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3092. Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 451.

First Author: Packham, N. J. C.
All Authors: Packham, N. J. C., Wolf, K. L., Wass, J. C., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, tritium, D2O

INTRODUCTIONIn the present communication, we report data that may be relevant to the phenomenon of room temperature fusion. It is the contention of the authors that the alleged phenomenon is better characterized by the production of nuclear particles than by the measurement of bursts of heat. Here, we describe the observation of tritium produced in eleven D2O electrolysis cells at levels 10^2-10^5 times above that expected from the normal isotopic enrichment of electrolysis. Particular attention has been paid to possible sources of contamination.

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3093. Page, W.S. Two-dimensional Proton Conductors. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Page, W. S.
All Authors: Page, W. S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

An enormous literature has developed on the subject of the abnormal mobility of protons in aqueous solutions. Eigen and De Maeyer in 1958 [1] may have been among the first to observe that ” The proton transport in hydrogen-bonded media is completely different from normal ionic migration and corresponds more to electronic transport processes in semi-conductors . . . . Phenomenologically, the ice crystal may be considered as a ‘protonic semi-conductor’ with an intrinsic (thermal) distribution of the charge carriers (protons) between a ‘valence’ band (H-bonded H20) and a ‘conduction’ band (excess protons fluctuating in H-bonds). . . .

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3094. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Arguments for the Anomalous Solutions of the Dirac Equations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, Dirac equation, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels in the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs). The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin1 /2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. We next analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant. As a prerequisite to a deep comprehension of the resolution methods, we recall in the appendices some essential elements of the Dirac theory.

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3095. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Basis for Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels (EDLs) in the hydrogen atom. Acceptance of these levels and, in particular, experimental evidence of their existence would have major implications for the basis for cold fusion and would open up new fields of femto-physics and -chemistry. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In a second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs), as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations. The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin 1/2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. Next, we analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant.

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3096. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 40-58.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. In particular, a solution to fix all problems is to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. For this reason, we deeply analyzed the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, with such a modified Coulomb potential without singular point. Then, by using a more complete ansatz, we made numerous computations on the wavefunctions of these EDOs, allowing to confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of orbits and to find further properties. Moreover, we observed that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity. At a first glance, this fact results from an obvious algebraic property of the expression of energy levels obtained by the relativistic equations. Now, a comparative analysis of the relativistic and of the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation allows us to affirm that Special Relativity leads to the existence of EDOs because of the non-linear form of the relativistic expression for the total energy, which implies a relativistic non-linear correction to the Coulomb potential.

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3097. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 62-84.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works, on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDO) and on other works about deep orbits. A first part recalls the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. At this occasion we highlight the difference of resolution of these problems between the relativistic Schrodinger equation and the Dirac equation, which leads for this latter, to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, the so-called Deep Dirac Levels (DDLs). As a result of some criticism about the matching conditions at the boundary, we verified their computation, but by using a more complete ansatz for the “inside” solution. We can confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of DDL orbits and that ⟨r⟩ decreases when the Dirac angular quantum number k increases. This latter finding is a self-consistent result since (as distinct from the atomic-electron orbitals) the binding energy of the DDL electron increases (in absolute value) with k. We observe that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity.

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3098. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Advance on Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 258-277.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Magnetic interactions, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In the previous works, we discussed arguments for and against the deep orbits, as exemplified in published solutions. So we considered the works of Maly and Va’vra on the topic, the most complete solution available and one showing an infinite family of EDO solutions. In particular, we deeply analyzed their second of these papers, where they consider a finite nucleus and look for solutions with a Coulomb potential modified inside the nucleus. In the present paper, we quickly recall our analysis, verification, and extension of their results. Moreover, we answer to a recent criticism that the EDOs would represent negative energy states and therefore would not qualify as an answer to the questions posed by Cold Fusion results. We can prove, by means of a simple algebraic argument based on the solution process, that, while at the transition region, the energy of the EDOs are positive. Next, we deepen the essential role of Special Relativity as source of the EDOs, which we discussed in previous papers. But the central topic of our present study is an initial analysis of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, with the aim of solving important physical questions: do the EDOs satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty relation (HUR)? Are the orbits stable? So, we examine some works related to the Vigie-“Barut Model, with potentials including magnetic coupling. We also carried out approximate computations to evaluate the strength of these interactions and the possibilities of their answering some of our questions. As a first result, we can expect the HUR to be respected by EDOs, due to the high energies of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus. Present computations for stability do not yet give a plain result; we need further studies and tools based on QED to face the complexity of the near-nuclear region. For the creation of EDOs, we outline a possibility based on magnetic coupling.

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3099. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 54-68.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Confinement, Deep electron levels, Heisenberg uncertainty relation, Highly relativistic electrons, LENR, Magnetic interaction, Relativistic quantum physics

In previous works, we analyzed and countered arguments against the deep orbits, as discussed in published solutions. Moreover, we revealed the essential role of Special Relativity as source of electron deep orbits (EDOs). We also showed, from a well-known analytic method of solution of the Dirac equation, that the obtained EDOs have a positive energy. When including the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, we observed a breakthrough in how to satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR) for electrons confined near the nucleus, in a radial zone of only a few fm. Here we chose a different method, by directly facing the HUR for such confined electrons, from which we deduce the coefficient γ of these highly relativistic electrons. Then we show the effective Coulomb potential due to a relativistic correction, can maintain the electrons in containment. Next we resume and deepen our study of the effects of EM interactions near the nucleus. We first obtain computation results: though approximate, we can effectively expect high-energy resonances near the nucleus. These results should be confirmed by using QFT-based methods.

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3100. Palamalai, A., et al., Preliminary experimental studies on electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium. Trans. SAEST, 1990. 25: p. 73.

First Author: Palamalai, A.
All Authors: Palamalai, A., Ahmed, A., Sampath, M., Chinnusamy, A., Prasad, G. N., Krishna Rao, K. S., Sreedharan, O. M., Raman, V. R., Balasubramanian, G. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium, Pd, D2O, neutron

3101. Paleschi, V., et al., A plasma model of the process of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 148: p. 345.

First Author: Paleschi, V.
All Authors: Paleschi, V., Harith, M. A., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P., Vaselli, M.
Keywords: theory

3102. Palibroda, E. and P. Gluck, Cold nuclear fusion in thin foils of palladium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 154: p. 153.

First Author: Palibroda, E.
All Authors: Palibroda, E., Gluck, P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3103. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen to helium. Naturwiss., 1926. 43: p. 956 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium, H2, Pd

3104. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1926. 59: p. 2039 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium H2, Pd, history

3105. Paneth, F., K. Peters, and P. Guenther, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1927. 60: p. 808 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K., Guenther, P.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3106. Paneth, F., The transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Nature (London), 1927. 119: p. 706.

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3107. Paolo, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Paolo, P.
All Authors: Paolo, P.
Keywords: theory

3108. Pappas, P.T. The Electrically Induced Nuclear Fusion in a living Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Pappas, P. T.
All Authors: Pappas, P. T.
Keywords: theory, biology, transmutation, ICCF-7

3109. Para, A.F., et al., Neutron Monitoring and Related Measurements During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium and Titanium Cathodes: Activity Report. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 131.

First Author: Para, A. F.
All Authors: Para, A. F., Ducati, U., Sangiust, V., Cavallotti, P. L., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, Mass Spectrometry

3110. Parish, T.A., R.T. Perry, and W.B. Wilson, Neutron sources and spectra from cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 479.

First Author: Parish, T. A.
All Authors: Parish, T. A., Perry, R. T., Wilson, W. B.
Keywords: neutron, method spectra, gamma emission, theory

3111. Park, R.L., The Cold Fusion Story Has Been an Object Lesson on Why Science Flourishes Only in the Open. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989: p. A44.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history, critique, Fleischmann

3112. Park, Y.W., et al., The observation of 2.2 MeV gamma-rays in an electrochemical cell. Sae Mulli, 1989. 29: p. 231.

First Author: Park, Y. W.
All Authors: Park, Y. W., Yoon, C. O., Yoon, M. Y., Kim, J. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, Titanium, neutron, gamma emission

3113. Park, R.L., BOOK WORLD The Fizzle in the Fusion, in Washington Post. 1991.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: Critique

3114. Park, A.E., Some thoughts on a simple mechanism for the 2H + 2H –> 4He cold fusion reaction. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 319.

First Author: Park, A. E.
All Authors: Park, A. E.
Keywords: theory, He

3115. Park, R.L., Voodoo Science. 2000, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 211 pages.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history,

3116. Park, S. and F. Gordon, Cold Fusion – from the Laboratory to the World Setting the Stage for ICCF-17. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Park, S.
All Authors: Park, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Cold Fusion, ICCF-17

The objective of ICCF-17 is to allow international groups of scientists to present their data to further the collective understanding of scientists working in the field and so that skeptical members of the mainstream scientific community, the media, and the public will see the evidence that “Cold Fusion” is real. Indeed several groups are currently developing commercial products that produce energy using the “Cold Fusion” phenomena. Ultimately, the reality of cold fusion will be determined by the public acceptance of commercial devices. People and companies who continue to deny the existence of cold fusion will become irrelevant as the applications are placed into service.

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3117. Parkhomov, A. and E. Belousova, Research into Heat Generators Similar to High-temperature Rossi Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Parkhomov, A.
All Authors: Parkhomov, A., Belousova, E.
Keywords: Element composition, High temperature, Hydrogen, Isotope composition, Nickel powder, Nuclear radiation, Power consumption, Power production, Reactor

Devices similar to a high-temperature Rossi reactor were made. Excess heat at the temperature of about 1100 deg C and higher was demonstrated. No nuclear radiation above the background level was observed during the excess heat production.

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3118. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in metals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1989. 86: p. 8614.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, jellium

3119. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in palladium: a more realistic calculation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 8652.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, Thomas-Fermi-Mott

3120. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, More cold fusion in metals: corrected calculations and other considerations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 3177.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory

3121. Parmenter, R.H., A possible scenario for the onset of cold fusion in deuterated metals. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 41.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: Theory tunneling screening, resonance

It is suggested that a pair of deuterons in a deuterated metal may resonant-tunnel through the Coulomb barrier separating them and form a helium isomer characterized by L = 1, S = 1 and odd parity. . . .

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3122. Parmenter, R.H., Enhancement of Cold Fusion Processes in Palladium by Catalytic Agents. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(43): p. 66.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: theory

The process of fusion of a pair of deuterons into an α parti­cle in palladium metal can be enhanced by the presence of free protons. The process of fusion of lithium 6 and a deuteron into a pair of α particles can be enhanced by the presence of free neutrons. . . .

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3123. Parmigiani, F. and P.G. Sona, Theoretical considerations on the cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 913.

First Author: Parmigiani, F.
All Authors: Parmigiani, F., Sona, P. G.
Keywords: theory, heavy electron

3124. Paseka, I. and J. Vondrak, Cold nuclear fusion. Chem. Listy, 1990. 84: p. 897 (in Czech).

First Author: Paseka, I.
All Authors: Paseka, I., Vondrak, J.
Keywords: review

3125. Passell, T.O. Overview and Status of the EPRI Program on Deuterated Metals. in ASME Joint International Power Generation Conference. 1994. Phoenix, AZ.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, D/Pd

3126. Passell, T.O., Radiation data reported by Wolf at Texas A&M as transmitted by T. Passell. 1995, EPRI.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission

ABSTRACTThree cells were electrolyzed in series at constant low current 42 days near a neutron detector of low background (40 counts/hr) using a protocol of adding boron and aluminum at 0.001 molar to the 0.1 molar LiOD electrolyte at ~18th day. Cathodes were loaded with deuterium at a few 10’s of milliamps/cm^2, with a 12-hour cryogenic treatment at day 17. Cathodes were sanded and replaced in the cell every 7 days. On the ~21st & 22nd days two successive fast neutron episodes were observed at about 2 times background. The neutron detector is minimally sensitive to gamma rays but gammas were observed near the end of the 20-hour neutron episode. When the cells were dismantled in late Sept 1992, all three cathodes (6 mm diameter x 60 mm long) were observed to be mildly radioactive. Analysis by germanium gamma detectors revealed presence of 100 billion atoms of Ag, Pd, Rh, and (one) Ru isotopes having ratios unlike those from bombardment by high-energy deuteron or proton beams.

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3127. Passell, T.O. Charting the Way Forward in the EPRI Research Program on Deuterated Metals. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review, EPRI, Wolf, gamma emission, radioactivity, D2O, Pd ICCF-5, effect of H2O

Over six years have elapsed since the first announcement by Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins ( l ) of the observation of excess heat from palladium heavily loaded with deuterium. The EPRI program began in April, 1 989, and has continued to the present time attempting to replicate the claimed excess heat and determine its source. Under conditions difficult to achieve, some 16 separate experiments have successfully reached that goal out of some 35 major attempts. The conditions found necessary for an observation of excess heat were found to be at least three in number: 1) atomic loading ratio (DlPd) > -0.9; 2) Initiation time of 8 to 23 days; 3) current density >0. 1 amperes per cm^2 of cathode area. A fourth condition suggested by the results of a recent experiment is that the FLUX of deuterium across the palladium metal surface must be above some threshold value. No definitive source for the excess heat has been yet robustly determined, but measurable helium-4 has been observed in the cell vapor space in a few cases. The major evidence that the heat may be from nuclear reactions is its magnitude – some 10 to 100 times larger than any known chemical reaction. The objective of the continuing effort is focussed upon identifying the source of the excess heat. Sonic cavitation at a Pd-D2O interface has apparently produced both He-4 in the vapor phase as well as apparent excess heat. This research has identified a huge matrix of possible experiments to confirm or refute various hypotheses on the source of the heat. To acquire sufficient resources to explore this matrix requires, in my opinion, a definitive signature of a nuclear reaction connected with the production of heat. Then and only then, with the promise of a potential energy source of almost unlimited size, will the necessary research funds be forthcoming.

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3128. Passell, T.O. Search for nuclear reaction products in heat-producing palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, boron, theory, ICCF-6

3129. Passell, T.O., Overview of EPRI Program in Deuterated Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 3(4): p. 1.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,, EPRI

3130. Passell, T.O. Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Heat-Producing Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, electrolysis, boron. ICCF-7

3131. Passell, T.O. and R. George. Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Exposure to Gaseous Deuterium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., George, R.
Keywords: Pd, transmutation, D2O, D2, ICCF-8

This is an experimental program to investigate possible trace element changes brought about in palladium (Pd) after extensive electrolysis in heavy water electrolytes as well as long time contact of particulate Pd with gaseous deuterium. Of particular interest are cathodes and particulate Pd which had experienced episodes of excess heat production beyond all electrical and other inputs. This paper details the careful analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) of a set of three samples of finely powdered Pd exposed to high deuterium pressures (hundreds of atmospheres) near room temperature at the core of hollow cylindrical Pd cathodes. A fourth sample of unused Pd powder from the same batch used in the cathodes was analyzed as a control. The most prominent change observed in the three active samples versus the virgin Pd was the Zn-64 content. The active samples showed an increase in the Zn-64 isotope of 6 to 14 times that in the virgin Pd. Speculation regarding the source of this increased zinc varies from contamination during electron beam welding (used to seal off the hollow core) to nuclear reactions generated by high pressure deuterium gas on the large surface area Pd particles in the core.

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3132. Passell, T.O. Evidence for Lithium-6 Depletion in Pd Exposed to Gaseous Deuterium and Hydrogen. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

3133. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

Changes in Pd-110/Pd-108 ratios as well as the concentration of silver, gold, zinc, cobalt, iridium and lithium-7/6 ratios have been measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) on a set of four samples of particulate palladium exposed to high-pressure deuterium gas in the hollow core of Arata-Zhang cathodes.  Three samples were from cathodes producing excess heat (10’s of megajoules) over a period of  several-months electrolysis, while the fourth was virgin powder from the same batch as that of the active samples.  If a nuclear process is the source of these changes, then multi-isotope elements such as silver, zinc, and iridium should show significant deviations in their isotopic ratios from the natural terrestrial values.  Surface trace lithium did indeed show such differences from that of the virgin material.  The Ag-109/107 ratio is currently under study by accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for the one sample showing the greatest difference in Ag-109 content from that of the virgin material.  Since these variations may have explanations unrelated to nuclear reactions, these results are not yet definitive.  The 8% increase in the Pd-110/108 ratio for one of the four samples relative to the virgin material is one of the most difficult for which to find a conventional explanation.

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3134. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

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3135. Passell, T.O. and T. Benson. Glow Discharge Calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., Benson, T.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry, heat,

3136. Passell, T.O. ICCF-14 Summary. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,

3137. Passell, T.O., The Case for Deuteron Stripping with Metal Nuclei as the Source of the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Deuterium, Energy, Metals, Nuclear, Oppenheimer–Phillips

Evidence is cited from the research literature on metals containing absorbed deuterium supporting the hypothesis that the excess heat episodes observed over the past 25 years are the result of exothermic deuteron stripping reactions with atomic nuclei of the absorbing metal. The deuteron stripping reaction is one in which the neutron half of the mass 2 deuteron is captured by an atomic nucleus while the proton half of the deuteron is ejected, repelled by the coulomb field of the positively charged metal nucleus. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation why so little external radiation accompanies the episodes of excess heat first observed by Fleischmann and Pons [1]. The reaction products from stable isotopes of the host metal are a proton with energies up to 9.2 MeV energy and a recoiling nucleus with energies of 100-to 600 keV. These two reaction products are retained near their birthplace because their range in solids is less than 100 m. The emitted proton is energetic enough to produce by (p,n), (p, ), (p,T), and (p,X-ray), reactions with host metal nuclei and their light-element impurities, the small number of neutrons, alpha particles, tritium atoms (T), and X-rays, occasionally observed associated with deuterated Ti and Pd. The PIXE process (proton induced X-ray emission) is expected in which numerous K, L, and M X-rays of the absorbing metal are produced. For metals with thicknesses of >1 mm the vast majority of such X-rays do not escape the metal. In experiments with foils of the host metal sufficiently thin, low levels of charged particles (mostly protons) have been observed. Some of the observed protons were at energies larger than 3.0 MeV, the largest possible energy of protons from the fusion of two deuterons. Widely observed He4 and tritium are known products of the deuteron stripping reaction with Li6, which is a major constituent of electrolytes and a minor impurity in most metals. In any case, researchers have observed small but definite indicators of nuclear reactions other than d+d fusion in deuterated metals at temperatures not significantly above ambient.

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3138. Patterson, J.A., Method for Electrolysis of Water to Form Metal Hydride. 1994: US Patent # 5,318,675.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: heat+, water, electrolysis, beads CETI patent,

3139. Patterson, J.A., System for Electrolysis. 1996: US Patent #5,494,559.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis CETI patent,

3140. Pauling, L., Explanations of cold fusion” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 105.

First Author: Pauling, L.
All Authors: Pauling, L.
Keywords: PdD2, phase diagram, theory, structure

3141. Pease, D., et al., Search for Low-energy X-ray and Particle Emissions from an Electrochemical Cell. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Pease, D.
All Authors: Pease, D., Azizi, O., He, J., El-Boher, A., Hubler, G. K., Bok, S., Mathai, C., Gangopadhyay, S., Lecci, S., Violante, V.
Keywords: Anomalous heat effect, Electrolytic cell, Low energy, PdD cathode, X-rays

Several theories to explain anomalous heat production predict the emission of low-energy X-rays and/or MeV alpha particles from PdD cathodes in electrochemical cells. Such radiation, however, is not detectable from outside of a standard electrochemical cell due to absorption in the electrolyte and cell walls. A custom cell was therefore assembled which permits X-rays of energy > 1 keV to pass through a thin cathodic membrane and enter into an X-ray detector with minimal attenuation. This test cell geometry also potentially allows any emitted MeV alpha particles to be detected when they impact a Pd cathode and cause fluorescent emission of Pd-K (21.2, 23.8 keV) X-rays. The detection of X-ray emissions from a membrane electrolytic cell potentially permits the mechanism(s) for anomalous heat production to be investigated with great sensitivity. As an example, a typical X-ray detector allows 1 keV X-rays to be detected at emission rates of less than one per second and this level of sensitivity corresponds to a thermal resolution of < 0.2 fW. Time resolved X-ray spectral data ranging from 1 to 30 keV was collected for over a year using various types of membranes and different electrolytic solutions. None of these test cells, however, yielded any X-rays which were above ambient background levels.

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3142. Peat, F.D., Cold fusion: The making of a scientific controversy. 1989: Contempory Books.

First Author: Peat, F. D.
All Authors: Peat, F. D.
Keywords: history, book,

3143. Pell, E., Agreements and Disagreements with Storms. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Pell, E.
All Authors: Pell, E.
Keywords: theory, critique

Storms points out that cold fusion (LENR) does not produce a high energy particle as part of the final product. There is ample experimental proof of this and I agree.Storms includes all lattice defects as being lattice and not potential reaction sites. I disagree. I still see lattice defects as potential sites, particularly single atom vacancies. I do agree that regular undisturbed lattice material is not where reactions occur, even when loaded greater than 0.9 with deuterium.

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3144. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechancial Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords: Theory

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect [1] (FPE) was swiftly rejected when published in 1989, yet a significant number of researchers have since reported energy gains in similar experiments; for a review see ref. [2]. These gains have been associated with “cold fusion” or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where energy is released from a deuterium-deuterium (d-d) fusion. Clearly, this raises fundamental questions because the probability of a d-d fusion, under the conditions of the FPE cell, is extremely small. As stated in ref. [1], “it is necessary to reconsider the quantum mechanics of electrons and deuterons in such host lattices.”The goal of this paper is to predict possible changes in the probability of d-d fusion, caused by perturbations to the energy barriers or positive interference caused by the effects of adjacent atoms in a lattice. We report preliminary work on formulating quantum-mechanical models of the behavior of deuterium atoms trapped in a lattice.

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3145. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechanical Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords:

Resonances in deuterium-deuterium fusion were examined by calculating the transmission behavior of a single deuteron through a deuterium atom, or through a system comprising two or three deuterium atoms, using transfer matrix methodology. Many unittransmission resonance peaks were observed in the results of the calculations, even at incoming deuteron energies of a few electron volts, but resonance peak widths were found to be very narrow at low energies, so that the probabilities of fusion would be small.

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3146. Pennisi, E., Helium find thaws the cold fusion trail. Sci. News (Washington, DC), 1991. 139(12): p. 177.

First Author: Pennisi, E.
All Authors: Pennisi, E.
Keywords: history

3147. Perez-Pariente, J. Evidence For The Ocurrence Of Lenr-Type Processes In Alchemical Transmutations. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Perez-Pariente, J.
All Authors: Perez-Pariente, J.
Keywords: transmutation

3148. Perfetti, P., et al., Neutron emission under particular nonequilibrium conditions from palladium and titanium electrolytically charged with deuterium. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 921.

First Author: Perfetti, P.
All Authors: Perfetti, P., Cilloco, F., Felici, R., Capozi, M., Ippoliti, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron, PdD, heat+, fractofusion

3149. Peroni, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (Letters to the Editor). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Peroni, P.
All Authors: Peroni, P.
Keywords: critique, theory

3150. Petelenz, P., Hypothetical D-D bound states in solid palladium. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 1989. 75: p. 929.

First Author: Petelenz, P.
All Authors: Petelenz, P.
Keywords: theory, distance

3151. Peterson, C., The Guardian Poplar, A Memoir of Deep Roots, Journey and Rediscovery. 2012, Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.

First Author: Peterson, C.
All Authors: Peterson, C.
Keywords: History

Selected portions of chapter 12 from Chase Peterson’s autobiography. Peterson was president of the University of Utah when cold fusion was announced. This chapter is titled, “THEY WILL ONLY LAUGH AT YOU”: Cold Fusion.

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3152. Petit, C., Fusion Fever in Utah –State Aches With Pride, in Salt Lake City Chronicle. 1989: Salt Lake CityEditor.

First Author: Petit, C.
All Authors: Petit, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3153. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Problems with the gamma-ray spectrum in the Fleischmann et al experiments. Nature (London), 1989. 339(6221): p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: critique Fleischmann, gamma emission

3154. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Measurement of g-Rays from Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: gamma emission, Pd, D2O, history, Fleischmann

3155. Petrii, O.A., et al., Attempts to detect electrochemical cold nuclear fusion by determining the excess tritium. Sov. Electrochem., 1991. 27: p. 1240.

First Author: Petrii, O. A.
All Authors: Petrii, O. A., Tsirlina, G. A., Simonov, E. F., Safonov, V. A., Lapshina, E. V.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3156. Petrillo, C. and F. Sacchetti, A possible mechanism for bulk cold fusion in transition metal hydrides. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10: p. 15.

First Author: Petrillo, C.
All Authors: Petrillo, C., Sacchetti, F.
Keywords: theory, phase change

3157. Petrucci, A., R. Mignani, and F. Cardone. Comparison Between Piezonuclear Reactions and CMNS Phenomenology. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Petrucci, A.
All Authors: Petrucci, A., Mignani, R., Cardone, F.
Keywords:

The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonuclear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefly report the results of our campaign of experiments on piezonuclear reactions where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reaction experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum interval of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. Here, among the various evidences collected in LENR experiments, we will search for hints about the overcome of the energy threshold and about the mechanism that releases the loaded energy in a suitable interval of time.

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3158. Phillips, S.M., Extra-Sensory Preception of Quarks. 1980, India: The Theosophical Publishing House.

First Author: Phillips, S. M.
All Authors: Phillips, S. M.
Keywords: theory,

3159. Phipps, T.E., Neutron formation by electron penetration of the nucleus. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 58.

First Author: Phipps, T. E.
All Authors: Phipps, T. E.
Keywords: Theory neutron formation

3160. Piantelli, F., Energy Generation and Generator by Means of Anharmonic Stimulated Fusion WO 1995/020816. 1995: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, F.
All Authors: Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat,

3161. Piantelli, S. and F. Piantelli, Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor WO 2010/058288. 2010: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, S.
All Authors: Piantelli, S., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat

Abstract: A method and a generator to produce energy from nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a metal, comprising the steps of a) production of a determined quantity of micro/nanometric clusters of a transition metal, b) bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters and controlling its pressure and speed, preferably after applying vacuum cycles of at least 10^-9 bar between 35Рand 500у for degassing the clusters . . .

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3162. Picard, C., O.J. Kleppa, and G. Boureau, Thermodynamic Study of the Palladium-Hydrogen System at 245-352 C and at Pressures Up To 34 atm. J. Chem. Phys., 1978. 69: p. 5549.

First Author: Picard, C.
All Authors: Picard, C., Kleppa, O. J., Boureau, G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, thermodynamic, pressure, Phase Diagram, enthalpy

3163. Picasso, L.E., Fusione: Fredda o calda?” (Fusion; cold or hot?). Accaio Inossid., 1989. 56(2): p. 5 (in Italian).

First Author: Picasso, L. E.
All Authors: Picasso, L. E.
Keywords: review

3164. Pike, R. Chemical Aspects of LENR. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Pike, R.
All Authors: Pike, R.
Keywords: electrochemistry

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The chemistry connected with low energy nuclear reactions is considered, starting with the Fleischmann and Pons work. Further innovations in electrochemical experiments following upon Fleischmann and Pons are examined. The chemical and structural nature of metal hydrides is discussed. Attention is paid to the variety of mixed metal hydrides that might potentially be exploited in LENR. Finally, the issues connected with LENR reactor design are touched upon.

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3165. Pinch, T.J., Opening black boxes: Science, technology and society. Social Studies of Science, 1992. 22: p. 487.

First Author: Pinch, T. J.
All Authors: Pinch, T. J.
Keywords: history

3166. Pippard, B., Footnote to History. Nature (London), 1991. 350: p. 29.

First Author: Pippard, B.
All Authors: Pippard, B.
Keywords: history

3167. Platt, C., What If Cold Fusion Is Real?, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/coldfusion.html It was the most notorious scientific experiment in recent memory – in 1989, the two men who claimed to have discovered the energy of the future were condemned as imposters and exiled by their peers. Can it possibly make sense to reopen the cold fusion investigation? A surprising number of researchers already have.

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3168. Platt, C., The Wired 25, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/wired25.html Life is short. Especially when you’re determined to break all the rules.In any age, there are a few people who give the rest of us something we can truly aspire to – and never more so than today. Meet the Wired 25, class of 1998. They are actively, even hyperactively, inventing tomorrow. From a wide range of professions, they have one thing in common: devotion to a singular ambition. They are attempting the impossible, and whether they succeed or fail, they will have a lasting impact on your life (and the lives of your kids).

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3169. Plotkin, H., The war against cold fusion. What’s realy behind it?, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/05/17/coldfusion2.dtlTwo months ago, I reported that Dr. Michael McKubre, an electrochemist at Menlo Park-based SRI, was, like other researchers, generating unaccounted-for heat in a carefully-controlled cold fusion experiment. . . .

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3170. Plotkin, H., Power To The People. The return of cold fusion, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/03/15/coldfusion.dtlOn Friday, March 26, 1999, the director of Menlo Park-based SRI International’s Energy Research Center, Dr. Michael McKubre, will present the results of SRI’s 10-year, $6 million-dollar effort to replicate the cold-fusion experiments of chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann. McKubre’s startling conclusion: Pons and Fleischmann were on to something.

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3171. Plotkin, H., Cold Fusion Rides Again. Science magazine publishes more evidence of tabletop nuclear reactions, in SF Gate. 2002.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: sonofusion

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/03/25/tbltpfusion.DTLScience magazine dropped a bombshell earlier this month: The prestigious journal published a paper by a team of researchers at Tennessee’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory who say they have discovered evidence of what looks like nuclear fusion taking place in a relatively inexpensive tabletop device. The findings bear striking similarities to the controversial cold-fusion claims made by chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in 1989, although the particular experiment is different.

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3172. Pokropivnii, V.V. and V.V. Ogorodnikov, The bineutron model of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(21): p. 31 (in Russian).

First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V.
All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V., Ogorodnikov, V. V.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3173. Pokropivnii, V.V., Bineutron theory of cold nuclear fusion. Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ukr., 1993(4): p. 86 (in Russian).

First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V.
All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3174. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Some Comments on the History of the Field. 1989.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history

3175. Pons, S., et al., Method and Apparatus for Power Generation. 1990: WO 90/10935,1990.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M., Walling, C., Simons, J. P.
Keywords: patent, apparatus,

3176. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Calorimetry of the Palladium-Deuterium System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method., electrolysis, ICCF-1

3177. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric measurements of the palladium/deuterium system: fact and fiction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 669.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, method, critique

3178. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-based Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-2

3179. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Concerning the detection of neutron and gamma-rays from cells containing palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105A: p. 763.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron gamma emission

3180. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Heat After Death. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, ICCF-4, electrolysis

Abstract We have described elsewhere . . . that Pd and Pd-alloy electrodes cathodically polarised in D2O solutions under extreme conditions can drive the calorimetric cells to the boiling point. We have then adopted the procedure of allowing the cells to boil to dryness. For these conditions the galvanostats are driven to the rail voltage (100 V) but the cell current is reduced to zero. We have then found that cells which contained D2O frequently remain at high temperatures (in the vicinity of 100у) before cooling rapidly to the bath temperature. Cells containing H2O can also be driven to the boiling point but such cells cool immediately on terminating the experiments. This phenomenon has become known as “Heat after Death” (the death referring to cessation of polarisation). Calibrations of the cells for such conditions show the generation of high levels of enthalpy at zero enthalpy input. Methods of investigating such systems will be outlined.

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3181. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 1). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 1, cover page to page 200.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large.

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3182. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 2). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 2, page 201 to page 640.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large.

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3183. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Etalonnage du systeme Pd-D2O: effets de protocole et feed-back positif. [“Calibration of the Pd-D2O system: protocol and positive feed-back effects”]. J. Chim. Phys., 1996. 93: p. 711 (in French).

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Theory, enthalpy of formation, PdD

3184. Pool, R., Teller, Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3185. Pool, R., Fusion Breakthrough? Science, 1989. 244: p. 1661.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3186. Pool, R., Fusion Followup : Confusion Abounds. Science, 1989. 244: p. 27.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3187. Pool, R., Skepticism Grows Over Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 244: p. 285.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3188. Pool, R. and M. Crawford, How Cold Fusion Happened- Twice ! Science, 1989. 244: p. 423.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R., Crawford, M.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3189. Pool, R., Brookhaven Chemists Find New Fusion Method. Science, 1989. 245: p. 1448.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: cluster, D2O, ion bombardment

3190. Pool, R., Will New Evidence Support Cold Fusion ? AND Teller,Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 246: p. 206, 449.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history, conference

3191. Pool, R., Wolf: My Tritium Was Impurity. Science, 1990.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3192. Pool, R., Cold Fusion: End of Act 1. Science, 1990. 244: p. 1039.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3193. Popa-Simil, L. Roadmap to Fusion Battery A Novel Type of Nuclear Battery and Potential Outcomes and Applications. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Popa-Simil, L.
All Authors: Popa-Simil, L.
Keywords: fusion, direct energy conversion

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The Fusion battery was the object of many science fiction novels and movies; the most recent one being “Star Trek,” but now it is poised to come to life. These batteries rely on a process that converts the fusion energy into electricity. They are more compact and state-of-the-art and resemble an aluminum air battery, but up to about 10 million times more powerful. . . .

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3194. Popa-Simil, L. The Fusion-Transmutation Battery. in Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2013. 2013. Albuquerque, NM.

First Author: Popa-Simil, L.
All Authors: Popa-Simil, L.
Keywords: fusion battery

Nuclear reactions such as transmutation, fusion or fission may occur in special nano-structures arrangements with a specific excitation that creates a nuclear active environment.All the parameters of mass distribution, quantum states and field excitation contribute to the process that involves more than two bodies that are not smashed together through their Coulombian barrier, as is the normal nuclear practice. New concepts in physics such as quantum nonlocality and potential formation of nuclear molecules come into play when considering high quantum energy reactions triggered by low energy excitation of special quantum states. Several nuclear or sub-nuclear entities in various positions may entangle putting the nuclear mass in special communion that may react and end in totally different structures than for normally encountered combinations.In the past 20 years of experiments, some observations of reactions producing heat only, reactions exhibiting strong bursts of neutrons, gammas and X-rays, some explosions, and over 40 accidents give strong support for new physics ideas in the world.

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3195. Porter, J.D., et al., Limits on electromagnetic and particle emission from palladium-D2O electrolytic cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 319.

First Author: Porter, J. D.
All Authors: Porter, J. D., Shihab-Eldin, A. A., Bossy, H., Echegaray, F. J., Nitschke, J. M., Prussin, S. G., Rasmussen, J. O., Stoyer, M. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, H2O, particle emission

3196. Postnikov, V.S., V.V. Postnikov, and V.M. Fedorov, Instability and Superconductivity in Pd-Ag-D and Pd-H Systems. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1978. 85: p. K115.

First Author: Postnikov, V. S.
All Authors: Postnikov, V. S., Postnikov, V. V., Fedorov, V. M.
Keywords: superconductivity, PdH, Pd-Ag

3197. Powell, G.L., et al., The preparation of palladium for cold fusion experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 355.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Bullock, IV J. S., Hallman, R. L., Horton, P. J., Hutchinson, D. P.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2, pressure, method, preparation

3198. Powell, G.L., The Reaction Probability for Exchange of Hydrogen Isotopes on Pd. 1991.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L.
Keywords: exhange, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Tritium, Pd,

3199. Powell, G.L., et al., Surface and Bulk Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd. 1991.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Lasser, R., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, diffusion, loading,

3200. Powell, G.L. and J.R. Kirkpatrick, Surface Conductance and Diffusion of H and D in Pd. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43(9): p. 6968.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R.
Keywords: Pd, D, H, diffusion

3201. Powell, G.L., J.R. Kirkpatrick, and J.W. Conant, Surface Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd-Macroscopic Manifestations. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 867.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W.
Keywords: pressure, Pd, D, H, PdD, PdH, phase Diagram, diffusion

3202. Poyser, P.A., M. Kemali, and D.K. Ross, Deuterium absorption in Pd0.9Y0.1 alloy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 175.

