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3903. Tabet, E. and A. Tenenbaum. Nuclear Effects in the Collapsing Lattice Model for Deuterated Palladium: New Results. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Tabet, E.
All Authors: Tabet, E., Tenenbaum, A.
Keywords: theory

3904. Tabet, E. and A. Tenenbaum, A dynamical model for cold fusion in deuterated palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 143.

First Author: Tabet, E.
All Authors: Tabet, E., Tenenbaum, A.
Keywords: theory, loading

3905. Tabet, E. and A. Tenenbaum, Nuclear reactions from lattice collapse in a cold fusion model. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 144(6,7): p. 301.

First Author: Tabet, E.
All Authors: Tabet, E., Tenenbaum, A.
Keywords: theory, phase change

3906. Tachikawa, E., Outline of room temperature nuclear fusion. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 11 (in Japanese).

First Author: Tachikawa, E.
All Authors: Tachikawa, E.
Keywords: review

3907. Taft, S.L. and J. Marwan, The Open Gate Phenomenon: A New Energy Technology. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 77-89.

First Author: Taft, S. L.
All Authors: Taft, S. L., Marwan, J.
Keywords: Microspheres, Pechini process, Polycrystalline, Submonolayer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

The Open Gate Phenomenon is a unique solid-state mechanism that results in a significant and sustained electron transfer from an n-type semiconductor to Schottky metal particles that are grown from the semiconductor substrate itself. This results in a unique interface that acts as a one-way (rectifying) open gate. First identified in reduced polycrystalline titanium dioxide (an n-type semiconductor) to Group VIII metal particles, the interface significantly affects the Schottky barrier height resulting in electron flow into the metal particles from the reduced titanim dioxide (TiO2) based on their respective work functions. The result is a negative charge on the metal particles which is of sufficient magnitude and duration to provide cathodic protection of the metal particles from surface oxidation. In essence, the metal particles behave as a negatively charged electrode without an externally supplied power source.

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3908. Tajima, T., H. Iyetomi, and S. Ichimaru, Influence of attractive interaction between deuterons in Pd on nuclear fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 437.

First Author: Tajima, T.
All Authors: Tajima, T., Iyetomi, H., Ichimaru, S.
Keywords: theory

3909. Takagi, R., et al., Neutron emission during a long-term electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2135.

First Author: Takagi, R.
All Authors: Takagi, R., H., Numata., Ohno, I., Kawamura, K., Haruyama, S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron, OCV

3910. Takagi, R., et al., Neutron Emission During a Long-Term Electrolysis of Heavy Water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2135.

First Author: Takagi, R.
All Authors: Takagi, R., Numata, H., Ohno, I., Kawamura, K., Haruyama, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron

3911. Takaharu, G., et al., Apparatus for cold nuclear fusion. 1990: European Patent Application, 90107987.1.

First Author: Takaharu, G.
All Authors: Takaharu, G., Niikura, J., Taniguchi, N., Hatoh, K., Adachi, K.
Keywords: D2O, Laves Phase,

3912. Takahashi, A., Opening possibility of deuteron-catalyzed cascade fusion channel in PdD under D2O electrolysis. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1989. 26(5): p. 558.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

3913. Takahashi, Y., Present status and future problems of cold nuclear fusion. Kagaku Kogaku, 1989. 53: p. 608 (In Japanese).

First Author: Takahashi, Y.
All Authors: Takahashi, Y.
Keywords: discussion

3914. Takahashi, A., et al. Neutron Spectra from D2O-Pd Cells with Pulsed Electrolysis. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Takeuchi, T., Iida, T., Watanabe, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, pulsed, neutron, energy, electrolysis

3915. Takahashi, H. The Roles of Coherency and Intermittency on D-D Fusion Reaction in PdDx Deuteride. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Takahashi, H.
All Authors: Takahashi, H.
Keywords: theory

3916. Takahashi, H., Dynamical screening of potential by mobile deuteron and fusion rate of accelerated deuteron in PdDx. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 441.

