumption of hydrogen gas was essentially negligible.

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2917. Nagel, D.J., Hot and Cold Fusion for Energy Generation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 1-16.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Condensed matter nuclear science, Fusion energy generation, Hot fusion, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear energy generation

Sixty years of research on hot fusion have cost more than $ 20 B. Only one of the dozens of experiments has barely reached breakeven, the point at which the energy produced is equal to the energy spent for its production. Twenty years of work on “cold fusion” cost less than $ 0.2 B. Energy amplifications exceeding 10 for the palladium-deuterium system, and more than 100 for the nickel-hydrogen system, have been reported, but not verified. Hot fusion is understood and may result in large power plants in several decades. “Cold fusion”, now called Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), remains a scientific mystery. If adequately funded, LENR could lead to safe, non-radioactive, green, small, distributed nuclear energy sources in less than two or three decades, well before hot fusion can produce commercial power.

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2918. Nagel, D.J., Potential Advantages and Impacts of LENR Generators of Thermal and Electrical Power and Energy. Infinite Energy, 2012(103): p. 11.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

Many lists give the possible performance and implications of systems which use LENR for generation of thermal or electrical power. They mostly reside at various places on the internet. This paper brings together in one location and in written form the separate, though often related, items from the lists of possible positive features and future importance of LENR generators of power and energy. Some comments are provided on each of the putative advantages and impacts in the following pages.

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2919. Nagel, D.J. Challenges, Attractions and Possible Impacts of Commercial Generators Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Commercialization

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.Commercialization of LENR sources of power and energy has several challenges.  But, if they are overcome, attractive potential advantages and important impacts should follow.  These challenges, attractions and possible impacts are cited and discussed.  The next few years might reveal which of these factors are realistic.

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2920. Nagel, D.J., Scientific and Commercial Overview of ICCF18. Infinite Energy, 2013(112).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review, ICCF conference

ICCF is short for the International Conference on Cold Fusion. That abbreviation was first used for the third conference in the series in 1992. In 2002, the proceedings of ICCF9 were called Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS). Since then, some of the conferences have also borne that title. ICCF18 retained the historical label and numbering system, but employed a new conference title: “Applying the Scientific Method to Understanding Anomalous Heat Effects: Opportunities and Challenges.” This conference title emphasized an operational aspect of the research, rather than a name for the field. The focus on scientific methodology and understanding is entirely appropriate at this stage in development of the field. The science remains a vexing and challenging endeavor spanning several disciplines.

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2921. Nagel, D.J., Comments on Storms’ Ideas About the Location and Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: theory, critique

Character and Role of TheoryStorms’ view of where and how low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) occur has been called a theory, so we begin with an examination of the character of a scientific theory. A compact summary about theory in any science is available in Wikipedia: “A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a bodyof facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Scientists create scientific theories from hypotheses that have been corroborated through the scientific method, then gather evidence to test their accuracy. As with all forms of scientific knowledge, scientific theories. . .aim for predictive and explanatory force.”

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2922. Nagel, D.J., Characteristics and Energetics of Craters in LENR Experimental Materials. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 1-14.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Cathode materials, Craters, Low-energy nuclear reactions, LENR, Transmutations

Small craters have been observed frequently in the surfaces of cathodes from electrochemical LENR experiments. They are generally 1â€â€Ţ100µm in size. The craters vary widely in shape and areal distribution. Two methods were used to determine the energies needed to produce such craters. The resulting energies range from nJ to mJ, depending on the crater size. If craters are caused by LENR, then many nearly simultaneous MeV-level energy releases would have to occur in a very small volume. There are numerous open basic questions regarding the formation and characteristics of craters in LENR cathodes. It remains to be seen if craters will be helpful in understanding the origin and nature of LENR. But already, the existence and features of craters seriously challenge theories that seek to understand LENR.

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2923. Nagel, D.J., Questions About Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions: Mechanisms and Materials. Infinite Energy, 2014(118).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Theory

Abstract — Questions serve to focus discussions of research problems and engineering challenges. This is the first of three papers, which will pose and address technical questions about Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It deals with theoretical mechanisms and key materials in LENR experiments and potential power generators.

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2924. Nagel, D.J. and M. Srinivasan, Evidence from LENR Experiments for Bursts of Heat, Sound, EM Radiation and Particles and for Micro-explosions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Energy bursts, Low energy nuclear reactions, Micro-explosions, Power bursts

We examined published evidence for power production by LENR, which occurred too fast to be captured by calorimeters. That evidence includes observations of craters in materials, measurements of sound emission, recordings of radio-frequency, infrared and X-ray emissions, measurements of neutrons and charged particles and micro-explosions. The energy emission times, some below 1 ms, are tabulated.

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2925. Nagel, D.J., Scientific and Commercial Overview of ICCF19. Infinite Energy, 2015(122).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review

ICCF is the abbreviation for International Conference on Cold Fusion. It is the historic identifier of a series of conferences that started in 1990. The 19th conference had the full title of International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS). It was held from April 13 to 17, 2015 in Padua, Italy, about 40 kilometers west of Venice. This was the fourth conference in this series that was held in Italy. The General Chairman of the conference was Anthony La Gatta, who is the Founder and President of the company TSEM. He opened the conference with an interesting theme on the melding of mathematics and music. The Co-Chairmen were Michael C.H. McKubre from SRI International and Vittorio Violante of Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA).

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2926. Nagel, D.J. and R. Swanson, LENR Excess Heat may not be Entirely from Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Swanson, R.
Keywords: Energy, Low energy nuclear reactions, Mechanisms for LENR

Some theories of the mechanisms active in producing Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions (LENR) predict the formation of compact objects with binding energies and sizes intermediate between those of atoms and nuclei. The existence of compact objects remains unproven. But, if such objects exist and are formed during what are now called LENR experiments, they might release substantial energy without any nuclear reactions. Because of the small size of hypothetical compact objects, it is thought that the protons or deuterons at their centers might subsequently participate in nuclear reactions, producing more energy, transmutation products or energetic quanta. Such a two-step sequence could explain the relatively low production rates of nuclear reaction products, and also difficulties in correlating excess heat with the amounts of such products.

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2927. Nagel, D.J., Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

2928. Nagel, D.J., Lattice-enabled nuclear reactions in the nickel and hydrogen gas system. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

2929. Nagel, D.J. and A.E. Moser, High Energy Density and Power Density Events in Lattice-enabled Nuclear Reaction Experiments and Generators. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Moser, A. E.
Keywords: Craters, Explosions, High-power, LENR, Meltdowns

The rapid release of energy from Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions is of interest for three reasons. First, it constrains and challenges theories about the mechanism(s) active in producing LENR. Next, it might heavily influence the design of heat and electrical generators based on LENR, since they have to be safe for use by a wide variety of people. Finally, there has long been interest in whether or not LENR could be used to augment existing weapons or produce to entirely new weapons. This paper first reviews reports in the literature of meltdowns or explosions that might have been caused by LENR. Then, each of the three areas cited above is examined. It is clear that reported high energy or high power events will heavily impact theories about LENR and the development of safe products. It is unclear now if LENR will be weaponized in any form. Control of the initiation of explosive LENR events is obviously necessary for that possibility.

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2930. Nagel, D.J., Evidence of Operability and Utility from Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Experiments. 2017, NUCAT Energy LLC.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Commercialization

An objective of this report is to remove doubt about measured results from Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments, even though the mechanisms that produce LENR are not fully understood. The report demonstrates that there is much reputable evidence in available technical records, which shows LENR devices are capable of producing energy. It has been demonstrated experimentally and often that chemical energies can produce nuclear reactions. Significant energy gains are possible. The “excess heat” found by Fleischmann and Pons has attractive features. They include low levels of prompt and residual radiation, and no production of green house gases. Reaction by-products, such as tritium or helium, are also generated. They can only result from nuclear reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions have great practical potential.

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2931. Nagel, D.J., Expectations of LENR Theories. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 15-31.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Empirical observations, Heat–He correlation, LENR, Low energy nuclear reactions, Theory

The mechanisms that cause Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions (LENR) are still not understood, even though much is known empirically about LENR. We provide list of 24 observations from almost three decades of LENR experiments. These observations require theoretical explanations. This paper deals with two aspects of the many theories about the mechanisms. The first is the theories themselves, i.e., their characteristics and results. The few dozen available theories on LENR mechanisms are diverse and complex. Only a lengthy paper could properly summarize their essence, including all assumptions and implications. Such a thorough review of extant LENR theories would be challenging to write. Here, we merely indicate reviews and other sources of information on LENR theories. The second focus of this paper is the status of development of LENR theories, specifically, the completeness of their elaboration. It is possible to detail what is expected of LENR theorists by experimentalists, teachers, students, developers and other interested personnel. We provide and discuss ten questions for LENR theoreticians about the description (characteristics) and status (development) of their ideas. The nearly three decades of theoretical work on LENR has resulted in remarkably few well-developed theories. None of them has yet been adequately tested and widely accepted. There remains a great opportunity for some theoretician to provide the basic understanding of LENR. That understanding would enable or speed the commercialization of this new, clean, promising and much needed energy source.

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2932. Nager, U., et al., High Precision Calorimetric Apparatus for Studying Electrolysis Reactions. Rev. Sci. Instr., 1990. 61(5): p. 1504.

First Author: Nager, U.
All Authors: Nager, U., Hayden, M. E., Booth, J. L., Hardy, W. N., Whitehead, L. A., Carolan, J. F., Balzarini, D. A., Wishnow, E. H., Blake, C. C.
Keywords: calorimeter, method, apparatus, heat

2933. Naitoh, K., et al., Fundamental Experimental Tests toward Future Cold Fusion Engine Based on Point-compression due to Supermulti-jets Colliding with Pulse (Fusine). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 236-243.