First Author: Poyser, P. A.
All Authors: Poyser, P. A., Kemali, M., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: Pd-Y-D, PdD, loading, Pd, lattice parameter

3203. Pozwolski, A.E., Comments on composite electrolytes and cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 120.

First Author: Pozwolski, A. E.
All Authors: Pozwolski, A. E.
Keywords: theory

3204. Prati, P., et al., Search for neutron emission from titanium-deuterium systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105: p. 293.

First Author: Prati, P.
All Authors: Prati, P., Ricco, G., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U.
Keywords: neutron method, titanium, D2

3205. Pratt, L.R. and J. Eckert, Molecular Dynamics of a Dilute Solution of Hydrogen in Palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 39(18): p. 13170.

First Author: Pratt, L. R.
All Authors: Pratt, L. R., Eckert, J.
Keywords: Pd, H, theory, vibration

3206. Prelas, M.A., Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 240.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A.
Keywords: discussion

3207. Prelas, M.A., et al., Cold fusion experiments using Maxwellian plasmas and sub-atmospheric deuterium gas. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 309.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Boody, F., Gallaher, W., Leal-Quiros, E., Mencin, D., Taylor, S.
Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, neutron, gamma emission

3208. Prelas, M.A. and E. Lukosi, Neutron Emission from Cryogenically Cooled Metals Under Thermal Shock. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Lukosi, E.
Keywords: Deuterium, Neutrons, Phase Change, Surface preparation, Thermal shock, Titanium

During the summer of 1991, intense neutron bursts were observed after temperature shocking titanium chips which had been saturated with deuterium gas. The titanium chips were cooled and loaded with deuterium at 77 K and then rapidly heated to 323 K. The rapid heating produces a large pressure increase inside the crystalline lattice of the host metal. An Event Timer/Counter (ETC) card was designed and developed which counted and kept a time distribution of the neutron pulses as they occurred from a helium-3 neutron counter embedded in a paraffin moderator [1]. The experiment produced copious neutron counts. During one cooling and heating cycle, over 2 million neutrons were counted over a 5 min time period. In subsequent cooling and heating cycles using the same titanium chips, significant neutron bursts were observed with diminishing counts after each subsequent cycle. This paper will discuss the 1991 experiments and the status of ongoing experiments.

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3209. Prelazzi, G., M. Cerboni, and G. Leofanti, Comparison of H2 adsorption, O2 adsorption, H2 titration, and O2 titration on supported palladium catalysts. J. Catal., 1999. 181: p. 73.

First Author: Prelazzi, G.
All Authors: Prelazzi, G., Cerboni, M., Leofanti, G.
Keywords: Pd, catalyst, PdH, composition, loading

3210. Premuda, F., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 712.

First Author: Premuda, F.
All Authors: Premuda, F.
Keywords: theory

3211. Premuda, F., Coulomb barrier total screening by Bose-Einstein-condensed deuterium in palladium blisters and reaction chains in high-density hysteresis. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 350.

First Author: Premuda, F.
All Authors: Premuda, F.
Keywords: Theory, screening, Bose-Einstein

3212. Preparata, G. Fractofusion Revisted. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory fractofusion

3213. Preparata, G. Theoretical Ideas on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1

3214. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid? in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, review, ICCF-2

3215. Preparata, G., Some theories of ‘cold’ nuclear fusion: a review. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 82.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: review, theory

3216. Preparata, G., A new look at solid-state fractures, particle emission and ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 104: p. 1259.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

3217. Preparata, G. Towards a Theory of Cold Fusion Phenomena. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory

3218. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

3219. Preparata, G. Comments on the Criticisms of M. Rabinowitz. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rabinowitz, ICCF-4

3220. Preparata, G., Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 397.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory screening

3221. Preparata, G. Setting Cold Fusion in Context: A Reply. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

This talk consists of three parts: the first on the “pathological” nature of Cold Fusion ( CF ) phenomena, the second on a wide theoretical effort based on the new i deas of Q ED coherence in matter, and the third replying to explicit criticisms to my work.

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3222. Preparata, G. Everything Thing You Always Wanted to Know About Cold Fusion Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, critique, method, ICCF-6

3223. Preparata, G., M. Scorletti, and M. Verpelli, Isoperibolic calorimetry on modified Fleischmann-Pons cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 411: p. 9.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G., Scorletti, M., Verpelli, M.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, replication, Fleischmann

3224. Press, A., LANL Confirms Cold Fusion Tritium -and- Lab Hasn’t Confirmed Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1989.

First Author: Press, A.
All Authors: Press, A.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3225. Press, A., Cold Fusion Experiments Produce Excess Tritium, in The Oak Ridger. 1990. p. 7.

First Author: Press, A.
All Authors: Press, A.
Keywords: history

3226. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoliminescence Induced Deuterium Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 530.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: acoustic, fusion, deuterium

3227. Prevenslik, T.V. Biological Effects of Ultasonic Cavitation. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: ultrasound, biology, cavitation, radiation, ICCF-5

Cavitation energy in a nearly evacuated bubble is shown to not likely reside in the thermal state of the water molecule. In a spherical bubble compression and until the bubble assumes a pancake collapse shape, a temperature increase does not occur in the bubble gas because the mean free path likely exceeds the bubble diameter. The subsequent collapse of the pancake shape to liquid density occurs with only a negligible volume change so that the temperature increase for compression heating of bubble gases is insignificant. Even near liquid density, a temperature increase does not occur as the energy transfer by molecular collisions is in the adiabatic limit for both vibrational and rotational modes. Instead, the IR radiation energy density present within the bubble is increased as required to satisfy standing wave boundary conditions with the bubble walls in the direction of collapse. For biological tissue in an opaque environment, bubble collapse is found to increase the 5- 10 micron I R thermal radiation at ambient temperature to about 3-5 e V that is capable of dissociating the water molecule and forming the chemically reactive hydroxyl radical. Hence, the biological effects of ultrasonic cavitation are proposed to be caused by the chemical reaction of the organisms with the excited electronic states of dissolved oxygen and water molecules.

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3228. Prevenslik, T.V., Ultrasound induced and laser enhanced cold fusion chemistry. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1995. 6: p. 198.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, ultrasound

3229. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: an IRaser creating cold fusion neutrons? Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1996. 7: p. 157.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence

3230. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: microwaves and cold fusion. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1997. 8: p. 94.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, sonofusion, microwaves

3231. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: fusion at ambient temperature? Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 128.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, D2O, liquid fusion

3232. Prevenslik, T.V., On the Possibility of a Cavity QED Cold Fusion Cell. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 2000. 38: p. 155.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, bubbles

3233. Price, P.B., et al., Search for energetic-charged-particle emission from deuterated Ti and Pd foils. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(18): p. 1926.

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B., Barwick, S. W., Williams, W. T., Porter, J. D.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2, particle emission, CR-39

3234. Price, P.B., Search for high-energy ions from fracture of LiD crystals. Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 542 (Feb 1990).

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B.
Keywords: LiD, fractofusoin, neutron

3235. Price, P.B., Advances in solid state nuclear track detectors. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1993. 22(1-4): p. 9.

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B.
Keywords: particle emission, method

3236. Pryakhin, E., et al. Assessment Of The Biological Effects Of “Strange” Radiation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Pryakhin, E.
All Authors: Pryakhin, E., Urutshoev, L., Tryapitsina, G., Akleyev, A.
Keywords: transmutation

3237. Putterman, S.J., Sonoluminescence: Sound into light. Scientific American, 1995. 272: p. 46.

First Author: Putterman, S. J.
All Authors: Putterman, S. J.
Keywords: Sonoluminescence, acoustic

3238. Pyun, S.I., C. Lim, and K.B. Kim, An investigation of the electrochemical kinetics of deuterium insertion into a Pd membrane electrode in 0.1M LiOD solution by the a.c. impedance technique. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1994. 203: p. 149.

First Author: Pyun, S. I.
All Authors: Pyun, S. I., Lim, C., Kim, K. B.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, electrolysis, PdD

3239. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada.

First Author: Qiao, G. S.
All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: helium transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2,, H2 ICCF-7

3240. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada.

First Author: Qiao, G. S.
All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: 4He, transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2 , H2?

3241. Qin, G., et al., Evolution of hydrogen (deuterium) in palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) system and the distribution of hydrogen near the surface. Wuli Xuebao, 1991. 40(6): p. 943 (in Chinese).

First Author: Qin, G.
All Authors: Qin, G., Peng, Q., Fu, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter, H2O

3242. Qiu, W., Q. Dong, and F. Gan, Positron lifetime studies on systems of palladium filled galvanostatically with hydrogen or deuterium. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1991. 2(3): p. 157.

First Author: Qiu, W.
All Authors: Qiu, W., Dong, Q., Gan, F.
Keywords: theory, position annihilation

3243. Qiu, W.C., et al., PAS studies on the new topic: Cold nuclear fusion. Mat. Sci. Forum, 1992. 105-110: p. 1961.

First Author: Qiu, W. C.
All Authors: Qiu, W. C., Dong, Q. H., Gan, F. X., Wang, S. J.
Keywords: positron annihilation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

3244. Quan, L.J. Physical basis of cold fusion excited in TiD2 lattice. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Quan, L. J.
All Authors: Quan, L. J.
Keywords: Theory, TiD2, fusion, D2, shielding,

3245. Quick, J.E., et al., Tritium concentrations in the active Pu’u O’o crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: implications for cold fusion in the Earth’s interior. Phys. Earth Planet. Interior, 1991. 69: p. 132.

First Author: Quick, J. E.
All Authors: Quick, J. E., Hinkley, T. K., Reimer, G. M., Hedge, C. E.
Keywords: tritium, volcano

3246. Quickenden, T.I. and T.A. Green, A calorimetric study of the electrolysis of D2O and H2O at palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 344: p. 167.

First Author: Quickenden, T. I.
All Authors: Quickenden, T. I., Green, T. A.
Keywords: heat-, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

3247. Rabinowitz, M., A theoretical framework for cold fusion mechanisms. IEEE Power Eng. Rev., 1989(November): p. 9.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory

3248. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Cluster-Impact Fusion: Bridge Between Hot and Cold Fusion? in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S.
Keywords: theory, cluster

3249. Rabinowitz, M., High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(4): p. 233.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

3250. Rabinowitz, M., Cluster-impact fusion: new physics or experimental error. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4: p. 665.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, critique

3251. Rabinowitz, M. and D.H. Worledge, An analysis of cold and lukewarm fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 344.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: theory, review

3252. Rabinowitz, M. Response to G. Preparata. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, critique, Preparata, ICCF-4

3253. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Opposition and Support for Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: theory, critique, ICCF-4

3254. Rabinowitz, M., Phenomenological Theory for Short Coherence Length Superconductivity. Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993. 216: p. 571.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: superconductivity, theory

3255. Rabinowitz, M., Do the Laws of Nature and Physics Agree On What is Allowed and Forbidden? 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1993. Spring.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: review, theory

3256. Rabzi, G.S., Natural cold fusion-natural new energy- natural new physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

3257. Rabzi, G.S., Mechanism of Low Temperature Transmutation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 55.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, theory

3258. Rabzi, G.S., Natural Cold Fission-Natural New Energy-Natural New Physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, theory

3259. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Search for Electrochemically Catalysed Fusion of Deuterons in Metal Lattice, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 5.

First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P.
All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Arunachalam, J., SitaramaRaju, V., Kalyanaraman, R., Gangadharan, S., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: Excess heat,

3260. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Tritium Generation during Electrolysis Experiment, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 6.

First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P.
All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Gangadharan, S., Sen, B. K., Murthy, T. S.
Keywords: tritium

In continuation of the earlier R&D work carried out in connection with the investigations for electrochemically induced fusion of deuterons using palladium cathode and platinum anode, a series of experiments was carried out.

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3261. Rafelski, J. and S.E. Jones, Cold Nuclear Fusion. Scientific American, 1987. July: p. 84.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: muon

3262. Rafelski, J., et al., Limits on Cold Fusion in Condensed Matter: A Parametric Study. 1989.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Gajda, M., Harley, D., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, theory,

3263. Rafelski, J., et al., How cold fusion can be catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D.
Keywords: theory

3264. Rafelski, J., et al., Nuclear reactions catalyzed by a massive negatively charged particle. How Cold Fusion Can Be Catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D.
Keywords: theory, New Particle

3265. Rafelski, H.E., et al., Cold fusion: muon-catalyzed fusion. J. Phys. B, 1991. 24: p. 1469.

First Author: Rafelski, H. E.
All Authors: Rafelski, H. E., Harley, D., Shin, G. R., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: review, muon

3266. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, On the possibility of deuteron disintegration in electrochemically compressed deuterium ion (D+) in a palladium cathode. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 243.

First Author: Ragheb, M.
All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, Oppenheimer-Phillips

3267. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, Deuteron disintegration in condensed media. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 429.

First Author: Ragheb, M.
All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, D, Pd, tritium, Oppenheimer Phillips

3268. Ragland, E., Triode cell experiments for controlled Fleischmann/Pons effect. 1990.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: heat, method

3269. Ragland, E. A Physical Description of Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

Cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in an electrolysis cell with palladium electrodes is described as a comprehensive sequence of physical phenomena.1 . Electrolysis generates many more cations than are necessary to sustain ionization in the cell. The excess cations are adsorbed on the cathode surface where they create an electrical charge Qo of “overvoltage” Eo.2 A small fraction (0.01 to 0.1%) of the adsorbed cations, which are thousands of times smaller than typical electrolysis cations and driven by meV adsorption kinetics, penetrate several hundred lattice layers into the cathode metal. These nuclei absorb into the metal until its capacity C (nt) saturates. . . .

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3270. Ragland, E., A cold fusion technology assessment. Part I – Preliminary Report. 1994.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: review

3271. Raj, P., et al., Search for Nuclear Fusion in Gas Phase Deuteriding of Titanium Metal, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 1.

First Author: Raj, P.
All Authors: Raj, P., Suryanarayana, P., Sathyamoorthy, A., Datta, T.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

The possibility of D-D nuclear fusion in some deuterium-metal systems, under ambient conditions, has aroused feverish worldwide interest. Most of the work reported, so far, concerns deuterium charging of Pd metal through electrolysis of D2O. In the Chemistry Division, we have carried out some experiments on the deuteriding behaviour of Ti metal, through gaseous route, in the absorption as well as desorption modes, with the view to look for the fusion products, neutrons in the present case. These kinds of experiments have been reported by Frascatti Group in Italy. These authors detected neutron emission lasting over a period of several hours.

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3272. Rajagopalan, S.R., Cold fusion produces more tritium than neutrons. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1059.

First Author: Rajagopalan, S. R.
All Authors: Rajagopalan, S. R.
Keywords: theory, review

3273. Rajan, K.G., et al., Electromigration approach to verify cold fusion effects. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 100.

First Author: Rajan, K. G.
All Authors: Rajan, K. G., Mudali, U. K., Dayal, R. K., Rodriguez, P.
Keywords: electromigration, titanium, neutron, tritium, film

3274. Rajeev, K.P. and D. Gaur, Evidence for Nuclear Transmutations in Ni-H Electrolysis. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 278-283.

First Author: Rajeev, K. P.
All Authors: Rajeev, K. P., Gaur, D.
Keywords: Electrolysis, LENR, Ni–H systems, Transmutation

We report an easily reproducible Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) electrolysis experiment on an Ni-H system. An electrolytic cell with a Ni cathode and a Pt anode with an aqueous (H2O not D2O) solution of K2CO3 as electrolyte was used for the experiment. A dc-power supply capable of supplying up to 5 A current was used to drive the electrolysis with the typical current being around 4 A and the applied voltage about 100 V. After running the electrolysis for about two weeks with a daily run time of 8 h on an average, a part of the nickel electrode, which by this time had become black, was taken for elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed that a whole host of new elements had appeared on the cathode such as: K, Fe, Cu, O, Rh, Zr and Pb. The apparent concentration of the elements varied from just over a percent for K and Pb to about 10% for Rh and 20% for Cu. The sample was then taken to a Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) for isotopic analysis. This analysis also showed that a set of new elements had appeared on the nickel wire which were: K, Si, Mg, Mn, Zn, O & Rh. The Ni itself was found to have the following isotopes: 58Ni, 60Ni and 62Ni with isotope concentration ratios differing significantly from the ratio found in naturally occurring Ni. It was clear that in the electrolyzed Ni the concentrations of 60Ni and 62Ni had gone down compared to the concentration of 58Ni. This is a clear indication that nuclear reactions had taken place during electrolysis.

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3275. Ramamurthy, H., et al. Further Studies on Excess Heat Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ramamurthy, H.
All Authors: Ramamurthy, H., Srinivasan, M., Mukherjee, U. K., Adi Babu, P.
Keywords: H2O, heat+, tritium+, Ni, K2CO3, Na2CO3, Li2CO3, ICCF-4, electrolysis

3276. Rambaut, M. Lawson Criterion Made Obsolete by Cold Fusion through the Double Screening Process. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory, screening, ICCF-3

It is shown that the same phenomenon has been observed in cold fusion and also in other rather different experiments. The necessity to take into account the electron participation in nuclear fusion process in dense media is ensuing from this result. It implies that the fusion reaction rate, necessary for obtaining the Lawson criterion in the thermonuclear case, is not any valid for those experiments: so a new formula is proposed.

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3277. Rambaut, M., Double screened Coulomb barrier accounts for neutrons productions in cluster and other fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 164: p. 155.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3278. Rambaut, M., Account of Cold Fusion by Screening and Harmonic Oscillator Resonance. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 486.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3279. Rambaut, M. Experimental Evidences for the Harmonic Oscillator Resonance and Electron Accumulation Model of Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monac: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: Theory, resonance, ICCF-5

Cold Fusion outside any substratum is again considered from the Harmonic oscillator resonance and electron accumulation (HOREA) model point of view. If one adds Fractal theory, one gets a more straigthforward agreement with the experimental growth of fusion burst after the apex I of a fast current, and varying approximately like the tenth power I^10. Then it is shown that the model could account for the solar neutrino discrepancy. The paper ends up by a short reminder of two experimental data, in agreement with the HOREA point of view: experimentally noticed Electron accumulations, and Top-Table soft X-ray Laser operation.

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3280. Rambaut, M. Electrons clusters and magnetic monopoles. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3281. Rangarajan, S.K., Electrochemically induced cold fusion? A commentary. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 598.

First Author: Rangarajan, S. K.
All Authors: Rangarajan, S. K.
Keywords: discussion

3282. Ransford, H.E. and S.J. Pike. Apparatus for Safely ExtendingCold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E., Pike, S. J.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4

3283. Ransford, H.E., Apparatus for Safely Extending Cold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 78.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E.
Keywords: heat, method

3284. Ransford, H.E., Non-Stellar nucleosynthesis: Transition metal production by DC plasma-discharge electrolysis using carbon electrodes in a non-metallic cell. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 16.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E.
Keywords: transmutation, plasma discharge, H2O

3285. Rant, J., et al., Methods for in-situ detection of cold fusion in condensed matter. Kerntechnik, 1990. 55: p. 165.

First Author: Rant, J.
All Authors: Rant, J., Ilic, R., Skvarc, J., Sutej, T., Budnar, M., Miklavzic, U.
Keywords: particle emission, method

3286. Rao, K.A., Technique for Concentration of Helium in Electrolytic Gases for Cold Fusion Studies, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 11.

First Author: Rao, K. A.
All Authors: Rao, K. A.
Keywords: Helium,

3287. Rao, K.R. and S.L. Chaplot, Computer experiments concerning palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices – implications to phenomenon of low-energy nuclear reaction. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 355.

First Author: Rao, K. R.
All Authors: Rao, K. R., Chaplot, S. L.
Keywords: Theory, lattice fluctuations

3288. Ratkje, S.K. and B. Hafskjold, Local heat effects by electrolysis of heavy water. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 273: p. 269.

First Author: Ratkje, S. K.
All Authors: Ratkje, S. K., Hafskjold, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, critique

3289. Ray, M.K.S., et al., The Fleischmann-Pons phenomenon – a different perspective. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 395.

First Author: Ray, M. K. S.
All Authors: Ray, M. K. S., Saini, R. D., Das, D., Chattopadhyay, G., Parthasarathy, R., Garg, S. P., Venkataramani, R., Sen, B. K., Iyengar, T. S., Kutty, K. K., Wagh, D. N., Bajpai, H. N., Iyer, C. S. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron, heat

3290. Redey, L., et al., Calorimetric measurements on electrochemical cells with Pd-D cathodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 249.

First Author: Redey, L.
All Authors: Redey, L., Myles, K. M., Dees, D., Krumpelt, M., Vissers, D. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, tritium, H/D

3291. Rees, L.B., Cold Fusion: What Do We Know? What Do We Think? J. Fusion Energy, 1991. 10(1): p. 111.

First Author: Rees, L. B.
All Authors: Rees, L. B.
Keywords: muon, tritium, history, theory, critique

3292. Rehm, K.E., W. Kutschera, and G.J. Perlow, Search for protons from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction in an electrolytic cell with palladium-platinum electrodes. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(1): p. 45.

First Author: Rehm, K. E.
All Authors: Rehm, K. E., Kutschera, W., Perlow, G. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

3293. Reifenschweiler, O., Reduced radioactivity of tritium in small titanium particles. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 184: p. 149.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium tritium, reduced radioactivity

By heating a TiT0.0035 preparation consisting of extremely small monocrystalline particles (diameter ≈ 15 nm) a decrease of the radioactivity by 40% was observed. In further experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied (TiTx experiments) showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. Careful analysis of the experiments seems to rule out the possibility of trivial errors. A provisional hypothetical explanation is formulated. Our experiments may point to a connection with cold DD-fusion.

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3294. Reifenschweiler, O. Some Experiments on the Decrease of Radioactivity of Tritium Sorbed by Titanium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, Tritium, half-life, reduced radioactivity

A sharp decrease of the radioactivity of tritium was observed when the hydrogen isotope is sorbed by small monocrystalline particles of titanium and the preparation is heated to several hundred degrees centigrade. In other experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied, showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. A first attempt is presented to explain these remarkable effects in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis”.

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3295. Reifenschweiler, O., Some experiments on the decrease of tritium radioactivity. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 261.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity, Ti

Experiments claiming a sharp decrease in the radioactivity of tritium incorporated in small monocrystalline particles of titanium have been reported and are described here in more detail. Additional evaluation provides a high degree of evidence for the decrease in the radioactivity of tritium. A first attempt is made to explain this remarkable effect in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis.”

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3296. Reifenschweiler, O., About the possibility of decreased radioactivity of heavy nuclei. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 291.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: theory, radioactivity, reduced

3297. Reifenschweiler, O., Cold Fusion and Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity, in LENR-CANR.org. 2003.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

In recent papers (1, 2, 3, 4) the author has deduced from experiments with tritium (5) that during heating of a TiT0.0035 -preparation and of a TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity of the tritium decreased strongly. This strange effect was distinctly confirmed by the observation that with the TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity decreased 12.5 times stronger than the release of tritium (2,3,4). A quite independent proof of the strong decrease of λ of tritium could be obtained by a thermodynamic evaluation of the heating experiment with the TiT0.0035-preparation: Assuming that λ of tritium decreases to zero or nearly zero in a part of the tritons enables the determination of the number of tritons with normal λ, nT and the number of tritons with λ ≈ 0 nTo, both as a function of temperature. Then quite surprising nT and nTo follow the laws of chemical equilibria in distinct parts of the experimental A = f(T)-function. From this unexpected result the decrease of tritium radioactivity is definitely proved once again (6).

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3298. Reifenschweiler, O., Further Evidence of the Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity by a Thermodynamic Evaluation of a Heat Experiment. Infinite Energy, 2004. 9(54): p. 14.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

3299. Ren, X.Z. and X.Z. Li. Factors affecting hydrogen (deuterium) flux through a thin palladium film. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Ren, X. Z.
All Authors: Ren, X. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: diffusion, flux, deuterium, D, H, Pd, Ni, electrolysis

3300. Ricco, G., et al. A Large Solid Angle MultiParameter Neutron Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ricco, G.
All Authors: Ricco, G., Anghinolfi, M., Corvisiero, P., Prati, P., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U.
Keywords: neutron, apparatus, method, ICCF-2

3301. Rice, R.A., et al., The Effect of Velocity Distribution on Cold Deuterium-Deuterium Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J.
Keywords: theory

3302. Rice, R.A., G.S. Chulick, and Y.E. Kim. The Effect of Velocity Distribution and Electron Screening on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1

3303. Rice, R.A., et al., The role of velocity distribution in cold deuterium-deuterium fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 147.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulik, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. H.
Keywords: theory

3304. Rice, R.A., et al. Comments on exotic chemistry models and deep Dirac states for cold fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow

Several models are examined in which it is claimed that cold fusion is the result either of tight binding of the electrons in H isotope atoms or molecules, or of an electron-H isotope resonance which allows a higher probability of Coulomb barrier penetration. In the case of models in which the electron is tightly bound to the H isotope atom, we show that states below the most deeply bound (-16.39 eV) are impossible in principle. We also present evidence against the possibility of the existence of electron-H isotope resonances. Finally, a lower bound is found for the binding energy of H isotope molecules which is above that calculated in the tightly bound electron-H isotope models.

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3305. Rice, R.A. and Y.E. Kim, Comments on ‘Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I’. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 111.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, critique, Maly,

3306. Rice-Evans, P. and H. Evans, Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. Eur. J. Phys., 1990. 11: p. 251.

First Author: Rice-Evans, P.
All Authors: Rice-Evans, P., Evans, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3307. Richards, P.M., Molecular-Dynamics Investigation of Deuterium Separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(11): p. 7966.

First Author: Richards, P. M.
All Authors: Richards, P. M.
Keywords: theory, D/Pd, distance, lattice parameter

3308. Richards, P.M., Molecular-dynamics investigation of deuteron separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 7966.

First Author: Richards, P. M.
All Authors: Richards, P. M.
Keywords: theory, distance

3309. Rieker, A., et al., Potential error sources in combined electrochemistry/neutron detection experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1991. 46B: p. 1125.

First Author: Rieker, A.
All Authors: Rieker, A., Speiser, B., Mangold, K. M., Hanack, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd D2O neutron, gamma emission

3310. Riesterer, T., On the Hydrogen Site Occupation in Hydrides of Intermetallics. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 103: p. 219.

First Author: Riesterer, T.
All Authors: Riesterer, T.
Keywords: Zr-V, enthalpy, thermodynamic, H2

3311. Riesterer, T., J. Osterwalder, and L. Schlapbach, Inverse Photoemission from PdH0.65. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1985. 32: p. 8405.

First Author: Riesterer, T.
All Authors: Riesterer, T., Osterwalder, J., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: PdH, density Of States, photoemission

3312. Riley, A.M., J.D. Seader, and D.W. Pershing, An in-situ volumetric method for dynamically measuring the absorption of deuterium in palladium during electrolysis. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139: p. 1342.

First Author: Riley, A. M.
All Authors: Riley, A. M., Seader, J. D., Pershing, D. W.
Keywords: loading, Pd, method, review, diffusion

3313. Riley, D. and M. McLaughlin, Turning thre corner: Energy solutions for the 21st century. 2001, Tahoe City, CA: Alternative Energy Institute, Inc.

First Author: Riley, D.
All Authors: Riley, D., McLaughlin, M.
Keywords: review energy,

3314. Ritchie, B., Compatibility of Hydrino States and Quantum Mechanics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 101-122.

First Author: Ritchie, B.
All Authors: Ritchie, B.
Keywords: Dirac equation, Hydrino states, Klein-Gordon equation

Rathke’s assertion [New J. Phys. 7 (2005) 127] that states with binding energy and size below those of known literature values are incompatible with quantum mechanics is corrected by reviewing the analytically known Coulomb solution of the Klein-Gordon equation with binding energy of order mc2 and size of order of the Compton wavelength. This is an example of a quantum state, which is mathematically acceptable in the sense of being square integrable and having a finite binding energy but yet is rejected as unphysical due in part to the point-nucleus nature of the model. Then the Dirac equation is studied for the existence of states which are similarly mathematically acceptable but whose physical acceptability requires physical judgment. States of Landau symmetry are found which meet these criteria. The existence of states of ambiguous physical interpretation for both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations depends on using a point-nucleus versus a finite-nucleus potential model. On using a realistic model for the charge distribution of the proton, a Klein-Gordon state is found in the binding range of 5 keV, but no state is found for the Dirac equation.

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3315. Ritchie, B., Neutrino Equation of Motion and Neutrino-electron Bound Pairs in LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 41-53.

First Author: Ritchie, B.
All Authors: Ritchie, B.
Keywords: Electron, Neutrino, Nucleon, Positron, W-boson

The long-established electron-capture reaction e− +p+ = n +ν may be considered to be a prototype reaction in the nascent field of physics known as low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) since it involves an interface between electron and atomic physics (EAP) on the left-hand side and nuclear physics on the right-hand side of the reaction. It is a form of inverse beta decay n = p+ +e− +ν, which is understood using a conceptual and mathematical methodology (forces mediated by the exchange of bosons known as force carriers and specifically for beta decay the W− boson as the force carrier for the electroweak force) which is totally foreign to EAP but well-supported by copious nuclear experimental data. Since no such established experimental database exists in LENR, an equation of motion (EOM) is proposed for the neutrino in analogy to Dirac’s equation, which is the EOM for the electron. The combined electron and neutrino EOM’s support temporary neutrino-electron binding and discover the mass and length scales of a nucleon on an ab initio basis. It is believed that the bound pair is a form of W boson, symbolized here by WѠs for binding of a neutrino to a positron or electron (ѩ and for spin (s) equal to 0 or 1. It is also believed that Wҳ bosons may be useful as building blocks in constructing models in the LENR regime which may be physically equivalent to quarks and the known WѠboson in the high-energy regime.

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3316. Ritley, K.A., et al. A Search for Cold Fusion Signatures in Cathodically Charged Palladium. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Wiesmann, H., Dull, P. M., Lynn, K. G., Weber, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, ICCF-8

3317. Ritley, K.A., et al., The behavior of electrochemical cell resistance: a possible application to cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 699.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: critique, resistance

3318. Ritley, K.A., et al., A search for tritium production in electrolytically deuterided palladium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19(1): p. 192.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Lynn, K. G., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, tritium, Helium

3319. Ritter, S.K., Cold fusion died 25 years ago, but the research lives on, in C&EN. 2016. p. 34-39.

First Author: Ritter, S. K.
All Authors: Ritter, S. K.
Keywords:

3320. Rittner, E.S. and A. Meulenberg, A chemical interpretation of heat generated in ‘cold fusion’. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 377.

First Author: Rittner, E. S.
All Authors: Rittner, E. S., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: critique, heat, recombination

3321. Roarty, B. and C. Walker, Protocol for a Silicate-based LENR Using Electrodes of Various Metals. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 30-39.

First Author: Roarty, B.
All Authors: Roarty, B., Walker, C.
Keywords: Gold, Heat transients, LENR, Lithium silicate, Palladium

This paper reports a protocol that consists of applying concurrent electronic and photonic stimuli in a cell with two or more electrodes at or near the boiling point of the liquid. The liquid in the cell is a solution including a silicate, a lithium salt, and a surfactant. The electrical stimuli are RF signals and, optionally, a direct current. The protocol generates an exothermic reaction characterized by sharp temperature transients. We have successfully used three different silicates and four different metals for electrodes. We believe the exothermic reaction is nuclear in nature. The evidence supporting that statement includes:• Data logs show brief, intense temperature transients.• Electron diffraction scattering (EDS) analyses show elements to be present after the reaction that could be transmutation products of several elements in the ingredients of the protocol, specifically including silver, a possible transmutation product of palladium.• Auger analysis of one experiment also shows evidence of transmutation of the elements in the reaction cell.• SEM photos show “volcanic sites” and other evidence of metal migration.• Other SEM photos show large areas where electrodes have spalled during experiments.

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3322. Roberts, D.A., et al., Energy and flux limits of cold fusion neutrons using a deuterated liquid scintillator. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 42: p. R1809.

First Author: Roberts, D. A.
All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ben-Jacob, E., Garik, P., Musser, J., Orr, B., Tarle, G., Tomasch, A., Holder, J.S., Redina, D., Heuser, B., Wicker, G.
Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd

3323. Roberts, D.A., et al., Deuterated liquid scintillator (NE230) as a fast neutron detector for cold- fusion and other research. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1992. 39(4): p. 532.

First Author: Roberts, D. A.
All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ashktorab, K., Stewart, D., Jaenecke, J., Gustafson, H. R., Dueweke, M. J.
Keywords: neutron, method, titanium, electrolysis, Pd, D2

3324. Robinson, G.W., Could cold fusion be caused by non-maxwell distributions? 1998.

First Author: Robinson, G. W.
All Authors: Robinson, G. W.
Keywords: theory

3325. Rock, P.A., et al., Energy balance in the electrolysis of water with a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 293: p. 261.

First Author: Rock, P. A.
All Authors: Rock, P. A., Fink, W. H., McQuarrie, D. A., Volman, D. H., Hung, Y. F.
Keywords: review, loading, phase diagram, enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic

3326. Rodionov, B. and I. Savvatimova. Unusual Structures On The Material Surfaces Irradiated By Low Energy Ions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Rodionov, B
All Authors: Rodionov, B, Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: glow discharge

Some unusual structures on the surface of metals and films (various x-ray films and nuclear emulsions) caused by exposure to bombardment by low-energy ions in glow discharge plasma, in electrolysis and other low-energy processes (when energy of particles doesn’t exceed several keV) have been found. The mechanism and model of the strange tracks formations and explanation of their structure change are suggested.Neutrino-Dineutron Reactions (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. Y. Iwamura Effect)

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3327. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi gas like hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory, Pauli

3328. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory

3329. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory

3330. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic hydrogen fusion in metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 254.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, theory

3331. Rogers, V.C., G.M. Sandquist, and K.K. Nielson, Deuterium concentration and cold fusion rate distributions in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 523.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M., Nielson, K. K.
Keywords: critique, theory, method

3332. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Cold fusion reaction products and their measurement. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 483.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: gamma emission, tritium, method, critique

3333. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic Hydrogen Fusion in Metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 483.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: gamma emission neutron method

3334. Rolison, D.R., et al. Anomalies in the Surface Analysis of Deuterated Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E., Doyle, Jr., R. J., Trzaskoma, P. P.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, micrographs, PdD, ICCF-1

The surface and near-surface analytical characterization of thin palladium foils after the electrolysis of H2O or D2O was performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These surface characterizations revealed a number of anomalous results, as summarized below.

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3335. Rolison, D.R. and P.P. Trzaskoma, Morphological differences between hydrogen-loaded and deuterium-loaded palladium as observed by scanning electron microscopy. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 375.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., Trzaskoma, P. P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, surface analysis, lattice parameter

3336. Rolison, D.R. and W.E. O’Grady, Observation of elemental anomalies at the surface of palladium after electrochemical loading of deuterium or hydrogen. Anal. Chem., 1991. 63: p. 1697.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, transmutation, electrolysis

3337. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Timofeev, Yu.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

On the basis of the analysis of the energy lost by a fast particle and a solid it is supposed that the most probable energy range for the reactions of nuclear fusion in the condensed media is in the range of the reduced energy of the interacting particles from E0 to E2 (~(10-400 * 16 * 10^-19 J for D-D reactions) . . .