First Author: Takahashi, H.
All Authors: Takahashi, H.
Keywords: theory, screening

3917. Takahashi, A., et al., Short Note : Emission of 2.45 MeV and Higher Energy Neutrons from D2O-Pd Cell Under Biased-Pulse Electrolysis. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27: p. 663.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Takeuchi, T., Iida, T., Watanabe, H.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, energy heat

3918. Takahashi, A., et al., Emission of 2.45 MeV and higher energy neutrons from D2O-Pd cell under biased-pulse electrolysis. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1990. 27: p. 663.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Takeuchi, T., Iida, T., Watanabe, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3919. Takahashi, A., et al. Neutron Spectra and Controllability by PdD/electrolysis Cell With Low-High Current Pulse Operation. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Iida, T., Takeuchi, T., Mega, A., Yoshida, S., Watanabe, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, pulse, T/n, electrolysis, ICCF-2

3920. Takahashi, A., et al., Windows of cold nuclear fusion and pulsed electrolysis experiments. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 380.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Iida, T., Maekawa, F., Sugimoto, H., Yoshida, S.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2O, theory, energy

3921. Takahashi, A. Nuclear Products by D2O/Pd Electrolysis and Multibody Fusion. in Int. Symp. Nonlinear Phenom. in Electromagnetic Fields. 1992. ISEM-Nagoya.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: pulse, neutron, heat+, D2O, Pd

3922. Takahashi, A., et al. Anomalous Excess Heat by D2O/Pd Cell Under L-H Mode Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Mega, A., Takeuchi, T., Miyamaru, H., Iida, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, tritium, neutron, T/n, electrolysis, ICCF-3

A Pd sheet cathode centered within a Pt-wired anode in D2O/LiOD electrolyte was used with the L-H mode pulse operation.  Anomalously large excess heat (32 watts in average for 2 months, 100 – 130 watts at peaks and averaged output/input power ratio 1.7) was once observed, associated with very low neutron emission (~1 n/s). To investigate the reproducibility of this experiment, a second experiment with minor changes in cell design was undertaken for 4 months. We reproduced excess heat, however at much smaller levels (8 watts on average and 15 watts at peak), but with neutron emission rates that were twice as large as measured previously. Possible changes in the conditions of the two experiments are discussed; i.e., cell voltages and over-potentials, formation of thin MOS film on the Pd cathode surface and a mechanism enhancing the D/Pd ratio. Excess power density per cm^2 of cathode surface showed systematic change as a function of surface current density. This trend is consistent with results from many other authors.

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3923. Takahashi, A., et al., Excess heat and nuclear products by D2O/Pd electrolysis and multibody fusion. Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mater., 1992. 3: p. 221.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Iida, T., Takeuchi, T., Mega, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron, heat+, theory

An excess heat of 100 W/cc level, 1.7 times the input power in average, and 160 MJ in total was observed for about two months by the L-H mode pulse electrolysis of a D2O/Pd cell with plane-symmetric configuration of D-loading into the Pd cathode. Very weak neutron emission was detected to show an inversely proportional correlation to the excess heat variation. To explain the observed anomalous results including our past results, the theoretical model of competing multibody deuteron fusions in transient PdDx lattice has been extended. It can explain most experimental results. Cold fusion may be the multibody fusion of hydrogen isotopes in the metal lattice.

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3924. Takahashi, A., Cold fusion research: Recent progress. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1992. 68(4): p. 360 (in Japanese).

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat, neutron, loading

3925. Takahashi, A., Cold fusion research: present status. Koon Gakkaishi, 1993. 19(5): p. 179 (in Japanese).

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Review

3926. Takahashi, A., Production of neutron, tritium and excess heat. Oyo Butsuri, 1993. 62: p. 707 (In Japanese).

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, loading, heat, neutron, Pd

3927. Takahashi, A., Some Considerations of Multibody Fusion in Metal-Deuterides. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 451.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

3928. Takahashi, A., et al. Experimental Correlation Between Excess Heat and Nuclear Products. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Inokuchi, T., Chimi, Y., Ikegawa, T., Kaji, N., Nitta, Y., Kobayashi, K., Taniguchi, M.
Keywords: neutron, heat+, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, X-ray, ICCF-5, negative

A comparator of twin system was developed to study possible correlation between observed excess heat phenomenon and nuclear products . Simultaneous on-line measurements were done for foreground (Pd cathode) and background (Ni cathode) cells to monitor input/output powers, neutron spectra and X-ray spectra. Slight (5-7%) excess powers were observed with 99 % confidence level, only for Pd-cathode-cell, \vith weak neutron emission in the energy over 3 MeV. Burst events by X-ray detectors were analyzed.