First Author: Naitoh, K.
All Authors: Naitoh, K., Tsuchiya, K., Ayukawa, K., Oyanagi, S., Kanase, T., Tsuru, K., Konagaya, R.
Keywords: Experiment, Pulse, Reactor, Simulation, Supermulti-jets colliding, Theory

Our previous reports based on theoretical considerations and supercomputer simulation showed the possibility that super multi-air jets of gases such as air or deuterium colliding with pulse (K. Naitoh, patent: 2012-519298 (2010)) lead to self-compression over 60 MPa and 2000 K at single point around the reacted center, at maximum. This may bring about a more stable occurrence of cold fusion. This approach due to supermulti-jets will also cause an insulation effect because of encasing, which will result in less heat loss from the reactor walls. Based on this, we developed three types of prototype engine reactors using the supermulti-jets colliding with pulse. In the present report, we show some fundamental experimental data for one of the three prototype engine reactors, derived now, before we plan to begin testing for cold fusion.

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2934. Nakada, M., T. Kusunoki, and M. Okamoto. Energy of the Neutrons Emitted in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakada, M.
All Authors: Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, energy, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The Low/High pulse mode electrolysis has been introduced to carry out the experimental study to clarify the dependency of the UH pulse modes operation of electrolysis on the neutron emission from the Pd cathodes. Among 6 runs of the electrolysis of VH pulse mode operations, 3 of them gave appreciable neutron emission. The neutron energy spectra were found to have the two compornents (2.45 MeV peak and a broad band in higher energy region). The intensity of the 2.45 MeV neutron is smaller than that of the higher energy.

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2935. Nakada, M., et al. A Role of Lithium for the Neutron Emission in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakada, M.
All Authors: Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Okamoto, M., Odawara, O.
Keywords: Li, Pd, D2O, neutron, surface analysis, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The depth profile analysis of Pd, Li, and D has been performed by means of SIMS to clarify the roles of lithium in D2O Pd electrolysis for cold fusion research. Very clear differences between the depth profiles of Li and D in the Pd electrode surfaces with the neutron emissions and without it. The depth profiles were also found to depend on the mode of the electric current employed. Based on the above findings, it is discussed that the anomalous deuterium accumulation in the surface region of the Pd with the neutron emission and attributed to the formation of Pd-Li layer in the surface region and to the low/high pulsed mode electrolysis with heavy water with LiOD.

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2936. Nakamitsu, Y., et al., Study of cold nuclear fusion with electrolysis at low-temperature range. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107: p. 117.

First Author: Nakamitsu, Y.
All Authors: Nakamitsu, Y., Chiba, M., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T., Kubo, K., Fujii, M., Nakahara, H., Seimiya, T., Sueki, K., Katada, M., Baba, N., Kamasaki, S., Ikuta, S., Endo, K., Shirakawa, T.
Keywords: methanol, Pd, electrolysis, low temperature, neutron

2937. Nakamura, K., T. Kawase, and I. Ogura, Possibility of element transmutation by arcing in water. Kinki Daigaku Genshiryoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1996. 33: p. 25 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nakamura, K.
All Authors: Nakamura, K., Kawase, T., Ogura, I.
Keywords: heat, gas discharge, electrolysis, D2O

2938. Nakamura, K., Y. Kishimoto, and I. Ogura, Element Conversion by Arcing in Aqueous Solution. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 53.

First Author: Nakamura, K.
All Authors: Nakamura, K., Kishimoto, Y., Ogura, I.
Keywords: gas discharge,, transmutation,, H2O,, plasma

2939. Nakata, T., Y. Tsuchida, and K. Kunimatsu. Absorption of Hydrogen into Palladium Foil Electrode: Effect of Thiourea. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakata, T.
All Authors: Nakata, T., Tsuchida, Y., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: thiourea, Pd, D2O, loading, overvoltage, ICCF-3

Electrolytic hydrogen absorption into Pd foil (50 μm thickness) was investigated in the absence and presence of 30 μ M thiourea (THU) in 0.5M H2SO4 and 0.4M LiOH. The amount of hydrogen absorbed under cathodic polarization was determined by integrating the ionization current of hydrogen when Pd electrode was polarized anodically.After THU addition in the acidic and alkaline solution H/Pd increased by about 8% and 5%, respectively.Further we tried absorption of deuterium into Pd foil and found a similar effect of THU to increase D/Pd only in the acidic solution.

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2940. Nakata, T., et al. Excess Heat Measurement at High Cathode Loading by Deuterium During Electrolysis of Heavy Water using Pd Cathode. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakata, T.
All Authors: Nakata, T., Kobayashi, M., Nagahama, M., Akita, H., Hasegawa, N., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: heat-, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, D/Pd, loading, Pd-Rh, ICCF-6

2941. Nakazawa, M., Urtra low-level neutron counting. Hoshasen, 1990. 16(3): p. 8 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nakazawa, M.
All Authors: Nakazawa, M.
Keywords: review, neutron, method

2942. Nakazawa, M., et al., Cold fusion and low level neutron measurements. Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkaishi, 1990. 32: p. 114 (In Japanese).

First Author: Nakazawa, M.
All Authors: Nakazawa, M., Shibata, T., Iguchi, T., Akimoto, T., Niimura, N., Oyama, Y., Aizawa, O.
Keywords: review

2943. Narayanaswamy, C.R., Observation of Anomalous Production of Si and Fe in an Arc Furnace Driven Ferro Silicon Smelting Plant at levels of Tons per day. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 244-251.

First Author: Narayanaswamy, C. R.
All Authors: Narayanaswamy, C. R.
Keywords: Carbon Arc, Energy balance, Fe–Si alloy, Transmutation

In the period 1978-2002, The Silcal Metallurgic Ltd., a Coimbatore (India) based company, was engaged in the production of ferro silicon alloy deploying a 12 MVA “Submerged Carbon Arc” powered smelter. During a 11-week long non-stop round the clock operation of the plant in 1995, daily feed of raw materials was: Quartz (33.4 ton), charcoal (with fixed carbon content of 13.2 ton) and scrap steel (5.1 ton) while the daily output production of Fe-Si alloy (73.5% Si) was 24.75 ton. From the total weights of Si and Fe in the input feed and assuming 100% recovery of the metals, the daily output alloy production could at best have been only 20.5 ton. However to our surprise throughout the 11-week period the total daily Fe-Si alloy (with 73.5% Si) output was consistently 24.75 ton, corresponding to a daily “anomalous” excess metal production of 4.25 ton of Fe-Si alloy. The only source of Si entering the smelter furnace was the quartz raw material and that of Fe was the scrap steel (except for minor additional amounts of Fe originating from the steel casing of the consumable Soderberg carbon electrodes). Very careful vigil of the weights of daily input feed of raw materials and output alloy drained out as also the electrical energy consumption was maintained. It was evident that roughly 20% more metal than could be accounted for from the input feed was being produced and consequently we have been obliged to come to the conclusion that anomalous quantities of Si (2.8 ton/day) and Fe (1.45 ton/day) were being synthesized during the smelting process. Discussions with researchers involved in the Cold Fusion/LENR field have suggested that a likely explanation for the anomalous metal production could be the occurrence of transmutation reactions between nuclei of C and the O stripped from the SiO2 during the chemical reduction process. It is speculated that the intense varying magnetic fields generated by the kilo-amp levels of alternating current (AC) driving the arcing between the three gigantic carbon electrodes and the carbonic hearth of the furnace, in the 2000◦C temperature environment, could have somehow catalyzed transmutation reactions to occur, very similar to the transmutations reported in laboratory scale “Carbon-Arc experiments” first revealed by George Oshawa in 1964. But the more puzzling aspect of our observations is that there was no evidence of release of the expected massive amounts of nuclear energy that should have accompanied the postulated transmutation reactions based on the atomic masses of the nuclei involved.

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2944. Narita, S., et al. Gamma Ray Detection and Surface Analysis on Palladium Electrode in DC Glow-like Discharge Experiment. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Arapi, A., Sato, N., Kato, D., Yamamura, M., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: glow discharge, radioactivity, gamma, transmutation

We performed glow-like discharge experiments using deuterated palladium cathode in deuterium atmosphere to investigate the possibility of inducing low-energy nuclear reaction. Anomalous gamma ray emissions in the 80 – 230keV region were sometimes observed. It was assumed that a nuclear reaction took place during the experiment, producing short-lived radioisotopes, and these radioisotopes emitted the gamma rays in their decay processes. Elements and their isotopic abundance on the palladium cathodes were investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to find evidence of a nuclear reaction.

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2945. Narita, S., et al. Discharge Experiment Using Pd/CaO/Pd Multi-layered Cathode. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Takahashi, D., Wagatsuma, Y., Taniguchi, S., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: glow discharge, transmutation

2946. Narita, S., et al. Discharge Experiment Using Pd/CaO/Pd Multi-layered Cathode (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Takahashi, D., Wagatsuma, Y., Taniguchi, S., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: transmutation, glow discharge

2947. Narita, S., K. Neichi, and T. Matsumoto, Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measurement of Isotopic Abundance by Semi-quantitative Analysis with TOF-SIMS. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 93-100.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Neichi, K., Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Isotopic abundance, Metal deuteride, Surface morphology, TOF-SIMS, Transmutation

In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, an anomaly in isotopic abundances of the sample components is often considered as an evidence of a nuclear transmutation. TOF-SIMS is one of the popular tools to investigate the isotopic composition in the research, and it is known that a measured abundance possibly has a certain uncertainty due to unique effects of the device. In this study, we measured isotopic abundances for some types of metal foil samples with various surface conditions by a semi-quantitative analysis with TOF-SIMS, and evaluated the uncertainties.