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3338. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Reproducibility of Tritium Generation From Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Elksnin, V., Skuratnik, Ya. B.
Keywords: W, Nb, Gas Discharge, tritium, D2, theory, ICCF-4

3339. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Concept of Target Material Choice for Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Korneev, S., Skuratni, Y.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, theory, method, ICCF-4

3340. Romodanov, V.A., et al. The nuclear reactions in condensed media for interaction of charge particles in energy region is forming by maximum elastic losses. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Majorov, V. N.
Keywords: gas discharge, heat, tritium, transmutation, He, ICCF-6

3341. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Tritium Generations in Metals at Thermal Activation. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Majorov, V. N.
Keywords: tritium, hydrogen, gas, H2, ICCF-7

3342. Romodanov, V.A., et al. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M.
Keywords: tritium, ion bombardment H2, Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti ICCF-7

3343. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media and X-ray. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M.
Keywords: x-ray, tritium, ion bombardment, H2, ICCF-7

3344. Romodanov, V.A., N.I. Khokhlov, and A.K. Pokrovsky. Registration of Superfluous Heat at Sorbtion-Desorbtion of Hydrogen in Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Khokhlov, N. I., Pokrovsky, A. K.
Keywords: Ni, Nb, H2, heat+, ICCF-8

3345. Romodanov, V.A., Y.B. Skuratnik , and A.K. Pokrovsky. Generation of Tritium for Deuterium Interaction with Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Skuratnik , Ya. B., Pokrovsky, A. K.
Keywords: Zr, H2, tritium, Ta, D2, ICCF-8

3346. Romodanov, V.A. Tritium Generation From The Interaction Of A Glow Discharge Plasma With Metals And With A Magnetic Field. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A.
Keywords: glow discharge, magnetic field, tritium

We present results of our research on tritium generation through the bombardment of the surface of various metals by accelerated ions of hydrogen isotopes from a glow discharge plasma, with and without a magnetic field. The introduction of a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface results in an increase in the tritium activity, and in the tritium generation rate, of almost two orders of magnitude as compared to similar experiments run with no magnetic field. The largest tritium generation rates observed were obtained with the glow discharge operating in a magnetic field, and were in the range 109-1010 atom/s. This is higher than our background by three to four orders of magnitude. The use of a magnetic field has resulted in good reproducibility, and the development of a reliable tritium generation rate of about 1010 atom/s for tantalum, tungsten, and platinum.

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3347. Rosamilia, J.M., J.A. Abys, and B. Miller, Electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium and palladium-nickel thin films. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36: p. 1203.

First Author: Rosamilia, J. M.
All Authors: Rosamilia, J. M., Abys, J. A., Miller, B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, Pd-Ni

3348. Rosen, G., Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1989. 91(7): p. 4415.

First Author: Rosen, G.
All Authors: Rosen, G.
Keywords: theory

3349. Rosen, G., Groundstate thermalization of hydrogen isotopes in certain metals: enhancement of p+d and d+d nuclear fusion rates by Bethe-Bloch polarization. Hadronic J., 1990. 13: p. 255.

First Author: Rosen, G.
All Authors: Rosen, G.
Keywords: theory

3350. Ross, K. and S.M. Bennington, Solid state fusion (?). Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 15.

First Author: Ross, K.
All Authors: Ross, K., Bennington, S. M.
Keywords: review

3351. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions WO 2009/125444. 2009: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Rossi, A.
All Authors: Rossi, A.
Keywords:

Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.

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3352. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions US 2011/0005506. 2011: United States Patent Application Publication.

First Author: Rossi, A.
All Authors: Rossi, A.
Keywords:

Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.

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3353. Rotegard, D., Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy. Space Power, 1991. 10: p. 205.

First Author: Rotegard, D.
All Authors: Rotegard, D.
Keywords: history

3354. Roth, J., et al., Fusion reactions during low energy deuterium implantation into titanium. Nucl. Fusion, 1990. 30: p. 441.

First Author: Roth, J.
All Authors: Roth, J., Behrisch, R., Moeller, W., Ottenberger, W.
Keywords: ion implantation, titanium, particle emission

3355. Roth, J.R., Ball Lightning: What Nature is Trying to Tell the Plasma Research Community. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 255.

First Author: Roth, J. R.
All Authors: Roth, J. R.
Keywords: Ball Lightning, plasma

3356. Rothwell, J., Highlights of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(2): p. 8.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review, He, heat

3357. Rothwell, J., Very hot cold fusion: Dr. Mizuno’s ceramic proton conductors. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 14.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat

3358. Rothwell, J., Review of McKubre, M. C. H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, EPRI TR-104195. Infinite Energy, 1996(11).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review

A review of McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals. 1994. Selected pages from this report are available here: xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/McKubreMCHdevelopmen.pdfComprehensive, Meticulous and Definitive This is one of the most comprehensive descriptions of a set of cold fusion experiments ever published. The only reports I know of that rival it are from F.G. Will et al., and M. H. Miles et al. This EPRI book describes the research paid for by EPRI and performed at SRI International between 1989 and 1994 by M. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, F. Tanzella and eight other principal investigators. These are among the most careful cold fusion experiments ever done. The results are unequivocal.

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3359. Rothwell, J., CETI’s 1 kilowatt cold fusion device denonstrated. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5&6): p. 18.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review, heat, H2O, beads, Ni, CETI

3360. Rothwell, J., Introduction to the Cold Fusion Experiments of Dr. Melvin Miles. Infinite Energy, 1997. 3(15/16): p. 27.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

From 1989 until his funding was terminated in 1995, Melvin Miles performed some of the best cold fusion experiments on record. His goal was to answer two critical questions: Does cold fusion produce helium along with excess heat, like a plasma fusion reaction? And if so, does it produce roughly as much helium per joule of energy as a plasma fusion reaction does? He answers both questions affirmatively. When a cold fusion palladium cathode becomes active, it releases helium into the electrolyte. The helium leaves the cell in the effluent deuterium and oxygen gas. Cathodes that produced more excess heat produced greater amounts of helium. The ratio of helium to energy is roughly comparable to that of hot fusion, within an order of magnitude. This is strong evidence that cold fusion really is some form of nuclear fusion, and not fission, zero point energy, or something else.

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3361. Rothwell, J., Dieter Britz: A Knowledgeable Skeptic. Infinite Energy, 1998. 3(18).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review

3362. Rothwell, J. and E. Mallove, Review of Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible, By Arthur C. Clarke. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(22).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

How did Arthur C. Clarke come to believe that cold fusion is real, and why should anyone care? The answer can be found in an unforgettable nonfiction book he wrote in 1963. It is Profiles of the Future, one of the best books about the future ever written, and one of the finest short overviews of science and technology. . . .

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3363. Rothwell, J., The Wright Brothers and Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 2(9): p. 37.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

History is not inevitable. If the Wrights had not built the airplane, man would not have flown for another ten or twenty years, most experts agree. History is a product of free will. People make decisions, take actions, and shape events. Things do not get invented just because they are needed. We learn to live with awkward machines like the automobile transmission. If Bell Labs had not come up with the transistor, by now we would have computers with a million “vacuum tubes on a chip.” (This kind of chip was fabricated for a special application years ago. Technology is flexible; transistors are not the only things you can miniaturize.)

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3364. Rothwell, J., Comparisons from the History of Technology. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 39.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

This paper was delivered at the Cold Fusion and New Energies Symposium held in Manchester, New Hampshire October 11, 1998. This version was modified and expanded in May 2003.Earlier at this conference Ed Storms said, “cold fusion is on life-support.” Will it survive? Can an unpopular scientific discovery be forgotten? Ed thinks that cold fusion is endangered. In a lecture titled “Cold Fusion – Does It Have a Future?” Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger said that science itself is at risk . . .

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3365. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part I. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(25): p. 32.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history, materials

The history of transistors teaches many lessons about how cold fusion might develop and what should be done to help it along.Transistors are physically similar to cold fusion devices. In fact, some of the earliest experimental transistors were immersed in electrolyte with a counter electrode to neutralize the surface barrier. . . .

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3366. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part II. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 46.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history, materials

Part 1 closed with the questions: Was the transistor truly inevitable? Where would we be without it? Is any innovation inevitable and unstoppable? I conclude that fundamental breakthroughs, like the transistor, are not inevitable, but once they are made, contingent, derivative or follow‑up breakthroughs like integrated circuits become inevitable. The discovery of cold fusion was not inevitable by any means, and cold fusion technology may never be developed because of technical difficulties or political opposition, but if it is developed and it becomes established, many contingent breakthroughs, like home power generators, will become inevitable.

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3367. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion, the Titanic Disaster Aftermath, and the Internet. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(36).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

“News is the first rough draft of history.” -Newspaper publisher Philip L. Graham (1915-1963) Newspapers are indeed the first draft of history and, in many cases, the last draft as well.  This has been one of the reasons behind cold fusion’s bad press over the years.  Researchers made initial assessments of the phenomenon back in April 1989 and offered up their gut-reaction opinions to the media. Many of these erroneous, off-the-cuff ramblings are still widely quoted today.  The three famous “negative” experiments at Caltech, MIT, and Harwell are often cited as proof that cold fusion does not exist, although careful reexaminations have subsequently shown that the tests conducted at all three establishments did, in fact, yield positive results.  Reporters, commentators, and historians seldom look beyond immediate impressions formed in the earliest days of a major event, when confusion is rampant and detailed investigations have not yet begun. . . .

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3368. Rothwell, J., Butter Side Down: How Cold Fusion Researchers Battle the Innate Perversity of Inanimate Objects and Exploding Parameter Space. Infinite Energy, 2001. 7(37).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

A brief introduction to some calorimeter types, and to some of the difficulties in cold fusion experiments.

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3369. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms. The LENR-CANR.Org Website, Its Past And Future. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E.
Keywords:

The LENR-CANR-org website has proven to be a popular source of information about cold fusion. This site has distributed more full text papers about LENR than any other source. In addition, it contains many features that allow easy search and insertion of the discovered references into a document.

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3370. Rothwell, J., et al., Appeal to Readers and Correspondence with the Scientific American. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E., Rennie, J., Piel, J.
Keywords: Review

An appeal to LENR-CANR readers to help spread the word and help bring about a rebirth of interest in cold fusion. This document also contains correspondence with the past and present editors of the Scientific American.

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3371. Rothwell, J. Introducing The Book “Cold Fusion and the Future”. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Review,

3372. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion And The Future. 2004: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The purpose of this book is to show that with cold fusion we can accomplish marvelous things. This is not a review or history of the field. It is not meant to convince the reader that cold fusion exists. If you doubt that, please read original sources. The book describes how many nightmare problems that seem beyond any present solution, such as global warming, elimination of invasive species, and providing clean drinking water and sanitation to billions of poor people might be eliminated. The future might be better than you think.This book is not copyright. It is distributed for free at LENR-CANR.org.

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3373. Rothwell, J., A Fusao a Frio e o Futuro. 2006: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Sergio Bacchi.O livro “Fusão a Frio e o Futuro” traduzido ao português brasileiro por Sergio Bacchi. Uma visão das aplicações possíveis da fusão a frio do hidrogênio pesado. Um livro com muita imaginação e humanidade.

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3374. Rothwell, J., Mirai o kizuku jyouonkakuyuugou. 2007: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Japanese.

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3375. Rothwell, J. and P. Mobberly, eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007, The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Sicily, Italy. 362.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mobberly, P.
Keywords:

Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals, 13-18 October 2007, Sheraton Catania Sicily, Italy

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3376. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms, Report on Arata’s Paper and Lecture about his “Solid Fusion” Reactor. 2008, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E.
Keywords: review, heat

This paper describes the recent demonstration (May 2008) of anomalous heat and helium production, presented by Prof. Yoshiaki Arata, when two different materials are exposed to D2 near room temperature.

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3377. Rothwell, J., Tally of Cold Fusion Papers. 2009, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented.

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3378. Rothwell, J., Brief Technical Description of the Leonardo Corporation, University of Bologna, and INFN Scientific Demonstration of the Andrea Rossi ECat (Energy Catalyzer) Boiler. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Heat

Dr. Andrea Rossi, President of Leonardo Corporation, prepared in cooperation with scientists from the University of Bologna and INFN-Bologna an experimental demonstration of his ECat boiler for about 50 people, mostly scientists the afternoon of 14 January 2011.

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3379. Rothwell, J., How Nature refused to re-examine the 1989 CalTech experiment. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

In 1989 Nature published a paper by Lewis showing no excess heat in a cold fusion experiment. Several researchers including Noninski, Miles and Fleischmann discovered errors in this paper. Noninski wrote a critique of the paper describing one of these errors, and submitted it for publication. David Lindley, an editor at Nature, rejected the critique. This paper examines some of the errors in the paper, and Lindley’s reasons for refusing to re-examine the experiment.

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3380. Rothwell, J., Report on Mizuno’s adiabatic calorimetry. 2014, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

A report on the method of calorimetry employed by T. Mizuno starting in August 2014. Five sample runs are described.

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3381. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

Cold fusion researchers are prone to be unduly pessimistic about the potential for cold fusion. They know too much; they are too close to the problem. They may also have unexamined assumptions. Researchers feel put-upon because of political opposition. The LENR-CANR.org website log file proves there is a great deal of interest in this field. There is broad, untapped, latent support for it. The log shows that every week scientists and engineers download thousands of papers on cold fusion.

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3382. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

Japanese version.

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3383. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

The field is somewhat chaotic. Results are inconsistent and seem contradictory. There is no widely-accepted theoretical explanation. History shows that this kind of chaos is healthy in emergent science. In fields such as plasma fusion there is broad agreement and a solid theoretical basis, but not much progress. We should embrace chaos and celebrate intellectual ferment.Despite the confusion, the literature does prove the effect is real, and it teaches how to replicate.

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3384. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

Japanese version

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3385. Rothwell, J. Cold Fusion Will Lower the Cost of both Energy and Equipment. in ICCF20 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2016. Sendai, Japan.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

Cold fusion will lower the cost of energy because the fuel costs nothing. It will also greatly reduce the cost of many machines, especially electric generators. The cost of generators is likely to fall by a factor of 200, from $2,000/kW to $10/kW, which is the cost difference between a power company central generator and a portable gasoline generator.A radical reduction in the cost of one device does not always reduce the cost of others. Since 1900, the cost of illumination has fallen by a factor of 80, but this has not directly reduced the cost of other goods and services by a similar factor. Since 1970, the cost of computer memory has fallen by a factor of 108. Microprocessors and cheap memory enhanced many products. They brought us the Internet and ubiquitous cheap computing. But so far they have not drastically lowered costs outside of computer applications. Cold fusion is different. All machines use energy, so cold fusion will lower the cost of everything, but it will have the biggest impact replacing large, expensive machines with small mass-produced versions. Other new sources of energy such as solar panels also have zero cost fuel, but they will not reduce the cost of other machines. Only cold fusion can do this.It follows that the most profitable use of cold fusion in the first decades after it is introduced will be to replace existing technology, rather than to make radical new technology. Microprocessors brought us machines we did not have, such as cell phones and the Internet. Cold fusion will – at first – dramatically lower the cost of machines we already have.

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3386. Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roulette, T.
All Authors: Roulette, T., Roulette, J., Pons, S.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter

INTRODUCTION We describe herein the construction, testing, calibration and use of a high power dissipation calorimeter suitable for the measurements of excess enthalpy generation in Pd / Pd alloy cathodes during the electrolysis of heavy water electrolytes at temperatures up to and including the boiling point of the electrolyte. With the present design, power dissipation up to about 400W is possible. Excess power levels of up to ~250% of the input power have been observed with these calorimeters in some experiments. Extensions of the design to include recombination catalysts on open and pressurized cells will be the subject of a future report.

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3387. Rousseau, D.L., Case studies in pathological science. Am. Sci., 1992. 80: p. 54.

First Author: Rousseau, D. L.
All Authors: Rousseau, D. L.
Keywords: history

3388. Roussetski, A.S. Investigation of Nuclear Emissions in the Process of D(H) Escaping from Deuterized (Hydrogenized) PdO-Pd-PdO and PdO-Ag Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, neutron, alpha, protron, CR-39, irradiation, ICCF-6, Helium

3389. Roussetski, A.S. Observation of (DD)-Fusion Reaction Products in Electrolyticaly Deuterized PdO/Pd Structures. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: neutron, PdO, layer particle emission, ICCF-7

3390. Roussetski, A.S. Application of CR-39 Plastic Track Detector for Detection of DD and DT-Reaction Products in Cold Fusion Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: CR-39, particle emission, layer, Au-Pd-PdO, method, ICCF-8

Abstract The results of application of CR-39 plastic track detector in Cold Fusion experiments are presented. According to the calibration, this detector registered not only dd-fusion reaction products, but also dT ones. The procedures for identifying different particles of dd and dT-reaction are recommended. According to these procedures the possible levels of dd and dT-reactions in different experiments have been estimated.

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3391. Roussetski, A.S. and E.I. Saunnin. Long-range a-particle emission from PuNi2 structure. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Saunnin, E. I.
Keywords: alpha, emission, Pu, Pd, Ni, fractofusion, strain

3392. Roussetski, A.S., A.G. Lipson, and V.P. Andreanov. Nuclear Emissions from Titanium Hydride/Deuteride, Induced by Powerful Picosecond Laser Beam. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Andreanov, V. P.
Keywords: charged particle, laser stimulation

The emission of nuclear particles (protons, deuterons, neutrons and alphas) was detected during irradiation of different targets, including 30 mm thick Ti-metal and Ti-deuteride foils as well as CH2- film, by picosecond laser beam (I= 2.0 x 10^18 W/cm^2, l=1.053 mm). The nominally pure Ti-metal target contained some amount of adsorbed hydrogen (TiHx).

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3393. Roussetski, A.S. Cr-39 Track Detectors In Cold Fusion Experiments: Review And Perspectives. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Introduction            Earlier experiments [1,2] have showed emissions of DD-reaction products (3-MeV protons) and energetic charged particle emission (a-particles) during exothermic D(H) desorption from the Pd/PdO:D(H) heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors [3, 4].

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3394. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission,

3395. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Earlier experiments have showed emissions of energetic charged particles (α-particles and protons) during exothermic H desorption from the Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Earlier we already showed that purified CR-39 plastic track detectors can be considered as an adequate scientific instrument, which suitable for detection of individual uniformly distributed charged particles and also for the groups of these particles being emitted from the active spots (“hot zones”) attributed to the maximum internal strain area at the surface of PdDx and TiDx samples. The analysis of CR-39 data showed that in some cases energetic charged particle tracks (α-particles and protons) concentrated inside the small spots of detector. The typical “hot zone” with ~200 tracks within the area with the size of 0.2 × 0.5 mm2 were found to be appeared during the hydrogen desorption experiments with Pd/PdO:Hx samples.

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3396. Roussetski, A.S., M.N. Negodaev, and A. Lipson. Multifunctional Ion Beam Installation “HELIS” as a new instrument for advanced LENR research. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Negodaev, M. N., Lipson, A.
Keywords:

The ion beam installation HELIS (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia) represents an ion accelerator of light elements with atomic number in the range Z=1-54 with ion energies ranging from 0.5 to 50 keV operating at deuteron current densities up to 2 A/cm2 and intended to perform a wide spectrum of physical experiments related to LENR.

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3397. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Evidence for Fast Neutron Emission During SRI’s SPARWAR/GALILEO Type Electrolysis Experiments #7 and #5, Based on CR39 Track Detector Record. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

We have reported [1] the detailed analysis of the CR-39 detector (Landauer) from SRI’s #BE013-7 (#7) Pd deposition experiment where the detector was separated from the cathode wire by a 6 μm Mylar® film. The Mylar® protected the CR-39 surface from chemical, mechanical, and electrostatic (spark discharge) damage during electrolysis. In this report we compared those results with that of the CR-39 detector, installed as in #7, in an identically operated cell using light water and with the background detector placed 2 m from the electrolytic cell.

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3398. Rout, R.K., M. Srinivasan, and A. Shyam, Autoradiography of Deuterated Ti and Pd Targets for Spatially Resolved Detection of Tritium Produced by Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 3.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A.
Keywords: Ti, autoradiograph, x-ray

Introduction For the last few months, hectic activity has been underway in various laboratories to study the Cold Fusion phenomenon. De Ninno et al. reported emission of neutrons from titanium metal loaded with deuterium gas under pressure. Similar experiments have been conducted at Trombay. We report here evidence of cold fusion in D2 gas loaded Ti and Pd targets through the use of autoradiography for spatially resolved detection of tritium. Our study employed three different techniques to observe tritium:(i) Autoradiography using X-ray films.(ii) Characteristic X-ray measurement of titanium, excited by the tritium β.(iii) Liquid scintillation method for tritium β counting.

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3399. Rout, R.K., et al., Detection of high tritium activity on the central titanium electrode of a plasma focus device. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 391.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Chitra, V.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, ion bombardment, D2

A 2-kJ Mather plasma focus device is used to deuterate the top end surface (or tip) of its central titanium electrode to investigate the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in the context of the “cold fusion” phenomenon. The tip of the central titanium electrode is found to develop at least a few tens of microcuries of tritium after several plasma focus discharges. Neither the tritium impurity level in the deuterium gas used in the experiment nor the tritium branch of the d-d reactions that are known to occur in plasma focus devices can account for such activity in the electrode. Anomalous nuclear reactions in the deuterated titanium lattice appear to be the most probable source of this high activity.

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3400. Rout, R.K., et al., Copious low energy emissions from palladium loaded with hydrogen or deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1991. 29: p. 571.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Bansal, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, film, x-ray, electrolysis, autoradiograph, Zr, Hf, Ni-Ti

Palladium samples were loaded with deuterium and hydrogen using plasma focus and other loading techniques. Each sample, loaded so far, was observed to be emitting low energy, low intensity radiations. These radiations have been detected and analyzed by autoradiography and other supporting techniques.

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3401. Rout, R.K., et al. Phenomenon of Low Energy Emission from Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B.
Keywords: autoradiograph, film, electron emission, PdD, radiation. ICCF-3

Palladium loaded with either hydrogen or deuterium is found to give a clear autoradiograph on exposure to X-ray film. The phenomena is found to be 100% reproducible and is independent of the technique of loading, be it electrolytic, gas loading, plasma discharge or ion implantation. It appears only if the exposure to X-ray film is done in atmosphere of hydrogen, oxygen or air. These emissions are also detected by TLD measurements. Investigations seeking to identify the nature/energy of the radiation through transmission measurements using various filters tentatively indicate that the radiations could be low energy electrons having an energy of around 300 to 400 eV.

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3402. Rout, R.K., et al., Update on observation of low-energy emissions from deuterated and hydrated palladium. Indian J. Technol., 1993. 31: p. 551.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, M. S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, CR-39, film

3403. Rout, R.K., et al., Reproducible, anomalous emissions from palladium deuteride/hydride. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 273.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B., Shrikhande, V. K.
Keywords: electrolysis, autoradiograph, Pd, H2O, D2O, film, new radiation

Each and every palladium sample loaded/reloaded either with hydrogen or deuterium was observed to fog radiographic films kept in its close proximity in air. Strangely, even with ten layers of black paper (thickness ≈63 mg/cm^2) as a filter between film and sample, fogging was observed. On the other hand, no fogging could be observed even when thin beryllium foil (≈1.4 mg/cm^2), three layers of transparent polyester foils (≈10 mg/cm^2), or thin aluminized polycarbonate (0.3 mg/cm^2) were employed as filters. Several experiments have been performed to identify the phenomenon responsible for fogging. These experiments appear to rule out any of the known mechanisms, suggesting a new, strange, and unknown phenomena.

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3404. Rudesill, J., An Interview with Dr. Edmund Storms. Infinite Energy, 2007(75).

First Author: Rudesill, J.
All Authors: Rudesill, J.
Keywords:

An interview with Edmund Storms and a discussion of the book “The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations About Cold Fusion.”

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3405. Ruer, J., Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 54-68.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters , Explosion, LENR, Melting

Many authors reported the presence of small-size craters on the surface of cathodes after Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) electrolysis experiments. It is conjectured the craters result from violent reactions, perhaps of nuclear origin. Nagel proposed acorrelation between the crater diameter and the energy involved in its formation. Starting from this assumption, it can be estimated that the enthalpy released can raise the temperature of the crater content to about 2000 K. A simple model is used to calculate the crater cooling by conduction and radiation. It gives the order of magnitude of the maximum event duration in order to achieve some melting of the cathode material. The duration of the eruption is estimated from the gas pressure developed within the crater. A value of 6 ns is obtained for a 2µm diameter, and 600 ns for a 20µm crater. In large craters, a part of inner material can be molten. Small craters are strongly cooled by the surrounding metal and do not show signs of fusion.

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3406. Ruer, J., Response to Comment on the Article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters, Expansion, Hydride dissociation, LENR, Melting

In Ref. [1] the kinetics of heat transfer during the heat bursts at the origin of the formation of the micro-craters on Pd cathodes during electrolysis are discussed. It is assumed that LENR is the source of energy. In Ref. [2], M. Tsirlin made several comments. The present paper answers these comments. Tsirlin thinks it is premature to accept the fact that craters result from LENR events. Other less exotic phenomena should be considered first to explain the crater formation, before nuclear reactions. Tsirlin proposes three potential heat sources:(A) Recombination (molarization) of atomic hydrogen.(B) Oxidation of the hydrogen at the cathode surface by oxygen evolved at the anode.(C) Sudden emissions of the absorbed gas.. . .

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3407. Ruer, J., Characterization of Energy Fluxes in LENR Reactors -Excess Heat, Coefficient of Performance and Conditions for Self-sustained Operation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 13-25.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Carnot, COP, Ericsson, Excess heat, Gain, Insulation, ORC, Self-sustained, Stirling, Thermal engine

LENR reactors are considered as units that operate at a temperature above ambient and need an excitation provided by a supply powered by electricity. Different modes of operation are described following the characteristics of the heat and energy balance. LENR reactors may be characterized by different parameters, Coefficient of Performance (COP) or Energy Amplification factor (A). The thermal insulation plays an important role. LENR reactors that require external heating in small units may become self-sustained for large sizes. The production of electricity involves the coupling with a thermal machine. The system is able to export power if the COP and the temperature are high enough.

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3408. Ruer, J., Basic Design Considerations for Industrial LENR Reactors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 7-26.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Gas leakage, Heat engines, Power control, Runaway, Self-sustaining, Stability, Thermal insulation

LENR reactors able to deliver heat at a high temperature can be coupled with heat engines to generate electric power. The conditions of temperature and COP to achieve self-sustaining operation are given. According to the literature, the heat generation rate of some LENR processes increases rapidly with the temperature. This phenomenon dictates the cooling criteria to maintain a stable reactor operation. Power control can be obtained through appropriate temperature regulation. Several types of heat engines can be coupled to LENR reactors with appropriate power control. Heat losses must be minimized with sufficient thermal insulation. The insulation enclosure is also useful to recover the leaks of light gas, if any are present in the system.

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3409. Ruer, J., Simulation of the Behavior of Exotic Neutral Particles by a Monte-Carlo Modelisation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 27-44.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Brownian motion, Exotic neutral particles, Hot spots, Monte-Carlo, Particle lifetime, Simulation

Hot spots are small features that some authors suppose are created by a sudden local release of thermal energy. For example, the estimation of the energy involved in the formation of a 2 μm crater is 3 × 10−8 J or 2 × 105 MeV. Some theories attempting to explain these phenomena, and excess heat in general, involve the role of Exotic Neutral Particles (ENP), like Polyneutrons or Erzions. According to such theories, these ENPs are relatively rare. The problem investigated in this paper is whether a single particle may trigger a series of many reactions within a short time in solids that are properly loaded. A Monte-Carlo simulation has been written to study the potential behavior of ENPs. It is shown that the ENPs follow a developed and Brownian type movement. The number of reactions occurring at a given depth below the surface is calculated, as well as the probability for a series to exceed a given value. From a pure mathematical viewpoint, a parallel can be made between the diffusion laws and Brownian motion. It is shown that a small fraction of the ENP flux can trigger large series of reaction, to the point that the energy that can be produced is not limited if the ENP is stable as long as it is present in the lattice. It is necessary to introduce a limited lifetime with a decay to reconcile the model with the experimental observations. The discussion of the simulation results in the light of experimental data leads me to propose a mean free path on the order of 100 Å, and a lifetime in the nanosecond range.

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3410. Ruer, J. and J.P. Biberian, Reanalysis of an Explosion in a LENR Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 76-97.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Deflagration, Detonation, Electrolytic cell, Explosion, Pd cathode, SWACER

An electrolytic cell operated with a hollow Pd cathode exploded in 2004. The violence of the explosion was surprising. We decided to re-analyze this event. The examination of the cell remnants indicate that the explosion occurred in the gas phase, and the electrodes seem unaffected. The stoichiometric H2-O2 mix can explode following different mechanisms that are briefly reviewed. A particular phenomenon called Shock Wave Amplification by Coherent Energy Release (SWACER) is able to produce strong detonations. A gas quantity similar to the original cell ignited by a hot spot or a spark produces only weak explosions that do not break the glass tube. Strong detonations are reproducibly obtained with a setup designed to induce the SWACER. The re-analysis of the event shows that the explosion was probably triggered by the SWACER resulting from a reaction in the hollow Pd cathode. In order to avoid accidents in the future during the operation of closed electrolytic cells, it is advised in addition to the conventional safety measures to avoid the presence of hollow, gas-filled metallic pieces in the reactor gas space, like a tube or a folded sheet.

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3411. Rugari, S.L., et al., Upper limits on emission of neutrons from Ti in pressurized D2 gas cells: A test of evidence for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 1298.

First Author: Rugari, S. L.
All Authors: Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Smolen, S. D., Zhao, Z., Gai, M., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: D2, titanium, Ti-Pd, neutron

3412. Rusetskiy, A.S., et al., Investigation of Enhancement and Stimulation of DD-reaction Yields in Crystalline Deuterated Heterostructures at Low Energies using the HELIS Ion Accelerator. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Rusetskiy, A. S.
All Authors: Rusetskiy, A. S., Bagulya, A. V., Kalkarov, O. D., Negodaev, M. A., Chubenko, A. P., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Ralchenko, V. G.
Keywords: Enhancement of reaction yield, DD-reaction, Ion accelerator, Neutron detector, Plastic track detector

In this study, we present the results of studies of DD reactions in crystalline heterostructures at low energies using the ion accelerator HELIS. The results of measurements of the DD-reaction yields from the Pd/PdO:Dx and the Ti/TiO2:Dx heterostructures in the energy range of 10-25 keV are presented. The neutron and proton fluxes are measured using a neutron detector based on 3Hecounters and a CR-39 plastic track detector. Comparisons with calculations show significant DD-reaction yield enhancement. It was first shown that the impact of the H+ and Ne+ ion beams in the energy range of 10-25 keV at currents of 0.01-0.1 mA on the deuterated heterostructure results in an appreciable DD-reaction yield stimulation. We also studied the neutron yield in DD reactions within a polycrystalline deuterium-saturated CVD diamond, during irradiation of its surface by a deuterium ion beam with energy of less than 30 keV. The measurements of the neutron flux in the beam direction are performed in dependence on the target angle, Beta, with respect to the beam axis. A significant anisotropy in neutron yield is observed, it was higher by a factor of 3 at Beta = 0 compared to that at Beta = +/- 45 deg.

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3413. Rusov, V.D., et al., Fast neutron recording by dielectric track detectors in a palladium-deuterated-tritated water system in an electrolytic cell. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1989. 15(19): p. 9 (In Russian).

First Author: Rusov, V. D.
All Authors: Rusov, V. D., Zelentsova, T. N., Semenov, M. Yu., Radin, I. V., Babikova, Yu. F., Kruglyak, Yu. A.
Keywords: D2O, T2O, Pd-Ag, electrolysis, CR-39, neutron

3414. Russell, J.L., Plausibility argument for a suggested mechanism for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1990. 17(10): p. 545.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3415. Russell, J.L., Virtual electron capture in deuterium. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 75.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3416. Russell, J.L., Proposed heat producing nuclear reaction for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 305.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory

3417. Russell, J.L., On the nature of the cold fusion process. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1993. 20: p. 227.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3418. Ruzic, D.N., K. Schatz, and P.L. Nguyen, A novel apparatus to investigate the possibility of plasma-assisted cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 251.

First Author: Ruzic, D. N.
All Authors: Ruzic, D. N., Schatz, K., Nguyen, P. L.
Keywords: gas discharge, method, Pd, D2

3419. Ryan, R.R., et al., Exploration of the Possibility of Fracturing Processes of Metal Deuterides (or Tritides) as a Mechanism for Nuclear Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Ryan, R. R.
All Authors: Ryan, R. R., Garcia, E., Dickinson, J. T., Schmidt, S., Fowler, M., Wilhelmy, J., Voter, A., Agnew, S., Swanson, B.
Keywords: fractofusion, proposal

3420. Sada, H., Theory of nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 107.

First Author: Sada, H.
All Authors: Sada, H.
Keywords: Theory, Bloch

3421. Sahni, V.C., Comment on ‘Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible?’. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(7): p. 497.

First Author: Sahni, V. C.
All Authors: Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: theory, critique, Schommers

3422. Saito, N., et al., Search for cold-fusion neutrons from palladium breathing deuterons. Denshi Gijutsu Sogo Kenkyusho Iho, 1990. 54(9): p. 986 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2, electrolysis, neutron, D2

3423. Saito, N., et al., Measurement of neutrons from cold fusion. Hoshasen, 1991. 17(1): p. 31 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2, electrolysis

3424. Saito, T., et al. Studies on Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetry with ICARUS 1. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Saito, T.
All Authors: Saito, T., Sumi, M., Asami, N., Ikegami, H.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat, electrolysis, critique, Fleischmann, ICCF-5

The Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry (FPC) is examined with the ICARUS 1 system, which is identical to the original cells which they designed for their calorimetry. In the present experimental studies, a critical evaluation is made of their original method (FPC) and a modified version of FPC is proposed. Its usefulness and validity is experimentally examined by detecting and regenerating artificial heat pulses regarded as heat excess.

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3425. Sakaguchi, H., G. Adachi, and K. Nagao. Helium Isotopes from Deuterium Absorbed in LaNi5. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakaguchi, H.
All Authors: Sakaguchi, H., Adachi, G., Nagao, K.
Keywords: Helium, D2, LaNi5 ICCF-3

Helium isotopes (3He and 4He) from D2 and H2 gases absorbed in LaNi4 were analyzed with a noble gas mass spectrometer. The reproducible increase in 3He, corresponding to a fusion probability of > 8.0×10^-24 d-d*s^-1, was observed on the D2-experiment, whereas 3He was not formed by the reaction of H2 and LaNi5. 4He production was unreliable, because the reproducibility of the result has not been obtained.

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3426. Sakamoto, S. Observations of Cold Fusion Neutrons from Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sakamoto, S.
All Authors: Sakamoto, S.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2O, NaOH, ICCF-4, electrolysis

3427. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solution of hydrogen in palladium-based binary alloys. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1995. 99(6): p. 807.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Chen, F. L., Ura, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, thermodynamic, H2

3428. Sakamoto, Y., et al. Calorimetric Enthalpies in the b-phase Regions of Pd Black-H(D) Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T.
Keywords: Pd-H, Pd-D, enthalpy of formation thermodynamic, pressure ICCF-6 PdD PdH

3429. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Calorimetric enthalpies for palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) systems at H(D) contents up to about [H]([D])/[Pd] = 0.86. J. Phys.: Condens. Mater., 1996. 8: p. 3229.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T., Ohshima, K.
Keywords: enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic, pressure

3430. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solutions of hydrogen in Pd-Pt-Rh alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 212.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Ohira, K., Kokubu, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: thermodynamic, Pd-Pt-Rh, H2, phase diagram, pressure

3431. Sakoh, H., et al., Hydrogen isotope absorption and heat release characteristics of a Ni-based sample. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 471-484.