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3929. Takahashi, R. Synthesis of Substance and Generation of Heat in Charcoal Cathode in Electrolysis of H2O and D2O Using Various Alkalihydrooxides. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Takahashi, R.
All Authors: Takahashi, R.
Keywords: carbon, D2O, H2O, heat+, charcoal, ICCF-5

Charcoal was used for the cathode with interest in the fabricated micro-channels which may produce the micro drops responsible for the synthesis of material and cold fusion in the electrolysis as reported in the previous proceedings.The synthesis of material was detected with the change in color of the electrolyte, from colorless to dark brown. The excess heat was not detected for H2O. However, for a mixture of 25% H2O and 75% D2O with a 0.25 LiOH, the excess heat reached as high as about 30% of the input power.

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3930. Takahashi, A., et al., Multibody fusion model to explain experimental results. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 71.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Iida, T., Miyamaru, H., Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

3931. Takahashi, A., Recent results and activities on the new hydrogen energy (“cold fusion”). Suiso Enerugi Shisutemu, 1996. 21: p. 39 (in Japanese).

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: review

3932. Takahashi, A. Results of Experimental Studies of Excess Heat vs Nuclear Products Correlation and Conceivable Reaction Model. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat+ neutron, X-ray, He, particle emission Ti, electrolysis, ion bombardment, ICCF-7

3933. Takahashi, R. Excess Heat Caused by Electrolysis for Drilled Charcoal Cathode and Heat Without Power Imput by Immersion of Charcoal in Heavy or Light Water at Elevated Temperatures. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Takahashi, R.
All Authors: Takahashi, R.
Keywords: heat+, charcoal, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-7

3934. Takahashi, R. Proposal of Microdrops-in-Bubble Model for Excess Heat, Cold Fusion and Related Phenomena. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Takahashi, R.
All Authors: Takahashi, R.
Keywords: theory, Pd, D2O, heat, ICCF-7

3935. Takahashi, A., et al., Experimental study on correlation between excess heat and nuclear products by D2O/Pd electrolysis. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 4.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Fukuoka, H., Yasuda, K., Taniguchi, M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, heat+, 4He, tritium, neutron

3936. Takahashi, A., et al., Anomalous enhancement of three-body deuteron fusion in titanium-deuteride with low-energy D+ beam implantation. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 256.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Maruta, K., Ochiai, K., Miyamaru, H., Iida, T.
Keywords: ion bombardment, titanium, particle emission, theory, three body

A Pd sheet cathode centered within a Pt-wired anode in D2O/LiOD electrolyte was used with the L-H mode pulse operation.  Anomalously large excess heat (32 watts in average for 2 months, 100 – 130 watts at peaks and averaged output/input power ratio 1.7) was once observed, associated with very low neutron emission (~1 n/s). To investigate the reproducibility of this experiment, a second experiment with minor changes in cell design was undertaken for 4 months. We reproduced excess heat, however at much smaller levels (8 watts on average and 15 watts at peak), but with neutron emission rates that were twice as large as measured previously. Possible changes in the conditions of the two experiments are discussed; i.e., cell voltages and over-potentials, formation of thin MOS film on the Pd cathode surface and a mechanism enhancing the D/Pd ratio. Excess power density per cm^2 of cathode surface showed systematic change as a function of surface current density. This trend is consistent with results from many other authors.

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3937. Takahashi, A., et al., Detection of three-body deuteron fusion in titanium deuteride under the stimulation by a deuteron beam. Phys. Lett. A, 1999. 255: p. 89.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Maruta, K., Ochiai, K., Miyamaru, H.
Keywords: ion bombardment, titanium, particle emission

3938. Takahashi, A., M. Ohta, and T. Mizuno. A Model Analysis on Low-Energy Photo-Fusion of Pd Isotopes Under Dynamic Conditions of PdH(D)x. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Ohta, M., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: theory, transmutation,, energy, fission, ICCF-8

3939. Takahashi, A., Production of Stable Isotopes by Selective Channel Photofission of Pd. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2001. 40(12): p. 7031-7046.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory, photofission

A conservative modeling and analysis were attempted to explain the presence of nonradioactive fission-like products with nonnatural isotopic ratios observed in some D2O/Pd electrolysis experiments. The collective deformation of a Pd nucleus by multiphoton E1 resonance absorption in a dynamic PdDx lattice was assumed to induce low-energy photofissions via the selective scission channels within the lowest band (11-20 MeV) of channel-dependent fission barriers. Values of channel dependent fission barriers were calculated by using liquid drop model potentials for Pd isotopes. Fission products were analyzed in detail. Major fission products (FPs) are stable isotopes and the isotopic ratios of FP elements are very different from those of natural abundances. The present theoretical results have shown good agreement with the experimental data of Mizuno et al. [Denki Kagaku 64 (1996) 1660] and others in terms of Z-distribution, mass distribution and isotopic ratios. Selective channel photofissions with positive Q-values are possible for A > 90 nuclei, which may provide us with a clean method for the incineration for the radio isotope (RI) waste of nuclear plants.