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2948. Nassikas, A.A. The Cold Fusion as a Space-Time Pumping Process. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Nassikas, A. A.
All Authors: Nassikas, A. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

2949. Nassisi, V., Incandescent Pd and Anomalous Distribution of Elements in Deuterated Samples Processed by an Excimer Laser. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 14.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V.
Keywords: laser,, Pd,, transmutation,, D2

2950. Nassisi, V., Transmutation of elements in saturated palladium hydrides by an XeCl excimer laser. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 468.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V.
Keywords: Pd, laser, D2, surface analysis, neutron, transmutation

2951. Nassisi, V. and M.L. Longo, Experimental results of transmutation of elements observed in etched palladium samples by an excimer laser. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 247.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V., Longo, M. L.
Keywords: Pd, D2, transmutation, surface analysis, transmutation, laser

2952. Nassisi, V., et al., Modification of Pd-H2 and Pd-D2 Thin Films Processed by He-Ne Laser. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 1-6.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V., Carettom, A., Manno, D., Fama, L., Buccolieri, G., A/, Buccolieri., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Laser, Palladium thin film, Silicon, Transmutation

In this work, we performed experiments of absorption of hydrogen and deuterium gas by Pd thin films, and we compared the behavior of these samples to unprocessed films. We also employed a continuous wave He-Ne laser to irradiate the samples inside the chamber during the treatment, in order to increase the gas absorption. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EDX), we observed structures like spots on the surface of the treated samples. Inside the spots, elements other than Pd were found. Based on these results, we determined that gas loading is an effective way to transmute elements, and the laser action has been a very effective way to increase morphological changes in the treated samples.

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2953. Nassissi, V., Incandescent Pd and Anomalous Distribution of Elements in Deuterated Samples Processed by an Excimer Laser. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 14.

First Author: Nassissi, V.
All Authors: Nassissi, V.
Keywords: laser,, Pd,, transmutation,, D2

2954. Natter, H., et al., Hydrogen in nanocrystalline palladium. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 84.

First Author: Natter, H.
All Authors: Natter, H., Wettmann, B., Heisel, B., Hempelmann, R.
Keywords: palladium black, diffusion, phase diagram, pressure, Pd-black

2955. Nayar, M.G., et al., Preliminary Results Of Cold Fusion Studies Using A Five Module High Current Electrolytic Cell, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 2.

First Author: Nayar, M. G.
All Authors: Nayar, M. G., Mitra, S. K., Raghunathan, P., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Sikka, S. K., Shyam, A., Chitra, V.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd,

Introduction In their first cold fusion paper Fleischmann et al. suggested that an electrolytic cell with large volume and surface area and high current density may cause fusion reactions resulting in the production of significant amounts of heat and nuclear particles. The experiments reported in this paper present the results of our early efforts to design and operate a high current modular Pd-Ni electrolytic cell and look for cold fusion reactions.

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2956. NEDO. The Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Volume 1. 1996. Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

First Author: NEDO
All Authors: NEDO
Keywords:

The 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF6) was held at Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, on October 13th – 18th 1996, with 179 participants registering from 17 countries. 43 oral presentation papers and 77 poster presentation papers were selected out of more than 160 abstracts originally submitted. The Proceedings, “PROGRESS IN NEW HYDROGEN ENERGY”, has been edited as the document of the Conference.

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2957. NEDO. The Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Volume 2. 1996. Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

First Author: NEDO
All Authors: NEDO
Keywords:

Volume 2.The 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF6) was held at Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, on October 13th – 18th 1996, with 179 participants registering from 17 countries. 43 oral presentation papers and 77 poster presentation papers were selected out of more than 160 abstracts originally submitted. The Proceedings, “PROGRESS IN NEW HYDROGEN ENERGY”, has been edited as the document of the Conference.

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2958. Nedospasov, A.V. and E.V. Mudetskaya, Comments on the possible nature of ‘cold fusion’ phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 121.

First Author: Nedospasov, A. V.
All Authors: Nedospasov, A. V., Mudetskaya, E. V.
Keywords: Theory, eleptino

2959. Nefedov, V.I., Cold nuclear fusion? Vestnik Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1991(1): p. 49 (in Russian).

First Author: Nefedov, V. I.
All Authors: Nefedov, V. I.
Keywords: review

2960. Neuville, S., Perspective on Low Energy Bethe Nuclear Fusion Reactor with Quantum Electronic Atomic Rearrangement of Carbon. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 91-116.

First Author: Neuville, S.
All Authors: Neuville, S.
Keywords: Anharmonic phonon–nuclear resonance, Bethe–Weizsäcker proton CNO fusion reactor, Carbon material characterization, Synchronic phonon/proton–nucleus collision, Quantum electronic atomic rearrangement

The relatively low/medium proton/carbon collision threshold energy (1-8 keV) of the Bethe-Weizsäcker nuclear reaction cycle C, N, and O observed in low temperature carbon rich stars suggests the eventual technical feasibility of a solid-state carbon fusion reactor. H+ used as a precursor nuclear material can be implanted in solid-state carbon material. We must then consider all effects that can affect nuclear collision efficiency, including solid-state structure specificity, proton channeling and the reduction of the original proton energy with electronic interactions, before looking at the possible nuclear reactions themselves. We then have to consider the different effects and types of atomic rearrangement favoring either sp2 or sp3 sites or which influence the carbon material structure. For this purpose, we review first a recently developed theoretical approach, which might explain important aspects of this phenomenon with still high confidence up to now. These aspects include quantum electronic activation especially with H2 recombination energy release, which is different from usual chemical and metallurgical thermal atomic rearrangement with which an optimized ta-C sp3 carbon structure can be controlled. It should also be considered that carbon structure determination methodology – including the recently revised Raman theory – provide more correct and accurate results. To be falsified a study of this type of proton-carbon nuclear reactor must also take into account effects which modify the carbon nucleus structure in favor of nuclear fusion. It is suggested that anharmonic synchronic phonon-nuclear resonance may be a contributing factor. However, present failures and the limits of abstract Quantum Mechanical formalism bring little clarification on this last point, which we suggest is owing to insufficient physical description of particle wave character. In order to improve these aspects of the theory, we suggest revisiting aether theory which with further investigation and development of 3D fluid mechanics is expected to account for all QM acquired, and to be able to provide clearer physical insight into the subatomic particle wave aspects and corresponding nuclear reaction mechanism.

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2961. Nezu, S. and T. Sano. Measurement of Hydrogen Loading Ratio of Pd Electrodes Cathodically Polarized in Aqueous Solutions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Nezu, S.
All Authors: Nezu, S., Sano, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ce, Pd-Rh, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2962. Nicholson, J.P., A search for particle emission from a gas-loaded deuterium-palladium system in the alpha-beta phase. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 383.

First Author: Nicholson, J. P.
All Authors: Nicholson, J. P.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, proton, Pd, particle emission

2963. Niedra, J.M. and I.T. Myers, Replication of the apparent excess heat effect in light water-potassium carbonate-nickel-electrolytic cell. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(7): p. 62.

First Author: Niedra, J. M.
All Authors: Niedra, J. M., Myers, I. T.
Keywords: heat-, H2O, Ni, electrolysis, replication Mills

Replication of experiments claiming to demonstrate excess heat production in light water-Ni-K2CO3 electrolytic cells was found to produce an apparent excess heat of 11 W maximum, for 60 W electrical power into the cell. Power gains ranged from 1.06 to 1.68. The cell was operated at four different dc current levels plus one pulsed current run at 1 Hz, 10% duty cycle. The 28 liter cell used in these verification tests was on loan from a private corporation whose own tests with similar cells are documented to produce 50 W steady excess heat for a continuous period exceeding hundreds of days. The apparent excess heat can not be readily explained either in terms of nonlinearity of the cell’s thermal conductance at a low temperature differential or by thermoelectric heat pumping. However, the present data do admit efficient recombination of dissolved hydrogen-oxygen as an ordinary explanation. Calorimetry methods and heat balance calculations for the verification tests are described. Considering the large magnitude of benefit if this effect is found to be a genuine new energy source, a more thorough investigation of evolved heat in the nickel-hydrogen system in both electrolytic and gaseous loading cells remains warranted.

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2964. Nigmatulin, R.I., R.P. Taleyarkhan, and R.T. Lahey, Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation revisited. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Eng., 2004. 218.

First Author: Nigmatulin, R. I.
All Authors: Nigmatulin, R. I., Taleyarkhan, R. P., Lahey, R. T.
Keywords: Cavitation

2965. Nigmatulin, R.I., et al., Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion. Phys. Fluids, 2005. 17.

First Author: Nigmatulin, R. I.
All Authors: Nigmatulin, R. I., Akhatov, I., Topolnikov, A., Bolotnova, R., Vakhitova, N., Lahey, R. T., Taleyarkhan, R. P.
Keywords: Sonofusion

2966. Nimtz, G. and P. Marquardt, A proposal for a lukewarm nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 518.

First Author: Nimtz, G.
All Authors: Nimtz, G., Marquardt, P.
Keywords: theory

2967. Nishimiya, N., et al., Hyperstoichiometric Hydrogen Occlusion by Palladium Nanoparticles Included in NaY Zeolite. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2001. 319: p. 312.