First Author: Sakoh, H.
All Authors: Sakoh, H., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Murota, T., Tahara, T.
Keywords: Catalyst, Cu–Ni alloy nano-powder, Protium absorption

Recently, several researchers claimed excess heat from Ni-based alloy samples under application to gas-phase protium absorption experiments instead of expensive Pd-based nanocompounds. We have performed hydrogen isotope absorption runs using the Cu-Ni-ZrO2(CNZ) and Ni-ZrO2(NZ) nano-powders. We observed long-lasting temperature change corresponding to astonishingly large output energy of several hundred eV/atom-Ni.

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3432. Salamon, M.H., et al., Limits on the emission of neutrons, gamma-rays, electrons and protons from Pons/Fleischmann electrolytic cells. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 401.

First Author: Salamon, M. H.
All Authors: Salamon, M. H., Wrenn, M. E., Bergeson, H. E., Crawford, K. C., Delaney, W. H., Henderson, C. L., Li, Y. Q., Rusho, J. A., Sandquist, G. M., Seltzer, S. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission

3433. Salomons, E.M., et al., Pressure-Composition Isotherms of Thin Pd-H Films. J. Less-Common Met., 1987. 130: p. 415.

First Author: Salomons, E. M.
All Authors: Salomons, E. M., Feenstra, R., de Groot, D. G., Rector, J. H., Griessen, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, layer

3434. Salvarezza, R.C., et al., Electrochemical study of hydrogen absorption in polycrystalline palladium. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1991. 313: p. 291.

First Author: Salvarezza, R. C.
All Authors: Salvarezza, R. C., Montemayor, M. C., Fatas, E., Arvia, A. J.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, electrolysis, overvoltage

3435. Samgin, A.L., et al. The Influence of Conductivity on Neutron Generation Process in Proton Conducting Solid Electrolytes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Baraboshkin, A. N., Murigin, I., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: neutron proton conductor SrCeO, ICCF-4

3436. Samgin, A.L., et al. Cold Fusion and Anomalous Effects in Deuteron Conductors During Non-Stationary High-Temperature Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Finodeyev, O., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Khokhlov, V. A., Filatov, E. S., Murygin, I. V., Gorelov, V. P., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: Solid electrolyte, perovskite, heat+ neutron proton conductor, ICCF-5

The studies were conducted with the perovslcite-type solid electrolytes based on the strontium and barium ccrates under hydrogen and deuterium atmosphere. Anomalous effects were found manifesting themselves in the overbackground neutron bursts, excess heat release, phase composition and crystal lattice parameter changes. At 200-750РC the regions of the temperature were identified which accompained by significant heat evolution that was greater in the deuteron conductors than in the proton conductors.

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3437. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 220: p. 297.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: Theory, Bohr orbit

3438. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, Reply to the comment on ‘On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom’ by Samsonenko et al. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 229: p. 133.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: theory, critique, Drazic

3439. Sanchez, C., et al. Cold Fusion During Electrolysis of Heavy Water With Ti and Pt Electrodes. in Understanding Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Varenna.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Canizares, J.
Keywords: titanium, D2O, neutron, gamma emission tritium

3440. Sanchez, C., et al., Nuclear products detection during electrolysis of heavy water with titanium and platinum electrodes. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 1039.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F. J., Canizares, J.
Keywords: gamma emission neutron, tritium, electrolysis, titanium, Pt, D2O, electrolysis

3441. Sandquist, G.M. and V.C. Rogers, Enhancement of cold fusion reaction rates. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 351.

First Author: Sandquist, G. M.
All Authors: Sandquist, G. M., Rogers, V. C.
Keywords: discussion

3442. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium, ICCF-4 electrolysis

3443. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in ICCF4, Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium

3444. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al. Evidence for Tritium Generation in Self-Heated Nickel Wires Subjected to Hydrogen Gas Absorption/Desorption Cycles. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, tritium, heat-, ICCF-5

The loading characteristics of hydrogen gas in electrically self-heated nickel wires was investigated with a view to maximise hydrogen absorption and thereafter “trigger” it to generate anomalous excess heat as reported by Focardi et. al in early 1994. The nickel wires were found to absorb substantial quantity of hydrogen following several alternate cycles of absorption/desorption. But calorimetric studies conducted with the system so far indicate that we have not succeeded in triggering excess heat generation. However on dissolution and counting using standard liquid scintillation techniques, a number of hydrogen loaded nickel wires were found to contain tritium in the range of 3 Bq to 2333 Bq. This finding corroborates the detection of tritium in light water solutions electrolysed by nickel cathodes reported by the authors first at ICCF – 3 (Nagoya, 1992) and again at ICCF – 4 (Hawaii, 1993), confirming the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in nickel-hydrogen systems.

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3445. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al., Investigation of low-level tritium generation in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 349.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, tritium

The generation of tritium during the electrolysis of aqueous light water alkali carbonate (K2CO3 and Li2CO3) solutions by nickel cathodes, first reported by us at the International Conference on Cold Fusion-3 (Nagoya, Japan, October 1992) has once again been verified and confirmed. During 1993, 10 out of 23 cells, whose electrolytes were analyzed using a newly set up dedicated liquid scintillation counting unit, indicated low tritium levels in the electrolyte, in the range of 0.5 to 4.8 Bq/ml. Except one cell, which contained 25% D2O, the remaining nine cells, which produced tritium, were charged with natural light water solutions only. Two of these cells, which were monitored for tritium every few days, and excluding cell OM-3, which was set up in 1992, indicated tritium level variations in a sawtooth fashion, suggesting the possible presence of an as yet unidentified mechanism responsible for periodically removing tritium from the electrolyte.

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3446. Sannikov, V.I., et al., Emission of neutrons and gamma-quanta from a titanium electrode polarised by a current in the gas phase over LiD. Rasplavy, 1991(4): p. 86 (in Russian).

First Author: Sannikov, V.I .
All Authors: Sannikov, V.I ., Gorodetskii, V. G., Sulimov, E. M., Polosukhin, B. G., Kudyakov, V. Ya.
Keywords: titanium, D2, LiD, gas discharge, gamma emission, neutron

3447. Sano, T., et al. Preparation of Pd Electrodes and Their Hydrogen Loading Rates. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sano, T.
All Authors: Sano, T., Terasuwa, T., Ohi, T., Nezu, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ce, Pd, H2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

We prepared a series of palladium-based rods with various compositions and processing histories as cathode for water electrolysis. These rods were evaluated in terms of hydrogen loading ratio (H/Pd). The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd-Ag and Pd-Ce alloys were compared with that of a pure Pd rod. The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd rods were subjected to a kneeling and/or cold-working (swaging) are also compared with that of a cast Pd rod. The results show that the alloying markedly reduces the loading ratio, and neither a kneeling (350 – 650у) your swaging (up to the processing ratio of 98%) produces a distinct effect.

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3448. Santandrea, R.P. and R.G. Behrens, A review of the thermodynamics and phase relationships in the palladium- hydrogen, palladium-deuterium and palladium-tritium systems. High Temperature Materials and Processes, 1986. 7: p. 149.

First Author: Santandrea, R. P.
All Authors: Santandrea, R. P., Behrens, R. G.
Keywords: review, Phase Diagram, thermodynamic, Pd, H, D, T, diffusion, structure

3449. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Electrochemically initiated cold fusion of deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 175.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Ragarajan, J., Braganza, O’N., Haram, S. K., Limaye, N. M., Mandal, K. C.
Keywords: titanium electrolysis, heat+, D2O, neutron NaCl Pd

3450. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Excess enthalpy during electrolysis of D2O. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1139.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Rangarajan, J., Mandal, K. C., Haram, S. K.
Keywords: heat+, titanium, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

3451. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords: materials

* Pd-25% wt. Ag alloy is considered for manufacturing hydrogen separators * The linear expansion and resisitivity of Pg-Ag membranes have been measured under operating conditions typical of hydrogen separation processes * Membrane module design (finger-like tube assembly, ohmic heating) has been based on the results of the experimental tests

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3452. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-delta protonic conductor (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords: materials

In recent years, doped perovskite such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZr03) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.

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3453. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords:

The Pd-Ag-H system is of particular importance with respect to the separation and purification of thehydrogen gas. Pd-Ag alloys have high selectivity for hydrogen gas permeation and thus are suitable for manufacturing hydrogen selective membranes. Accordingly, among the technological properties many authors have studied the electrical resistivity and linear expansion of the Pd-Ag-H system, but no data are available in a wide range of temperature and hydrogen pressure. During this activity, the solubility, the linear expansion, the resistivity and the permeability of a Pd/Ag (with Ag 25% wt) permeator tube has been measured in both hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated conditions. The experiments have been carried out in a temperature and in a lumen hydrogen partial pressure range of 50-400 у and 0-400 kPa, respectively.

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3454. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-δ protonic conductor. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords:

In recent years, doped perovskites such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZrO3) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.In this activity, doped BCY oxide powders was synthesized via novel soft chemical route. The method is based on the formation of a metallorganic xero-gel at room temperature. The structural phase of powders and dense pellets were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measures were performed on dense pellet under synthetic air flux and hydrogen atmosphere in a temperature range between 200-750 у with a frequency range of 10mHz-10MHz.

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3455. Sapogin, L.G. I. Deuterium Interaction in Unitary Quantum Theory. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3456. Sapogin, L.G. II. On the Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3457. Sapogin, L.G. On One of Energy Generation Mechanism in Initary Quantum Theory. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

It is now a well established fact that in Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF) only a small portion of heat results from nuclear reactions, the rest being of a mysterious origin. In this connection Prof. Peter Hagelstain writes in [ 1 ] : “Some say that this heat can be explained easily by elementary chemical reactions, phase changes, or battery-like storage effects. I have trouble with these explanations” . For instance, nickel electrolysis in light water produces the same amount of energy as that of palladium in heavy water. Besides, we have to consider a no less mysterious phenomenon of sonoluminescence, that was discovered in Russia in 1 933 by S.N.Rzhevkin. At first sight these phenomena seem to bear no correlation. But Julian Schwinger, the Nobel Laureate and profound research worker, has drawn parallels between cold fusion and sonoluminescence in his continuous technical publication on both topics. He notes in [2] : “Like Cold Fusion, sonoluminescence “should not exist”, but it does. This now wellestablished phenomenon occurs when ultrasonic sound, beamed into liquid, causes bubbles to oscillate stably – to expand and contract regularly – and also to emit regular pulses of light”.

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3458. Sapogin, L.G. and I.V. Kulikov, Cold nuclear fusion in the unitary quantum theory. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1995. 17: p. 360.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G., Kulikov, I. V.
Keywords: theory

3459. Sapogin, L.G., Energy generation processes and cold nuclear fusion in terms of Schroedinger equation. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1997. 19(2): p. 115.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: Theory

3460. Sapogin, L.G. The Theory of Excess Energy in PAGD Reactor (Correa Reactor). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: gas discharge, theory, ICCF-7

3461. Sarto, F., E. Castagna, and V. Violante. Microscopic characterization of palladium electrodes for cold fusion experiments. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Violante, V.
Keywords: cathode material,

3462. Sarto, F., et al. Electrode Surface Morphology Characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Violante, V., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

The introduction of hydrogen into a metal during electrolysis of water involves primarily the metallic surface. The effect of surface morphology on electrochemical reaction kinetics is well described in the literature 1 therefore it seems to be reasonable to assume that the surface morphology of the cathodes could play a role in the electrochemical metal-hydride formation. Actually, a wide variety of surface features and profiles have been observed in the Pd cathodes typically employed in excess heat production experiments. These features are noted in both the as-prepared samples and the electrolyzed ones. In order to establish a correlation between the occurrence of a particular surface morphology and calorimetric results, it is necessary to identify a useful metric with which to describe and compare the different surface morphologies. In this work an approach based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been investigated. The method is oriented toward the identification of parameters suitable for a pre-screening of the materials.

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3463. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology.

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3464. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords:

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology. A further point to be considered is the dynamic character of the metal/electrolyte interface during electrochemical deuterium loading, that derives from the coupling between the different interface characteristics. Surface reconstruction of the metallic cathode is expected to happen, due to corrosion-deposition mechanisms, D/H transport, stress relaxation and defect production, and so on. All these mechanisms both affect and are affected by the surface properties, such as the morphology of the metal/electrolyte interface, the metallurgical and crystal structure of the cathode and the presence of contaminants.

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3465. Sasaki, A., An approach to cold fusion. Kenkyu Kiyo – Miyagi Kogyo Koto Senmom Gakko, 1990. 26: p. 47.

First Author: Sasaki, A.
All Authors: Sasaki, A.
Keywords: gas discharge, titanium, ion bombardment, D2

3466. Sasaki, K., Report of my transmutation experiment. 1998.

First Author: Sasaki, K.
All Authors: Sasaki, K.
Keywords: transmutation

3467. Sasaki, Y., et al. Deuterium Gas Charging Experiments with Pd Powders for Excess Heat Evolution (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in The 9th Meeting of Japan CF-Research Society. 2009. Shizuoka, Japan.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Pd-black nanoparticle heat

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation during D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For PdZr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratios of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed during deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after deuteride formation. Results for 0.1-μm diameter Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown, for comparison.

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3468. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

Aim It has been reported that charging of highly pure D2 gas into Pd nano-powders in the form of Pd/ZrO2 nano-composite contained in a stainless-steel vacuum vessel has induced significant excess heat. We have constructed an experimental system to confirm the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by calorimetry and investigate the underlying physics.

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3469. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes, (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Nohmi, T., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords:

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For Pd×Zr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratio of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed in the phase of deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after the deuteride formation. For comparison , results for 0.1-μmf Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown.

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3470. Sastry, K.S.R., Fusion reaction. Science, 1989. 244: p. 904 (Letters).

First Author: Sastry, K. S. R.
All Authors: Sastry, K. S. R.
Keywords: energy, nuclear reaction

3471. Sato, T., et al., Detection of neutrons in electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 357.

First Author: Sato, T.
All Authors: Sato, T., Okamoto, M., Kim, P., Fujii, Y., Aizawa, O.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3472. Savinell, R.F. and H.S. Burney Jr., Report of the electrolytic industries for the year 1989. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1990. 137: p. 485C.

First Author: Savinell, R. F.
All Authors: Savinell, R. F., Burney Jr., H. S.
Keywords: history

3473. Savrasov, A., V. Prokopenko, and E. Andreev, CR-39 Detector Track Characterization in Experiments with Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 1-6.

First Author: Savrasov, A.
All Authors: Savrasov, A., Prokopenko, V., Andreev, E.
Keywords: alpha-Particle, Co-deposition, CR-39 Detector, Electrolysis

Four experiments replicating the GALILEO Project were performed. In two of them, excess ↵-particle track density was observed in the CR-39 detectors in comparison with background CR-39 detectors.

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3474. Savvatimova, I., Y. Kucherov, and A.B. Karabut. Cathode Material Change after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Kucherov, Y., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, gas discharge, D2, fission, transmutation, Helium, radioactivity, gamma emission ICCF-4

The results of impurity concentration measurements in a palladium cathode by different methods before and after deuterium glow discharge experiments are presented. The concentration of some impurities increases up to 104 times. Elements appear which cannot be found in the discharge environment. Autoradiography of cathode samples shows that isotopes with different radiation energy (less than 20 keV and more 100 keV) exist in the cathode after experiment. The obtained results cannot be explained by the existence of a conventional fusion reaction, but may be explained by a more complex fusion-fission reaction.

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3475. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Nuclear Reaction Products Registration on the Cathode after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, transmutation, radioactivity, ICCF-5

We watched the changing of some impurity elements on tft7; Pd cathode ( 99,9% p u r i t y ) a fter proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron ion’s irradiation under the equal glow discharge conditions.

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3476. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Radioactivity of the Cathode Samples after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, deuterium radioactivity, ion bombardment, Ag, Nb, titanium, D2, H2, Ar, Xe ICCF-5 x-ray

We registered the residual radioactivity of the cathode foils (Pd, Ag, Nb and other mateirals) after irradiation at the glow discharge. The samples were irradiated by proton, deuteron and argon, xenon ions with low energy. We consider that the main activity is beta emission from samples after experiments. . . .

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3477. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Nuclear reaction products detected at the cathode after a glow discharge in deuterium. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 63 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, fusion-fission, surface analysis, transmutation

3478. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Radioactivity of palladium cathodes after irradiation in a glow discharge. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 76 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, Nb, As, titanium, gas discharge, autoradiograph transmutation

3479. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation Effects in the Cathode Exposed Glow Discharge, Nuclear Phenomena or Ion Irradiation Results? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: transmutation, ion bombardment, surface analysis, Pd, D2, H2, ICCF-7

3480. Savvatimova, I. and V.U. Korolev. Comparative Analysis of Heat Effect in Various Cathode Materials Exposed to Glow Discharge. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Korolev, V. UI.
Keywords: ion bombardment, heat+, gas discharge, D2 Pd-Pt-W, ICCF-7

3481. Savvatimova, I. Reproducibility of Experiments in Glow Discharge and Processes Accompanying Deuterium ions Bombardment. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, autoradiograph, film particle emission, titanium, Pd, radioactivity, gas discharge ICCF-8

The problems of reproducibility of experiments in glow discharge (GD) and electrolysis are considered. The difficulty in estimation of nuclear and non-nuclear processes contribution in isotopic and elemental composition change in material irradiated by ions is noted.The post-experimental charged particles flow from samples in Deuterium GD was measured. The current ranging ~ 10^-6A·cm^-2 – ~10^-13A·cm^-2 was registered in the first 1 – 3 post-experimental minutes for different materials (Pd, Pd alloys, Ag and Mo) and experimental parameters. The emissions duration lasted 30-100 minutes and depended upon experimental parameters.Analysis of tracks on X-ray films placed inside and outside of a metal GD chamber has shown existence of tracks varying from several to tens of millimeters. The tracks were of various shapes: round and curvilinear, and also rotating including double spirals.

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3482. Savvatimova, I. and J. Dash. Emission registration on films during glow discharge experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Dash, J.
Keywords: glow discharge, ion bombardment, U, W, Zr, Pd, D2, D+, X-ray

Deuterium and protium experiments in the glow discharge apparatus were conducted with U, W, Zr, Pd foils placed on the cathode. The glow discharge apparatus contains two concentric quartz tubes, each with about five mm wall thickness. Kodak BioMax MR-2 films (13×18 cm) contained in individual packets are intended to detect gamma and x-ray emission in the energy range from 150 to 260 keV. The films were placed against the outer quartz tube about 70 mm from the electrodes during glow discharge operation time ranging from 1-25 hours. The applied glow discharge voltage during was 200-700 V, the current was 5-25 mA/cm^2, and the gas pressure was 2-5 torr.

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3483. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Results Of Analysis Of Ti Foil After Glow Discharge With Deuterium. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge, transmutation

In this study we report on the surface structure, distribution and isotopic composition of elements found on Ti cathodes before and after glow discharge in plasma, during which excess heat was produced. Irradiation was carried out with deuterium ions with a discharge voltage below 1000 volts, with a current of 10 to 20 mA.The analysis of the surface structure and of elemental composition of the Ti sample was carried out with a scanning electronic microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), which can detect impurities at concentrations as low as 0.2 atomic %. New metallic phase formation and newly present elements were revealed by the EDS method in several different, separate active spots on the cathode surface, with concentrations ranging from 0.3% up to 10 or 20% or more . . .

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3484. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Influence Of Parameters Of The Glow Discharge On Change Of Structure And The Isotope Composition Of The Cathode Materials. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge

Results of examinations of changes in structure, element, and isotope composition of cathodes after the glow discharge exposure in hydrogen, deuterium, argon, and xenon are submitted. The voltage of the discharge was less than 1000 V and the current was 5-150 mA. Samples before and after ions bombardment in the glow discharge were explored by the methods of mass spectrometry: the secondary ions (SIMS), the secondary ions with additional ionization of neutral sprayed particles (SNMS), spark (SMS), and thermo-ionization (TIMS), and also methods of energy dispersion X-ray spectral analysis (EDX). The alpha-, beta-, gamma- emission, and gamma- spectrometry for radioactive uranium specimens were also carried out before and after experiments in the glow discharge. Changes in structure, isotope, and element composition of the cathode samples depend on current density, integrated ions flow (fluence of ions), kind of irradiating ions and other experimental conditions. Attempts are made to estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the role of each of the parameters on intensity of the observed changes in cathode composition. It is shown that the maximum changes in structure, chemical and isotope composition of the cathode material occur in “hot points,” such as craters from microexplosions, phase segregations, blisters and other new formations. . . .

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3485. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation in Tungsten Irradiated by Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3486. Savvatimova, I., G. Savvatimova, and A.A. Kornilova. Gamma Emission Evaluation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Savvatimova, G., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3487. Savvatimova, I.B., Transmutation of Elements in Low-energy Glow Discharge and the Associated Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 181-198.

First Author: Savvatimova, I. B.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Isotopic ratio change, Low-energy gas glow discharge, Mass-spectrometry, Palladium, Transmutation, Tungsten

The review of the main transmutation results in palladium and tungsten after the exposure to deuterium Glow Discharge (GD) measured by different Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Gamma-Spectrometry (GS) methods is given. The registered structure and isotopic ratio change alongside with formation of additional elements were accompanied by gamma and X-ray emission. The registered isotopic ratio change ranged within 2-1000 times, the quantity of additional elements undetected before varying within one tenth to dozens percents in Pd and Pd alloys. The isotopes with masses less than and exceeding those of the cathode material were measured in most of the experiments. The MS revealed that the tungsten isotopes transmutated into elements lighter than tungsten, higher post-experimental intensity of mass numbers 169, 170, 171, 178 and 180 being observed. The mass spectra peaks magnituded for isotopes lighter than W isotopes increased by factors ranging from 5 to 400. The registered increase varied from 5-50 cps in the original foils to 100-20 000 cps after the exposure to deuterium GD. Lighter isotopes in tungsten and tantalum foils placed on the GD cathode after deuterium GD exposure were identified using high resolution gamma/X-ray spectrometry. The comparison of thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (TIMS) data and data of gamma-spectra energy peaks allowed to assume that the peaks series observed in gamma spectra belong to the following isotopes: 169 70 Yb, 170 72 Hf , 171m 70 Yb, 172 72 Hf and 178 70 Yb. Correlation of TIMS and Gamma spectrometry data leads to the assumption that the appearance of light isotopes in tungsten resulted from the low-energy decay process initiation caused by deuterium GD.

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3488. Sawada, T., A Particle Physicist’s View on the Nuclear Cold Fusion Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 6-10.

First Author: Sawada, T.
All Authors: Sawada, T.
Keywords: Change of penetration factor, Charge quantization condition, Magnetic monopole, Nuclear cold fusion, Origin of nonreproducibility

There are two different types of scientists who believe in the reality of the nuclear cold fusion. The researchers, who observed the excess energy by experiments, belong to the first type. On the other hand, a small number of theoreticians, who are working on the physics of the magnetic monopole, know that the nuclear reaction of the zero incident energy proceeds when the system involves a magnetic monopole. Since the former group still lacks a theory of the nuclear cold fusion based on the first principle of the natural law, I believe it is fruitful to explain to the former group how the theoretician of the particle physics comes to arrive at the conclusion that the nuclear cold fusion must occur if a magnetic monopole exists, in the framework of the quantum theory.

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3489. Sawada, T., Underlying Mechanism of the Nuclear of Implied by the Energy-momentum Conservation [ I ]. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 118-134.

First Author: Sawada, T.
All Authors: Sawada, T.
Keywords: Charge-monopole system, Coulombic field, d-d Reaction, Momentum conservation, Momentum transfer

By studying the conservation of energy and momentum, it is found that in the nuclear cold fusion, existence of the localized external potential is necessary to absorb the large momentum transfer. We can narrow down the candidate of the required external field to the magnetic field produced by the magnetic monopole. The roll of the magnetic monopole in lowering the repulsive Coulomb barrier when two deuterons come close and fuse is considered.

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3490. Scalia, A., The Nuclear Fusion for the Reactions 2H (d,n) 3He, 2H (d,p) 3H, 3H (d,n) 4 He. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101(5): p. 795.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A.
Keywords: theory, fusion Rate

3491. Scalia, A. and P. Figuera. The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p)3H + 2H(d,n) 3He at Very Low Temperature. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A., Figuera, P.
Keywords: cross section, fusion, energy, low energy, ICCF-2, tritium, neutron, d-p

3492. Scaramuzzi, F. Survey of Gas Loading Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review loading, D2, Pd, titanium YBCO ICCF-2

3493. Scaramuzzi, F. Cold Fusion Research in Italy. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review, Italy, ICCF-3

In the past 3 ½ years many experiments have been performed in the field known with the conventional name of “cold fusion” (CF), and a number of theories have attempted to interpret them and to assess them in a coherent picture. Differently from other fields in science, this area has grown in a quite strange atmosphere: the most striking aspect of it is the anomalous “geography” of the activities, meaning by this term the different kind of development that research activities in this field have had in different countries.

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3494. Scaramuzzi, F., La fusione fredda quattro anni dopo (Cold fusion four years later). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1993. 75(5): p. 425 (in Italian).

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review

3495. Scaramuzzi, F., Ten Years of Cold Fusion: An Eye-witness Account. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 77.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

INTRODUCTIONThe name of Cold Fusion (CF) comes from the interpretation given to certain phenomena taking place in a metal lattice roughly at room temperature, in terms of nuclear fusion, say between two deuterium nuclei: cold in comparison with the high temperatures of thermonuclear fusion (10^8 K). The first time this was suggested was in the Spring of 1989, ten years ago, by Fleischmann and Pons (1): their experiment gave rise to much turmoil all over the world, ending within a few months with the scientific community rejecting the experiment and thus this interpretation. Research in CF continued nevertheless in a few laboratories, mostly in the USA, Japan, Italy, Russia and China; International Conferences were held regularly, roughly every 1.5 years. However, after ten years, in spite of undeniable (although not overwhelming) progress in the field, there is hardly any communication between this small CF community and the scientific world at large.

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3496. Scaramuzzi, F., Gas loading of deuterium in palladium at low temperature. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2004. 385: p. 19.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: gas loading

The experimental technique presented in this article is aimed at measuring the absorption of hydrogen or deuterium gas in a thin palladium sample while the system is at low temperature. A result for deuterium is described, consisting in the measurement of the equilibrium loading ratio X (called also D/Pd ratio, atomic), as a function of pressure, on a palladium film 3.6 μm-thick at 150 K. Values of X up to 1 have been measured at pressures lower than 1 bar. The electric resistance of the palladium sample also has been measured as a function of temperature and of X, and the results are reported.

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3497. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading Of Deuterium In Palladium (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: loading

Objectives of the experiment The idea is to realize a conceptually simple experiment, reproducible, and with a straightforward answer: * To start with, measuring the D/Pd ratio, aiming to high values. * Possibly detecting excess heat. * Analyze the gas, looking for 4He. * Studying the loading dynamics.

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3498. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading of Deuterium in Palladium. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice). In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made.The present experiment is aimed at obtaining high loading ratios of deuterium in palladiumwithout using electrolysis. The idea is to have deuterium gas in contact with palladium. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.A first test experiment, performed at ENEA Frascati in 2002, showed that it was possible to have D/Pd ratios as high as 1 at 150 K with a pressure lower than 1 bar [1]. The experiment has been rebuilt at LNF/INFN and the first results are reported here.An anomaly in the loading dynamics will be also reported.

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3499. Scaramuzzi, F. Proposal of an Experiment Aimed at Charging Deuterium in Palladium at the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice).In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made. An alternative line that has been followed by the Author [1] consists of trying to obtain high values of X by the direct interaction of Pd with D2 gas. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.The proposal of an experiment which requires little attention is presented here.

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3500. Scarborough, T., et al., The Center to Study Anomalous Heat Effects [AHE] at Texas Tech University. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scarborough, T.
All Authors: Scarborough, T., Duncan, R., McKubre, M. C. H., Violante, V.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cryogenic, Electrochemistry, Heat-helium, Spectroscopy

The Center for Emerging Energy Sciences at Texas Tech University (CEES) has been established to explore critical parameters in the observation of the anomalous heat effects (AHE). A large number of experiments report the production of heat from metal samples loaded with hydrogen or deuterium in amounts that are often thousands of times greater than the enthalpies of possible chemical reactions. The effect is anomalous because there is no agreed-to mechanism, and particle radiation rates are not reported at levels that are consistent with any known nuclear process.

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3501. Schaffer, M., What is the current scientific thinking on cold fusion? Scientific American, 1997. on line.

First Author: Schaffer, M.
All Authors: Schaffer, M.
Keywords: review

3502. Schaller, C., Fusion Lecturer Cold To Press, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3503. Schaller, C., Scientist Convinced Process is Nuclear, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3504. Schaller, C., Scientists Careful in Fusion Finds, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3505. Schaller, C., Scientists Seeing Results in Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 183.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3506. Schilling, K.D., et al., Search for charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium foils. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1990. 336: p. 1.

First Author: Schilling, K. D.
All Authors: Schilling, K. D., Gippner, P., Seidel, W., Stary, F., Wohlfarth, D.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2

3507. Schirber, J.E. and C.J.M. Northrup, Concentration Dependence of the Superconducting Transition Temperature In Pd-H and Pd-D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1974. 10: p. 3818.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Northrup, C. J. M.
Keywords: superconductivity, Pd, H,

3508. Schirber, J.E. and B. Morosin, Lattice Constants of Beta-Pd-Hx and Beta-PdDx with x Near 1.0. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1975. 12: p. 117.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Morosin, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, Lattice Parameter

3509. Schirber, J.E., et al., Search for cold fusion in high-pressure deuterium-loaded titanium and palladium metal and deuteride. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 397.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, D2, neutron

3510. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Effects and the Formation of Metal Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 73: p. 145.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Seiler, A., Stucki, F., Siegmann, H. C.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, LaNi5, review

3511. Schlapbach, L. and J.P. Burger, A New XPS/UPS Study of the Electronic Structure of PdH0.6. J. Phys., Lett., 1982. 43: p. L-273.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: PdH, H2, structure, Density Of States

3512. Schlapbach, L. and T. Riesterer, The Composition of the Surface Properties of FeTi and Fe2Ti4Ox in View of the Different Hydrogen Sorption Behaviours. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 101: p. 453.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Riesterer, T.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, Fe-Ti, Fe-Ti-O

3513. Schlapbach, L., et al., Low Temperature Electronic Properties of Cerium Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1986(130): p. 239.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Ott, H. R., Felder, E., Rudigier, H., Thiry, P., Bonnet, J. E., Petroff, Y., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: bonding, density Of States, CeH

3514. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Semiconductor-Metal Transition in Rare Earth Hydrides at Low Temperatures. Surf. Sci., 1987. 189-190: p. 747.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P., Bonnet, J. E., Thiry, P., Petroff, Y.
Keywords: photoelectron, bonding, CeH, LaH, GdH, TbH

3515. Schlapbach, L. Hydrogen and Its Isotopes in and on Metals. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: Pd, LaNi5, density of states, diffusion, H, surface analysis, ICCF-2

3516. Schmidt, S., Cold Fusion Conundrum. Analog Science Fiction and Fact, 1995. Jan: p. 5.

First Author: Schmidt, S.
All Authors: Schmidt, S.
Keywords: history

3517. Schneider, J.H., How a rectangular potential in Schroedinger’s equation could explain some experimental results on cold nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 377.

First Author: Schneider, J. H.
All Authors: Schneider, J. H.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling

3518. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., Jâger, W.
Keywords: tritium, helium Vanadium

3519. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., J‰ger, W.
Keywords: tritium, helium Vanadium

3520. Scholkmann, F., T. Mizuno, and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Unexpected Daily Variations in an Electrochemical Transmutation Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Mizuno, T., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Daily oscillations, Diurnal oscillations, Electrochemical transmutation, Ensemble empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode functions, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Phase synchronization, Signal correlating

In two electrochemical transmutation experiments, unexpected oscillations in the recorded signals with a daily period were observed for deuterium/palladium loading ratio (D/Pd), temperature (T ) and pressure (P). The aim of the present study was to analyze the time courses of the signals of one of the experiments using an advanced signal-processing framework. The experiment was a high temperature (375 K), high pressure (750 kPa) and long-term (866 h . 35 days) electrochemical transmutation exploration done in 2008. The analysis was performed by (i) selecting the intervals of the D/Pd, T and P signals where the daily oscillations occurred, (ii) filtering the signals to remove low-frequency noise, (iii) analyzing the waveforms of the daily oscillations, (iv) applying Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to decompose the signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), (v) performing a statistical test on the obtained IMFs in order to identify the physically most meaningful oscillation mode, (vi) performing an power spectral analysis, (vii) calculating the correlations between the signals, and (viii) determining the time-dependent phase synchronization between the signals. We found that (i) in all three signals (D/Pd, T and P) a clear daily oscillation was present while the current density J did not show such an oscillation, (ii) the daily oscillation in T and P had similar waveforms and where anti-correlated to the oscillation in D/Pd, (iii) D/Pd and T had the highest correlation (r = 0.7693), (iv) all three signals exhibited phase synchronization over the whole signal length while the strongest phase synchronization took place between D/Pd and T . Possible origins of the daily oscillation were discussed and implications for further investigations and experiments were outlined.

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3521. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Transmutation Data from Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Experiments and Comparison with a Model-based Prediction ofWidom and Larsen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation,Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations were reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. In the present study, we analyzed (i) whether three available nuclear transmutation data sets show a consistent pattern and (ii) whether this pattern correlates with a model-based prediction ofWidom and Larsen. Our analysis revealed that the data sets (i) exhibit a similar pattern and (ii) correlate with the predicted function. The last three peaks as a function of atomic mass A (intervals: 64-70, 116-129, 191-208 A) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the averaged data despite great differences in the experiments.

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3522. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Is the Abundance of Elements in Earth’s Crust Correlated with LENR Transmutation Rates? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Elements in Earth’s crust, Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation, Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations are reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. We showed in a previous study (Scholkmann and Nagel, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 485-494) that (i) the transmutation data of three independent experiments have a similar pattern and (ii) this pattern correlates with a model-based on the prediction of Widom and Larsen (WL). In the present study, we extended our analysis and investigated whether the abundance of elements in Earth’s crust is correlated with either (i) the WL-prediction, or (ii) the three LENR transmutation data sets. The first analysis revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between these variables. The second analysis showed a significant correlation, but the correlation only reflects the trend of the data and not the peak-like pattern. This result strengthens the interpretation that the observed peak-like pattern in the transmutation data sets does not originate from contamination. Further implications of our study are discussed and a recommendation is given for future transmutation experiments.

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3523. Scholkmann, F., D.J. Nagel, and L. DeChiaro, Electromagnetic Emission in the kHz to GHz Range Associated with Heat Production During Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium into Palladium: A Summary and Analysis of Results Obtained by Different Research Groups. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords: Electromagnetic emissions, Electromagnetic radiation, Excess power, LENR, Heat production

There is a small literature on the combination of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) experiments and radiofrequencies (RF). The papers are worth attention in case they can teach anything about the mechanisms behind LENR. Application of RF to LENR electrochemical cells in the mid-1990s clearly showed increases in the production of excess power. More recently, RF have been measured in LENR cells. However, it is still possible that those data are artifacts of the operation of the system, and not indicative of LENR. It has been suggested that the appearance of RF in LENR experiments is the cause of LENR, and not merely a manifestation of such reactions. That possibility has significant implications. In the present paper, we summarize and analyze the results obtained by different research groups concerning the application and emission of RF in the kHz to GHz range associated with heat production during electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium.

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3524. Schommers, W. and C. Politis, Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible? Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3(8): p. 597.