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3940. Takahashi, A. Tetrahedral And Octahedral Resonance Fusion Under Transient Condensation Of Deuterons At Lattice Focal Points. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

To attempt to explain the very strange claim of observation by Mitsubishi group on the mass-8-and-charge-4-transferred (increased) transmutation (Mo-96 or Pr-141) out of sample zone of Sr-88 or Cs-133 in the D-diffusion type experiment with multi-layered Pd plate, our multi-body deuteron fusion model in transient lattice focal points has been extended to hypothesize the occurrence of 4D tetrahedral and 8D octahedral resonance fusion. High energy Be-8 particles by 8D fusion can induce selectively capture process to form mass-8-and-charge-4-increased transmutation out of Sr-88 or Cs-133 near PdDx lattice.

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3941. Takahashi, A. Mass-8-and-Charge-4 Increased Transmutation by Octahedral Resonance Fusion Model. in JCF-4. 2002. Morioka, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: transient quasi-particle screening, octahedral deuteron condensation, 8D fusion, Be-8, transmutation

3942. Takahashi, A. Drastic Enhancement Of Deuteron-Cluster Fusion By Transient Electronic Quasi-Particle Screening. in JCF4. 2002. Morioka, Japan: Unpublished.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: PdDx, electronic quasi-particle, drastic screening, deuteron cluster-fusion

3943. Takahashi, A. Mechanism Of Deuteron Cluster Fusion By EQPET Model. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

The present paper makes deepened modeling for the mechanism of transient Bose-type condensation for 4D and 8D clusters with electrons from Pd 4d-shell in PdDx lattice dynamics. Formation of quadruplet e*(4,4) electronic quasi-particle and octal-coupling e*(8,8) around lattice focal points with D-clusters which realize super screening for d-d and d-cluster Coulomb barrier is modeled for tetrahedral and octahedral symmetric condensations and discussed. Based on the electronic quasi-particle expansion theory (EQPET), modal fusion rates which are composed of 2D, 3D, 4D and 8D fusion rates with characteristic values for each mode are estimated for the tetrahedral and octahedral symmetric condensations. Based on given modal fusion rates we can estimate macroscopic cluster fusion rates (f/s/cc) by knowing time-averaged values of D-cluster densities. Several to few hundreds w/cc level fusion rates for 4D and 8D can be foreseen with major ash of 4He and a variety of secondary transmutation reactions, and neutron production rate by 2D fusion will be with 10-12 orders smaller magnitude than that of 4He production. Neutrons are therefore hardly visible in deuteron cluster fusion in condensed matter.

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3944. Takahashi, A. Studies on 3D Fusion Reactions in TiDx under Ion Beam Implantation (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion beam, 3D fusion, Ti

ICCF-10 PowerPoint presentation.

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3945. Takahashi, A. Theoretical Background for Transmutation Reactions (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

Presented during Short Course on Cold Fusion, ICCF-10.

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3946. Takahashi, A., et al. Studies on 3D Fusion Reactions in TiDx under Ion Beam Implantation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Miyamaru, H., Ochiai, K., Katayama, Y., Hayashi, T., Dairaku, T.
Keywords: ion beam, 3D fusion, Ti

With certain conditions for target-samples and beams, we could have identified specific particles (e.g., 4.75MeV tritons and 3He-particles, and 15.9 MeV deuterons) from 3D fusion reactions with yield ratios [3D]/[2D] to be in the order of 1E-4 to 1E-3, in contrary to the calculated [3D]/[2D] yield ratio of 1E-30 by the conventional random nuclear reaction theory2,3). The increasing trend of yield ratios in lower energy region than 100 keV for deuteron4), suggests that the enhanced 3D reactions were not attributed to the direct reactions with incident d-beam, but to the indirect 3D fusion out of the slowing down range of the beam.