First Author: Nishimiya, N.
All Authors: Nishimiya, N., Kishi, T., Mizushima, T., Matsumoto, A., Tsutsumi, K.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, composition, nanoparticles, PdH2

2968. Nishizawa, K., Radiation Protection Aspects of cold fusion. Hoken Butsuri, 1990. 25: p. 288 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nishizawa, K.
All Authors: Nishizawa, K.
Keywords: health

2969. Nishizawa, K., Neutron measurements in cold fusion. Hoshasen, 1991. 17(1): p. 4 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nishizawa, K.
All Authors: Nishizawa, K.
Keywords: neutron, D2, Pd, gas discharge, ion bombardment

2970. Noble, G., J. Dash, and L. McNasser. Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Palladium and Sulfate Composite. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Noble, G.
All Authors: Noble, G., Dash, J., McNasser, L.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, Pd, heat+, coating, Pt, layer, ICCF-5

It appears excess heat can be produced during the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium and sulfate composite. Experiments seem to show that when this com p osite is coated on Platinum , and used as a cathode, excess heat similar to that generated with solid Pd results.

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2971. Nohmi, T., et al. Basic Research On Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Using Pd Powders Charged With High Density Deuterium. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Nohmi, T.
All Authors: Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Taniike, A., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: heat, nanoparticles

We have constructed an experimental system to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata, and to investigate the underlying physics. We performed calorimetry during D2 or H2 absorption with micronized powders of Si, Pd and Pd-black. With D2 , after the palladium deuteride formed, the cell produced 8.3 Ѵ.5 kJ (or 2.6 ѱ.4 kJ/g), which is somewhat larger than the systematic error of 4.0 kJ estimated from an H2 blank.

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2972. Nomura, K. and E. Akiba, Trial of nuclear fusion. Busshitsu Kogaku Gijutsu Kenkyusho Hokoku, 1994. 2(4): p. 439 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nomura, K.
All Authors: Nomura, K., Akiba, E.
Keywords: D2, titanium Pd, LaNi5 Mg2Ni, neutron, Pd Ti

2973. none, ‘New Physics’ finds a haven at the patent office. Science, 1999. 284: p. 1252.

First Author: none
All Authors: none
Keywords: history, patent

2974. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Determination of the excess energy obtained during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 364.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

2975. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Comments on ‘measurement and analysis of neutron and gamma-ray emission rates, other fusion products, and power in electrochemical cells having palladium cathodes’. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 579.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: critique, Albagli, heat

2976. Noninski, V.C., Excess heat during the electrolysis of a light water solution of K2CO3 with a nickel cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 163.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C.
Keywords: heat+, Ni, H2O, critique Mills

2977. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Notes on two papers claiming no evidence for the existence of excess energy during the electrolysis of 0.1M LiOD/D2O with palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 474.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: critique, Lewis, Albagli, heat, MIT

A problem popularly known as “cold fusion” was brought, although in an unusual way, to the attention of the scientific community. Although much discussion was (and is still) devoted to whether this effect is connected with any known nuclear reactions, the latter being widely questioned, there is no doubt that the general interest in the problem was provoked by the claim of the possibility of producing excess energy, i.e., energy surmounting the energy breakeven value. Unlike the clearly negative indications so far in terms of known nuclear processes taking place, however, careful analysis reveals that the claims in the principal negative papers published so far with respect to the existence of excess energy are in disagreement with the raw experimental data whenever such is presented in those papers. This is very surprising indeed in view of the wide publicity these negative results have been given. An example of an improper analysis of their own experimental data by the authors is Ref. 1, which we have already discussed. Other examples of inappropriate method and improper interpretation of their own experimental data are Refs. 3 and 4.

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2978. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on a possible gamma-ray emission caused by a chemical process. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 201.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, gamma emission, chemical

2979. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on claimed beta-particle emission decay. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 317.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, critique, Lin

2980. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on claimed transmutation of elements caused by a chemical process. J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10: p. 249.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, chemical

2981. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, On an experimental curiosity that if undetected may lead to erroneous far-reaching conclusions. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 248.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: critique, transmutation, chemical

2982. Norberg, R.E., Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Hydrogen Absorbed into Palladium Wire. Phys. Rev., 1952. 86: p. 745.

First Author: Norberg, R. E.
All Authors: Norberg, R. E.
Keywords: NMR, Pd,

2983. Norberg, R.E., Nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen absorbed into palladium wires. Phys. Rev., 1952. 86(5): p. 745.

First Author: Norberg, R. E.
All Authors: Norberg, R. E.
Keywords: Pd, H2, NMR

2984. Nordemann, D.J.R., Cold fusion and geophysics: the current situation. Mineracao Metalurgia, 1989. 53: p. 51 (in Portuguese).

First Author: Nordemann, D. J. R.
All Authors: Nordemann, D. J. R.
Keywords: review, critique

2985. Nordlander, P., et al., Multiple deuterium occupancy of vacancies in Pd and related metals. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 1990.

First Author: Nordlander, P.
All Authors: Nordlander, P., Noerskov, J. K., Besenbacher, F., Myers, S. M.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, vacancy, theory, structure, PdD, distance

2986. Notoya, R. and M. Enyo. Excess Heat Production in Electrolysis of Potassium Carbonate Solution with Nickel Electrodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, K2CaO3, Ni, H2O heat electrolysis K, ICCF-3

With the aim of realizing potassium proton cold fusion, the electrolysis of light water solution of potassium carbonate was carried out by means of porous nickel cathode. The cell was called by a constant rate airstream and maintained at 20у during all the electrolysis. Typical results indicated that the excess heat production rate was proportional to the input power in the range of measurements (up to 2 W) and the excess heat observed was 3 to 4 times greater than the input power, after correction for the thermo-neutral potential.After the electrolysis, the calcium ion concentration in the electrolyte was measured by flame photo spectrometry and the increase of calcium concentration in the electrolytes due to the electrolysis was found to be 3.2 to 4.4 ppm. These amounts are comparable to the amounts of excess heat calculated within the same order of magnitude.

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2987. Notoya, R. Alkali-Hydrogen Cold Fusion Accompanied by Tritium Production on Nickel. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, tritium, overvoltage, ICCF-4 electrolysis

2988. Notoya, R., Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution with a nickel electrode. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 202.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, transmutation, Ca, heat+

2989. Notoya, R., Current status of cold fusion research. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1993. 39(9): p. 34 (in Japanese).

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: review

2990. Notoya, R., Y. Noya, and T. Ohnishi, Tritium generation and large excess heat evolution by electrolysis in light and heavy water-potassium carbonate solutions with nickel electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 179.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Noya, Y., Ohnishi, T.
Keywords: tritium, Ni, D2O, H2O, heat+, transmutation, Ca

2991. Notoya, R. Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion Caused by Electrolysis in Alkali Metallic Ions Solutions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: H2O, electrolysis, transmutation, Ni, heat, radioactivity, ICCF-5

It was confirmed experimentally that some nuclei products of cold fusion were generated during electrolysis by use of cathodes of poorest nickel and platinum eyes platinum in light (usual) water solutions of all alkali metallic ions investigated. He also reported in the previous work that 4 ppm of calcium was detected in the electrolyte of potassium carbonate light water solution by flame photospectroscopy. The gamma ray measurement revealed the formation of 24Na during electrolysis in sodium carbonate solution. ICP mass spectra of an electrolyte of cesium sulfate solution showed several peaks of the various nuclear products in the region from 132 to 140 amu. In all electrolytes investigated, the distinct increments of tritium were measured by liquid scintillation spectroanalyzer. Simultaneously the excess heat was measured in the family open cell during electrolysis in these solutions of light or heavy water, which amounted to > 200% for the input power in potassium and cesium ion solutions. From these results we can conclude that the alkali intermetallic compounds formed as the intermediate of hydrogen evolution reaction cause many types of cold fusion with neutrons, protons, deuterium, tritium and alpha particles.

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2992. Notoya, R., Low Temperature Nuclear Change of Alkali Metallic Ions Caused by Electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 39.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: electrolysis,

2993. Notoya, R., T. Ohnishi, and Y. Noya, Nuclear Reaction Caused by Electrolysis in Light and Heavy Water Solutions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 40.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Ohnishi, T., Noya, Y.
Keywords: H2O,, D2O,, electrolysis,, transmutation

2994. Notoya, R., Cold fusion arising from hydrogen evolution reaction on active metals in alkali metallic ions’ solutions. Environ. Res. Forum, 1996. 1-2: p. 127.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: tritium, transmutation, gamma emission, heat, nickel, Pd theory

2995. Notoya, R., T. Ohnishi, and Y. Noya. Products of Nuclear Processes Caused by Electrolysis on Nickel and Platinum Electrodes in Solutions of Alkali-Metallic Ions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Ohnishi, T., Noya, Y.
Keywords: transmutation Pd, nickel, electrolysis, gamma emission ICCF-7

2996. Nowicka, E. and R. Du•s, H2 dissociative adsorption on palladium hydride and titanium hydride surfaces: Evidence for weakly bound state of hydrogen adatoms. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 506.