First Author: Schommers, W.
All Authors: Schommers, W., Politis, C.
Keywords: theory

3525. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Experimental Results on the Thermal Behavior of Electrochemical Cells in the Hydrogen-Palladium and Deuterium-Palladium Systems. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, method

3526. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Measurements of Excess Energy Production in Electrochemical Cells Containing Heavy Water and Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

This paper reports calorimetric experiments related to the energy breakeven issue during heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode in thermodynamically closed cells. A comparison with light water electrolysis under the same conditions is also given. Excess power has been observed in a number of cases in which the overall energy balance becomes positive after a short period, leading to the generation of significant amounts of excess energy. In one case, excess power was maintained over a period of ten days, and produced over 23 MJ of excess energy per mole of palladium.

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3527. Schrieder, G., H. Wipf, and A. Richter, Search for cold nuclear fusion in palladium-deuterium. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1989. 76: p. 141.

First Author: Schrieder, G.
All Authors: Schrieder, G., Wipf, H., Richter, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

3528. Schuldiner, S., G.W. Castellan, and J.P. Hoare, Electrochemical Behavior of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. I. Potential-Determining Mechanisms. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 16.

First Author: Schuldiner, S.
All Authors: Schuldiner, S., Castellan, G. W., Hoare, J. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, loading, overvoltage

3529. Schulte, U., Die ‘Kalte Kernfusion’ – ein wissenschaftlicher Artifakt [in German] (‘Cold fusion’ – a scientific artifact). Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 2002. 142(14): p. 77.

First Author: Schulte, U.
All Authors: Schulte, U.
Keywords: Discussion

3530. Schultz, R. and J.P. Kenny, Electronuclear catalysts and initiators: The di-neutron model for cold fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(29): p. 58.

First Author: Schultz, R.
All Authors: Schultz, R., Kenny, J. P.
Keywords: theory dineutron

3531. Schultze, J.W., et al., Prospects and problems of electrochemically induced cold nuclear fusion. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1289.

First Author: Schultze, J. W.
All Authors: Schultze, J. W., Koenig, U., Hochfeld, A., Van Calker, C., Kies, W.
Keywords: review, critique, history

3532. Schwinger, J. Nuclear Energy in an Atomic Lattice. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, d-p fusion, ICCF-1

The distinct nature of the cold fusion regime is emphasized: electromagnetic selection rules suppress radiation, permitting excess energy transference to the lattice; the coherent nature of the wave-function is at variance with the standard separation between barrier penetration and nuclear reactivity. The discussion is restricted to tritium production, based on the dd reaction that populates the first excited state of 4He, which decays into t+p, whereas the formation of 3He+n is energetically forbidden. Production rates compatible with the broad range of experimental results are realized within a narrow parametric interval. The great sensitivity to the physical circumstances is reminiscent of the reproducibility problems that have plagued this field.

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3533. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. 1. Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters, 1990. 15: p. 221.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3534. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: a hypothesis. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45A: p. 756.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3535. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: Does it have a future? Evol. Trends Phys. Sci., Proc. Yoshio Nishina Centen. Symp., Tokyo 1990, 1991. 57: p. 171.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: history, review

Abstract. The case against the reality of cold fusion is outlined. It is based on preconceptions inherited from experience with hot fusion. That cold fusion refers to a different regime is emphasized. The new regime is characterized by intermittency in the production of excess heat, tritium and neutrons. A scenario is sketched, based upon the hypothesis that small segments of the lattice can absorb released nuclear energy.

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3536. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1991. 85: p. 711.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, critique

3537. Schwinger, J. Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

As Polonius might have said: “Neither a true-believer nor a disbeliever be.” From the very beginning in a radio broadcast on the evening of March 23, 1989, I have asked myself-not whether Pons and Fleischmann are right-but whether a mechanism can be identified that will produce nuclear energy by manipulations at the atomic-the chemical-level. Of course, the acceptance of that interpretation of their data is needed as a working hypothesis, in order to have quantitative tests of proposed mechanisms.

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3538. Schwinger, J., Energy Transfer In Cold Fusion and Sonoluminescence. 1994.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory,

3539. Schwinger, J., Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. xiii.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory

3540. Scott, C.D., et al., A preliminary investigation of cold fusion by electrolysis of heavy water. 1989: Oak Ridge.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma, heat, tritium+, electrolysis

3541. Scott, C.D., et al. The Initiation of Excess Power and Possible Products of Nuclear Interactions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, ICCF-1, electrolysis

The electrolysis of heavy water is being investigated with an insulated flow calorimetric system. In each of a series of tests, the electrolyte was 0.1 to 1.0 LiOD in D2O and cylindrical palladium cathodes surrounded by wire-wound platinum anodes were used at cathode current densities of 100 to 800 mA/cm^2. The most recent test was made with a “closed system” without off-gas in which the electrolysis gases were internally recombined. Fast neutrons and gamma rays were measured continuously during each test. It was shown that certain system perturbations could initiate and extend the generation of excess power. In one test, an apparent increase in the neutron count rate was also coincident with system perturbations.

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3542. Scott, C.D., et al., Preliminary Investigation of Possible Low-Temperature Fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 115.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Greenbaum, E., Michaels, G. E., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Petek, M., Scott, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, gamma emission, heat+, neutron+

3543. Scott, C.D., et al., Measurement of excess heat and apparent coincident increases in the neutron and gamma-ray count rates during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 103.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, neutron, Pd gamma emission, tritium D2O, H2O

3544. Searson, P.C., Hydrogen evolution and entry in palladium at high current density. Acta metall. Mater., 1991. 39: p. 2519.

First Author: Searson, P. C.
All Authors: Searson, P. C.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, loading, Pd

3545. Seeliger, D., et al., Search for DD-fusion neutrons during heavy water electrolysis. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34(7): p. 991.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Meister, A., Marten, H., Ohms, D., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, heat-, energy

3546. Seeliger, D., Physical problems of the investigations into nuclear fusion in condensed media. Isotopenpraxis, 1990. 26: p. 384 (in German).

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: review, theory

3547. Seeliger, D., et al. Evidence of Neutron Emission From a Titanium Deuterium System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Bittner, M., Meister, A., Schwierz, R., Streil, T.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, D2 ICCF-2

3548. Seeliger, D. and A. Meister, A simple plasma model for the description of d-d fusion in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2114.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Meister, A.
Keywords: theory

3549. Seeliger, D., Theoretical limits of nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Acta Phys. Hung., 1991. 69: p. 257.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: theory

3550. Segre, S.E., et al., A Search for Neutron Emission from Deuterated Palladium. 1989.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Batistoni, P., Bertalot, L., Bettinali, L., Martone, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd,

3551. Segre, S.E., et al., A mechanism for neutron emission from deuterium trapped in metals. Europhys. Lett., 1990. 11: p. 201.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Atzeni, S., Briguglio, S., Romanelli, F.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

3552. Seifritz, W., No end to cold fusion (Kalte Fusion und kein Ende). GIT Fachz. Lab., 1991. 35: p. 114 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: theory

3553. Seifritz, W., Ein neuer Weg zur Nutzbarmachung der Kernfusion?[“A new way of using nuclear fusion?”]. Atomwirtsch. Atomtech., 1996. 41: p. 729 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence

3554. Seifritz, W., Letter to the Editor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 357.

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Polemic

3555. Seitchie, J.A., A.C. Gossard, and V.J. Accarino, Knight shifts and susceptibilities of transition metals: Palladium. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1964. 136: p. 1119.

First Author: Seitchie, J. A.
All Authors: Seitchie, J. A., Gossard, A. C., Accarino, V. J
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd

3556. Seitz, R., Fusion in from the cold?” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 185.

First Author: Seitz, R.
All Authors: Seitz, R.
Keywords: theory

3557. Semiletov, S.A., et al., Electron-Diffraction Investigation of Tetragonal PdH. Kristallografiya, 1980. 25: p. 665.

First Author: Semiletov, S. A.
All Authors: Semiletov, S. A., Baranov, R. V., Khodryev, Y. P., Imamov, R. M.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen Electron Diffraction, structure, Gamma Phase, PdH

3558. Senjuh, T., et al. Study of Material Processing and Treatment for High Deuterium-Loading. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Asami, N., Mori, K., Sigemitsu, T.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, current density ICCF-6, electrolysis

3559. Senjuh, T., et al., Experimental study of electrochemical deuterium loading of Pd cathodes in the LiOD/D2O system. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 617.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Miyashita, S., Sigemitsu, T., Asami, N.
Keywords: loading, Pd, PdD, resistivity, electrolysis, D2O

3560. Seo, M. and M. Aomi, Piezelectric response to surface stress change of a palladium electrode in sulfate aqueous solutions. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139(4): p. 1087.

First Author: Seo, M.
All Authors: Seo, M., Aomi, M.
Keywords: loading,, Pd

3561. Service, A.W., New Tomorrow Dawns As LANL Confirms Cold Fusion, in The New Mexican. 1989: Santa FeEditor.

First Author: Service, A. W.
All Authors: Service, A. W.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3562. Sevilla, J., et al., Some characteristics of titanium and palladium samples used in cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 188.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Fernandez, F., Escarpizo, B., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: surface analysis, titanium, electrolysis, D2, pressure, Pd, T/n

3563. Sevilla, J., et al. Time-Evolution of Tritium Concentration in the Electrolyte of Prolonged Cold Fusion Experiments and its Relation to Ti Cathode Surface Treatment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, D2O, separation method ICCF-3 separation factor electrolysis

Tritium concentration in the electrolyte has been carefully monitored in more than twenty electrolytic cold fusion experiments accomplished in open cells. In order to distinguish between T-natural enrichment (isotopic enrichment) and any other T source inside the cell a macroscopic theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. It is concluded that T-concentration variations in the electrolyte above the level due to natural enrichment can be detected with confidence and therefore that open-cell experiments are convenient to investigate T -production. In addition, some empirical correlations between model parameters (measured separation factors) and cathode surface treatments prior to experiment have been found.

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3564. Shackelford, J.F., CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook Diffusion of metals into metalsShackelford, J.F. 1964.

First Author: Shackelford, J. F.
All Authors: Shackelford, J. F.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd,

3565. Shaheen, M., et al. Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: H/D, Oklo, ICCF-2, natural reactor

3566. Shaheen, M. and M. Ragheb, Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in naturally occurring fission reactions and the possibility of deuteron disintegration. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1992. 158: p. 323.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M.
Keywords: geology, theory

3567. Shamoo, A.E., Editorial. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Shamoo, A. E.
All Authors: Shamoo, A. E.
Keywords: history critique

Before 1996, when I gave lectures on responsible conduct of research or research ethics, I used to emphasize the importance of ensuring in biomedical research the quality and integrity of research data. My reason for emphasizing this point was that, as opposed to situations associated with maintaining comparable standards in clinical trials, in which existing funding levels allow for the possibility that particular experiments will be repeated, in biomedical research, one cannot obtain funding to repeat research experiments that are large and expensive. For this reason, it was (and has remained) imperative that instances of possible fraud, misconduct and sloppy work be reduced from the outset. Because of limited funding, as a consequence, the self-correcting process of science may not be operative in these areas. I then used to end this part of my discussion by citing how in cold fusion research, and because of the potential significance and impact of the particular claims associated with this area, the self-correcting nature of science worked. The cold fusion experiments have been repeated dozens of times without success. The conclusion was that they were proven to be wrong. However, I was basing my conclusion on the numerous reports in newspapers and scientific magazines but not on any readings of the original literature.

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3568. Shanahan, K., A Possible Calorimetric Error in Heavy Water Electrolysis on Platinum. Thermochim. Acta, 2002. 387(2): p. 95-101.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: error, heat critique

Abstract A systematic error in mass flow calorimetry calibration procedures potentially capable of explaining most positive excess power measurements is described. Data recently interpreted as providing evidence of the Pons-Fleischmann effect with a platinum cathode are reinterpreted with the opposite conclusion. This indicates it is premature to conclude platinum displays a Pons and Fleischmann effect, and places the requirement to evaluate the erro-ڳ magnitude on all mass flow calorimetric experiments.

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3569. Shanahan, K., A Critique of the Student’s Guide To Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Critique

Dr. Edmund Storms has just released a new paper on cold fusion (CF, aka LENR, or CANR) that contains a section (in Chapter 8) that purports to address the issues I raise with cold fusion calorimetry in my paper and spf comments. I would like to address those comments dealing with my “calibration constant shift” (CCS) proposal to illustrate why they are incorrect.

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3570. Shanahan, K., Comments on Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 428: p. 207.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3571. Shanahan, K., Reply to ‘Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion,’ E. Storms. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 441: p. 210.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3572. Shani, G., et al., Evidence for a background neutron enhanced fusion in deuterium absorbed palladium. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72(1): p. 53.

First Author: Shani, G.
All Authors: Shani, G., Cohen, C., Grayevsky, A., Brokman, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, application, enhanced fusion

3573. Shankland, S., Storms: Interest in cold fusion resurging, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1994: Los AlamosEditor. p. 31.

First Author: Shankland, S.
All Authors: Shankland, S.
Keywords: newspaper, history

3574. Shanley, E.S., The simplest explanation. Chem. Health & Saf., 1995. 2(2): p. 4.

First Author: Shanley, E. S.
All Authors: Shanley, E. S.
Keywords: Polemic, SRI explosion, critique

3575. Shapira, D. and M. Saltmarsh, Nuclear Fusion in Collapsing Bubbles — Is It There? An Attempt to Repeat the Observation of Nuclear Emissions from Sonoluminescence. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002. 89(10): p. 104302-1.

First Author: Shapira, D.
All Authors: Shapira, D., Saltmarsh, M.
Keywords: Sonofusion

3576. Shapovalov, V.L., Test for additional heat evolution in electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode. JETP, 1989. 50: p. 117.

First Author: Shapovalov, V. L.
All Authors: Shapovalov, V. L.
Keywords: heat-, D2O, H2O, electrolysis, Pd

3577. Shaw, G.L., et al., Scenario for cold fusion by free quark catalysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102: p. 1441.

First Author: Shaw, G. L.
All Authors: Shaw, G. L., Shin, M., Bland, R. W., Fonda, L., Matis, H. S., Pugh, H. G., Slansky, R.
Keywords: theory, quark

3578. Sheldon, E., An overview of almost 20 years’ research on cold fusion. Contemporary Physics, 2008. 49(5).

First Author: Sheldon, E.
All Authors: Sheldon, E.
Keywords: review

3579. Shelton, D.S., et al., An assessment of claims of ‘excess heat’ in ‘cold fusion’ calorimetry. Thermochim. Acta, 1997. 297: p. 7.

First Author: Shelton, D. S.
All Authors: Shelton, D. S., Hansen, L. D., Thorne, J. M., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: critique, heat

3580. Shen, G., et al., The efficiency calculation of a low background neutron detection system. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1991. 25: p. 93 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shen, G.
All Authors: Shen, G., Li, S., Jing, W., Sui, Q., Li, Z., Yang, Z.
Keywords: neutron, method

3581. Sherfey, J.M. and A. Brenne, Electrochemical Calorimetry. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1958. 105(11): p. 665.

First Author: Sherfey, J. M.
All Authors: Sherfey, J. M., Brenne, A.
Keywords: method, heat

3582. Shibab-Eldin, A.A., et al., Cold fusion: effects of possible narrow nuclear resonance. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 965.

First Author: Shibab-Eldin, A. A.
All Authors: Shibab-Eldin, A. A., Rasmussen, J. O., Justice, M., Stoyer, M. A.
Keywords: theory

3583. Shibata, T., et al., A low background neutron measuring system and its application to the detection of neutrons produced by the D2O electrolysis. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1992. 316: p. 337.

First Author: Shibata, T.
All Authors: Shibata, T., Imamura, M., Shibata, S., Uwamino, Y., Ohkubo, T., Satoh, S., Yamakoshi, K., Oyama, N., Ohsaka, T., Yamamoto, N., Hatozaki, O., Niimura, N.
Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O

3584. Shikano, K., H. Shinojima, and H. Kanbe. D2 Release Process From Deuterated Palladium in a Vacuum. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shikano, K.
All Authors: Shikano, K., Shinojima, H., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: Pd, deloading, D2, heat, layer, resistivity Au-Pd-Au Ag-Pd-MnOx, ICCF-5

To enhance reproducibility of the phenomena taking place in deuterated palladium, we studied in detail the change in surface temperature, electrical resistance, and D2 pressure during the release of D2 from deuterated palladium in a vacuum. As a result, we categorized the temperature changes into three different types that were independent of coating materials. In almost all experiments, the resistance decreased and the D2 pressure initially increased briefly and then gradually decreased in the D2 release process. We also tried to simulate the temperature changes by calculating the balance between Joule heat and heat dispersion.

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3585. Shimamura, I., Intramolecular nuclear fusion in hydrogen-isotope molecules. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1989. 82: p. 304.

First Author: Shimamura, I.
All Authors: Shimamura, I.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, p-d fusion

3586. Shinojima, H., et al. Studies of d-d Reactions in Deuterated Palladium by Using Low-Energy Deuterium Ion Bombardment. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Hishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, PdD, branching ratio, energy, ICCF-5

The cross sections and branching ratios of d+d reactions were measured as a function of deuteron energy by using low-energy deuterium ion bombardment. The branching ratio of d(d,3He)n to d(d,p)t were found to be one to one at energies from 2.5 keV to 20 keV in the CM frame. The reaction rate of d(d,p)t at 2.5 keV was four orders of magnitude less than that at 20 keV. These energy dependences were good agreement with those extrapolated from measurements of the d+d reaction which was derived by the high-energy (mega-electron-volts) deuterium ion bombardments.

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3587. Shinojima, H., et al. Detection for Nuclear Products in Transport Experiments of Deuterium through Palladium Metals. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Nishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, ICCF-6

3588. Shioe, Y., et al., Measurement of neutron production rate regarding the quantity of LiNbO3 in the fracturing process under D2 atmosphere. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 1059.

First Author: Shioe, Y.
All Authors: Shioe, Y., Mondal, N. N., Chiba, M., Hirose, T., Fujii, M., Nakahara, H., Sueki, K., Shirakawa, T., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, D2, LiNbO3, ball mill, neutron

3589. Shirai, O., et al., Some experimental results relating to cold nuclear fusion. Bull. Inst. Chem. Res., Kyoto Univ., 1991. 69: p. 550.

First Author: Shirai, O.
All Authors: Shirai, O., Kihara, S., Sohrin, Y., Matsui, M.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, gamma emission

3590. Shirakawa, T., et al. Neutron Emission from Crushing Process of High Piezoelectric Matter in Deuterium Gas. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T.
Keywords: LiNbO3, D2, fractofusion, neutron, ball mill, ICCF-3

We studied neutron emission from a crushing process of a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal in deuterium gas atmosphere. We observed excess neutrons 3 counts / h with a confidence level of 99.95% that correspond 120 neutrons / h emission from process.

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3591. Shirakawa, T., et al., A neutron emission from lithium niobate fracture. Chem. Lett., 1993: p. 897.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T., Seimiya, T., Nakahara, H.
Keywords: fractofusion, ball mill LiNbO, neutron, titanium Pd

3592. Shirakawa, T., et al. Particle Acceleration and Neutron Emission in a Fracture Process of a Piezoelectric Material. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Sueki, K., Ikebe, T., Yamaoka, S., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Hirose, T., Nakahara, H., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiNbO3, D2, ICCF-4, H2

3593. Shkedi, Z., et al., Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1720.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z., McDonald, R. C., Breen, J. J., Maguire, S. J., Veranth, J.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, recombination, heat, electrolysis, critique

3594. Shkedi, Z., Response to “Comments on ‘Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells'”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 133.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z.
Keywords: critique, Good

3595. Shohoji, N., Unique features of hydrogen in palladium metal lattice: hints for discussing the possible occurrence of cold nuclear fusion. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1990. 9: p. 231.

First Author: Shohoji, N.
All Authors: Shohoji, N.
Keywords: discussion, Ce, Au, Ni

3596. Shoulders, K.R., Patents. 1991: US Patent 5,018,180 (1991); 5,054,046 (1991); 5,054,047 (1991); 5,123,039 (1992) and 5,148,461 (1992).

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: charge cluster patent,

3597. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders, Observations on the role of charge clusters in nuclear cluster reactions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 111.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: charge cluster, EV transmutation, Pd, Dash, critique, theory

3598. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders. Charge clusters in action. in Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Bethesda, MD: Integrity Research Institute.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: transmutation, charge cluster electron cluster EV

3599. Shoulders, K.R., Permittivity Transitions. J. New Energy, 2001. 5(2): p. 121.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: electron cluster, EV

3600. Shrikhande, V.K. and K.C. Mittal, Deuteration of Machined Titanium Targets for Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 2.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Mittal, K. C.
Keywords: Ti, loading

Cold fusion experiments were initiated with solid targets made from titanium loaded with deuterium gas on receipt of reports of the successful Frascati experiments1. The absorption of deuterium by Ti is a reversible process and when titanium is heated in a deuterium atmosphere, the reaction will continue until the concentration of deuterium in the metal attains an equilibrium value. This equilibrium value depends on the specimen temperature and the pressure of the surrounding deuterium atmosphere. Any imposed temperature or pressure change causes rejection or absorption of deuterium until a new equilibrium state is achieved. If the surface of titanium is clean, the rate of absorption increases rapidly with temperature. At temperatures above 500у, the equilibrium is achieved in a matter of a few seconds. However deuterium absorption is considerably reduced if the surface of Ti is contaminated with oxygen. Keeping in view these facts, a procedure was evolved for titanium target preparation and subsequent deuteration. The following sections describe the details of preparation of the targets, their chemical cleaning and degassing followed by deuteration process.

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3601. Shrikhande, V.K., et al. Preliminary Results on the Variation of Electrical Resistance of TiDx Wire With Deuterium Concentration. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Kaushik, T. C., Auluck, S. K. H., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: TiD, resistance, resistivity, ICCF-5

Experiments have been carried out to study the variation and reproducibility of electrical resistance as a functiol1 of the deuterium concentration (D/Ti) in titanium wires. Deuterium loading is carried out in a series of steps by passing a D.C. current to ohmically heat the sample for some time in D2 gas until a measurable quantity is absorbed. After every loading, the wire resistance and decrease in the gas pressure are measured at room temperature using a four probe resistance meter (Ѱ.2% accuracy) and an oil manometer respectively.Significantly, it is observed that an apparently simple property like electrical resistance is not easily reproducible. The pre loading heat treatment and residual gases in high vacuum appear to play an important role on the behaviour of the resistance in TiDx. The preliminary results also suggest that this property may not be useful in estimating the deuterium content in titanium.

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3602. Shunjin, W., Effect of Coulomb screening on deuterium-deuterium fusion cross section. Gaoneng Wuli Yu Hewuli, 1991. 15(8): p. 761 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shunjin, W.
All Authors: Shunjin, W.
Keywords: theory, Gamow

3603. Shyam, A., et al., Multiplicity Distribution of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 4.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, D,

3604. Shyam, A., et al. Observation of High Multiplicity Bursts of Neutrons During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium Cathode Using the Dead-Time Filtering Technique. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Kaushik, T. C., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, ICCF-5

A series of experiments were carried out to detect production of neutrons from a commercial (Milton Roy) palladium-nickel electrolytic cell operated with 0.1 M LiOH or LiOD as the electrolyte at a current density of ~ 80 mA/cm^2. Neutron emission was monitored using a bank of 16 BF3 detectors embedded in a cylindrical moderator assembly. A dead-time filtering technique was employed to detect the presence of neutron “bursts” if any and characterize the multiplicity distribution of such neutron bursts. It was found that with an operating Pd-D2O cell located in the centre of the neutron detection set-up, the daily average neutron count rate increased by about 9% throughout a one month period, over the background value of ~ 2386 counts/day indicating an average daily neutron production of ~ 2220 neutrons/day by the cell. In addition analysis of the dead-time filtered counts data indicated that about 6.5% of these neutrons were emitted in the form of bursts of 20 to 100 neutrons each. On an average there were an additional 6 burst events per day during electrolysis with LiOD over the daily average background burst rate of 1.7 bursts/day. The frequency of occurrence of burst events as well as their multiplicity was significantly higher with D20 + LiOD in the cell when compared with background runs as also light water “control” runs.

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3605. Shyam, A. and T.C. Kaushik, Absence of neutron emission during interaction of deuterium with metal at low energies. Pramana, 1998. 50: p. 75.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3606. Shyam, A., Strange behavior of tritiated natural water. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 264.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A.
Keywords: critique tritium

3607. Siegmann, H.C., L. Schlapbach, and C.R. Brundle, Self-restoring of the active surface in the hydrogen sponge LaNi5. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1978. 40: p. 972.

First Author: Siegmann, H. C.
All Authors: Siegmann, H. C., Schlapbach, L., Brundle, C. R.
Keywords: LaNi5, D, H, surface, loading, Magnetic Susceptibility

3608. Silver, D.S., J. Dash, and P.S. Keefe, Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 423.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J., Keefe, P. S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, tritium, neutron, gamma emission, transmutation

3609. Silver, D.S. and J. Dash. Surface Studies of Palladium After Interaction with Hydrogen Isotopes. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, transmutation, ICCF-7

3610. Silvera, I.F. and E. Moshary, Deuterated palladium at temperatures from 4.3 to 400K and pressures to 105 kbar: search for cold fusion. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 42(14): p. 9143.

First Author: Silvera, I. F.
All Authors: Silvera, I. F., Moshary, E.
Keywords: PdD, high pressure, loading low temperature

3611. Simanek, E., Quantum tunnelling through a fluctuating barrier. Enhancement of cold-fusion rate. Physica A, 1990. 164: p. 147.

First Author: Simanek, E.
All Authors: Simanek, E.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

3612. Simons, J.W. and T.B. Flanagan, Effects of the Electronic Band Shape of Palladium Metal on the Proton Model for Hydrogen Absorption. Canadian J. Chem., 1965. 43: p. 1665.

First Author: Simons, J. W.
All Authors: Simons, J. W., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, Density Of States, theory

3613. Simons, J.K. and T.B. Flanagan, Absorption Isotherms of H in the Alpha-Phase of the H-Pd System. J. Phys. Chem., 1965. 69: p. 3773.

First Author: Simons, J. K.
All Authors: Simons, J. K., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: PdH, pressure, thermodynamic, resistivity

3614. Singh, M., et al., Verification of the George Oshawa Experiment for Anomalous Production of Iron From Carbon Arc in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 266.

First Author: Singh, M.
All Authors: Singh, M., Saksena, M. D., Dixit, V. S., Kartha, V. B.
Keywords: Fe, transmutation, nonradioactive, carbon, plasma

A direct current arc was run between ultrapure graphite electrodes dipped in ultrapure water for 1 to 20 h, The graphite residue collected at the bottom of the water trough was analyzed for iron content by a conventional spectrographic method, It was found, in the first few experiments, that the iron content in the graphite residue was fairly high, depending on the duration of the arcing, The experiment was repeated initially six times, and the results showed large variations in iron content (50 to 2000 parts per million (ppm)) in the carbon residue, In the second series of experiments, which were done with the water trough fully covered, the amount of iron in the carbon residue decreased significantly (20 to 100 ppm), Here also there were large variations in the iron concentration in the residue, although the experiments were performed under identical conditions, Whether iron is really being synthesized through transmutation from carbon and oxygen as suggested by George Oshawa or is getting concentrated to different degrees through some other phenomenon is not currently clear, The iron in the carbon residue was also analyzed mass spectrometrically for the abundance of its various isotopes, and the results were more or less the same as that of natural iron, Besides iron, the presence of other elements like silicon, nickel, aluminum, and chromium was also determined in the carbon residue, and it was found that the variation of their concentrations followed the same pattern as that of iron.

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3615. Sinha, B., et al., Observations of neutron bursts in electrolysis of heavy water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 275.

First Author: Sinha, B.
All Authors: Sinha, B., Viyogi, Y. P., Chattopadhyaya, S., Mazumdar, M. R. D., Murthy, G. S. N., Muthukrishnan, G., Bandyopadhyaya, T., Trivedi, M. D., Ghosh, D., Srivastava, D. K., Sen, P.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron gamma emission, heat- NaCl

3616. Sinha, K.P. and D.C. Albright, The role of local electron pairing in facilitating fusion, fission and other mechanisms in reproducible experiments. 1999.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Albright, D. C.
Keywords: theory, electron pairing,

3617. Sinha, K.P. and P.L. Hagelstein. Electron Screening in Metal Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3618. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg. A model for enhanced fusion reaction in a solid matrix of metal deuterides. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Theory

Our study shows that the cross-section for fusion improves considerably if d-d pairs are located in linear (one-dimensional) chainlets or line defects. Such non-equilibrium defects can exist only in a solid matrix.  Further, solids harbor lattice vibrational modes (quanta, phonons) whose longitudinal-optical modes interact strongly with electrons and ions.  One such interaction, resulting in potential inversion, causes localization of electron pairs on deuterons. Thus, we have attraction of D+ – D- pairs and strong screening of the nuclear repulsion due to these local electron pairs (local charged bosons: acronym, lochons).  This attraction and strong coupling permits low-energy deuterons to approach close enough to alter the standard equations used to define nuclear-interaction cross-sections. These altered equations not only predict that low-energy-nuclear reactions (LENR) of D+ – D- (and H+ – H-) pairs are possible, they predict that they are probable.

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3619. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg, Lochon-mediated Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 55-63.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep orbital, Fragmentation, LENR, Lochon, Strong screening

In heavily hydrogenated (deuterated) palladium crystals, the crystallinity is degraded. This non-uniformity results in phonon modes that are localized and of higher frequency than for unloaded lattices. These modes create dynamic electrostatic fields that couple strongly with both bound and free electrons and the hydrogen (H and D) sub-lattice. A consequent potential inversion leads to the formation of “lochons” (local-charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state) and results in H− or D− ions in the sub-lattice. The nuclear-Coulomb repulsion between colliding D+ D− ion pairs in the sub-lattice is considerably reduced by the resultant “strong screening” and “lochon-drag” effects. Furthermore, work is done, by the bound lochon in a D− ion attracting an adjacent D+ ion. This results in reductions: of the deuteron’s electron-orbital radii, as the ion pair approaches; of the mass deficit between the deuteron pair and a 4He atom (or a proton pair and a 2He/2H atom); and finally of the Coulomb repulsion between nuclear protons in a helium nucleus. Thus, the end product of such a deuteron-pair fusion is an excited-helium nucleus (4He*) with lower energy relative to that resulting from energetic deuteron collisions. This reduced energy of the excited nucleus may be lower than its new fragmentation levels. The effect of lochon mediation, to alter the nuclear potential-well and fragmentation energies, allows decay to the 4He ground states to be free of particulate radiation. This decay process, of “neutral” 2He (from p+p) or 4He excited nuclei, is also a basis for observed transmutation.

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3620. Sinha, A. and A. Meulenberg, Quantum-correlated Fluctuations, Phonon-induced Bond Polarization, Enhanced Tunneling, and Low-energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Bond polarization, Correlated fluctuations, Lattice-assisted tunneling, LENR, Phonons

In heavily (deuterated or hydrogenated) palladium, some of the crystallinity is lost. As a consequence, the localized phonon modes of the crystal/damaged-region interface have a much higher frequency than the host. These high-frequency modes create electrostatic fields that interact strongly with electrons of the local atoms. A resulting instantaneous potential inversion, from polarization, leads to the formation of lochons (local charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state, perhaps isolated from the Pd d-orbital energy levels) and of an associated H+ or D+ ion (with its two shared electrons instantaneously isolated into the adjacent Pd d-levels). The Coulomb repulsion between the nuclei of these pairs is greatly reduced by strong screening from the lochons that can even generate an attractive polarization potential. Furthermore, the mutual tunneling penetration probability of the Coulomb barrier is enhanced by correlated fluctuations. This arises from the generalized uncertainty relations, x px,E t ≥ (n + 1/2)h/(1 − ρ2)0.5, where n may be on the order of 10-100 and where results from two models are combined. The integer n values represent excitations in the phonon modes of the H or D sub-lattice and ρ is the correlation coefficient with 0 < ρ < 1. Higher values of nand ρ, for a particle in a potential well, imply less localization and greater uncertainties in location (i.e., extending its probability distribution further into the barrier). These periodic fluctuations into the barrier are an interference effect similar to that of beat frequencies.

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3621. Sinha, A., Model of low energy nuclear reactions in a solid matrix with defects. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A.
Keywords:

3622. Sioda, R.E., Heat effects during room-temperature electrolysis of deuterium oxide. Bull. Electrochem., 1989. 5(12): p. 902.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pt, D2O, heat, method

3623. Sioda, R.E. and T.Z. Fahidy, A simplified approach to the thermal behaviour of electrolytic Dewar cell calorimeters. J. Appl. Electrochem., 1992. 22: p. 347.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E., Fahidy, T. Z.
Keywords: heat, method

3624. Sioda, R., Cavity in Metal (Hohlraum) Limited-Radiation Effect Law. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1994. 3: p. 349.

First Author: Sioda, R.
All Authors: Sioda, R.
Keywords: theory, hot spot

3625. Sjland, K.A., P. Kristiansson, and K.G.J. Westergard. Liquid Scintillator Detection and Multiparameter Data Acquisition for Neutron Detection in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sjland, K. A.
All Authors: Sjland, K. A., Kristiansson, P., Westergard, K. G. J.
Keywords: neutron, method, ICCF-2

3626. Skelton, E.F., et al., In situ Monitoring of Crystallographic Changes in Pd Induced by Diffusion of D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1998. 58(22).

First Author: Skelton, E. F.
All Authors: Skelton, E. F., Hagans, P. L., Qadri, S. B., Dominguez, D. D., Ehrlich, A. C., Hu, J. Z.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, diffusion

3627. Skerrett, P.J., Cold Fusion at Texas A&M: Problems, but No Fraud. Science, 1990. 250: p. 1507.

First Author: Skerrett, P. J.
All Authors: Skerrett, P. J.
Keywords: history

3628. Skibbe, U. and G. Neue, A 2D-NMR method to study near-surface regions of conductors. Colloids Surf., 1990. 45: p. 235.

First Author: Skibbe, U.
All Authors: Skibbe, U., Neue, G.
Keywords: surface analysis, Pd, diffusion, loading, electrolysis

3629. Slanina, Z., Towards molecular-thermodynamic aspects of postulated Pd/D low-temperature nuclear fusion: a useful example of a failure of the conventional translation partition function. Thermochim. Acta, 1989. 156: p. 285.

First Author: Slanina, Z.
All Authors: Slanina, Z.
Keywords: theory

3630. Smedley, S.I., et al. The January 2, 1992, Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System at SRI International. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Smedley, S. I.
All Authors: Smedley, S. I., Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: explosion, SRI, accident, ICCF-3

This paper reviews the accident that occurred at SRI International on January 2, 1992. A plausible explanation for the cause of the accident is proposed, and recommendat ions are made pertaining to the safety of future experiments. These recommendations relate to the design of electrolysis experiments, and to the behavior of recombination catalysts, and may provide useful guidelines for other workers in the field.

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3631. Smilga, A.V. and V.P. Smilga, A small physical effect. Ross. Khim. Zh., 1996. 40(3): p. 122 (in Russian).

First Author: Smilga, A. V.
All Authors: Smilga, A. V., Smilga, V. P.
Keywords: theory

3632. Smith, D.P. and G.J. Derge, The Occlusion and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals. A. Metallographic Study of Palladium-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1935. LXVI: p. 253.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Derge, G. J.
Keywords: Pd H, diffusion, Excess Volume, Chemical Etch

3633. Smith, D.P. and C.S. Barret, Note on the Arrangement of Phases in Pd-H. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940. 62: p. 2565.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Barret, C. S.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, structure

3634. Smith, T.F. and G.K. White, Gruneisen Parameters , Electron-Phonon Enhancement and Superconductivity for Pd-H Alloys. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1977. 7: p. 1029.