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3947. Takahashi, A. 3He/4He Production Ratios By Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

The present paper treats application of the EQPET (Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory) model for TSC (Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate) of H/D mixed systems for Pd host metal. Production ratios of 3He/4He for multi-body fusion reactions in H/D mixed TSC systems are calculated as a function of H/D mixing rate. The model is further extended to treat direct nuclear interactions between host-metal nucleus and TSC of pure 4 protons (or 4 deuterons), since TSC can become very small (far less than 1 pm radius) charge-neutral pseudo-particle. Results for the case of Ni + 4p/TSC are discussed with Ni + p capture reactions and Ni + 4p fission reactions.

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3948. Takahashi, A. Condensed Matter Nuclear Effects. in International Meeting on Frontier of Physics. 2005. Kuala Lumpur.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

Under the conditions of cold fusion in PdD, the predominant reactions would be d+d–>(4)He* and (4)He*+d–>(6)Li*–>(4)He+d+23.8MeV. This cascade would explain the FPH results, giving fusion rates of up to 1E-13 f/s per D atom.

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3949. Takahashi, A. A Theoretical Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear Effects. in Siena Workshop on Anomalies in Metal-D/H Systems. 2005. Siena, Italy.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

Key experimental results are compared with the results of EQPET/TSC models. Screening energy for d-d pair by theory is 360 eV and is comparable with 310 eV by Kasagi experiment for PdDx. Helium-4 production with scarce neutron is modeled by strong 4D fusion of minimum state 4d/TSC reaction. Maximum level of 4d/TSC fusion is 46 MW/cc-Pd and 23 keV/Pd, comparable to 24.8 keV/Pd by El Boher experiment. Transmutation with mass-8 and charge-4 increase is explained by 4d/TSC + host metal reactions. Fission-like products by Ni-H systems are in agreement with fission products of 4p/TSC + nickel nuclear reactions.

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3950. Takahashi, A. Time-Dependent EQPET Analysis of TSC. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

3951. Takahashi, A. Progress In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Review

3952. Takahashi, A. Fusion Rate Formulas for Bosonized Condensates (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory,

3953. Takahashi, A. Time-Dependent EQPET Analysis of TSC (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

3954. Takahashi, A. Progress In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Review

3955. Takahashi, A. Main Scenarios of CMN-Effects (PowerPoint slides). in Sixth International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium-Loaded Metals. 2005. Siena, Italy.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory,

3956. Takahashi, A., F. Celani, and Y. Iwamura. The Italy-Japan Project — Fundamental Research on Cold Transmutation Process for Treatment of Nuclear Wastes. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Celani, F., Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: transmutation

3957. Takahashi, A., F. Celani, and Y. Iwamura. The Italy-Japan Project — Fundamental Research on Cold Transmutation Process for Treatment of Nuclear Wastes (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Celani, F., Iwamura, Y.
Keywords: transmutation

3958. Takahashi, A., Jyouon kakuyuugou 2006 – gyoushuukei kagaku e no tenkai (Cold fusion 2006 – progress in condensed matter nuclear science). 2006.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

3959. Takahashi, A. Deuterons-to-4He Channels (PowerPoint slides). in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory

Outline * Two-Body d + d fusion and Out-Going Channels * Third Interaction to d + d strong force for Changing Out-Going Channels * D-Cluster Fusion to Produce 4He

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3960. Takahashi, A. and N. Yabuuchi. D-Cluster Dynamics and Fusion Rate by Langevin Equation. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords: theory

3961. Takahashi, A., Deuteron Cluster Fusion and ASH. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 62-85.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Ash, Bosonization, Deuteron cluster fusion, Electronic quasi-particle screening, 4D Fusion, 8D Fusion, Helium-4, Secondary reaction

This is a review of our studies on theoretical model of deuteron cluster fusion in condensed matter. Considering a transient condensation process of deuteron-cluster in focal points of metal-deuteride lattice, electron screening effect was theorized by the Electronic Quasi-Particle Screening Theory (EQPET) model for a transient deuteron cluster associating attracted electrons. Multibody resonance fusion of deuterons was proposed by modeling charged-pion exchange for strong interaction in very condensed deuteron cluster to lead to select the tetrahedral resonance fusion (TRF) of 4D and octahedral resonance fusion (ORF) of 8D as possible major reaction channels in extreme case. 4He is the final product of TRF and ORF. Tritium and 3He was suggested as minor products from 3D multi-body fusion. Visible but very small level production of neutron by D + D (2D) fusion was also concluded. Further extension of EQPET model is given to propose a dynamic Bose-type condensation process by orthogonally coupled two D2 molecules, which play a role of super screening of Coulomb barrier with quadruplet electronic quasi-particle to generate clean fusion product of 4He.