First Author: Nowicka, E.
All Authors: Nowicka, E., Du•s, R.
Keywords: PdH, TiH, surface, absorption, H2

2997. NREL, Energy Overview from NREL. 2006, NREL. p. 17.

First Author: NREL
All Authors: NREL
Keywords: Review

This document has no connection to cold fusion, but it is valuable public domain information, it is no longer in print, and it does not appear to be available elsewhere on the Internet.Pages 2 – 16 are from the U.S. DoE Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (NREL), Hydrogen Program Plan–FY 1993–FY 1997, June 1992, Appendixes A and C.Page 17 shows a graph published by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2001. The graph shows that most energy is lost as “rejected energy” (waste heat), especially in Electricity generation (70% waste) and Transportation (80% waste). Better technology would greatly reduce this waste. Most generators convert only 33% of the heat from burning coal or gas into electricity; advanced generators convert 40%. Most automobiles convert only 15% of the heat from gasoline into useful vehicle propulsion; hybrid and electric automobiles convert 30% or more. This graph is based on the DoE Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review. This review is an excellent, comprehensive source of online information. See:xxxx://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html

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2998. Numata, H., et al. Neutron Emission and Surface Observation During a Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Takagi, R., Ohno, I., Kawamura, K., Haruyama, S.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, D2O, metallurgy, energy, overvoltage, ICCF-2, cracks, fractofusion

2999. Numata, H. and I. Ohno. In situ potentio, resisto and dilatomic measurement of repeated hydrogen absorption in Pd electrode by electrochemical cathodic loading method. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ohno, I.
Keywords: loading, OCV, Pd, expansion, pressure, resistivity, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-6

3000. Numata, H. and M. Fukuhara, Low-temperature elastic anomalies and heat generation of deuterated palladium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 300.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: PdD, Young’s moduli, Lame parameter, Poisson ratio, Debye temperature, heat, structure

3001. Numata, H. and I. Ohno, In Situ Potentiometric, Resistance, and Dilatometric Measurements of Palladium Electrodes During Repeated Electrochemical Hydrogen Absorption. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 206.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ohno, I.
Keywords: resistance, Pd, expansion, H2, PdH, overvoltage

3002. Numata, H. and M. Ban. Magnetic Interaction Of Hypothetical Particles Moving Beneath The Electrode/Electrolyte Interface To Elucidate Evolution Mechanism Of Vortex Appeared On Pd Surface After Long-Term Evolution Of Deuterium In 0.1M LiOD. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ban, M.
Keywords: theory

3003. Nygren, L.A. and R.G. Leisure, Elastic Constants of a’-Phase PdHx Over the Temperature Range 4-300K. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1988. 37: p. 6482.

First Author: Nygren, L. A.
All Authors: Nygren, L. A., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: strength, elastic Constant, PDH

3004. Nygren, L.A. and R.G. Leisure, Hydrogen hopping rates and hydrogen-hydrogen interactions in PdHx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 11: p. 7611.

First Author: Nygren, L. A.
All Authors: Nygren, L. A., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: Pd, H, interaction, diffusion

3005. Oates, W.A. and T.B. Flanagan, Formation of Nearly Stoichiometric Palladium-Hydrogen Systems. Nature Phys. Sci., 1971. 231: p. 19.

First Author: Oates, W. A.
All Authors: Oates, W. A., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H2, composition, loading, method H/Pd

3006. Oates, W.A. and T.B. Flanagan, Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen in Palladium and its Alloys under Conditions of Constant Volume. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1977. 1(73): p. 993.

First Author: Oates, W. A.
All Authors: Oates, W. A., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: H2, Pd, PdH, thermodynamic, pressure

3007. Ochiai, K., et al. Deuteron Fusion Experiments in Metal Foils Implanted with Deutron Beams. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ochiai, K.
All Authors: Ochiai, K., Iida, T., Beppu, N., Maruta, K., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion implantation, Pd, D2, particle emission, ICCF-6

3008. Ochiai, K., et al. Measurement of High-Energetic Particles from Titanium Sheets Implanted with Deuterium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ochiai, K.
All Authors: Ochiai, K., Maruta, K., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, titanium, particle emission, tritium ICCF-7

3009. Ogawa, H., et al. Correlation of Excess Heat and Neutron Emission in Pd-Li-D Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Ogawa, H.
All Authors: Ogawa, H., Yoshida, S., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, electrolysis, hardness, resistance, ICCF-5

To investigate the dominant factors that allow a reproducible nuclear reaction in D-Pd systems, the initial electric resistance and the hardness of the Pd cathode have been examined for excess heat generation and the excess neutron emission in LiOD-Pd electrolysis cells. Two background (control) runs and one foreground run with the Pd cathode of high electric resistance and high hardness gave no nuclear effects, while one foreground run with low electric resistance and low hardness gave appreciable excess neutron emission and the excess heat generation. Reversed correlation was found between the two nuclear effects.

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3010. Oguro, K., Hydrogen absorbing alloys and low-temperature nuclear fusion. Zairyo, 1990. 39(437): p. 228 (in Japanese).

First Author: Oguro, K.
All Authors: Oguro, K.
Keywords: review

3011. Oh, H.K., Some observatins on the cavity of creation for cold fusion and the generation of heat. J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 1999. 94: p. 60.

First Author: Oh, H. K.
All Authors: Oh, H. K.
Keywords: Theory, pi rays

3012. Ohashi, H. and T. Morozumi, Decoding of thermal data in Fleischmann & Pons paper. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1989. 26(7): p. 729.

First Author: Ohashi, H.
All Authors: Ohashi, H., Morozumi, T.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

3013. Ohmori, T., et al., Ex situ observation of electrochemically hydrogenated palladium using a scanning tunneling microscope. Chem. Lett., 1991. 1991: p. 96.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Sakamaki, K., Hashimoto, K., Fujishima, A.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, surface

3014. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo. Excess Heat Production during Electrolysis of H2O on Ni, Au, Ag and Sn Electrodes in Alkaline Media. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Ni, Au, Ag, Sn, H2O, heat+, transmutation, KOH, calcium, Ni, H2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Excess heat evolution was measured on Ni, Au, Ag and Sn in aqueous K2CO3, Na2SO4 and Li2SO4 solutions under galvanostatic electrolysis conditions. Steady evolution of excess heat in various electrode/electrolyte solutions, but not in nickel, was observed for at least several days of observation. The largest excess heat observed was 907 mW on Sn in K2SO4.

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3015. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo, Excess heat evolution during electrolysis of H2O with nickel, gold, silver, and tin cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 293.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, heat, transmutation, electrolysis, Sn replication, Miles

3016. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo, Iron Formation in Gold and Palladium Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 15.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis,, transmutation,, Fe,, Au,, Pd

Investigation of some reaction products possibly produced by electrolyzing with Au and Pd electrodes in Na2SO4, K2CO3, and KOH light water solutions was made. The electrolysis was performed for 7 days with a constant current of 1 A. After the electrolysis the elements accumulated in the electrode were analyzed by means of AES. In every case a notable amount of Fe atoms were detected together with a certain amount of excess energy evolution, being in the range of 9 x 10^15 to 1.8 x 10^16 atoms/cm^2 for Au and of 1.2 x 10^15 to 4.0 x 10^16 atoms/cm^2 for Pd. The isotopic abundance of these Fe atoms was measured by means of SIMS, which was 6.5, 77.5, and 14.5% for 54Fe, 56Fe and 57Fe, respectively, at the top surface of Au electrode, obviously different from the natural values. For Pd electrode, a considerable increase in the contents of 54Fe and 57Fe was observed.

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3017. Ohmori, T., T. Mizuno, and M. Enyo, Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the light water electrolysis on gold electrodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 90.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, layer, Au-Pt

3018. Ohmori, T., T. Mizuno, and M. Enyo, Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the light water electrlysis on gold electrodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 90.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, layer, Au-Pt

3019. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Nuclear transmutation occurring in the electrolysis on several metal electrodes. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1997. 5: p. 37.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Review, H2O, electrolysis, transmutation

3020. Ohmori, T., et al., Low temperature nuclear transmutation forming iron on/in gold electrode during light water electrolysis. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1997. 22: p. 459.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Minagawa, H., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, electrolysis, surface analysis

3021. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in the electrolysis of lightwater – excess energy and iron production in a gold electrode. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 210.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M., Mizuno, T., Nodasaka, Y., Minagawa, H.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, heat+, surface analysis, electrolysis

The identification of some reaction products possibly produced during the generation of excess energy is attempted. Electrolysis is performed for 7 days with a constant current intensity of 1 A. The electrolytes used are Na2SO4, K2SO4, K2CO3, and KOH. After the electrolysis, the elements in the electrode near the surface are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. In every case, a notable amount of iron atoms in the range of 1.0 x 10^16 to 1.8 x 10^17 atom/cm2 (true area) are detected together with the generation of a certain amount of excess energy evolution. The isotopic abundance of iron atoms, which are 6.5, 77.5, and 14.5% for 54Fe, 56Fe, and 57Fe, respectively, and are obviously different from the natural isotopic abundance, are measured at the top surface of a gold electrode by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The content of 57Fe tends to increase up to 25% in the more inner layers of the electrode.

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3022. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno. Strong Excess Energy Evolution, New Element Production, and Electromagnetic Wave and/or Neutron Emission in the Light Water Electrolysis with a Tungsten Cathode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation, heat+, neutron, electrolysis, plasma discharge, H2O, ICCF-7

3023. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Excess energy evolution and transmutation. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 14.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation plasma, H2O heat+

3024. Ohmori, T., et al., Nuclear transmutation reaction occurring during the light water electrolysis on Pd electrode. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 35.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Kurokawa, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, electrolysis, surface analysis, transmutation

3025. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 367.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Nodasaka, Y., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, transmutation, Au, surface analysis, heat+

3026. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Nuclear transmutation reaction caused by light water electrolysis on tungsten cathode under incandescent conditions. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(27): p. 34.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation plasma discharge, H2O

3027. Ohmori, T., Reply to ‘Comments on ‘Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system”. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 243.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: critique, Lewis

3028. Ohmori, T., Recent development in solid state nuclear transmutation occurring by the electrolysis. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 2000. 7: p. 101.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: plasma, heat transmutation, electrolysis,

3029. Ohmori, T., Letter to the Editor: ‘Reply to ‘Comments on “Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system”. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 274.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: critique, Lewis

3030. Ohms, D., D. Rahner, and K. Wiesener, Kernfusion in einer Elektrolysezelle?” (“Nuclear fusion in an electrolysis cell?”). Mitteilungsblatt – Chem. Ges. DDR, 1989. 36: p. 151 (in German).