First Author: Smith, T. F.
All Authors: Smith, T. F., White, G. K.
Keywords: Thermal Expansion, Pd, H, superconductivity

3635. Sobkowski, J., Cold fusion – facts and opinions. Wiad. Chem., 1990. 44: p. 587 (in Polish).

First Author: Sobkowski, J.
All Authors: Sobkowski, J.
Keywords: review

3636. Sobotka, L.G. and P. Winter, Fracture without fusion (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 601.

First Author: Sobotka, L. G.
All Authors: Sobotka, L. G., Winter, P.
Keywords: fractofusion, neutron, D2O

3637. Sof’ina, V.V., Activation of Hydrogen Adsorption by Palladium. Pribory i Teckh. Eksp., 1963(4): p. 174.

First Author: Sof’ina, V. V.
All Authors: Sof’ina, V. V.
Keywords: activation, Pd, H2, loading

3638. Sohlberg, K. and K. Szalewicz, Fusion rates for deuterium in titanium clusters. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 144(6,7): p. 365.

First Author: Sohlberg, K.
All Authors: Sohlberg, K., Szalewicz, K.
Keywords: theory, distance

3639. Soifer, V.N., et al., Neutron yield in heavy-water electrolysis. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1990. 35(6): p. 546.

First Author: Soifer, V. N.
All Authors: Soifer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeev, F.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron, titanium, Pt, Ti-V

3640. Sona, P.G., et al., Preliminary tests on tritium and neutrons in cold nuclear fusion within palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 713.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Parmigiani, F., Barberis, F., Battaglia, A., Berti, R., Buzzanca, G., Capelli, A., Capra, D., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron

3641. Sona, P.G. and M. Ferrari, The possible negative influence of dissolved O2 in cold nuclear fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 678.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: Li, Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis

3642. Song, X. and J. Liu, Cold fusion and its lessons. Juaxue Tongbao, 1997(1): p. 54 (in Chinese).

First Author: Song, X.
All Authors: Song, X., Liu, J.
Keywords: review

3643. Soriaga, M.P., Surface Electrochemical Studies of Pd in Alkaline D2O Solutions. 1990.

First Author: Soriaga, M. P.
All Authors: Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: Pd, surface, D, AES, XPS, TDMS, analysis

3644. Southon, J.R., et al., Upper limit for neutron emission from cold deuteron-triton fusion. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(5): p. R1899.

First Author: Southon, J. R.
All Authors: Southon, J. R., Stark, J. W., Vogel, J. S., Waddington, J. C.
Keywords: titanium D2, electrolysis, neutron

3645. Soyfer, V.N., et al., Neutron emission during heavy water electrolysis. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 1992. 43: p. 1041.

First Author: Soyfer, V. N.
All Authors: Soyfer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeyev, A. F.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium D2O, neutron, Ti-V, Pt, Vanadium

3646. Spallone, A., et al. New Electrolytic Procedure for the Obtainment of Very High H/Pd Loading Ratios. Preliminary Attempts for its Application to the D/Pd System. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-8

A new electrolytic protocol is proposed, capable of insuring a very high Hydrogen loading of thin Palladium wires. The main characteristic of the procedure consists in the use of a particular electrolyte containing very small amounts of alkaline-earth metals dissolved in a diluted acid solution (H2O+HCl).The addition of alkaline-earth metals to the electrolyte appears to be decisive for the achievement of HlPd loading ratios close to 1. Two independent Research Groups have tested the protocol with similar results.Probably because of the presence of contaminants in the heavy water, less satisfactory results have been obtained for the DlPd loading ratios (best result: R/Ro = 1.52; DlPd ~ 0.97)

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3647. Spallone, A., et al. Experimental studies to achieve H/Pd loading ratio close to 1 in thin wires, using different electrolytic solutions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, thin wires, electrolysis, alcohol, H2O

Systematic studies have been performed in order to achieve very high concentration of Hydrogen (or Deuterium) into a Palladium lattice.In a very diluted acid electrolytic cell a thin Pd cathode wire (100 mm) and tick anode Pt wires (0.5 mm) has been used as electrodes in a coaxial geometry. Normalised resistance (R/Ro) of Pd-H wire system has been measured on-line and used as reference of H/Pd values.Alcoholic solution (95%) and electrolytic solution (5%) has been used with addition of a very low amount of Sr and Hg ions; high loading results have been achieved with a satisfactory grade of reproducibility.

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3648. Spallone, A., et al. An Overview Of Experimental Studies On H/Pd Over-Loading With Thin Pd Wires And Different Electrolytic Solutions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords:

ABSTRACT Hundreds of electrolytic loading tests of thin Pd wires in different experimental conditions have been performed in order to find out the best procedures for stable, high hydrogen overloading into the palladium lattice.In a very dilute acid solution thin Pd cathodes (50 or 100 mm in diameter) and thick Pt anodes (0.5 mm in diameter) were used in a parallel or coaxial geometry. Normalised resistance (R/Ro) of the Pd cathode was on-line and continuously measured in order to determine the actual H/Pd values.Different electrolytic solutions have been tested by adding to the acid solution very low amounts of Ca, Sr, Li and Hg ions; high loading H/Pd ratios have been achieved with a satisfactory grade of reproducibility.Several loading procedures have been performed in a wide range of electrolysis current (from a few mA up to one hundred mA) and at different Hg ion concentrations.The obtained results allowed for the definition of a loading protocol that ensures very high H/Pd over-loading. Stable R/Ro ≤ 1.2 values (corresponding to H/Pd ratios ≥ 1) can be currently achieved with an extremely low power electrolytic supply (10 V, 5 mA).

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3649. Spallone, A., et al. Measurements Of The Temperature Coefficient Of Electric Resistivity Of Hydrogen Overloaded Pd. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading

As reported in previous papers, we performed many electrolytic loading tests using thin Pd wires, achieving loading ratios of H/Pd  0.95 (H/Pd over-loading).  In particular, we defined a reproducible “loading protocol” suitable for achieving such an over-loading level, based on the use of very diluted acid electrolytic solutions (with additions of tenths of micro-moles of Ca or Sr or Li cations and some hundred nano-moles of Hg ions) and operating with electrolytic current cycles  from a few mA up to one hundred mA.By observing the day/night cyclic fluctuations of electrical resistance, as a function of the corresponding temperature variations, of stable, long term, H/Pd loadings we were able to calculate the temperature coefficient of resistivity (K) of the Pd-H system at very high H/Pd loadings. . . .

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3650. Spallone, A., et al. A Review of Experimental studies about Hydrogen over-loading within Palladium wires (H/Pd > 1). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Marmigi, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Stefano, V.
Keywords: excess heat, thin wires,

3651. Speiser, B. and A. Rieker, Energy from electrochemically induced nuclear fusion? Nachr. Chem. Tech. Lab., 1989. 37: p. 616 (in German).

First Author: Speiser, B.
All Authors: Speiser, B., Rieker, A.
Keywords: critique, heat, Fleischmann

3652. Spinrad, B.I., On cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 343.

First Author: Spinrad, B. I.
All Authors: Spinrad, B. I.
Keywords: theory

3653. Srinivasan, M., et al. Statistical Analysis of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, critique, method, ICCF-1

The paper discusses two techniques for studying the multiplicity spectrum of neutron emission in cold fusion experiments. In the first method the multiplicity distribution of counts in 20 ms time intervals is analysed to give information about the statistics of neutron emission in cold fusion. The results of six such experiments indicate that about 10 to 25% of the neutrons produced in cold fusion are emitted in the form of bunches 400 to 600 neutrons each. The other method discussed is an adaptation of the Artificial Dead Time method developed originally for reactor noise analysis as well as for the passive neutron assay of plutonium. An expression for the fractional loss of counts in the presence of dead time is derived. It is shown that a neutron detection efficiency of ~ 1% is adequate to estimate the average multiplicity as well as the fraction of bunched neutron emission in the presence of a Poisson background.

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3654. Srinivasan, M., et al. Observation of Tritium in Gas/Plasma Loaded Titanium Samples. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C., Rout, R. K., Kulkarni, L. V., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Nagvenkar, V. G., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: titanium, D2, tritium, ion implantation

The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then atleast six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non-equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focus device for deuteriding its central titanium electrode.

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3655. Srinivasan, M., Nuclear fusion in an atomic lattice: An update on the international status of cold fusion research. Curr. Sci., 1991. 60: p. 417.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: review

It is now two years since the first reports of the occurrence of nuclear reactions at ambient temperatures in deuterated metals such as Pd or Ti were published. ‘Cold fusion’, as this phenomenon has now come to be known, has, however, become embroiled in intense controversy with the scientific community becoming sharply polarized into ‘believers’ and ‘non-believers’ of this novel phenomenon. This ambivalence is primarily because of the non-reproducibility of the claimed results by many reputed research groups that have often used sophisticated experimental equipment. However, as the present review clearly shows, a large number of laboratories in many different countries have now obtained very reliable experimental evidence confirming the generation of 2.45-MeV neutrons, tritium, charged particles, X-rays, etc., both in electrolysis experiments and in a variety of other D2 -/plasma-/ion-beam-loading experiments, thereby confirming the nuclear origin of the phenomenon. . . .

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3656. Srinivasan, M., et al. Tritium and Excess Heat Generation During Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Alkali Salts With Nickel Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Bajpai, M. B., Ramamurthy, H., Mukherjee, U. K., Krishnan, M. S., Nayar, M. G., Naik, Y. P.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, Ni, H2O, ICCF-3

A number of open cell electrolysis experiments of the Mills and Kneizys type using Nickel as cathode, Pt wire as anode and aqueous solutions of carbonates of Potassium, Sodium and Lithium (natural and enriched) as electrolyte have been carried out in three different laboratories at Trombay. The cells were fabricated out of commercial dewar vacuum flasks. The difference in temperature at equilibrium between the operating cells and that of an identical dummy reference flask was measured to deduce excess heat. The cells were calibrated using resistance heaters. In all, studies have been carried out so far in 29 electrolytic cells with various electrolytes. In some cases a mixture of H20 and D20 was used. The cells were operated for a few weeks at a time and excess heat up to a maximum of 70% appears to be present in most cells when the input joule power is upto a watt or two. The current density was less than 40 mA/cm^2.Electrolyte samples before and after electrolysis were analysed for tritium content after microdistillation to eliminate chemiluminiscence effects. Samples from 18 out of 29 experiments analysed have indicated tritium levels varying in the region of 46 Bq/ml to 3390 Bq/ml. One cell with enriched Li2C03 solution in H20 which was monitored continuously for over a month indicated that tritium generation is continuous. Although the highest amount of tritium produced so far was with a K2C03 in 25% D20 cell, the generation of tritium in cells containing only H20 is a new finding.

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3657. Srinivasan, M., Meeting Report — Energy Concepts for the 21st Century. Curr. Sci., 2008. 94(7): p. 842.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Review

A one-day discussion meeting on the emerging new energy concepts for the 21st century was held at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bangalore. B. V. Sreekantan and S. Ranganathan (NIAS) and M. Srinivasan (formerly of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai) served as co-conveners for this meeting. There were about 40 participants at the meeting, majority of whom had a scientific background. Two of the participants represented an Indian venture capitalist firm.

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3658. Srinivasan, M., Wide-Ranging Studies on the Emission of Neutrons and Tritium by LENR Configurations: An Historical Review of the Early BARC Results, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 35-57.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3659. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micronuclear Explosions (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Theory

Speculations on Characteristics of NAE * Two decades into the CF/LENR/CMNSera, the mechanism behind these reactions still eludes us! * General agreement that phenomenon occurs on surface, in “special” regions -NAEs by Storms. * One could speculate that spatial extant of the NAE could possibly be a single nano particle or a grain. * Reasonable to expect that all NAEs wont be created simultaneously all over cathode surface. * Similarly, once formed, NAEs cant be expected to continue catalyzing reactions for “ever & ever”. * The NAEs must have a finite “active” lifetime ! * Could this be ns, microseconds, seconds, hours, days?

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3660. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micro-nuclear Explosions. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

In 1990 the BARC group presented results at several fora, based on our neutron multiplicity studies as well as tritium measurements, that suggested micro-nuclear explosions seem to occur at localized hot spots in which both Tritium and neutrons are generated, subject to the n/T branching ratio anomaly. It was estimated that about 108 to 1010 tritium generating lenr reactions take place in these hot spots accompanied by a very small fraction of neutrons. During the last few years several researchers have reported detecting a variety of transmutation reaction products in localized sites, often associated with some type of crater formation. Other experimenters have reported online detection of flashes of “thermal hot spots” in their cathodes. It is therefore tempting to speculate that perhaps the concept of micro-nuclear explosions can be extended to heat generating helium producing reactions too, as well as nuclear reactions responsible for transmutation products. Many theoretical models such as those that depend on the catalyzing role of some exotic intermediate agent (such as Bose-Einstein condensates, deuteron clusters, Erzions, poly neutrons, trapped neutrons etc) seem to point to the possibility of occurrence of chain events. Two decades into the CMNS era, it is therefore worthwhile reexamining the merits of the micro-nuclear explosion hypothesis and seek independent experimental evidence to either corroborate or refute such a hypothesis.

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3661. Srinivasan, M. and L.V. Krishnan, eds. ICCF16, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Abstracts. 2011, ISCMNS.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, L. V.
Keywords:

Book of Abstracts for ICCF-16 conference, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, February 6 – 11, 2011, Chennai, India

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3662. Srinivasan, M., G.H. Miley, and E. Storms, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Transmutations, in Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia: Science, Technology and Applications. 2011, Wiley. p. 503-540.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Miley, G. H., Storms, E.
Keywords: transmutation

Preprint of review article distributed to participants of ICCF 16 Conference held in Chennai during Feb 2011This article describes different aspects of the phenomenon called “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR) which investigate the occurrence of various types of nuclear reactions in certain “host” metals such as Palladium, Titanium, Nickel, etc.  when they are “loaded” or “charged” with deuterium (or hydrogen) to form the corresponding metallic deuterides (or hydrides).

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3663. Srinivasan, M., Neutron Emission in Bursts and Hot Spots: Signature of Micro-Nuclear Explosions? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 161-172.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Hot spots, Micro-nuclear explosion, Neutron bursts, Statistics, Tritium

Within a few months of the Fleischmann Pons announcement of 1989 several independent groups at BARC had confirmed the production of neutrons and tritium in a variety of electrolytic cells. Among the many findings of the BARC groups were the first hint of the neutron to tritium branching ratio anomaly, namely that tritium production is several orders of magnitude higher than that of neutrons, that neutrons and tritium are probably being emitted simultaneously and that at least in the case of titanium targets, the generated tritium is found to be entrenched in highly localized “hot spots”. But the most intriguing observation of all was that neutrons appeared to be emitted in sharp bursts of up to 10^3 neutrons per event. An integrated view of all these findings taken together led to the speculation that perhaps up to 10^10-10^12 tritons each were being generated in the form of micro-nuclear explosions, with neutron emission being only a minor side reaction in the process. Whatever the nature of the phenomenon, it seemed to be occurring in a highly localized fashion, both in space and time. Since those early days however the aspect of spatially localized occurrence of nuclear reactions has gained further acceptance through the concept of “Nuclear Active Environment”. The observation of thermal hot spots, micro-craters and isolated regions wherein transmutation products are concentrated on the cathode surface has reinforced the suspicion that the phenomenon is spatially localized. But how reliable is the evidence for localization in time? This review revisits our early neutron multiplicity measurements since it appears that confirmation of multiple neutron production is possibly the only handle we have to establish the temporal localization feature and thereby give some insight into the possible occurrence of micro-nuclear explosions which in turn would have a tremendous bearing on the nature of the theoretical mechanism governing these LENR reactions.

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3664. Srinivasan, M., Transmutations and Isotopic shifts in LENR Experiments: An Overview. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Isotopic anomalies, Multi-deuteron capture, Transmutation reactions

This overview presents a brief summary of observations of products of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the “host metal” nuclei react with loaded deuterium or hydrogen, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present prior to an experimental run.

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3665. Srinivasan, M., Revisiting the Early BARC Tritium Results. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Autoradiography, BARC Studies, Deuterium gas loading, Electrolysis experiments, Ni–H experiments, Plasma focus, Tritium measurements

Within days of the F&P announcement of 1989, several groups at BARCembarked on a program to look for the generation of neutrons and tritium when deuterium (or hydrogen) is loaded into metals such as Pd, Ti and Ni. Electrolytic, gas and plasma loading techniques were deployed. Post run electrolyte samples were analyzed for tritium content using standard liquid scintillation techniques. In the case of gas and plasma loaded “dry” samples, surface tritium content was measured directly using windowless beta counters. Autoradiography was deployed as a very effective tool to monitor the spatial distribution of tritium in the near surface layers of test samples. The first confirmation of copious tritium generation was obtained on 21 April 1989 in a commercial “Milton Roy” Pd-D2O electrolytic cell. The results obtained during the first year of the BARC Cold Fusion campaign were presented at ICCF 1 in March 1990 where we reported observing tritium generation in 22 different electrolytic cells, which were set up totally independently by diverse research groups. The present paper revisits the early BARCtritium results obtained in a variety of experimental configurations during the period 1989-1996.

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3666. Srinivasan, M. and A. Meulenberg, Preface. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: introduction, history

3667. Srinivasan, M., Observation of neutrons and tritium in the early BARC cold fusion experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3668. Srinivasan, M., Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3669. Srivastava, O.N., et al. On the Formation of Palladium Deuteride and its Relationship to Suspected Cold Fusion. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Srivastava, O. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, O. N., Babu, K. S. C., Lalla, N. P., Tiwari, R. S.
Keywords: theory

3670. Srivastava, Y.N., A. Widom, and L. Larsen, A Primer for Electro-Weak Induced Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 253-270.

First Author: Srivastava, Y. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, Y. N., Widom, A., Larsen, L.
Keywords:

In a series of papers, cited in the main body of the paper below, detailed calculations have been presented which show that electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can, under appropriate circumstances, be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons through weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge on various examples analyzed previously, present simplified order-of-magnitude estimates for each and illuminate a common unifying theme among them. PACS numbers: 12.15.Ji, 23.20.Nx, 23.40.Bw, 24.10.Jv, 25.30.-c

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3671. Stacey Jr., W.M., Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 268.

First Author: Stacey Jr., W. M.
All Authors: Stacey Jr., W. M.
Keywords: theory, muon

3672. Stachurski, J. and A. Frackiewicz, A New Phase in the Pd-C System Formed During the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetylene. J. Less-Common Met., 1985. 108: p. 249.

First Author: Stachurski, J.
All Authors: Stachurski, J., Frackiewicz, A.
Keywords: PdC, Lattice Parameter, Pd, H2, structure

3673. Steinert, C., Laser-induced ‘semicold’ fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 206.

First Author: Steinert, C.
All Authors: Steinert, C.
Keywords: laser, method, PdD

3674. Stella, B., et al. The FERMI Apparatus and a Measurement of Tritium Production in an Electrolytic Experiment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Alessio, M., Carradi, M., Croce, F., Ferrarotto, F., Improta, S., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Villoresi, G., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, expansion, ICCF-3

FERMI is a 7 BF3, 2 3He apparatus with high detection efficiency for moderated neutrons, pulse shape acquisition and good sensitivity to neutron bursts; it also performs a good statistical reconstruction of the average neutron energy. Gamma rays are detected by a complementary low background NaI detector. The total neutron background measured by the apparatus in the Gran Sasso INFN underground laboratory amounts to 0.09 Hz. A few different experiments have been performed with the same detector (see also the following contribution).A D2O-LiOD electrolysis with Pd cathode have been realized with emphasis on the cleanliness of all components. D2 and O2 produce gases were recombined using a room temperature catalyzer and the resulting water was monitored twice a day for tritium content; the same was done for samples of the electrolytic solution.Loading the Pd with variable currents, and a long patient of 130 μm (with much larger radial broadening) was observed in the first few days accompanied by a 60 – 100% tritium excess detected in the recombined water. The measured neutron rate in the same period was consistent with the background.

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3675. Stella, B., et al. Evidence for Stimulated Emission of Neutrons in Deuterated Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Milone, V., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: PdD, D, neutron, irradiation, Pd, ICCF-3

In order to study the effect of palladium in cold fusion, metallic deuterated Pd samples have been irradiated with partly moderated Am/Be neutrons and the resulting neutron intensity has been measured by the Fermi apparatus, an efficient and sophisticated detector for motivated neutrons.Once subtracted from the vessel + (empty) Pd effect measured in “blank” runs, and excess of 13.0 Ѡ0.6 neutrons per second (~4% of the total measured rate close percent has been detected. Assuming 2.45 MeV energy for the electrons emitted by the radiated sample, the resulting rate corresponds to several outgoing neutrons for every neutron impinging on the Pd-D sample. Similar measurements with cadmium absorber gave lower effects. We don’t observe any effect with gaseous deuterium.The underlying process can be interpreted as d-d fusion in a Pd-D lattice perturbed by neutrons. The excess, predominantly due to thermal incident neutrons, demonstrates that the palladium lattice strongly increases the probability for d-d fusion even almost at rest.

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3676. Stella, B., et al., A high efficiency, low background neutron and gamma detector for cold fusion experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1995. 355: p. 609.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Celani, F., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Spallone, A., Villoresi, G.
Keywords: neutron, method

3677. Stiff, D., Theories on Cold Fusion Abound, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Stiff, D.
All Authors: Stiff, D.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3678. Stilwell, D.E., K.H. Park, and M. Miles, Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies on the Electrolysis of Water and Heavy Water (D2O). J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 333.

First Author: Stilwell, D. E.
All Authors: Stilwell, D. E., Park, K. H., Miles, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat-, electrolysis

3679. Stoljarov, P., L. Urutskoev, and H. Lehn. Interaction Of Magnetic Monopoles On Polar Molecules. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stoljarov, P.
All Authors: Stoljarov, P., Urutskoev, L., Lehn, H.
Keywords: theory,

3680. Stoppini, G., Coulomb screening in superconducting PdH. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 13D: p. 1181.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

3681. Stoppini, G., Nuclear processes in hydrogen-loaded metals. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 81.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: Theory, neutron, transmutation

3682. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott. A Study of Electrolytic Tritium Production. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

Tritium production is being investigated using cathodes made from palladium and its alloys (with Li, C, S, B, and Be) to which are applied various surface treatments. Three anode materials (Pt, Ni and stainless steel), and various impurities in the electrolyte have also been used. Tritium has been produced in about 10% of the cells studied, but there is, as yet, no pattern of behavior that would make the effect predictable.

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3683. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott, Electrolytic tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 680.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium

Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in eleven cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made.

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3684. Storms, E., Review of experimental observations about the cold fusion effect. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 433.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

The experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann and independently by Jones.

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3685. Storms, E. and C. Talcott-Storms, The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 246.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott-Storms, C.
Keywords: Pd, loading, tritium, electrolysis, Pd

The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated, palladium cathode has been determined and compared to the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction.Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen adsorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can be lost from the cathode, thereby reducing the hydrogen concentration. This effect is influenced, in part, by impurities, the shape of the electrode, the charging rate, the achieved concentration of hydrogen and the length of time the maximum concentration is present.

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3686. Storms, E. Measurement of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann Type Electrolytic Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd D2O heat electrolysis, ICCF-3

Two samples of Pd were obtained from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K. K. (Japan). One sample gave 20% excess heat before the run was prematurely terminated and the other sample gave no excess heat. The sample giving excess energy contained only 0.8% excess volume while the nonproductive sample had 13.5 % excess volume. The calorimeter is dosed in an energy sense, pressured with D2, and stirred. Calibration was done before, during and after heat measurement. Four different calibration procedures were used including a blank using a platinum cathode. Temperature gradients were monitored and found to change when excess heat was produced. This change strongly suggests that normal electrolysis releases energy mainly at the anode while excess heat is released mainly at the cathode. The bulk D/Pd ratio was measured during initial charging and was found to reach 0.82. Voltage difference between cathode and reference electrode was measured and indicates that the deuterium concentration gradient is small during initial charging at 0.02A/cm^2. Excess volume in each palladium cathode was measured after each study. Heat production is proposed to be prevented if excess volume is too large.

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3687. Storms, E. The Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 28th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 1993. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3688. Storms, E. Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleischmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.

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3689. Storms, E., Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell using palladium sheet. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 230.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, excess volume, crack

Two pieces of palladium sheet similar to that used by Takahashi were loaded with deuterium in a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell, and heat production was measured. One sheet produced a steady increase in excess power that reached 7.5 W (20% of input power) before the study was interrupted. A second similar sheet from a different batch of palladium did not produce any measurable excess power. There were differences in the loading behavior, the maximum stoichiometry, and the presence of excess volume in the deuteride made from these materials. The first sheet contained 0.8% excess volume after having been deloaded from its maximum deuterium/palladium (D/Pd) ratio of 0.82 to 0.73, and the second sheet contained 13.5% excess volume while at its maximum ratio of 0.75. The high excess volume in the latter case is an indication of internal escape paths that reduce the required high D/Pd ratio.

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3690. Storms, E. Methods Required for the Production of Excess Energy Using the Electrolysis of Palladium in D2O-Based Electrolyte. in International Symposium, ÏCold Fusion and Advanced Energy SourcesÃâ€Ţ. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method

3691. Storms, E., Chemically-Assisted Nuclear Reactions. Cold Fusion, 1994. 1(3): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3692. Storms, E., Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 96.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+ Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density electrolysis

3693. Storms, E. The Nature of the Energy-Active State in Pd-D. in II Workshop on the Loading of Hydrogen/Deuterium in Metals. 1995. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Loading

Evidence is presented to show that the energy-active state is located within the surface of electrolyzed palladium.  Although a high average D/Pd ratio is required to form this state, this is not the only condition. Several additional conditions must exist to cause a very high surface composition to form and to cause a conversion of the resulting material from beta-PdD to another phase.  The required high surface composition depends only in part on a high average composition.  Absence of microcracks in the surface region, presence of surface and near surface impurities, and external energy application influence the eventual nucleation and growth of the required phase.

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3694. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: From reasons to doubt to reasons to believe. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 23.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3695. Storms, E. Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

A selection of experimental evidence supporting the “cold fusion” effect is evaluated. In addition, an effort is made to show why these observations can be considered real and correct. The total evidence set strongly demonstrates a new phenomenon worthy of potential technological development.

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3696. Storms, E., Cold fusion, a challenge to modern science. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 585.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3697. Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, loading, heat, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-6

A large collection of palladium samples, supplied by IMRA Materials (Japan), were studied to determine the relationship between energy production and various properties including the amount of excess volume, the open-circuit-voltage, and the maximum D/Pd ratio. The following conclusions result from the work:1. Palladium, no matter how well prepared, is very inhomogeneous with respect to the properties relevant to cold fusion. Therefore, most general conclusions can not be based on the behavior of one or a few samples.2. The bulk properties do not represent the properties of the nuclear-active-regions. Theoreticians need to take special note of this observation.3. Energy active palladium will continue to produce excess energy even after being subjected to acid treatment or physical removal of the surface. Therefore, “good” palladium is difficult to ruin.4. A pretest method has been developed to identify “good” palladium.

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3698. Storms, E., A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effect. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(8): p. 50.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, D2O, method, excess volume, OCV, electrolysis

A large collection of palladium plates having different treatments were examined to determine the composition limit produced after electrolysis in LiOD-D2O electrolyte, the amount of excess volume produced by the contained deuterium, the open circuit voltage generated by the material referenced to a platinum electrode, and the deloading rate in air. The influence of these properties on the ability to produce excess power from the “Pons-Fleischmann” effect was explored.The palladium was found to be very nonuniform with respect to the measured properties. Excess power production was associated with a minimum amount of excess volume and an open circuit voltage above 1.0 V. Samples capable of producing excess energy can be reactivated even after deloading or removal of the surface.

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3699. Storms, E., A Review of the Cold Fusion Effect. J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10(2): p. 185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3700. Storms, E., How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effect. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 261.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: method, heat, Fleischmann

ABSTRACT Conditions required for producing excess energy in PdD created in an electrolytic cell are described and reasons for their importance are discussed. This difficult to accept effect can now be produced with a high probability for success using the described procedures.

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3701. Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, loading, overvoltage, surface composition, D/Pd, ICCF-7

INTRODUCTION Lack of reproducibility is still the major reason CANR is not generally accepted and has not advanced into commercial use. The ability to reproduce any phenomenon depends on knowing the major variables and conditions required for the events to operate. In the case of cold fusion, even fundamental factors such as the D/Pd ratio and the crystal structure of the nuclear-active regions are not known. It is the intent of this paper to demonstrate several techniques for obtaining such information and the results obtained from their application to the Pons-Fleischmann Effect.

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3702. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3703. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited (translation into Chinese). Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

Translated by W.-S. Zhang.

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3704. Storms, E., Formation of b-PdD Containing High Deuterium Concentration Using Electrolysis of Heavy-Water. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1998. 268: p. 89.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd D2O PdD electrolysis loading OCV structure

ABSTRACT The limiting composition of beta-PdD obtained during electrolytic loading results from a complex competition between diffusion of D atoms through any surface barrier, diffusion within the bulk sample, and loss of deuterium gas from surface-penetrating cracks. Reductions in surface crack concentration and surface-barriers are essential steps to achieve high compositions. The highest compositions within any sample are located within the surface region as a complex patch-work of values. The open circuit voltage (OCV), referenced to platinum, is useful in understanding changes in the surface composition and structure. Values as high as -1.35 V have been observed for highly loaded beta-PdD. Evidence for several new, possibly impurity stabilized structures is given.

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3705. Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Generated by Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode and Heavy Water. in American Physical Society Meeting. 1999. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O heat, electrolysis

ABSTRACT Samples of palladium sheet supplied by IMRA Japan were tested for anomalous energy production using electrolysis in heavy water and a sensitive calorimeter. Several samples were found to produce significant power above that being applied to produce electrolysis. This behavior was found to correlate with certain properties of the palladium metal. In addition, the anomalous heat was shown to originate at the cathode.

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3706. Storms, E. A New Method for Initiating Nuclear Reactions. in First International Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Washington, DC: Unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review, heat, cavitation, sonotfusion, plasma discharge, fractofusion, biology

ABSTRACT Energy from present sources has proven to have serious limitations. Fortunately for the future of mankind, several new but controversial sources of energy have been discovered. This talk will describe a method to initiate nuclear reactions within solid materials, so-called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) when the environment is the focus or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) if the process is to be emphasized. Proposed is a new field of study which combines the electron environment (chemistry) with the nuclear environment (nuclear physics), two environments which are thought not to interact. The method generates energy without producing serious amounts of radiation or radioactive waste. In addition, the method is suggested as a means to reduce the radioactivity associated with previously generated nuclear waste. A wide range of experience obtained world-wide over the last ten years will be described and the controversial nature of the method will be discussed.

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3707. Storms, E., My life with cold fusion as a reluctant mistress. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, method, history, D/Pd, OCV

Over 9 years have passed since many of us were lured into believing that the Pons-Fleischmann effect would solve the world’s energy problems and make us all rich. Things have not yet worked out as we had hoped. Each of us have followed a different path through the labyrinth of this expectation. I would like to share with you my particular path and show you how I came to believe that problems of reproducibility are caused solely by the properties of the materials in which the nuclear reactions are proposed to occur.

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3708. Storms, E. Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann Effect. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pt, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Excess power was produced using a platinum cathode. Efforts to produce active cathodes by plating palladium onto various metals were largely unsuccessful.

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3709. Storms, E., The present status of chemically-assisted nuclear reactions. Infinite Energy, 2000. 5(29): p. 26.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3710. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 1. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(31): p. 10.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

NOTE: This file contains both Parts 1 and 2.ABSTRACT Many new studies are available to make an objective evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect possible. The phenomenon is conventionally known as “cold fusion,” or chemically assisted nuclear reactions (CANR)” when the environment is emphasized, or “low-energy nuclear-reactions (LENR)” if emphasis is placed on the process. A wide range of observations involving anomalous production of energy as well as nuclear products have been published. While many of the claims are still open to interpretation, the general conclusion is that an important, novel phenomenon has been discovered which deserves renewed interest.

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3711. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 2. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(32): p. 52.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3712. Storms, E., Description of a dual calorimeter. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(34): p. 22.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, method

A dual calorimeter is described which can be used to study electrolytic processes. Experience with this instrument has revealed several deficiencies inherent in the isoperibolic calorimeter design that apply to all calorimeters of this type when used to study the cold fusion effect.

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3713. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessment. 2001.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review effect of H2O

Many people still believe that cold fusion is the result of bad science. In contrast, numerous laboratories in at least 10 countries have now claimed production of anomalous energy using a variety of methods, many of which are now reproducible. This energy is proposed to result from nuclear reactions initiated within a special periodic array of atoms at modest temperatures (energy). Evidence for nuclear reactions involving fusion of deuterium, transmutation involving both light and heavy hydrogen, and nuclear interaction between heavy nuclei has been published. The claims, if true, reveal a new method to release nuclear energy without harmful radiation and without the radioactivity associated with conventional methods. This paper examines published evidence describing this new phenomenon in order to test its reality and to extend an understanding of the process.

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3714. Storms, E. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2001. Seattle, WA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O?

ABSTRACT A large data base now exists to support the claim for nuclear reactions, including fusion, being initiated in solid environments at modest temperatures. This phenomenon is called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or “cold fusion”. Detailed information supporting the claims can be obtained from the website (xxxx://home.netcom.com/~storms2/index.html) as well as from any scientific data base. These claims provide the incentive for this study. In this work, methods to produce anomalous energy are studied using electrolytic loading in D2O of various materials (the Pons-Fleischmann method). Past work has concentrated on using palladium as the active material. This paper will demonstrate that energy-producing reactions can be made to occur in materials other than palladium. A unique method is proposed to explore many of the variables associated with the phenomenon.

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3715. Storms, E., Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 45.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O

3716. Storms, E., The Nature of the Nuclear-Active-Environment Required for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 32.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

ABSTRACT A collection of observations is used to characterize the nuclear-active environment required to initiate low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).

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3717. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

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3718. Storms, E. Why Cold Fusion Has Been So Hard to Explain and Duplicate. in American Physical Society Winter Meeting. 2003. Austin Convention Center, Austin, TX: unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, thin film, NAE, surface composition, theory

The nuclear active environment for the Pons-Fleischmann method is proposed to be in the complex surface layer that forms by electrodeposition, not in the bulk material.  This surface is not beta-PdD as many theories and explanation have assumed.  Therefore, most theories are unhelpful because they do not explain what happens in the real world.

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3719. Storms, E. How to Make A Cheap and Effective Seebeck Calorimeter. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

The Seebeck calorimeter is very effective in measuring heat generation over a wide range of power and with high sensitivity and stability.  Such a device can be constructed cheaply and easily, although with considerable investment of time.  A successful example is described.

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3720. Storms, E. Use Of A Very Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter To Study The Pons-Fleischmann And Letts Effects. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter, laser stimulation

Characteristics of a commercial Seebeck calorimeter are described. This very stable instrument is applied to a study of the Pons-Fleischmann effect using a palladium anode and a platinum cathode.  The use of a laser to stimulate anomalous heat production (the Letts effect) is also described.  Positive results were obtained for both effects and these reveal important aspects of the nuclear-active-environment.

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3721. Storms, E. What Conditions Are Required To Initiate The Lenr Effect? in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann    effect occurs is wrong.  The environment is not highly loaded beta-PdD.  Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium.  In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically important.  This new insight requires different explanations and experimental approaches than have been previously used.