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3962. Takahashi, A., TSC-Induced Nuclear Reactions and Cold Transmutations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 86-96.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Tetrahedral symmetric condensate, 4p/TSC+Ni, 4d/TSC+Cs, Transmutation, Fission

Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) of orthogonal coupling of four deuterons and four electrons behaves as charge-neutral pseudo-particle and induces nuclear interaction with host metal nuclei. Theoretical predictions are shown for processes, reactiontypes and nuclear products. Some details are written for 4p/TSC + Ni and 4d/TSC + Cs reactions making transmutations and fission products.

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3963. Takahashi, A. and N. Yabuuchi, On Condensation Force of TSC. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords: Deuteron cluster fusion, Central squeezing force, Four deuterons, Tetrahedral symmetric condensate

Primitive analysis and discussion are given for possible condensing force of tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC) of four deuterons (or protons) plus four spin-regulated (bosonized) electrons. Once TSC is formed by the ordering-constraint-organization process in condensed matter of metal-D(H) system, there may happen strong central squeezing force (and negative Coulomb energy of total TSC system) until when four deuterons (protons) get into the range of strong interaction (or Pauli repulsion at classical electron radius). After elementary quantum-mechanical results for D(H)-atom and, D2(H2)-molecule, primitive estimations are done for TSC.

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3964. Takahashi, A. and N. Yabuuchi, Fusion Rates of Bosonized Condensates. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 106-128.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords: Bosonized condensate, dde* molecule, EQPET, Fusion rate formula, Time-dependence, TSC-induced reaction

In Section 1, theoretical basis for formulating fusion rates in condensed matter is summarized. Nuclear strong interaction, S-matrix, T -matrix, fusion rate for steady state dde* molecule as bosonized condensate, and fusion rate formula for collision process are briefly given. In Section 2, application for TSC-induced fusion is summarized. Fusion rate formulas for adiabatic approach in EQPET theory are summarized. Final state interaction is briefly discussed. Time-dependent approach for TSC squeezing motion is briefly introduced.

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3965. Takahashi, A., A Theoretical Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear Effects. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 129-141.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: d-d Screening, EQPET/TSC model, Excess power level, Experimental results, 4D Fusion, Fission, Helium-4, Selective transmutation

Key experimental results are compared with the results of Electronic Quasi-Particle Expansion Theory/Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (EQPET/TSC) models. Screening energy for d-d pair by theory is 360 eV and is comparable with 310 eV by Kasagi experiment for PdDx. Helium-4 production with scarce neutron is modeled by strong 4D fusion of minimum state 4d/TSC reaction. Maximum level of 4d/TSC fusion is 46 MW/cm^3-Pd and 23 keV/Pd, comparable to 24.8 keV/Pd by El Boher experiment. Transmutation with mass-8 and charge-4 increase is explained by 4d/TSC + host metal reactions. Fission-like products by Ni-H systems are in agreement with fission products of 4p/TSC + nickel nuclear reactions.

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3966. Takahashi, A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory

This paper gives further discussions and explanations on the time-dependent quantum-mechanical behaviors of electron-clouds in 4D/TSC condensation motion by Langevin equation, in comparison with steady ground state electron orbits and their de Broglie wave lengths for D-atom and D2 molecule.

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3967. Takahashi, A. and N. Yabuuchi, Study on 4D/Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate Condensation Motion by Non-Linear Langevin Equation, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 57-83.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords:

3968. Takahashi, A., The Basics of Deuteron-Cluster Dynamics as Shown by a Langevin Equation, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 193-217.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

3969. Takahashi, A., et al. Deuterium Gas Charging Experiments with Pd Powders for Excess Heat Evolution (II) Discussions on Experimental Results and Underlying Physics. in The 9th Meeting of Japan CF-Research Society. 2009. Shizuoka, Japan.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Pd-black nanoparticle heat