First Author: Ohms, D.
All Authors: Ohms, D., Rahner, D., Wiesener, K.
Keywords: Review, electrolysis, Pd, heat, neutron, critique, Fleischmann

3031. Ohta, T., Is cold fusion possible? A proposal of the concept of “surfusion. Hyomen Kagaku, 1989. 10(11): p. 896 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ohta, T.
All Authors: Ohta, T.
Keywords: Review

3032. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Possible Mechanisms of Coherent Multibody Fusion. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3033. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis on nuclear transmutation by MPIF/SCS method. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: transmutation, theory, fission, uranium, gold, palladium, tungsten

3034. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis Of Nuclear Transmutation Induced From Metal Plus Multibody-Fusion-Products, Reaction (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

ICCF-10 PowerPoint presentation.

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3035. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis of Nuclear Transmutation Induced from Metal Plus Multibody-Fusion-Products Reaction. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

Nuclear transmutation is analyzed by the selective channel scission model. The fission product yields for Pd plus a or 8Be reactions are calculated as secondary reactions of the multi-body fusion. And an anomalous isotopic ratio of Fe, which is reported by many researchers, is also analyzed and the analytical result shows good consistency with experimental results.

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3036. Oka, Y., S. Koshizuka, and S. Kondo, Electrochemically induced deuterium-tritium fusion power reactor – preliminary design of a reactor system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 260.

First Author: Oka, Y.
All Authors: Oka, Y., Koshizuka, S., Kondo, S.
Keywords: method, electrolysis

3037. Oka, Y., S. Koshizuka, and S. Kondo, D2O-fueled fusion power reactor using electrochemically induced deuterium-deuterium D-Dn, D-Dp and deuterium-tritium reactions – preliminary design of a reactor system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 263.

First Author: Oka, Y.
All Authors: Oka, Y., Koshizuka, S., Kondo, S.
Keywords: heat, method

3038. Okabe, S., Some new scientific fields related to exoelectron emission and fracto-emission. Poverkhnost, 1993(7): p. 34.

First Author: Okabe, S.
All Authors: Okabe, S.
Keywords: fractofusion, fractoemission

3039. Okamoto, H. and S. Nezu. Measurements of Hydrogen Loading Ratio of Pd Anodes Polarized in LiH-LiCl-KCl Molten Salt Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, H.
All Authors: Okamoto, H., Nezu, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, Molten Salt, overvoltage, Fused Salt, ICCF-4

3040. Okamoto, M., et al. Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Kusunoki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron+, energy, electrolysis, ICCF-4

3041. Okamoto, M., et al. Behavior of Key Elements in Pd for the Solid State Nuclear Phenomena Occurred in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Ogawa, H., Yoshinaga, Y., Kusunoki, T., Odawara, O.
Keywords: surface analysis, Pd, SIMS, resistance, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-4, heat

3042. Okamoto, M., et al., Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 176.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Kusunoki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron+, energy, electrolysis

ABSTRACT To elucidate the mechanism of the excess heat generation (EHG), the correlation of the EHG with the nuclear effects, especially the excess neutron emission (ENE), and electrochemical effects, especially the cell voltage (CV) change, is discussed based on the data obtained in a series of electrolysis of heavy water or light water in D2 (H2)O-LiOD(H)-Pd systems.

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3043. Okamoto, H., et al. Approach to Obtain Higher Deuterium Loading Ratios of Palladium Cathodes. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Okamoto, H.
All Authors: Okamoto, H., Sano, T., Oyabe, Y., Terazawa, T., Ohi, T.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-5

Deuterium loading ratios in the electrolytic palladium cathodes are measured by the electric resistance method. Many kinds of palladium rod are prepared and their loading ratios are determined during our standard electrolysis procedure. Some palladium cathodes are provided with additional treatments to change surface conditions. As the results, it is found that the deuterium loading ratio is very sensitive to palladium surface conditions. For example, when a palladium sample of which surface is modified by aqua regia, the loading ratio as high as DIPd ~ 0.95 is obtained at 200 mNcm^2 of electrolytic currents, which can hardly be achieved with an ordinary palladium cathode rod.

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3044. Okoye, S., Cold Fusion, The Unlimited Energy Source: A Myth Or Reality?, in NigeriaWorld. 2005.

First Author: Okoye, S.
All Authors: Okoye, S.
Keywords:

3045. Okubo, K. and K. Umeno, Physical Model of Energy Fluctuation Divergence. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 252-257.

First Author: Okubo, K.
All Authors: Okubo, K., Umeno, K.
Keywords: Cauchy distribution, Chaos, Energy fluctuation divergence

In this paper, we propose a new classical model in which energy fluctuation diverges. In detail, for certain parameter ranges, kinetic energy diverges since the momentum obeys the Cauchy distribution. This phenomenon will be applied to the cold fusion since jumping over the potential wall is essential to cold fusion.

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3046. Okuyama, E., Mayor’s Speech, ICCF20 Conference. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Okuyama, E.
All Authors: Okuyama, E.
Keywords:

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3047. Olafsson, S. and L. Holmlid, Ultra-dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (PowerPoint slides), in AVS 62. 2015: San Jose, California.

First Author: Olafsson, S.
All Authors: Olafsson, S., Holmlid, L.
Keywords: Theory

1. Fusion reactions short overview2. Palladium Deuterium3. Nickel – Hydrogen4. The Ultra-dense hydrogen5. Theoretical discussion6. Summary

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3048. Olayo, M.G., et al., Absorption of deuterium in titanium plates induced by electric discharges. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1998. 23: p. 885.

First Author: Olayo, M. G.
All Authors: Olayo, M. G., Cruz, G. J., Balderas, L., Melendez, L., Chavez, A., Valencia, R., Chavez, E., Flores, A., Lopez, R.
Keywords: D2, titanium, gas discharge, ion bombardment, neutron

3049. Oleari, L. On the Probability of Collisions of the Nuclei in H2 and D2 Molecules. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Oleari, L.
All Authors: Oleari, L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3050. Olemskoj, A.I. and E.A. Toropov, On the fluctuation theory of cold fusion. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1990. 35(11): p. 1619 (in Russian).

First Author: Olemskoj, A. I.
All Authors: Olemskoj, A. I., Toropov, E. A.
Keywords: theory, Anderson

3051. Oliphant, M.L., P. Harteck, and Rutherford, Transmutation Effects Observed with Heavy Hydrogen. Nature (London), 1934. 133: p. 413.

First Author: Oliphant, M. L.
All Authors: Oliphant, M. L., Harteck, P., Rutherford
Keywords: fusion, history, ion bombardment

3052. Olofsson, G., I. Wadsoe, and L. Eberson, Design and testing of a calorimeter for measurements on electrochemical reactions with gas evolution. J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1991. 23: p. 95.

First Author: Olofsson, G.
All Authors: Olofsson, G., Wadsoe, I., Eberson, L.
Keywords: heat, method

3053. Ono, H., et al., Absorption and desorption of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium. Denki Tsushin Daigaku Kiyo, 1991. 4: p. 235 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ono, H.
All Authors: Ono, H., Takahashi, S., Morisaki, H., Yazawa, K.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, H2O, neutron, gas discharge, D2

3054. Oppenheimer, J.R. and M. Phillips, Note on the Transmutation Function for Deuterons. Phys. Rev., 1935. 48: p. 500.

First Author: Oppenheimer, J. R.
All Authors: Oppenheimer, J. R., Phillips, M.
Keywords: D, fusion, theory

3055. Oriani, R.A., et al., Calorimetric measurements of excess power output during the cathodic charging of deuterium into palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 652.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Nelson, J. C., Lee, S. K., Broadhurst, J. H.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, tritium, neutron

A Seebeck-effect calorimeter was used to establish that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input, can occur during the electrolysis of D2O. The magnitude of the excess power is measured with respect to the electrolysis of H2O as the baseline. The excess power levels of >60 W/cm^3 palladium and excess energies of 74 kJ cannot be un­derstood in terms of recombination of D2 and O2 within the calorimeter, other chemical reactions, or a storage-and-relaxation mechanism.

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3056. Oriani, R.A. The Physical and Metallurgical Aspects of Hydrogen in Metals. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H2, Phase Diagram, Lattice Parameter, dislocation, diffusion, review, Pd, ICCF-4

Abstract To attempt to optimize the anomalous phenomena that today go under the label “cold fusion” the experimentalist should be aware of the many aspects of the behavior of hydrogen in metals and of its entry into and egress from metals.  This paper discusses the equilibrium characteristics of the isotopes of hydrogen in metals.  The first section discusses the thermodynamics of the terminal solutions of metal-hydrogen systems including the enthalpies of solutions, H-H interactions, effect of third elements, distribution of isotopes between the phases, site occupation, and the molar volume of hydrogen in metallic solutions.

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3057. Oriani, R.A. The Physical and Metallurgical Aspects of Hydrogen in Metals (translation into Chinese). in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H2, Phase Diagram, Lattice Parameter, dislocation, diffusion, review, Pd, ICCF-4

Translated by W.-S. Zhang.

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3058. Oriani, R.A. A Brief Survey of Useful Information About Hydrogen in Metals. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: loading, H2

introduction             Because cold fusion phenomena are notoriously erratic, and the parameters necessary to obtain reproducible and consistent results are poorly understood it is important to be aware of what is known about the state of hydrogen in metals and of the dynamics of its entry into and release from a metal.  This short paper cannot do more than indicate some of the important areas; the interested reader can obtain more information by reading the references (1-3).

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3059. Oriani, R.A., An investigation of anomalous thermal power generation from a proton-conducting oxide. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 281.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: heat+ proton conductor solid electrolyte, metal oxide replication

Abstract A high-temperature Seebeck effect calorimeter, in which the thermoelectric emf across a large-area enveloping thermopile is a measure of the heat flux from a power source, has been constructed to examine the claimed generation of excess thermal energy from a proton-conducting oxide immersed in deuterium gas. The claim has been confirmed in a few experiments out of many unsuccessful ones.