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3722. Storms, E., Estudo da Fusao a Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Brazilian Portuguese.PrefácioMeu interesse em fusão a frio começou pouco depois dos Professores Pons e Fleischmann anunciarem sua descoberta em 1989, então eu era mais um cientista trabalhando em pesquisa convencional costumeiro em LANL (Los Alamos Laboratório Nacional). Das numerosas tentativas de duplicar os anúncios, eu fui afortunado em produzir tritério assim como energia anômala. Não há nada como ver um fenômeno para fazer uma pessoa acreditar que é real, sem ter em conta o que pessoas menos observadoras possam dizer. Também, vendo muitos companheiros cientistas agindo tolamente e adquirindo uma educação adicional mas decepcionante. Desde que me aposentei de LANL há doze anos continuei a investigar o assunto, escrever documentos, incluindo várias revisões científicas, e pressionar para aceitação do fenômeno. A grande coleção de referências, totalizando quase 3000, adquiridos neste esforço transformou-se na BIBLIOTECA em xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Com a ajuda essencial de Britz Dieter e Rothwell Jed, esta coleção será mantida até data em que o campo cresce.

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3723. Storms, E., Estudio de la Fusion en Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Spanish.Mi interés en la fusión en frío comenzó poco después que los Profesores Pons y Fleischmann anunciaran su descubrimiento en 1989. Entonces, yo era un científico más trabajando en la investigación convencional acostumbrada en el LANL (Laboratorio Nacional Los Álamos). Entre los numerosos intentos por duplicar lo ya anunciado, he sido afortunado en producir triterio, así como energía anómala. No hay nada como trabajar un fenómeno para hacer creer a una persona que es real, sin tener en cuenta lo que otras personas menos observadoras pudieran decir. También vemos actuar livianamente a muchos colegas científicos que adquirieron una educación adicional pero decepcionante. Desde mi jubilación en el LANL, hace 12 años, continué investigando el tema y escribí documentos, incluyendo varias revisiones científicas, presionando por la aceptación del fenómeno. La gran colección de referencias adquiridas en este esfuerzo, que totalizan casi 3.000, se transformó en la BIBLIOTECA disponible en xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Con la ayuda esencial de Britz Dieter y Rothwell Jed, esta colección será mantenida hasta la fecha en que crezca el campo.

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3724. Storms, E., Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion; Methods, Problems and Errors. 2004, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Application of calorimetry to cold fusion or LENR presents unique problems that have not been previously summarized.  This paper discusses various calorimetric methods that have been applied to the subject and evaluates each in light of what has been discovered about their limitations and errors based on experimental studies. Such information is essential to a study of the effect and to evaluate the results.

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3725. Storms, E., Why I believe “Cold Fusion” is Real. LENR-CANR.org, 2004.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: critique

The process called Cold Fusion is said to produce clean energy from fusion of deuterium nuclei using very simple devices, at least compared to the “hot” fusion method.  Many scientists have been outspoken in rejecting this claim based on their belief that the observations have not been replicated, are impossible, and cannot be explained.  The intent of this article is to provide a brief and easily understood description of why I believe this rejection is wrong. . . .This brief paper emphasizes the Fleischmann-Pons effect and studies done in the U.S., because it was written for and submitted to the DoE Panel that is re-evaluating the claims for cold fusion. It was submitted to the Panel on August 23, 2004.

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3726. Storms, E. An Update of LENR for ICCF-11. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

3727. Storms, E., The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusion. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 2005.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The US government has once again made an effort to evaluate the reality of the phenomenon call cold fusion.  The first effort was made in 1989 by the ERAB Panel (Energy Research Advisory Board) shortly after Profs. Fleischmann and Pons announced their discovery. The result was a mixed message in which no support for the claims was provided. Nevertheless, an implication was made to evaluate proposals by the normal peer review process. None were funded by the DOE (Department of Energy). Now a new evaluation has been undertaken by a panel of reviewers assembled by the DOE, mainly from the physics profession.

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3728. Storms, E., A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoE. 2005, Lattice Energy, LLC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Various critiques provided by reviewers assembled by the DOE to evaluate cold fusion are addressed. Important issues are clarified and some misunderstandings are corrected.

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3729. Storms, E. Description Of A Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter Used For Cold Fusion Studies. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD.  This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.

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3730. Storms, E. Why you should believe cold fusion is real (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review,

3731. Storms, E., Cold Fusion for Dummies. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The field and the name “Cold Fusion” started in 1989 when chemists Stanley Pons of the University of Utah and Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton reported the production of excess heat in an electrolytic cell that they concluded could only be produced by a nuclear process. . . .Three basic questions about cold fusion need answers: Why are some people so hostile to the claims; why should a person believe the claims are real; and why should anyone care if the claims are real or not?

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3732. Storms, E., Fusao a Frio para Principiantes. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

“Cold Fusion for Dummies,” translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Sergio Bacchi.O campo e o nome “Fusão a Frio” apareceu em 1989, quando os químicos Stanley Pons da Universidade de Utah e Martin Fleischmann da Universidade de Southampton, reportaram a produção de excesso de aquecimento numa célula eletrolítica e concluíram que só poderia ser produzido por um processo nuclear. Este anúncio foi baseado numa extraordinária quantidade de energia que apareceu. Através dos anos anúncios adicionais de reações nucleares inesperadas surgiram baseadas na produção de energia e produtos nucleares. Estes resultados foram e continuam sendo replicados por alguns laboratórios, mas não por outros. Conseqüentemente, a realidade dos anúncios é freqüentemente rejeitada e fica como objeto de controvérsia. Algumas pessoas chegam mesmo ao extremo de achar que isto é o exemplo de uma pseudo-ciência. Pode-se encontrar uma história detalhada da controvérsia em dois livros recentes sobre o assunto.

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3733. Storms, E., Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion. Thermochim. Acta, 2006. 441: p. 207-209.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Dr. Shanahan has published two papers (Thermochim. Acta 428 (2005) 207, Thermochim. Acta 382 (2002) 95) in which he argues that excess heat claimed to be produced by cold fusion is actually caused by errors in heat measurement. In particular, he proposes that unrecognized changes in the calibration constant are produced by changes in the locations where heat is being generated within the electrolytic cell over the duration of the measurement. Because these papers may lend unwarranted support to rejection of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Shanahan need to be answered.

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3734. Storms, E., Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolyte. 2007, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Significant heat was generated for about 740 min when a sample of palladium foil was electrolyzed as the cathode in D2O+LiOD. A very stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to make the measurements. The source of this anomalous energy is unknown. However, the observed energy and production of unexpected elements based on EDX examination are similar to the behaviors claimed by many people who study what is called low energy nuclear reactions.

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3735. Storms, E., The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction. 2007: World Scientific Publishing Company.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Selected pages from the book, including the Preface and Table of Contents.

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3736. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation Produced By Glow Discharge In Deuterium. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

Radiation produced by low-voltage discharge in a gas containing deuterium was measured using a Geiger counter located within the apparatus. This radiation was found to consist of energetic particles that were produced only when the voltage was above a critical value. In addition, the emission was very sensitive to the presence of oxygen in the gas. In the presence of the required conditions, emission occurred reliably with reaction rates in excess of 108 events/second.

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3737. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care. 2008, YouTube.com.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3738. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care (PowerPoint slides from video). 2008, Kiva Labs.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides displayed during a video lecture on Google video:xxxx://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9026092151512597723

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3739. Storms, E. The Method and Results Using Seebeck Calorimetry. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: particle emission

The characteristics of and errors associated with Seebeck calorimeters, as applied to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, are described. This type of calorimeter as well as a flow type calorimeter were used to measured apparent excess energy from the same sample of platinum plated with palladium and other materials.

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3740. Storms, E., How to Explain Cold Fusion?, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 85-98.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3741. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation produced by glow discharge in a deuterium containing gas (Part 2). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

This is the second paper in a series describing the radiation produced by the cathode during glow discharge in low-pressure gas using DC voltages between 400 V and 800 V. Evidence for energetic electrons, low-energy X-rays, and occasional proton (deuteron) emission has been obtained. The energy, intensity, and type of the radiation are sensitive to gas composition and the material used as the cathode.

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3742. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Detection of Radiation Emitted from LENR. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: particle emission

A study was made to detect X-radiation and energetic particle emission from nuclear reactions that may be initiated during low-voltage gas discharge in deuterium. Evidence is presented for X-radiation having an energy nearly equal to the voltage applied to the discharge and energetic particle emission similar to deuterons having energy with peaks between 0.5 and 3 MeV. A study of radiation emitted from materials exposed to deuterium gas is underway.

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3743. Storms, E., What is believed about cold fusion? 2009, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

In 1989, Fleischmann and Pons[1-5] claimed to initiate a fusion reaction between deuterons in palladium that resulted in an unusual amount of heat. This claim was rejected because insufficient supporting experimental information was provided, the claim was very difficult to replicate, and no plausible explanation could be proposed. During the 20 years since then, studies in at least 8 countries has provided a rich collection of information, improved reproducibility, and encouraged many explanations. This work has been reviewed by Storms[6] in 2007 based on over 1000 citations and will not be repeated here. This paper provides a brief and focused summary of what is believed to be true about the effect at the present time.

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3744. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process.  These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions.  Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

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3745. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process. These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions. Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

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3746. Storms, E. and T. Grimshaw, Judging the Validity of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 9-30.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: CMNS, Cold fusion, Critique, Nuclear energy, Review

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE, aka cold fusion) was rejected as legitimate science within a year after its announcement in 1989. The growing need for a source of clean energy makes a re-examination of the initial rejection increasingly important. An effective way of assessing the status of the effect as legitimate science is to apply criteria that have been established by scientific skeptics. When 27 criteria set forth by Langmuir, Sagan and Shermer are applied, the requirements for scientific legitimacy appear to be met. In addition, a large and growing number of independent experiments are consistent with a nuclear mechanism being the cause of FPE.

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3747. Storms, E., Status of cold fusion (2010). Naturwiss., 2010. 97(10): p. 861-881.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, CMNS, LENR, heat production, transmutation, review

The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process. Various requirements of a model are examined.

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3748. Storms, E. Examination of errors that occur when using a gas-filled calorimeter. in 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2011. Chennai, India: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Measurement of a reaction between D2 gas and a material using a calorimeter that is calibrated using H2 will show erroneous excess power production at temperatures above ambient if all energy present in the calorimeter is not totally measured, a requirement very difficult to accomplish. This insidious error is explored using a stable Seebeck calorimeter.

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3749. Storms, E., What is now known about cold fusion? (Addendum to Student’s Guide). 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

This is an addendum to the “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.” It clarifies several issues. Because this is a stand-alone summary, some of the basic information given in more detail in the Guide is briefly repeated here.

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3750. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What is Real about Cold Fusion and What Explanations are Plausible? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 17-31.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cluster, Cold fusion, Fusion, Nuclear reaction

Experimental observations are now available to test rational theories and models about the cold fusion effect. Some of these informations are summarized and used to draw logical inferences about the requirements a plausible theory must satisfy. A model based on the role of super-clusters is proposed.

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3751. Storms, E., An explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies. The common environment in which LENR occurs is proposed to be cracks of a critical size, followed by a resonance process that dissipates energy by X-ray emission based on a laser-like process.  The LENR behavior has the potential to test the Standard Model of nuclear interaction.

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3752. Storms, E. An Approach to Explaining Cold Fusion. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Cold fusion or Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) is a process that results in various nuclear reactions involving all isotopes of hydrogen within what appear to be ordinary materials at ordinary temperatures. In general terms, the reactions can be described as fusion when two hydrogen isotopes combine to form a single product nuclei or as transmutation when one or more hydrogen isotope nuclei enter a larger nuclei. As expected, these reactions generate energy but very little radiation is detected, which is unexpected and has been a cause for rejection.  Sufficient evidence is now available to justify believing this is a real phenomenon and not the result of error. The challenge is to explain how such an unusual process operates. The approached used in this paper is based on six assumptions and their logical relationship to many observations. Although many details are not quantified, the general characteristics of the LENR process are described. This analysis places severe limits on any proposed explanation.

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3753. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What Is Cold Fusion and Why Should You Care? Proc. NPA, 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: review

3754. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of energetic radiation emitted from a metal exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012(submitted).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: radiation

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm^2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fractofusion.

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3755. Storms, E., An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) (translation into Chinese). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 86.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

A version of this paper, translated into Chinese:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanexplanat.pdfEnglish Abstract begins:A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. . . .

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3756. Storms, E., Cold fusion from a chemist’s point of view. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: theory

Very small cracks are proposed as the location of the LENR process in a material. A resonance process is proposed to occur in these structures, resulting in fusion, while energy is emitted as coherent photons having a characteristic energy. The nuclear product depends on which isotope of hydrogen is present. Reasons are given why a crack structure is required to explain LENR.

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3757. Storms, E., Response to Reviewer Comments. Infinite Energy, 2013(109).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Critique

I want to thank the reviewers (IE #108) for taking the time to make interesting and sometimes useful comments on my paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View.” This is the first and hopefully not the last time a proposed explanation of LENR has been reviewed publicly in such detail. The process is effective in revealing not only flaws but also howthe ideas can be better explained to avoid misunderstanding. I will comment on each review in the order they appeared in IE #108.

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3758. Storms, E., The Role of Voids as the Location of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 123-141.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Crack structure, Energy

A proposed model explaining the low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) process is described. The process occurs in voids of a critical size and involves a string of resonating hydrons, each of which is separated by an electron. This unique structure, called a “hydroton”, is proposed to make LENR possible and provides a process that can explain all reported observations and predict several new behaviors while using only three basic assumptions.

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3759. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of Energetic Radiation Emitted from a Metal Exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 142-156.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Fusion, LENR, Radiation

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fracto-fusion.

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3760. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion (Russian version). 2015, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Translation of “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.”Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

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3761. Storms, E., Explaining Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Five assumptions are used to create a new explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion) based on formation of a novel active environment within a variety of materials. The method to form this environment and the nuclear consequences are described. The fusion process is proposed to occur when a form of metallic hydrogen is created in nano-cracks. Methods to test the model are provided. Engineering variables are identified and used to show how the process can be controlled and amplified. These assumptions can also be used to evaluate other proposed explanations.

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3762. Storms, E., In the Spirit of John Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Electrochemistry, John Bockris, Palladium, Transmutation, Tritium

The life of Prof. John Bockris provides a reminder of how good science should be undertaken and the harm a scientist and all of science suffer when these expectations are ignored.

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3763. Storms, E., How the explanation of LENR can be made consistent with observed behaviour and natural laws. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, hydroton, LENR, theory

3764. Storms, E., Introduction to the main experimental findings of the LENR field. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3765. Storms, E., Anomalous Energy Produced by PdD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Enthalpy of reaction, Excess energy, PdD, Volume expansion

Two samples of commercial Pd from the same batch were reacted with D using the electrolytic method and found to produce sustained excess power and energy. The effects of temperature, applied current, and D/Pd ratio on the amount of excess power were studied.

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3766. Storms, E., How Basic Behavior of LENR can Guide A Search for an Explanation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Energy production, Hydrogen fusion, LENR, PdD, Theory

The LENR effect was identified 27 years ago by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons as production of extra energy in a normal chemical structure, in this case PdD. Over a thousand published papers now support the discovery and the energy is shown to result from fusion of hydrogen isotopes without the need to apply energy and without energetic radiation being produced. By conventional standards, the claims are impossible. Nevertheless, a new phenomenon has been discovered requiring acceptance and understanding. The major behaviors and their present understanding are described in this paper and are used to suggest how an effective explanation might be constructed. Once again, science has been forced to either reject the obvious or accept the impossible. In this case, the normal skepticism needs to be ignored in order to determine if this promised energy source is real and can provide the ideal energy so critically needed.

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3767. Storms, E., A New Source of Energy using Low-Energy Fusion of Hydrogen. Environ Sci Ind J, 2017. 13(2).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, ideal energy, clean energy, fusion energy

Chemical energy alone has powered civilization until relatively recently when nuclear fission power based on uranium became available. Efforts are now underway to go the next step on this path to nuclear sources by harnessing fusion power using hydrogen. So far, this so-called hot fusion process has not been successful in producing practical power. The complexity and size of the generator is expected to make this source impractical even after the many engineering problems are solved. Perhaps a different approach is needed. As answer to this need, a new method called cold fusion was recently discovered to cause fusion. Even though this might prove to be a better way to extract fusion energy, the claim has been difficult for some scientists to accept because it conflicts with what is known about nuclear interaction. This paper describes the cold fusion claim and gives reasons why the method should be accepted and applied.

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3768. Storms, E. The enthalpy of formation of PdH as a function of H/Pd atom ratio and treatment (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: loading, excess heat

Production of the LENR effect involves achieving a large concentration of D in the PdD lattice structure. A great deal of effort has been applied to understanding how this can be accomplished and the nature of the resulting structure. The bulk properties play a role in this process but are sensitive to the impurity content and treatment. The influence of the bulk properties on this process has not been fully explored.This paper describes a new method to directly measure the bond energy between the PdH structure and the contained H atoms in real time as a function of H/Pd ratio from zero to the maximum H content using the electrolytic method and H2SO4+H2O to react Pd with H. A unique and very accurate calorimeter (+/-5 mW) is used to measure power during the loading reaction. This method is applied to several types of Pd including commercial Pd sheet, extra pure Pd, and a zone refine single-crystal of Pd after each is subjected to several treatments. These treatments include repeated loading-deloading cycles, annealing at 900у, and reduction in thickness. The bond energy is found to be sensitive to purity, treatment, and H/Pd ratio, with good agreement with published measurements being achieved after certain treatments. In addition, three methods to measure the average H/Pd ratio are described and compared. These methods use weight gain, orphaned oxygen, and recombiner temperature. A great deal of information about the reaction process can be obtained by combining these three methods because they are sensitive to different possible errors and behaviours.

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3769. Strackan, J.S., Thermoelectric Energy Conversion. 1994: US Patent #5,288,336.

First Author: Strackan, J. S.
All Authors: Strackan, J. S.
Keywords: thermoelectric, Energy Conversion,

3770. Stremmenos, C., Fusione fredda. Un dibattito che prosegue” (“Cold fusion. A debate that continues”). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1999. 81: p. 361 [in Italian].

First Author: Stremmenos, C.
All Authors: Stremmenos, C.
Keywords: Polemic, critique

3771. Stringham, R. and R. George, Cavitation induced micro-fusion solid state production of heat, 3He, and 4He. 1995.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., George, R.
Keywords: ultrasound, heat+, 4He, 3He, acoustic, bubble, cavitation

3772. Stringham, R. Anomalous heat production by cavitation. in 1998 IEEE International Ultrasonic Symposium. 1998. Sendai, Japan.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, cavitation, ultrasonic, sonofusion

3773. Stringham, R., First gate energies. 1998.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, progress report, sonicfusion, ultrasonic

3774. Stringham, R., et al. Predictable and Reproducible Heat. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., Chandler, J., George, R., Passell, T. O., Raymond, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat+, ICCF-7

3775. Stringham, R. The Cavitation Micro Accelerator. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: ultrasonic, cavitation, method, ICCF-8, accustic

3776. Stringham, R. Pinched cavitation jets and fusion events. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion, Pd, D2O

The collapse of a transient cavitation bubble in deuteriumoxide produces a high density plasma jet containing 109 deuterons.  The inertial compression of a jet via an electron induced magnetic field pinch effect on its plasma contents produces high to even higher deuteron densities in the order of 1025 gm/cc before implanting into a foil target.  This model is parallel to the systems found in the hot plasmas of inertial systems.   During the initial period of implantation of a few picoseconds, the high density deuterons in the target lattice experience reduced coulomb repulsion due to the high density charge screening.  In this environment it is possible that some DD fusion events occur as evidenced by photos of the metal target foils and by the evidence of helium four and tritium production.Making some basic assumptions the smallest diameter and highest population of vent sites in the target foils are produced by events in the order of 20 Mev.   When experiments were monitored there was no long range radiation detected.

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3777. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

3778. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion – poster session. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

Natural cavitation phenomena in D2O using piezo devices, is now amplified initiating DD fusion events that produce heat and helium. We have adapted it for our use. The transient cavitation bubble, TCB, has been harnessed to produce high densities of deuterons, 10^25 to 25/cc. An electrically driven piezo device filled with D2O produces acoustic field generating TCBs that are, in the final collapse stage, micro accelerators. The result is the implanting of deuterons into a target foil producing 4He originating from the Pd foil and T from the Ti foil. We are an emergent tangent technology to sonoluminescence, SL, technology, which we use to give us an environmental parameter probe into the bubble contents at the moment of its highest energy density. (Much of the SL studies center on the pulses of photons coupled to the irradiating acoustic field emanating from an oscillating single stable cavitation bubble, SSCB.) The generation of these photons relates to conditions for the target implantation process. Recently we have been studying the effects of frequency on multi TCB SL conditions that produce fusion. These experiments and the analytical methods have concentrated on the mass spectroscopy of reactor gases, calorimetry of the reactor and power supply, and the scanning electron microscope photographs of target foils. The results from many experiments are pieced together to reach a plausible path for the TCB that terminates with deuterons implanting into a target with the resulting fusion events. The use of SL for monitoring the bubble content’s high energy densities allows for reactor parameter management for fusion events in the target foil. Studies of multi TCBs’ SL at higher temperatures (300-450ºK), external pressures (10^6-10^7.5 dynes/cm2) and frequencies (.02- 1.7 MHz) are proceeding in a search for better fusion environments. The results of these experiments will be presented.

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3779. Stringham, R. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Reactor. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

ABSTRACT                                                                                                          We are using one of the most remarkable pulsing systems that nature offers for producing transient high energy densities and I have been fortunate enough to be involved with it for over 20 years.  Over time we have increased the frequency of our piezo cavitation drivers and are now at 1.6 MHz and find that our results are the same.  Even better, the Qx /(reactor gm), the energy density, is drastically increased when compared to our 40 and 20 KHz piezo systems [1,2,3]. The cost is decreased by at least an order of magnitude and the durability is greatly increased.  All Q values in this paper are dQ/dt Joules/sec. or watts.  The systems differ in several ways because of the 40 times increase in frequency.    These 1.6 MHz systems produce more sonoluminescence, SL, and more but smaller bubbles and an energy density in the collapsing bubble system that is the same magnitude as the 40KHz systems [4,5]. . . .

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3780. Stringham, R. Ejecta Sites and DD Fusion Events. in APS March Meeting. 2006. Baltimore, MD.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

A cavitation-produced jet that implants a target foil at high impact velocities produces foil damage shown in color and SEM, scanning electron microscopy, photos. The work here dates from 1989 to 2001 and was produced in several different reactors, target foils, and frequencies. The result of high density pinched implantation of D+ and e-, deuterons and electrons; plasma is a D+ cluster. The implant occurs in a picosecond time frame with a creation of D+/Pd, in a 100/1 ratio of an initially electron free D+ cluster with a diameter in the order of a hundred nm. The mobile e- react with D+ and surround the D+ cluster with D. DD fusion events occurring in the transient high-density cluster produce a gamma free heat pulse. The heat pulse reaches the lattice surface in a nanosecond expelling the vapor/liquid foil and products as ejecta. The ejecta sites are easily seen in SEM photos and are counted and plotted as MeV DD fusion events. The results have been interpreted as DD fusion events that increase in energy as they decrease in frequency (counts) exponentially.

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3781. Stringham, R. 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Measurement and Model. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Years of data collected from First Gate’s various sonofusion systems gain fundamental support from recent extrapolations of hot fusion research.  Consider the velocity, 3x104m/sec, of a high density low energy jet plasma of deuterons that originates from the collapse of the TCB, transient cavitation bubble, in D2O that implants a target foil [1 – Many ICCF & APS].  The foil generates heat via DD fusion events that produce 4He and T.  We compare our sonofusion to the jet plasma of Tokamak type plasma fusion systems with all their stability problems.  Since sonofusion is a compilation of billions single fusion events per second and not a continuous fusion system like Tokamak, Stellarator, and Jet fusion systems; a comparison gives sonofusion a decided advantage. . . .

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3782. Stringham, R. Bubble Driven Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Sonofusion,

3783. Stringham, R. When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion. in 237rd ACS National Meeting. 2009. Salt Lake City.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

Experimentally, heat and 4He are the fusion products of sonofusion (SF). SF controls a naturally occurring phenomenon with cavitation-induced bubbles and their high energy density transferred to transient jets that implant deuteron clusters into a matrix or lattice. The SF path to clusters can be extrapolated from high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion, ICF, Bose Einstein Condensates, BEC, muon fusion, MF, and astrophysical phenomena, to explain our ejecta sites, Qx, 4He, and no measureable long-range radiation results. The fusion events emanate from deuteron clusters implanted into target foils. Clusters are squeezed and cooled via electromagnetic, EM, compression pressures and evaporative cooling of cluster surface deuterons producing the fusion environment. Evidence of these cluster fusion events is found in the millions of target foil ejecta sites in

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3784. Stringham, R., Sonofusion, Deuterons to Helium Experiments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 159-173.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

3785. Stringham, R. Sonofusion Produces Tritium That Decays to Helium Three. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Three main points are covered that are unique to Ti sonofusion target foils. These are surface modification to TiOx shown by photos and scanning electron microscope, SEM, photos, and the decay measurement of tritium, T, by mass spectrum analysis, MS, to 3He, the Ti target foils, and the unexplained production of 1 microm Ti hollow tubes shown in SEM photos.

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3786. Stringham, R., Model for Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 304-316.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Bubble, Calorimetry, Cavitation, Cluster, Ejecta, Fusion, Fusion products, Jet, Picosecond, Transient high-density plasma

Experimental cavitation sonofusion results needed a mechanism to explain the measured 4He and heat produced. A model is introduced based on high-density low-energy transient astrophysical behavior, creating an environment for fusion events by forming electron free clusters. The cluste-ڳ low temperature and high density are shown to be essential to the fusion environment.

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3787. Stringham, R., When Bubble Cavitation becomes Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 1-12.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Charged-plasma, Clusters, High-density, Sonofusion

Experimentally, excess heat, Qx, and 4He are the measured fusion products of transient high-density sonofusion, SF.A possible path to DD fusion is explained by piezo driven cavitation bubbles, where the critical parameters are temperature, pressure, acoustic input, and frequency that control, for a picosecond, the low-energy nuclear reactions that produce DD fusion events. The electromagnetic, EM, pulse compressed deuteron clusters squeezing them into a Bose Einstein Condensate. The BEC cluster environment provides for the direct conversion of fusion energy into heat and 4He. The continuous production of 1016 bubbles/sec produces radiation free usable heat as observed via ejecta site surveys.

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3788. Stringham, R., Model for Electromagnetic pulsed BEC Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Deuteron, Sonoluminescense, Superconductivity, z-pinch

Sonofusion experiments, which incorporate transient Bose Einstein condensates, BEC, have recently focused on related sonosuperconductivity. Cavitation jets implant high-density deuteron clusters into a target foil. Clusters are then squeezed by accelerated charges that form dense transient EM pulses. Cavitation and the associated sonoluminescence phenomena, used as a measuring tool, helps develop and explain related experimental results. Two outcomes, sonofusion and sono-superconductivity both produce D+clusters in reactors of different geometries. MHz reactor No. 1 is driven by a disk piezo and has produced excess heat, Qx, using the foil target and other products, including 4He. The newMHz reactor No. 2 is driven by a cylindrical piezo lowpower with a concentric wire target with transient cluster steady state concentration near the wire surface. The target’s steady state cluster coverage may satisfy a sono-superconductivity subsurface cluster connectivity during the MHz’s 100 ns collective sonoluminescence pulse. It was anticipated that ambient sono-superconductivity was possible but so far has proved difficult to measure. Cavitation D2O bubbles in both reactors were controlled by three main parameters for the two reactors: temperature, pressure of Ar gas over D2O, and acoustic watt input; Ti, Pi, andQa. The z-pinch jets’contents of deuterons and electrons were implanted, with an induced picosecond transient charge separation. This charge separation produced an electromagnetic, EM, cluster compression pulse that formed a high-density BEC environment, as the EM pulse pressure overwhelmed repulsive deuteron cluster pressure for that picosecond. This model used unique attributes of the high-density transient deuterons to produce sonofusion in reactor No. 1 and sono-superconductivity in reactor No. 2 near ambient temperature. The measurements showed the presence of sonoluminescence pulses, implanted plasma, and heat pulse ejecta sites.

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3789. Stringham, R., Sonofusion’s Transient Condensate Clusters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

D2O cavitation produces Z-pinch jets implanting a target lattice. Measurements, data interpretations, and FE SEM photos explain products heat and 4He produced in target foils. The picosecond dynamics of a deuteron electron plasma charge separation and pressure pulse produce alpha particles and heat.

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3790. Stringham, R., Sonofusion: Ultrasound-Activated He Production in Circulating D2O. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Bremsstrahlung, Gamma, Heatk, Sonoluminescence

Experiments over the last 25 years have demonstrated sonofusion: the formation of He by ultrasound incident on D2O. The observed effect is described. Neither the characteristic gamma nor the neutron typically seen in the formation from two deuterons of 4He and 3He, respectively, is observed. The experimental arrangement is specified. A proposed model, based on cavitation-produced z-pinch jets in target-foil implants, is outlined. It involves formation in the implants of a BE condensate that provides the source of the deuterons and whose recoil ensures energy-momentum conservation. The model accounts for all experimental results. It also provides a guide for future work on sonofusion.

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3791. Stringham, R., Conservation of E and M, Single Cavitation Heat Events. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Cavitation, Jets, Photons

Experiments spread over a period of 24 years create a model for sonofusion. An explanation of results will influence new paths for its further development. Cavitation produced z-pinch target-foil implanting jets produce SEM photos of single event ejecta sites equal to the binding energy differences, Eb, for alpha production.

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3792. Stringham, R., Helium Measurements From Target Foils, LANL and PNNL, 1994. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 284-295.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Cavitation, Gamma, 4He, Lattice, Mass spectrum

The alphas formed in Ti and Pd target foils were measured as 4He in a mass spectrum, MS, analysis at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL, a lab that specializes in 3He and 4He measurements. The exposed bcc crystal lattice Ti target foil, TF, measured an average of 39 x 10^12 +/- 1.4 trapped 4He atoms. The fcc crystal lattices of Pd, Ag, Ni, and Cu target foils, particularly the two measured fcc Pd TF lattices produced ~ 0.35 x 10^12 trapped 4He atoms. This helium level was just above its background level, and 1/100 that of the bcc Ti TF. In the fcc palladium TF, SEM crater volume measurements show that most of the alphas are ejected into the circulating D2O, where they were measured in the gas phase. In 1994 the samples were run at LANL and measured at PNNL. The helium was measured by melting small TF pieces cut from the active center zone. Then each piece was placed in a crucible, and melted under vacuum, releasing all gases including background helium. These collected gases from one piece were pretreated; then were measured. The data was converted to total 4He atoms trapped in the active zone of the TF lattice. A total of 24 measurements for 3He and 4He on three TFs found no 3He but 4He in all 12 measurements. SEM photos of single ejecta sites were combined with calculations of old data that used knowledge gained from 23 years of cavitation experience that enhances the old data.

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3793. Stritzker, B. and J. Becker, Superconductivity in Metastable Pd-Alloys Produced by Ion Implantation at Low Temperatures. Phys. Lett. A, 1975. 51: p. 147.

First Author: Stritzker, B.
All Authors: Stritzker, B., Becker, J.
Keywords: PdH, PdD, PdC, PdB, superconductivity, ion Implanation

3794. Stroka, A., B. Baranowski, and S.M. Filipek, Search for 3He and 4He in Pd-D2 system long term cumulation experiment in high pressure. Pol. J. Chem., 1993. 67: p. 353.

First Author: Stroka, A.
All Authors: Stroka, A., Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M.
Keywords: helium, Pd, D2

3795. Stuhr, U., et al., An investigation of hydrogen diffusion in nanocrystalline Pd by neutron spectroscopy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 393.

First Author: Stuhr, U.
All Authors: Stuhr, U., Striffler, T., Wipf, H., Natter, H., Wettman, B., Janssen, S., Hempelmann, R., Hahn, H.
Keywords: diffusion, H2, microcrystals, Pd

3796. Stukan, P.A., Y.M. Rumyantsev, and A.V. Shishkov, Generation of hard radiation and accumulation of tritium during electrolysis of heavy water. High Energy Chem., 1993. 27: p. 461.

First Author: Stukan, P. A.
All Authors: Stukan, P. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M., Shishkov, A. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, tritium, radiation, heat-, neutron, D2O, H2O, Pd

3797. Stukan, R.A. and Y.M. Rumyantsev, Effect of tritium on the generation of hard radiation in the electrolysis of D2O with a palladium cathode (T-D cold fusion reactions). High Energy Chem., 1996. 30: p. 343.

First Author: Stukan, R. A.
All Authors: Stukan, R. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, radiation, neutron, H2O, T2O. tritium

3798. Stulen, R.H., Summary Abstract: Observation of Molecular H2 and D2 on Pd and Ag Using Thermal Desorption Between 5 and 20 K. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1988. 6: p. 776.

First Author: Stulen, R. H.
All Authors: Stulen, R. H.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, H2, D2, absorption

3799. Sugai, H., M. Tanase, and M. Yahagi, Release of tritium, protium, and helium from neutron-irradiated Li-Al alloy. II. J. Nuclear Mater., 1998. 254(2/3): p. 151.

First Author: Sugai, H.
All Authors: Sugai, H., Tanase, M., Yahagi, M
Keywords: Li-Al, neutron, tritium

3800. Sugakov, V.I., Conditions for inducing, dynamics and manifestation of atom acceleration in nonequilibrium crystals. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1996. 41: p. 834 (Ukrainian).

First Author: Sugakov, V. I.
All Authors: Sugakov, V. I.
Keywords: Theory, crystal defects, energy focussing, solitons

3801. Sugiura, H. and E. Yamaguchi. Calorimetric Analysis of the Excess Heat Generated from Pd:D and Pd:H by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sugiura, H.
All Authors: Sugiura, H., Yamaguchi, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2, heat+, layer, Au-Pd, Ag-Pd, H2, ICCF-7

3802. Sullivan, D.L., Exclusionary epideictic: NOVA’s narrative excommunication of Fleischmann and Pons. Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1994. 19: p. 283.

First Author: Sullivan, D. L.
All Authors: Sullivan, D. L.
Keywords: history

3803. Sun, Z. and D. Tomanek, Cold fusion: how close can deuterium atoms come inside palladium? Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(1): p. 59.

First Author: Sun, Z.
All Authors: Sun, Z., Tomanek, D.
Keywords: theory, distance

3804. Sun, D.L., et al., A study of existing forms of deuterium in palladium by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1992. 37: p. 1073.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Chen, Y. L., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Lu, X. N.
Keywords: PdD, structure, position

3805. Sun, D.L., et al., An explanation for the abnormal temperature rise of palladium cathode during electrochemical deuterium charging. Science in China A, 1993. 36: p. 1501.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Wang, R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat

3806. Sun, Y., Q.D. Yang, and Q.F. Zhang, Application of real time surveillance technique to precision calorimetry system. Sichuan Lianhe Daxue Xuebao, Gongcheng Kexueban (J. Sichuan Union Univ., Eng. Sci. Ed.), 1999. 3(6): p. 119 [in Chinese].

First Author: Sun, Y.
All Authors: Sun, Y., Yang, Q. D., Zhang, Q. F.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann, heat, method

3807. Sundaresan, R. and J. Bockris, Anomalous Reactions During Arcing Between Carbon Rods in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 261.

First Author: Sundaresan, R.
All Authors: Sundaresan, R., Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, C, Fe, H2O plasma discharge

Spectroscopically pure carbon rods were subjected to a carbon arc in highly purified water. The arc current varied from 20 to 25 A and was passed intermittently for several hours. The original carbon contained ~2 parts per million (ppm) iron, and the detritus contained up to 286 ppm of iron. The carbon rods remained cool 10 the touch at >2 cm from their tips. Adsorption of iron from water or the surrounding atmosphere was established as not being the cause of the increase of iron. There is a weak correlation between the iron formed and the time of passage of current. When dissolved O2, was replaced by N2 in the solution, no iron was formed. Hence, the mechanism26C12 + 28O18 -> 26Fe56 + 2He4was suggested as the origin of the iron. The increase in temperature of the solution was consistent with expectation based on this reaction.