Experimental results obtained for Pd/PdO/ZrO2 nano-composite samples are summarized and the underlying physics is discussed. Arata-Zhang’s May 2008 excess heat result was replicated quantitatively. Using Pd/PdO/ZrO2 powders (produced by Santoku Co., Kobe Japan), we obtained: 1) D-gas charge in the first phase (zero pressure interval) gave 20~90% excess heat than H-gas charge. 2) In the second phase of pressure rise, significant excess heat (about 2 kJ/g-Pd) for D-gas charge was observed, while near zero level excess heat for H-gas charge was observed. We discuss the underlying surface and nano-particle physics in views of the enhanced surface adsorption potential by fractal sub-nano-scale trapping points on nano-Pd particle, the diffusion to inner shallower Bloch potential of regular Pd lattice, and the drastic mesoscopic and isotopic effect of surface and lattice rearrangement of nano-Pd particle by full D(H)-absorption to make deeper D(H) trapping potentials of surface adsorption (about 2 eV for D) and intermediate surface state trapping.

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3970. Takahashi, A., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes(II) Discussions on Experimental Results and Underlying Physics (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Kitamura, A., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Nohmi, T., Taniike, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Excess heat

Aim The Gas-Phase D(H)-Loading Method with Nano-Fabricated Metal Powders is regarded promising for repeatable CMNS experiments. We have constructed an experimental system to replicate the phenomenon of excess-heat (and 4He generation) and investigate the underlying physics for D(H)-charged Pd powders.

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3971. Takahashi, A., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes, (II) Discussions on Experimental Results and Underlying Physics. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Sasaki, A., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords:

By our D(H)-gas charging experiments using Pd/PdO/ZrO2 powders, we obtained: 1) Dgas charge in the 1st phase (zero pressure interval) gave 20~90 % more excess heat than those for Hgas charge. 2) In the 2nd phase of pressure rise (finally up to 1MPa), significant excess heat (about 2 kJ/g-Pd) for D-gas charge was observed, while near zero level excess heat for H-gas charge was observed. We discuss the underlying surface and nano-particle physics in views of the enhanced surface adsorption potential by fractal sub-nano-scale trapping points on nano-Pd grain, the diffusion to inner shallower Bloch potential of regular Pd lattice, and the drastic mesoscopic and isotopic effect of surface and lattice rearrangement of nano-Pd particle by full D(H)-absorption to make deeper D(H) trapping potentials (about 2eV for D).

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3972. Takahashi, A. Neutron Spectra in CMNS – Model Predictions and Past Data –. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

According to the recent SPAWAR claim on 12C(n,n’)3α detection due to 14 MeV neutrons by D-T reaction in a D2O/Pd co-deposition cell, we reminds our old discussion on observed neutron spectra from CMNS/CF cells in the past. Structure or shape of neutron spectra should give important (decisive) evidences on underlying physical mechanisms on possible deuteron-related nuclear fusions in PdDx systems. This paper discusses plausible neutron spectra as consequences of major theoretical model predictions.

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3973. Takahashi, A., Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2009. 2.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

This paper discusses and explains the time-dependent quantum-mechanical behavior of electron-clouds in 4D/TSC (tetrahedral symmetric condensate) condensation motion by the Langevin equation, in comparison with steady ground state electron orbits and their de Broglie wave lengths for the D-atom and D2 molecule. An electron orbit in a “d-e-d-e” quasi-molecular system of a face of 4D/TSC under time-dependent condensation makes a spiral track, finally reaching the center-of-mass point of the TSC, with a tail of time-varying effective wave length. The role and merit of the heavy mass electronic quasi-particle expansion theory (HMEQPET) method for approximating time-dependent TSC trapping potential and relating it to the estimation of time-dependent Coulomb barrier penetration probabilities of a 4D cluster is explained.

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3974. Takahashi, A., Jyouon kakuyuugou hurontia 2011 (in Japanese: “The Frontiers of Cold Fusion 2011”). JCFRS, 2011.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: review

Extended Review Paper for JCF12 Invited Talk, December 17-18, 2011, Kobe, in Japanese.常温核融合の研究は、2008年の拙著「常温核融合2008―凝集核融合のメカニズム、工学社」で説明した状況の以後、どのような動向となっているかと気にかけておられることと思う。2011年末の最新の状況を、理論の進展とガス系実験の進展を中心にして、この小論で紹介してみたい。 状 Review Vol.19 (April 2011)に掲載された著者の小拙文「まだまだ続く常温核融合研究」をそのまま以下にコピーして引用することとした。

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3975. Takahashi, A., et al. Phenomenology of Nano-Particle/Gas-Loading Experiments (PowerPoint slides). in ACS National Meeting. 2011. Anaheim, CA.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles