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3060. Oriani, R.A. Anomalous Heavy Atomic Masses Produced by Electrolysis. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: transmutation, C, electrolysis, ICCF-7, carbon

3061. Oriani, R.A., Anomalous heavy atomic masses produced by electrolysis. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 76.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: polyneutron, Fisher, C, Pd, electrolysis, transmutation

abstract             By applying to electrolysis cathodes a technique that produces essentially only oxides that are volatile at room temperature, spectroscopically determined masses between 222 and 351 are found that cannot be ascribed to known compounds.  In particular the masses found between 231 and 240 AMU cannot be ascribed to random signals but do correspond to CO2 the carbon of which is a neutron-rich nuclide as predicted by a recent theory of polyneutron nuclear reactions.

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3062. Oriani, R.A. and J.C. Fisher, Generation of Nuclear Tracks during Electrolysis. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2002. 41: p. 6180-6183.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, heavy water, lithium sulfate, palladium cathode, CR-39, charged particle, nuclear reaction

PLEASE NOTE! The printer made a major error in this paper. The version in our library is correct.The abstract begins:We show that energetic charged particles are produced during electrolysis of a D2O solution of Li2SO4 in a cell with a platinum anode and a palladium cathode. CR-39 plastic detectors, designed for recording alpha particles from radon decay, were immersed in the electrolyte during electrolysis. They recorded significantly larger numbers of energetic particle tracks than were recorded by control detectors not subject to electrolysis. Statistical analysis shows only a 3 * 10^-6 probability that the electrolysis tracks and the control tracks could have arisen from a common population. We conclude that there is a causal relationship between electrolysis and the production of energetic charged particles. Because track formation requires particle energies substantially greater than thermal or electrochemical energies it seems inescapable that a nuclear reaction was responsible.

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3063. Oriani, R.A. and J.C. Fisher. Detection of Energetic Charged Particles During Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: charged particle, CR-39

By the use of Cr-39 particle track detectors immersed in the electrolyte, we confirm that a nuclear reaction of as-yet unknown nature can take place during electrolysis.  With Li2SO4 dissolved in D2O or H2O and either Pd or Ni as cathodes, a very large statistical difference in nuclear track generation is found between detector chips immersed during electrolysis and the control chips immersed in similar solutions not subjected to electrolysis.  The probability that the electrolysis tracks and the control tracks could have by chance arisen from a common population is 2.5 x 10^-5, 1.2 x 10^-6, and 5.8 x 10^-4 for the systems Pd/D2O, Pd/H2O, and Ni/D2O, respectively.  We conclude that there is a causal relationship between electrolysis and energetic charged particles and that neither Pd nor D2O is essential for the generation of a nuclear reaction.  Some implications for theoretical considerations are presented.

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3064. Oriani, R.A. and J.C. Fisher. Energetic Charged Particles Produced in the Gas Phase by Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: charged particle, CR-39

CR-39 plastic detector chips suspended in the vapor over the electrolytic solution during electrolysis record the tracks of highly energetic charged particles.  The probability that the track densities found in these detector chips and the generally smaller track densities found in controls belong to a common population is 3 x 10^-10 by the Mann-Whitney statistical test.  It is therefore concluded that a nuclear reaction that originates in the vapor phase can accompany electrolysis.  Occasionally huge numbers of nuclear tracks are recorded by detector chips in the vapor over active electrolysis cells.  One such experiment is analyzed in which two contiguous detector chips recorded approximately 40,000 tracks.  Analysis of track orientations shows that the shower of charged particles originated in a compact source in the vapor between the chips at about 2 mm from one of the chips.  A new type of nuclear reaction is indicated.

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3065. Oriani, R.A. and J.C. Fisher. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: theory

Approximately 40,000 energetic charged particles were recorded in a pair of plastic detector chips suspended in the vapor over an active electrolysis cell. Particle track locations and orientations were revealed by examining the etch pits produced by chemical etching. Analysis of track orientations indicates that the shower originated in a compact source in the vapor between the chips. The total magnitude of the shower is estimated to have been 150,000 particles and its duration is estimated to have been a few seconds. A previously unknown type of nuclear reaction is indicated.

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3066. Oriani, R.A. and J.C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Fisher, J. C.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

We report the results of experiments in which CR-39 plastic particle-detection chips were exposed in various environments within and surrounding operating electrolysis cells. Because CR-39 detectors record only particles with energies in excess of about 0.2 MeV the detected particles must have arisen in nuclear reactions. Evidence for such reactions was found in deuterium gas behind a palladium cathode that served as part of the cell enclosure, in air behind a similarly disposed nickel cathode, in air beyond the glass wall of the electrolysis cell, and in oxygen gas above the anode when anode and cathode were placed in separate arms of a U-tube cell. These results, augmented by earlier work indicating nuclear reactions within the electrolyte and in the hydrogen-oxygen gas over the electrolyte, cannot be understood in terms of conventional nuclear theory.

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3067. Oriani, R.A. Reproducible Evidence For The Generation Of A Nuclear Reaction During Electrolysis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: Sonofusion

Past work in this laboratory has shown that nuclear particles generated during electrolysis can be registered by CR39 plastic detectors held within the electrolyte solution, suspended in the vapor above the solution, or placed just below the metal cathode that serves as the bottom of the electrolyte compartment of the electrolysis cell. However, not every electrolysis experiment produced nuclear particles so that total reproducibility was not achieved. Therefore another experimental technique has been developed which has shown the generation of nuclear particles in each of twenty five consecutive electrolysis experiments using heavy or light water solutions of lithium salts. The damage trails caused by the nuclear particles are made visible by etching in hot concentrated caustic solution, and the electrolysis experiments are accompanied by suitable blank, or control, experiments. The damage trails begin either at the surface of the CR39 chip that faces toward the electrolyte, at the opposite surface, or totally within the 0.83 mm thickness of the plastic detectors. It is demonstrated that the nuclear damage trails could not have been caused by ordinary radionuclides contaminating anything involved in the experimental procedure. The described phenomena pose a formidable challenge to nuclear theory.

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3068. Oriani, R.A., Nuclear Particles Generated by Electrolysis — a Review. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 108-117.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: CR39 detectors, Damage trails, Electrolysis, Etch pits, Nuclear particles, Nuclear reactions

CR39 plastic detectors for nuclear particles are employed to demonstrate that a nuclear reaction can accompany electrolysis, an electrochemical process. Detectors placed within or above the electrolyte display statistically greater numbers of nuclear pits than do detectors used as controls. Placing the cathodes in contact with Mylar-covered detectors is the basis for a technique that reproducibly generates evidence for a nuclear reaction during electrolysis. Nuclear pits are produced in plastic detectors exposed to the oxygen evolved at the anode, as well as to the hydrogen evolved at the cathode. Nuclear damage trails are found that are initiated within the 0.83mm thickness of the plastic detectors. These phenomena clearly show that a nuclear reaction of as yet unknown nature can be generated during electrolysis.

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3069. Orondo, P. and P.L. Hagelstein, Basic Physics Model for PdH Thermodynamics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Orondo, P.
All Authors: Orondo, P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Density functional calculation, Phase diagram, Quantum espresso, Thermodynamics

We made use of the very powerful modern density functional code Quantum Espresso for an ab initio calculation of the thermodynamics of PdH. There is an energy offset of about 100 meV in the calculation as compared to experiment. We developed an empirical correction to the theoretical energies which allowed us to fit the experimental results for excess enthalpy and excess entropy with some success. We also explored a new model that posits a weak binding between absorbed hydrogen atoms in PdH, and is able to provide a better fit to the experimental results. The model provides a simple physical explanation of observed phase diagram, and also of the observed dependence of the thermodynamic variables (excess enthalpy and excess entropy) on loading.

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3070. Osman, F., et al., Supporting the Josephson Interpretation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Stabilization of Nuclear Waste. Am. J. Applied Sci. 2, 2005. 6: p. 1049-1057.

First Author: Osman, F.
All Authors: Osman, F., Hora, H., Li, X. Z., Miley, G. H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: theory

Abstract: Brian Josephson appealed at the meeting of the Nobel Laureates July 2004 against the ignorance of physicist to the phenomenon of cold fusion. Though there are good reasons against many publications to this topic but not to all what was reported. It seems to be indicated to summarize the following serious, reproducible and confirmed observations on reactions of protons or deuterons incorporated in host metals such as palladium, nickel and other metals. We underline the confusing discovery by Cockroft and Oliphant with the anomalously low energy for nuclear reactions which was hundred times lower than in the usual cases when smashing nuclei against their Coulomb potential. A similar unexpected result was that of Otto Hahn’s-the chemist!-discovery of fission that had changed the world. A significant result for cold fusion was seen in gaseous atmosphere or discharges between palladium targets, rather significant and fully reproducible, e.g. from the “life after death” heat production of such high values per host atom that only nuclear reactions can be involved. This supports the earlier evaluation of neutron generation in fully reversible experiments with gas discharges hinting that a reasonable screening effect-preferably in the swimming electron layer-may lead to reactions at nuclear distances d of picometers with reaction probability times U of about megaseconds similar to the K-shell capture radioactivity. Further electrolytic experiments led to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where the involvement of pollution could be excluded from the generation of very seldom rare earth elements. A basically new theory for DD cross sections is used to confirm the picometer-megasecond reactions of cold fusion. Other theoretical aspects are given from measured heavy element distributions similar to the standard abundance distribution, SAD, in the Universe with consequences on endothermic heavy nuclei generation, magic numbers and to quarkgluon plasmas. One application may be the elimination of long lived nuclear waste by transmutation into stable nuclei.