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3808. Sunden, O. Centripelal de Broglie Wave Fields Connected to Particles at Rest Explain Cold Fusion and Particle-Wave-Duality. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sunden, O.
All Authors: Sunden, O.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The controversy about Cold Fusion “CF” depends on the fact that the phenomena discovered are not in agreement with present physical theories, like QM and QED. The aim of this paper is to show that a. Time-Space-Oscillation `TSO’ connected to matter is a physical perspective able to explain CF and the Particle-Wave-Duality, even able to propose technical means for further development. According to this perspective a particle -even at rest- is joined to a real, centripetal TSO, a ‘de Broglie oscillation’, instead of a mathematical Schrodinger wave function1). This TSO-field propagates with velocity c toward a focus, where the particle is created as a flickering wave vertex, that can push an instrument trigger. Particles and nuclides including their Coulomb barriers, thus become endowed with phase dependency and a centripetal wave field, that can interfere in slits. This explains the Particle-Wave Duality and why the Coulomb barrier can be tunneled under certain phase conditions.. This TSO-perspective further hints at nuclear reactions of a ‘centripetal’ kind different from those based on ‘translational collisions’, described by present high energy physics. It is worth consideration because it gives accurate accountsfor physical constants, particle masses and charges, while the nuclides appear as focal resonance-shells, able to arrange acc. to Mendelejev.

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3809. Sundqvist, B.U.R., et al., On the observation of charged particles in cold fusion. Phys. Scr., 1989. 40: p. 303.

First Author: Sundqvist, B. U. R.
All Authors: Sundqvist, B. U. R., Haakansson, P., Hedin, A., Bucur, R. V., Johansson, B., Waeppling, R.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3810. Swartz, M.R., Quasi-one-dimensional model of electrochemical loading of isotopic fuel into a metal. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 296.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, Pd, structure

3811. Swartz, M.R. A Method to Improve Algorithms Used to Detect Steady State Excess Enthalpy. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4

3812. Swartz, M.R. Some Lessons From Optical Examination of the PFC Phase-II Calorimetric Curves. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Fleischmann, critique, heat, evaluation, ICCF-4

3813. Swartz, M.R. Generalized Isotopic Fuel Loading Equations. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory

3814. Swartz, M.R., Isotopic Fuel Loading Coupled to Reactions at an Electrode. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 74.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: diffusion, gradient, Pd, deuterium

3815. Swartz, M.R., Potential for positional variations in flow calorimetric systems. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method critique,

3816. Swartz, M.R., The Relationship between Input Power and Enthalpic Behavior of Nickel Cathodes During Light Water Electrolysis. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis, heat, method

3817. Swartz, M.R., Improved calculations involving energy release using a buoyancy transport correction. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 219.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, heat, error, critique

3818. Swartz, M.R., Possible deuterium production from light water excess enthalpy experiments using nickel cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3819. Swartz, M.R., Four Definitions of Power Ratio used to Describe Excess Enthalpy in Solid-State Loading Systems. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 54.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, review

3820. Swartz, M.R., The Relative Impact of Thermal Stratification of the Air Surrounding a Calorimeter. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 141.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3821. Swartz, M.R., Experiments Using Nickel Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni,, electrolysis,, H2O,, heat

3822. Swartz, M.R., Hydrogen Redistribution by Catastrophic Desorption in Selected Transition Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 26.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: deloading,, H2

3823. Swartz, M.R., Explanation for Some Difference Between Reports of Excess Heat in Solid State Fusion Experiments. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(1): p. 60.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: proton conductor,, critique, review, heat

3824. Swartz, M.R., Noise Measurement in Cold Fusion Systems. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 56.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: sound,, accoustic, electrolysis

3825. Swartz, M.R., Consistency of the biphasic nature of excess enthalpy in solid-state anomalous phenomena with the quasi-one-dimensional model of isotope loading into a material. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 63.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, heat, electrolysis, Fe, Al, H2O

3826. Swartz, M.R., Phusons in nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, phuson

3827. Swartz, M.R., Codeposition of palladium and deuterium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 126.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, loading, codeposition, Pd, PdD, diffision

3828. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Characteristics of Nickel Light Water Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis, OOP, ICCF-7

3829. Swartz, M.R., The Importance of Controlling Zero-Input Electrical Power Offset. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3830. Swartz, M.R., Further confirmation of optimal operating point behavior. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3831. Swartz, M.R., Optimal Operating Point Analysis of Dr. Mizuno’s, Dr. Arata’s and Other Data. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3832. Swartz, M.R., Patterns of success in research involving low energy nuclear reactions- A metanalysis. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: history

3833. Swartz, M.R., et al. Importance of nondimensional numbers in cold fusion. in Symposium on New Energy. 1999. Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H., Fox, H.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3834. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner, Bremsstrahlung in Hot and Cold Fusion. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 90-101.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: radiation

3835. Swartz, M.R., Generality of Optimal Operating Point Behavior in Low Energy Nuclear Systems. J. New Energy, 1999. 4(2): p. 218-228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3836. Swartz, M.R., Summary of the seventh international conference on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 99.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: review

3837. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A.H. Frank. The impact of heavy water (D2O) on nickel-light water cold fusion systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, H2O, heat, Ni

3838. Swartz, M.R. Photoinduced Excess Heat from Laser-Irradiated Electrically-Polarized Palladium Cathodes in D2O. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3839. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. Excess Heat from Low Electrical Conductivity Heavy Water Spiral-Wound Pd/D2O/Pt and Pd/D2O-PdCl2/Pt Devices. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3840. Swartz, M.R. Can a Pd/D2O/Pt Device be Made Portable to Demonstrate the Optimal Operationg Point. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3841. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical Regions. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Theory,

3842. Swartz, M.R. Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR Devices Monitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling Engines. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

3843. Swartz, M.R. Electrical Breakeven from LANR Phusor Device Systems: Relative Limitations of Thermal Loss in Feedback Loop. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess power

3844. Swartz, M.R. and L. Forsley. Analysis of “Superwave-as-Transitory-OOP-Peak” Hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Theory,

3845. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. The Phusor LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial which Creates Deuteron Flux for Excess Power Gain. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Theory

3846. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A. Weinberg. Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR Devices. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Weinberg, A.
Keywords: radiation

3847. Swartz, M.R., Impact of an Applied Magnetic Field on a High Impedance Dual Anode LANR Device. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 93-105.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Deuterium, Deuterons, Excess heat, Excess power gain, Flux, Lattice assisted nuclear reactions, Loading, Metamaterials, Nanostructures, Optimal operating point, Palladium

This paper reports on the impact of an applied magnetic field intensity on LANR solution electrical resistance and an analysis of its role in metal deuteride loading and LANR performance. A dual anode PHUSOR®-type Pd/D2O/Au LANR device was driven at its optimal operating point, with two electrical current sources; to drive, and examine by 4-terminal electrical resistance, the loaded PdDx cathode. An applied magnetic field ∼0.3 T increases the LANR solution’s electrical resistance ∼10-17% with a time constant in minutes. The incremental resistance increase to an applied H-field is greatest at low loading current. The incremental resistance increase from an applied H-field is greatest with the applied H-field perpendicular to the driving electrical field (E-field) intensity. The modified LANR deuteron loading rate equation indicates that an applied magnetic field intensity increases deuteron loading in a LANR system by the increasing solution resistance and limiting undesired gas evolving reactions.

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3848. Swartz, M.R., LANR Nanostructures and Metamaterials Driven at their Optimal Operating Point. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 149-168.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Deuterium, Lattice-assisted nuclear reactions, Loading flux, Metamaterials, Nanostructures, OOP manifolds, Optimal operating point, Palladium

In lattice-assisted nuclear reactions (LANR, or LENR), the size and structural metamaterial shape of Pd-D nanostructures, and the deuterium flux through them all play decisive roles. The spiral Phusor®-type cathode system with open helical cylindrical geometry in a high electrical resistance solution is a LANR metamaterial design creating an unusual electric field distribution and requisite intrapalladial deuteron flow. Optimal operating point (OOP) technology allows improved and more reproducible operation. LANR power gain can be considerable. In situ imaging has revealed that the excess power gain is linked to non-thermal near-IR emission when the LANR devices are operated at their OOP.

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3849. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Demonstration of Energy Gain from a Preloaded ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Device at MIT. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

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3850. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and J. Tolleson, Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2-PdNi-D Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J.
Keywords:

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3851. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Transient Vacancy Phase States in Palladium after High Dose-rate Electron Beam Irradiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CF materials, Electrode Irradiation, Fukai states, Superabundant vacancies, Vacancy phase metals

A high voltage electron irradiator was used to generate high vacancy content VP metal samples. High Frenkel defects (FD) content (vacancy phase) metal samples of Pd and Ni were generated by a single treatment with a high voltage electron irradiator (2.5 MV electrons, 2500 Gray/s dose rate, single portal, 1.50-3.0 megaGray midplane dose) at room temperature. These irradiationsynthesized, vacancy-phase (ISVP) metals were examined for their room-temperature annealing rate using four-terminal conductivity measurements. We show that high dose rate supervoltage irradiated palladium and nickel can achieve saturation densities of defects at the level of a few tenths percent and that level can be followed with the appearance of lattice quakes repairing the damage. The most heavily irradiated samples developed incremental electrical resistivities of “4 μ!-cm, with rapid recovery consistent with room-temperature annealing. The early labile vacancy phase state of ISVP metals has a half-life “2.5 h. Lattice quakes are observed when electrical transconduction spectroscopy is used to monitor the lattice healing and vacancy recombination. The irradiation produced an effective increase in the cross-sectional area of the palladium wires (99.98%) pure) of “2.5% at 3 megaGray delivered, consistent with the literature.

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3852. Swartz, M.R., et al., Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fractionated magnetic fields, Magnetic field intensities, ZrO2PdD, Magnetic fields and CF/LANR

Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR) (CF) activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdNiD CF/LANR components are capable of significant energy gain over long periods of time with reproducibility and controllability. We report the response of such active components to steady and dynamic applied magnetic field intensities up to 1.5 T changing with a 0.1 ms rise time. Power gain was determined by the triple verified system of dT/Pin, HF/Pin, and calorimetry. Fractionated magnetic fields have a significant, unique amplification effect. Residual, late-appearing effects are complex. Importantly, at higher input electrical currents, high intensity fractionated magnetic fields demonstrate their own, new optimal operating point (OOP) manifold curve. This suggests that cold fusion (LANR) is the first stage, and may be mediated by other than phonons.

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3853. Swartz, M.R., et al., Imaging of an Active NANOR-type LANR Component using CR-39. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CR-39 Imaging, Imaging CF/LANR Systems, Preloaded CF/LANR component, ZrO2PdD

This effort examined CR-39 chips exposed to a ZrO2-PdD NANOR-type CF/LANR component exhibiting significant energy. There was a fall-off in pit count with increasing distance from the operating system. Most interestingly, the CR-39 over the device essentially imaged the active CF/LANR device at very low resolution. Large tracks were the most effective for imaging. Smaller and mid-sized tracks appear to be useful for measuring fall off of the chip irradiation as a function of distance. The conclusion is that CF/LANR is a nuclear process, and for this system at this power level, the quantitative amount is measurable in a spatial, controllable, pattern.

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3854. Swartz, M.R., Incremental High Energy Emission from a ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Quantum Electronic Component CF/LANR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: High energy CF/LANR emission, Preloaded CF/LANR component, quantum electronic cold fusion component, ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR nanostructure

In situ measurement for possible incremental penetrating ionizing radiation output from an activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR component revealed a barely detectable, incremental emission when there was significant energy gain. The autonomous driver minimized background radiobiological interference. This effort demonstrates that CF/LANR is relatively safe, with penetrating ionizing emissions, at these power levels, of lower biological impact than typical background sources.

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3855. Swartz, M.R., Entrepreneurial Efforts: Cold Fusion Research at JET Energy Leads to Innovative, Dry Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Dry cold fusion component, NANOR, Preloaded cold fusion component, Preloaded energy production

Dry, preloaded NANOR-type technology makes cold fusion (LANR) reactions more accessible. These self-contained, twoterminal nanocomposite components have at their core PdD and NiD nanostructured material. Their CF/LANR/CF activation is separated from their loading, and yields up to 20 times input; characterized by reasonable reproducibility and controllability. With an excess power density of 19,500 W/kg, and zero-carbon footprint, could these ready-to-be-activated NANOR-type LANR components/systems/materials be the future of clean efficient energy production?

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3856. Swartz, M.R., et al., Dry, preloaded NANOR (R)-type CF/LANR components. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

3857. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and P.L. Hagelstein, Impact of Electrical Avalanche through a ZrO2-NiD Nanostructured CF/LANR Component on its Incremental Excess Power Gain. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Deuterated nickel, Nanomaterials, Nanostructured ZrO2, ZrO2–NiD

Cold fusion nanomaterials, in general, and NANOR R-type LANR components (derived from them), in particular, have two distinct regions of performance on each side of the electrical avalanche. This had lead to the identification of three (3) distinct regions of their electrical operation. We now report that the optimal power gain of NANOR R-type cold fusion components is found far below the breakdown voltage and that the power gain decreases continuously as the electrical avalanche threshold is approached. Beyond the region of electrical avalanche, the previously active preloaded LANR quantum electronic components then give a thermal output similar to a standard ohmic control (a carbon composition resistor). Therefore, use of this technique of driving an active CF/LANR nanomaterial component into, and beyond, their avalanche threshold, provides verification of the excess heat an additional way, which confirms that the calorimetry was calibrated. Also, this investigation indicates where, on the input power axis, to drive them for a maximum effective use. We also report that deuterium can fuel nanomaterial ZrO2-Ni systems, consistent with the previously report involving aqueous CF/LANR systems by Swartz et al. (ICCF-9).

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3858. Swartz, M.R., Optical Detection of Phonon Gain Distinguishes an Active Cold Fusion/LANR component (3). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR, Phonon gain

Successful cold fusion is heralded by a large, if not quite abnormal, increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio in coherent multi-wavelength optical reflection volume-enhanced electric-driven spectroscopy (CMORE-spectroscopy). This distinguishing phonon gain is not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. It heralds seven acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K.

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3859. Swartz, M.R., Oscillating Excess Power Gain and Magnetic Domains in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 35-46.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: LANR, Magnetic domains, Magnetism, NANOR, Oscillating power gain

Post-magnetization effects, both significant and time-variant, were observed in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR components. In contrast to previously observed exponential falloffs of sample activity (peak incremental excess power gain), post-magnetization activity demonstrates oscillatory activity. This paper reports an analysis of the force density and expected theoretical frequency for oscillations, which have already been observed to exist between these magnetic domains after magnetization, calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor.

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3860. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Increased PdD anti-Stokes Peaks are Correlated with Excess Heat Mode. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 130-145.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR-type LANR component, Phonon gain

Volume-enhanced Coherent Multi-wavelength Optical Reflection Electric-driven (CMORE) spectroscopy successfully differentiates active states in LANR nanomaterials. All the anti-Stokes peaks are relatively missing in the undriven mode for all of the nanostructured materials. Weak anti-Stokes peaks are elicited from Pd (and Ni and their alloy) nanostructured material in ZrO2. But when NANOR-type components are electrically driven, there is diversity in outcome. When driven in the avalanche mode, the anti-Stokes peaks differ considerably from those which appear during the excess heat (XSH)-producing or desired mode. The anti-Stokes peak(s) differ in energy, amount, and in what stimulates their appearance. However, normal anti-Stokes peaks return when the electrical drive creates “avalanche mode” characterized by higher electrical current at decreasing voltage. The avalanche anti-Stokes peaks are many, and they are lower energy than the XSH mode produced anti-Stokes peak (described main text). By contrast, successful cold fusion is heralded by a large increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio, and the generated anti-Stokes peak for the desired and XSH-producing state is very different from the avalanche-generated multiple anti-Stokes peaks. That XSHrelated peak is singular and at higher energy. This distinguishing, higher energy, single, anti-Stokes peak is also not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. Our analysis finds that the excess-heat produced anti-Stokes peak is matched to the Stokes line of PdD. We also find that the several lower energy anti-Stokes in avalanche mode (unsuccessful regarding CF/LANR) are matched to the many Stokes peaks for zirconia. In the desired electric-driven XSH-producing mode, the two-terminal deuterided NANORr-type CF/LANR component has a measured Boltzmann Stokes ratio ~1.3. Analysis of the phonon gain heralds ~7^+/- 0 15 acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K. Therefore, these findings confirm a role for PdD acoustic phonons in successful CF/LANR.

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3861. Swartz, M.R., Quasiparticles, Collective Excitations and Higher-order Collective Quasi-excitations in Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 26-55.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Coherent excitations, Collective excitations, LANR, Phonons, Quasiparticle

Quasiparticles and collective excitations are similar in that they arise de novo from material interactions. They are in need of classification and important because some of them are highly relevant to successful lattice assisted nuclear reactions (LANR). This report reviews this classification along with discussion of their impact on our ability to enable LANR.

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3862. Switendick, A.C., Electronic structure and stability of palladium hydrogen (deuterium) systems, PdH(D)n, 1*n*3. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 1363.

First Author: Switendick, A. C.
All Authors: Switendick, A. C.
Keywords: theory, structure, PdD2, PdD3

3863. Szalewicz, K., J.D. Morgan, and H.J. Monkhurst, Fusion rates for hydrogen isotopic molecules of relevance for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. 2824.

First Author: Szalewicz, K.
All Authors: Szalewicz, K., Morgan, J. D., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, energy

3864. Szeflinski, Z., et al., Upper limit of neutron emission from the chemical reaction of LiD with heavy water. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 168: p. 83.

First Author: Szeflinski, Z.
All Authors: Szeflinski, Z., Kozlowski, M., Osuch, S., Sawicki, P., Szeflinska, G., Wilhelmi, Z., Starowieyski, K. B., Tkacz, M.
Keywords: LiD, chemical, neutron

3865. Szklarczyk, M., R.C. Kainthla, and J. Bockris, On the Dielectric Breakdown of Water: An Electrochemical Approach. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1989. 136: p. 2512.

First Author: Szklarczyk, M.
All Authors: Szklarczyk, M., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: H2O, breakdown

3866. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, co-deposition, ICCF-2, electrolysis

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only ca 1/10 of all attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reactions. Here, we show that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production.

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3867. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 302: p. 255.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACTRecently, Fleischmann et al. [1] reported that nuclear events can occur when deuterium is electrochemically compressed within the Pd-lattice. These events were reported to produce excess enthalpy, tritium, and neutrons. The exact nature of these events and the conditions leading to their initiation are poorly understood. In fact, the existence of such events is questioned by many [2]. The present position among those investigating this problem [3] is as follows: enthalpy production is a non-steady state process whose rate depends on the nature of the electrode material; however, the observed steady state production arises from an averaging of small perturbations. Nuclear events are believed to occur on the electrode surface as well as within the electrode interior.

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3868. Szpak, S., et al., Electrochemical charging of Pd rods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 309: p. 273.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gabriel, C. J., Smith, J. J., Nowak, R. J.
Keywords: Pd, loading, electrolysis, OCV, diffusion

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Abstract: A model describing the electrochemical charging of Pd rods is presented. The essential feature of this model is the coupling of the interfacial processes with the transport of interstitials in the electrode interior. It is shown that boundary conditions arise from the solution of equations governing the elementary adsorption-desorption and adsorption-absorption steps and the symmetry of the electrode. Effects of the choice of rate constants of the elementary steps and the charging current on the surface coverage, the electrode potential and the time required to complete electrode charging are examined.

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3869. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determination. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, detection, method, ICCF-3

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Three methods of tritium data analysis are considered-comparison between experimental and theoretical data, total mass balance and curve-fitting.

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3870. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber, Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphase. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 337: p. 147.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Scharber, S. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, surface, OCV, loading

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The dynamics of transport of electrochemically generated deuterium across the electrode/electrolyte interphase was examined by slow scan (10 mV s-1) voltammetry. The investigation covers the potential range -1.2 to +0.4 V measured vs. an Ag/AgCl reference. It was found that a coupled, twolayer model of the interphase describes the observed behavior as a function of scan rate and electrolyte composition. The effect of chemisorbing species, e.g. CN- ions, as well as reactive species, e.g. SC(NH_)2, on the transport across the interphase is also discussed. Results are contrasted with those obtained for light water.

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3871. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel, Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experiment. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 365: p. 275.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gabriel, C. J.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, loading

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The electrochemical charging of Pd rods by deuterium involves a complex coupling of electrochemical, interfacial and transport processes. In order to predict the overpotential, surface coverage and bulk loading of the electrode during charging, a model has been developed that incorporates the essential features of these processes and involves variables such as the electrochemical rate constants, the bulk diffusion coefficient and the charging current. Features of the computed time dependence of the bulk loading are then compared with published experimental charging curves. New microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction data provide further evidence for the details of the charging process.

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3872. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and R.D. Boss, Comments on the analysis of tritium content in electrochemical cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 373: p. 1.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Boss, R. D.
Keywords: tritium, theory, method, electrolysis

INTRODUCTIONFollowing the report by Fleischmann and Pons [1] in 1989 that nuclear events, including the production of tritium, can be initiated in electrochemical cells during the electrolysis of heavy water on Pd cathodes, tritium production has been claimed in a number of publications, a list of which was compiled by Storms [2] and more recently reviewed by Chien et al. [3]. However, substantial difficulties have been encountered in reproducing reported data and considerable controversy remains concerning the occurrence of such events, including tritium production.

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3873. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, Deuterium uptake during Pd-D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 379: p. 121.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, codeposition, loading, electrolysis, D2O

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACTThe mode of deuterium uptake during Pd-D co-deposition has been explored using galvanostatic perturbation techniques. The resultant potential relaxation curves exhibit four distinct potential-time intervals where the relaxation process is controlled by the interaction between the transport of deuterium from the lattice to the surface to form adsorbed deuterium and the reduction of palladium from solution. These interactions are discussed in terms of the palladium + electrolyte interphase.

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3874. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: heat He Pd, D2O, electrolysis

This report includes an introduction and a number of reprinted papers. The papers are also available as individual files in this library.INTRODUCTIONThese introductory remarks illustrate the controversial climate that existed when the NRaD program investigated the anomalous effects the Pd/D system exhibited. These effects included, among others, excess enthalpy production at rates exceeding those usually associated with chemical reactions. The controversy concerns the origin of the observed excess enthalpy which, according to Fleischmann and Pons, is due to room temperature nuclear events involving deuterons present within the Pd lattice, hence, the term cold fusion. To avoid unnecessary arguments, this report refers to the phenomenon as the Fleishmann-Pons (FP) effect.

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3875. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Calorimetry of Open Electrolysis Cells. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT&E Division.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT A special case of calorimetry of open electrochemical cells, that employing adiabatic enclosures, is examined. Conditions for an experimental realization of such enclosures is discussed in detail. Practical arrangement and method for data collection are presented.

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3876. Szpak, S., et al., Cyclic voltammetry of Pd + D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 1.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Scharber, S. R., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, electrolysis, overvoltage

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Processes associated with the Pd + D alloy codeposition are examined by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammograms cover the potential range: +0.3 to -1.3 V (measured against an Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat) reference) and indicate that the partial current due to the Pd2+ ion reduction is diffusion limited at slow scan rates. Except for the significant increase in cathodic currents due to D2O reduction at ca. -0.25 V which occurs on a freshly generated Pd surface, the shapes of the voltammograms marginally differ from those recorded in the absence of Pd2+ ions in the electrolyte phase. A discussion of the dynamics of the interphase is presented.

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3877. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D Codeposition. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 54.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: heat, tritium, x-ray

In the Pd+D codeposition process, palladium is electrodeposited in the presence of evolving deuterium. This process favors the initiation and propagation of nuclear and thermal events through a rapid absorption of deuterium to yield high D/Pd atomic ratios. This process results in the formation of non-equilibrium electrode structures that become the seat for localized gradients. Evidence for tritium production, X-ray emanation and generation of localized heat sources, with emphasis on experimental methodology, is provided. The active role of the electrode/electrolyte interphase in the development of these events is examined.

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3878. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiation. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 210: p. 382.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, gamma emission, electrolysis

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Evidence for the emission of low intensity X-rays during cathodic polarization of the Pd/D system(s) is presented. The Pd/D system was prepared by charging with electrochemically generated deuterium either palladium foil or palladium electrodeposited from D2 0 electrolytes. Experimental and analytical procedures are described in detail.

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3879. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: a response to Vigier’s comments. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 221: p. 141.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: critique, Vigier, codeposition, Pd, loading, electrolysis, D2O, theory

Electrodes prepared by Pd/D codeposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces which achieve high degrees of D/Pd loading within seconds. In this communication, morphology of the Pd electrode, the structure of the interphase, and selected thermal effects are discussed.

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3880. Szpak, S., et al., On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 38.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Boss, R. D., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Evidence for tritium production in the Pd/D system under cathodic polarization is presented. A comparison of the observed distribution and that calculated, based upon the conservation of mass, leads to the conclusion that tritium is produced sporadically at an estimated rate of ca 103—104 atoms per second. The results of several runs are interpreted by employing the concept of an electrode/electrolyte interphase and the accepted kinetics of hydrogen evolution. Observation of burst-like events followed by longer periods of inactivity yield poor reproducibility when distributions are averaged over the total time of electrolysis.

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3881. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the release of n/1H from cathodically polarized palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 273.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Theory, tritium

Release paths for tritium produced during electrochemical compression of deuterium in a Pd lattice are examined. Arguments in support of the reversal of diffusion caused by gas evolution on the electrode surface are presented.

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3882. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. Miles, Calorimetry of the Pd+D codeposition. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 234.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Miles, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

Thermal activities associated with electrochemical compression of deuterium produced on electrodes prepared by Pd D codeposition are discussed. Three cases are considered: activities during and shortly after commencement of current flow, those observed during runs of several days duration, and surface temperature distribution recorded by infrared scanning. Experimental results show excellent reproducibility, high-power outputs, and the development of thermal instabilities resulting in the formation of local hot spots.

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3883. Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions”. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Heat, IR detector, heat after death, hot spots

Two types of activities occurring within the polarized D+/Pd-D2O system, viz. the presence of localized heat sources (hot spots) and associated with them mini- explosions, are described. The “birth and death” of hot spots is monitored by IR imaging while the mini-explosions are displayed by the voltage spikes exhibited by a piezoelectric substrate onto which a Pd/D film was co-deposited. Processes leading to the formation of unstable domains as a precursor to the observed behavior is examined.

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3884. Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions” (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Heat, IR detector, heat after death, hot spots

we have pioneered the use of co-deposition as the means to prepare the electrode to investigate the F-P effect and have conducted several hundred experiments using this basic technique over the past 13+ years.We co-deposited onto a Ni mesh that was physically placed close to a mylar film, covering a hole in the cell wall.  An IR camera was positioned to focus on the electrode and recordings were made during and after the co-deposition process to monitor the temperature of the electrode and the surrounding solution.

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3885. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

The effect of an external electric field on the physical appearance of the Pd/D electrode in an operating cell is discussed. It is shown that the individual globules of the “cauliflower-like structure undergo a shape change exhibiting two distinct features, viz those that require energy expenditure that can be extracted from the applied external field (eg re-orientation, separation of individual globules, dendrite formation) and those that require energy expenditure far in excess of one that can be supplied by the electric field alone (eg exhibiting features usually associated with the solidification of a molten metal under liquid or the presence of localized catastrophic events leading to the formation of craters). It is shown, by energydispersive X-ray method, that the needed energy is provided by nuclear events occurring in the region close to the electrode surface. The nuclear events are of the type: precursor –> unstable nucleus –> stable nucleus.

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3886. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

PowerPoint presentation for the paper of the same title.

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3887. Szpak, S., et al., Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2004. 410: p. 101.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrode, prepared by the co-deposition technique, serving as a cathode in the Dewar-type electrochemical cell/calorimeter is examined. It is shown that: (i) excess enthalpy is generated during and after the completion of the co-deposition process; (ii) rates of excess enthalpy generation are somewhat higher than when Pd wires or other forms of Pd electrodes are used; (iii) positive feedback and heat-after-death effects were observed; and (iv) rates of excess power generation were found to increase with an increase in both cell current and cell temperature, the latter being higher.

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3888. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: review

Recent experiments at the U.S. Navy San Diego SPAWAR Systems Center have demonstrated nuclear effects with palladium co-deposition cathodes subjected to magnetic or high voltage fields. CR-39 is used to detect high energy particles. It is placed in close proximity to the cathode because the particles do not travel far. These experiments appear to be highly reproducible.

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3889. Szpak, S., et al., Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice. Naturwiss., 2005. 92(8): p. 394-397.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Young, C., Gordon, F.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

An operating Pd//D2O, Li+, Cl-//Pt cell, placed in an external electrostatic field, yielded unexpected results, viz. (i) Morphological changes in the form of discrete sites exhibiting molten-like features, i.e. features that require substantial energy expenditure. (ii) Presence of elements (Al, Mg, Ca, Si, Zn, . . .) that could not be extracted from cell components and deposited on discrete sites. The cell design and the experimental protocol assuring reproducibility is described in detail.

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3890. Szpak, S., et al., The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D films. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005. 580: p. 284-290.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Young, C., Gordon, F.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

The polarized PdD electrode undergoes significant morphological changes when exposed to an external electric field. These changes range from minor, e.g. re-orientation and/or separation of weakly connected globules, through forms that result from a combined action of the field as well as that connected with the evolution of gaseous deuterium, to shapes that require substantial energy expenditure.

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3891. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice. in NDIA 2006. 2006. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: neutron, co-deposition, voltage, magnetic field,

3892. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon, Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwiss., 2007. DOI 10.1007.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Almost two decades ago, Fleischmann and Pons reported excess enthalpy generation in the negatively polarized Pd/D-D2O system, which they attributed to nuclear reactions. In the months and years that followed, other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system were observed, viz. tritium and helium production and transmutation of elements. In this report, we present additional evidence, namely, the emission of highly energetic charged particles emitted from the Pd/D electrode when this system is placed in either an external electrostatic or magnetostatic field. The density of tracks registered by a CR-39 detector was found to be of a magnitude that provides undisputable evidence of their nuclear origin. The experiments were reproducible. A model based upon electron capture is proposed to explain the reaction products observed in the Pd/D-D2O system.

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3893. Szpak, S., et al. SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publications. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Khim, J., Forsley, L.
Keywords: review

Scientists at the US Navy SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific (SSC-Pacific), and its predecessors, have had extraordinary success in publishing LENR papers in peer-reviewed journals. This success hasn’t come easily and is due to several factors. One key reason for this success was the courage of the SSC-Pacific upper management in allowing scientists to conduct research and publish results in a controversial field. The few journal editors, who had the fortitude to consider our work, also contributed to this success. This contrasts with the majority of their peers who, taking the path of least resistance, ignored our work out of hand and returned manuscripts with, ‘the subject matter is not in the purview of the journal’. The reviewers also played a role in the successful publication of LENR-related papers. A multitude of reviewers, many outside the LENR field, had to put aside their biases and look objectively at our data.  In turn, the reviewers’ relentless concerns forced us to tenaciously address their issues. Ultimately, the SSC-Pacific team published 21 refereed papers in seven journals and a book chapter, spanning 19 years beginning in 1989. This paper is a brief synopsis of those publications.

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3894. Szpak, S., et al. LENR Research Using Co-Deposition. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Miles, M., Khim, J., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

The Pd/D co-deposition process was developed by Stan Szpak at the Naval Laboratory in San Diego as an alternative means of initiating LENR. Besides heat, other nuclear products that have been measured using Pd/D co-deposition include tritium and the emission of γ- and X-rays, neutrons, and energetic particles. This communication summarizes 19 years of LENR research that has focused on the Pd/D co-deposition process.

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3895. Szpak, S. and J. Dea, Evidence for the Induction of Nuclear Activity in Polarized Pd/H-H2O System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 21-29.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Dea, J.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Coupled reaction, Magnetic field, Pd/H-H2O system

In cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process, the polarized Pd/D-D2O system becomes nuclear active when the concentration of deuterium, expressed as D/Pd atomic ratio, is equal to or greater than one. In contrast, to activate the polarized Pd/H-H2O system, action of an external magnetic field, modulation of cell current or both, are required. Evidence for the nuclear active state in the Pd/H-H2O system namely deuterium production, particle emission and catastrophic thermal event, is presented.

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3896. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, The Fleischmann-Pons Effect: Reactions and Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 143-157.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Hot spots, Modeling, Particle emission, Transmutation

A selected group of experimental evidence indicates that the Pd/D-D2O system can be put in its nuclear active state. This is done by negatively polarizing the system which (i) starts the process of self-organization, i.e. development of coherent processes involving protons/deuterons and lattice defects to produce the pre-nuclear active state and (ii) creates conditions for the electron capture by proton/deuteron reaction to occur. The low energy neutrons transform the pre-nuclear active state into an active state, i.e. display of features such as hot spots, transmutation and particle emission which, in turn, yields information on participating reactions and processes.

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3897. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, Forcing the Pd/^1 H – ^1H2O System into a Nuclear Active State. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Nuclear Active State, Electron capture

In cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process, the polarized Pd/D – D2O system becomes nuclear active when the concentration of deuterium, expressed as D/Pd atomic ratio, is equal to or greater than one. In contrast, to activate the polarized Pd/H-H2O system, action of an external magnetic field, modulation of cell current or both, are required. Evidence for the nuclear active state in the Pd/H – H2O system, namely deuterium production, particle emission and catastrophic thermal event, is presented. Extension of nuclear active state to the Pd/^1 H – ^1H2O system under the application of an external magnetic field and modulated cell current profile is discussed.

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3898. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, On the Mechanism of Tritium Production in Electrochemical Cells. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Polarized Pd/D–D2O system, Tritium production

An electron capture reaction e−+d+ ” 2n followed by deuteron to triton transmutation, the n+d+ ” t+ reaction, is judged to be the prime reaction in polarized Pd/D-D2O system . Supporting evidence for the proposed mechanism is interpreted and discussed in terms arising from the content and meaning of chemical and nuclear reactions occurring in condensed matter.

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3899. Szpak, S., The Pd + D Co-Deposition: Process, Product, Performance. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S.
Keywords: Co-deposition

The preparation of electrodes by a co-deposition is discussed in detail. The electrode reactions are identified, the structural features of the deposit are described and the relevant experimental evidence is assembled.

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3900. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, Cathode to Electrolyte Transfer of Energy Generated in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords:

In our recent paper [1] we asked: why an exothermic system with the positive feedback, such as the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, does not suffer thermal run-a-way. In seeking an answer we selected two items (i) formation of hot spots and (ii) system’s response following a fast nuclear event, that seem to point to a simple model of cathode to electrolyte energy transfer.

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3901. Szpak, S., On the Path Leading To The Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S.
Keywords: Plasma, Self-organization, Transmutation

Processes leading to the excess enthalpy production, the Fleischmann-Pons effect, are identified. The thermodynamic treatment [1] is extended to include self-organization. Discussion is limited to cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process.

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3902. Szumski, D., Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Szumski, D.
All Authors: Szumski, D.
Keywords: LANP model, Least action, Reversible process, Theory

This research develops the Least Action Nuclear Process (LANP) model of cold fusion, by assuming that the process is thermodynamically reversible. This requires: 1) one element of new physical theory, a far-from-equilibrium blackbody equation having a second temperature scale, and 2) a nuclear reaction selection method based in the Principle of Least Action. The model appears to predict nuclear transmutations observed in Miley’s nickel microspheres, without false positives, and provides a plausible explanation of loading and ignition processes, excess heat, no excess heat, and the absence of gamma radiation. The model shows how solar core temperatures can exist in a laboratory temperature device. The presentation is abstracted from a larger technical paper.

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