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3071. Osterwalder, J. and L. Schlapbach, Unoccupied Electronic States in Cerium Hydrides. Physica B, 1985. 130: p. 524.

First Author: Osterwalder, J.
All Authors: Osterwalder, J., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: CeH, bonding, density Of States

3072. Ota, K., et al. Heat Production at the Heavy Water Electrolysis Using Mechanically Treated Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Kuratsuka, M., Ando, K., Iida, Y., Yoshitake, H., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Pd-Ag, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The heat balances of the heavy water electrolysis by Pd were measured in the closed cell. The excess heat with burst was observed three times out of 13 runs when mechanically treated Pd cathodes were used in 1 M LiOD solution. One of these was for Pd-Ag alloy (90:10) which began at 1,155 h after the start of the electrolysis, lasting for 240 h. The average output power was 105% of the input during that time. The integrated excess heat was calculated to be 185 MJ per cubic centimeter of palladium. In this case the maximum excess power was recorded for this Pd.

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3073. Ota, K., et al. Heat Measurement of Water Electrolysis Using Pd Cathode and the Electrochemistry. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Yoshitake, H., Yamazaki, O., Kuratsuka, M., Yamaki, K., Ando, K., Iida, Y., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, Pd-Ag, heat+, surface analysis, electrolysis, Li, ICCF-4

3074. Ota, K., H. Yoshitake, and N. Kamiya, Present status of cold fusion. Hyomen Kagaku, 1993. 14(9): p. 570 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Yoshitake, H., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: review

3075. Ota, K., et al. Effect of Boron for the Heat Production at the Heavy Water Electrolysis using Palladium Cathodes. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Yamaki, K., Tanabe, S., Yoshitake, H., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, boron, ICCF-5

The heat balance during the electrolysis of 1M LiOD heavy water solution using Pd cathode has been measured using the flow calorimeter with the constant power supply and the thermochemically closed cell. The special attention was paid on the concentration of B in the palladium cathode. The B concentration was controlled from 127 to 1000 ppm.Using Pd that contained 127ppm and 1000ppm B, the excess heat was not observed. While, using Pd that contained 267ppm and 500ppm B, the small excess heat was observed at 3 runs out of 5 runs. The excess heat appeared continuously from the beginning of the electrolysis. These concentration of B might be effective for the excess heat generation.

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3076. Ota, K. and T. Kobayashi, Cold fusion and calorimetry. Netsu Sokutei, 1997. 24(3): p. 138 (Japan., Engl. abstr.).

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Kobayashi, T.
Keywords: Review, heat

3077. Ota, K., et al. Heat Measurement During the Heavy Water Electrolysis using Pd Cathode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Kobayashi, T., Motohira, N., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-7

3078. Ota, K., et al., Effect of boron for the heat production during the heavy water electrolysis using palladium cathode. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 26.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Kobayashi, T., Motohira, N., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, boron

3079. Ota, K., et al. Some Experimental Results on Heat Measurement During Water Electrolysis. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ota, K.
All Authors: Ota, K., Okabe, T., Kudoh, H., Fujii, M., Motohira, N., Kamiya, N.
Keywords: nickel, Pd, titanium, D2O, electrolysis, heat ICCF-8

3080. Ouellette, J., Genie in a Bottle: The Case Against Cold Fusion, in Scientific American. 2012.

First Author: Ouellette, J.
All Authors: Ouellette, J.
Keywords: review

3081. Oya, Y., et al. Hydrogen Isotope Effect Induced by Neutron Irradiation in Pd-LiOD(H) Electrolysis. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Oya, Y.
All Authors: Oya, Y., Ogawa, H., Ono, T., Aida, M., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: neutron Pd, heat, electrolysis gamma emission, energy, electrolysis neutron irradiation, D2O, H2O ICCF-6

3082. Oya, Y., et al. The Role of Alkaline Ions in Dynamic Movement of Hydrogen Isotopes in Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Oya, Y.
All Authors: Oya, Y., Aida, M., Iinuma, K., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, Li, surface analysis, electrolysis, D/Pd, ICCF-7

Electrolysis in Pd-LiOD(H), NaOD(H) and KOD(H) systems was carried out to clarify the specific role of the lithium for tremendously high density and the dynamic movement of the deuterium on the surface of the Pd cathode. Only for LiOD system with pulse mode current electrolysis, anomalous high density of deuterium and lithium and the dynamic movement of deuterium are observed on the surface of the Pd cathode. A clear difference in absorption, desorption and depth profiles between LiOD(H) and NaOD(H) or KOD(H) system with the pulse mode current electrolysis is identified. This difference is at­tributed to the lithium accumulation structure on the Pd surface; only the pulse mode current electrolysis of Pd-LiOD system brings about the anomalous phenomena.

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3083. Oya, Y., et al. Material Conditions to Replicate the Generation of Excess Energy and the Emission of Excess Neutrons. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Oya, Y.
All Authors: Oya, Y., Ogawa, H., Aida, M., Iinuma, K., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: heat+, neutron, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, loading, surface analysis, D/Pd, ICCF-7

Abstract The key parameters for occurrence of the anomalous phenomena, especially excess heat generation and emission of excess neutrons, have been investigated through a series of electrolytic experiments in Pd-LiOD(H) systems. Seven key parameters are identified. In the present work, a series of systematic experiments has been carried out with some param­eters fixed. By controlling the key parameters completely, the anomalous phenomena with appreciable correlation between the excess heat generation and the excess neutron emission can be replicated successfully.

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3084. Oyama, Y., Very low level flux neutron measurement with an NE213 liquid scintillator. Hoshasen, 1990. 16: p. 15 (in Japanese).

First Author: Oyama, Y.
All Authors: Oyama, Y.
Keywords: neutron, method

3085. Oyama, N., et al., Probing absorption of deuterium into palladium cathodes during D2O electrolysis with an in situ electrochemical microbalance technique. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1990. 29(5): p. L818.

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Yamamoto, N., Hatozaki, O., Ohsaka, T.
Keywords: Pd, loading, x-ray, structure

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:The in situ observation of the absorption of deuterium (or hydrogen) into the Pd cathode during D2O (or H2O) electrolysis was made by an electrochemical microbalance technique which is based on the quartz-crystal electrode. The resonant frequency of the Pd-coated quartz-crystal electrode decreased with increasing amount of charge passed during electrolysis, and the frequency change for the D2O electrolysis was about twice that for the H2O electrolysis. The atom ratios of H/Pd and D/Pd of the H-Pd and D-Pd compounds resulting from the electrolysis were estimated to be 0.59 and 0.57, respectively.

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3086. Oyama, N., et al., Electrochemical calorimetry of D2O electrolysis using a palladium cathode – an undivided, open cell system. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 1990. 63: p. 2659.

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Ohsaka, T., Hatozaki, O., Kurasawa, Y., Yamamoto, N., Kasahara, S., Ohta, N., Imai, Y., Oyama, Y., Nakamura, T., Shibata, T., Imamura, M., Uwamino, Y., Shibata, S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, heat

3087. Oyama, N. and O. Hatozaki, Present and future of cold fusion – nuclear fusion induced by electrochemical reaction. Oyo Butsuri, 1991. 60: p. 220 (in Japanese).

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Hatozaki, O.
Keywords: review

3088. Oyama, N., et al. Electrochemical Calorimetry of D2O Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode in a Closed Cell System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Terashima, T., Kasahara, S., Hatozaki, O., Ohsaka, T., Tatsuma, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, overvoltage, Li, Al, ICCF-3

Electrolysis of D2O containing LiOD using palladium cathode was studied with a closed type calorimeter. The electric power input was kept constant, and all D2 and O2 generated and liberated to a gas phase were recombined on a catalyst, palladium black supported on a platinum wire. When the electric power of 0.2 W was employed, excess heat generation (2.4%) was observed once out of 5 experiments. No significant generation of excess heat was observed for LiOH/H2O electrolysis. In the case where the electric power of 0.3 W was employed, excess heat was observed (2.7%) for more than one month in the presence of 200 ppm aluminum. Depositon of aluminum onto the palladium surface was examined by means of in situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance.

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3089. Oyama, N., N. Yamamoto, and T. Tatsuma. In-Situ Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies of Water Electrolysis at a Palladium Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Yamamoto, N., Tatsuma, T.
Keywords: Pd, Li, D2O, electrolysis, loading, ICCF-3

The in-situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) technique has been applied to study electrolysis of water containing 0.2 M LiClO4 at Pd cathode. Decrease in resonant frequency was observed during the electrolysis. The decrease was attributed to the mass change involving hydrogen absorption into the palladium and lithium underpotential deposition, the mechanical stress change in the electrode, and the change in roughness of the electrode surface. The stress change, which may be caused by hydrogen uptake, was estimated using palladium film-coated AT- and BT-cut quartz crystal oscillators. The surface roughness change was observed by scanning electron microscopy and a number of cracks and holes were found. Underpotential deposition of lithium was observed in propylene carbonate containing 0.1 M LiClO4 and 16 mg L^-1 water. Contributions of respective factors to the total frequency change was estimated.

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3090. Oyama, N., et al. In situ interferometric microscopy of Pd electrode surfaces and calorimetry during electrolysis of D2O solution containing sulfur ion. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Oyama, N.
All Authors: Oyama, N., Ozaki, M., Tsukiyama, S., Hatozaki, O., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, electrolysis, S, D2O, surface analysis, ICCF-6

3091. Ozdemir, P., The Energy Release Mechanism of Newley-Formed Alpha Bosons in a Quantum Crystal Lattice. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 45.

First Author: Ozdemir, P.
All Authors: Ozdemir, P.
Keywords: theory, heat

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