[Part-I] Brief Summary of the Kobe Group Experiments Anomalous data for D(H) absorption and heat-evolution by nano-Pd/ZrO2 and Pd-Ni/ZrO2 dispersed samples Recovery of Loading Ratio and Heat-level by Forced Oxidization (MO) and deoxidization of Used Samples Role of PdO surface coating of Pd nano-particle and Pd ad-atoms on binary nano-particle (Pd-Ni); what happens under D(H) charging [Part-II] Modeling Anomalies Phenomenological Model for anomalous “chemical + nuclear” heat evolution Anomalous Chemical Heat by “Mesoscopic Catalyst” Link to D-cluster formation and 4D/TSC fusion

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3976. Takahashi, A., Progress in Condensed Cluster Fusion Theory. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 269-281.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Condensed cluster fusion, Deuteron cluster fusion, 4D Fusion, Helium-4, Tetrahedral symmetric condensate, Timedependent condensation

The theoretical models on Condensed Cluster Fusion in the dynamic ordering process of deuterons in condensed matter (especially PdDx lattice) have been elaborated in three steps in the period from 1989 to 2009. The present paper briefly reviews theoretical modeling, mathematical formulation and quantitative estimations of multi-body deuteron fusion rates, time-dependent screening effect by electron clouds, and time-dependent size of condensing clusters as 4D/TSC. TSC is the tetrahedral symmetric condensate and key idea for clustering and dynamic condensation. Final products of 4D fusion are mainly 4He nuclei with 2-5 MeV main component and 23.8 MeV minor component.

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3977. Takahashi, A., et al., Role of PdO Surface-coating in CMNE D(H)-Gas Loading Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 17-33.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Kitamura, A., Sasaki, Y., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Collective mesoscopic potential, D-gas loading, Mesoscopic catalyst, Over-full D/Pd loading, Pd nano-particle, Phenomenological model, Role of PdO, Sub-nano dip

The PdO-coated layer of Pd-nano-particle may arrange fractal nano-dips on its surface when D(H)-gas is charged and de-oxidation molecules (D2Oor H2O) are released. Fractal nano-dips may make local deep adsorption potentials, through which rapid penetration of D-atoms (ions) into deeper Pd-local lattice (Bloch potential) O-sites of nano-particle may be induced, to realize full or over-full D(H) loaded state (x >1.0) of PdDx in a short time of the Phase-I process. Formation of D-clusters, such as 4D/TSC on surface may be enhanced at nano-dips. A phenomenological model of quasi-free D-motion under constraint of the Bloch potential within a global mesoscopic potential well is proposed for the Phase-II phenomena, where nuclear heating by 4D fusion reactions may rather steadily take place. Generation of collective mesoscopic potential well (CMPW) will make a Pd nano-particle with PdO working as “mesoscopic catalyst” which realizes very large D(H)-loading ratios and anomalously large chemical heat releases both for H-gas and D-gas loading.

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3978. Takahashi, A., Are Ni + H Nuclear Reactions Possible? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 108-127.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Clean fission, 4H/TSC WS fusion, Ni + H CF experiments, Ni + 4H/TSC capture, Nuclear reaction models

Various cases of possible orthodox nuclear reaction processes, including newly proposed 4H/TSC fusion by simultaneous weak and strong interactions, 4H/TSC + Ni induced fission products, Ni + p reactions and reaction by deuteron impurity, are comparatively discussed for feasibility.(1) Ni + p nuclear reaction is impossibly difficult to make the Coulomb-field penetration of proton through so many inner electron shells (K, L, M), usually non-active in chemical reactions, of Ni-atom. Also the proton capture with Ni-nucleus, if any with kW level power, should emit lethal prompt gamma-rays which have never been observed. So, this type of nuclear reactions is unlikely.(2) Deuteron impurity (1/6700 in H2 gas usually) may induce (3H+D)/TSC fusion to be considered. Conditioning of 3-dimensional symmetry of QM-wave function for TSC is however of problem to condense into microscopic neutral entity small enough for causing any strong interactions.(3) The newly proposed 4H/TSCWS (weak-strong interaction simultaneously) fusion is a plausible scenario to have clean products (3He and proton, or deuterons) with significantly enhanced reaction rates in Ni nano-particles, for rare-conditioned (as discussed) visible heat generation with very weak secondary neutrons (10−13 order of 3He primary product) and gamma-rays (10−11 order of 3He primary product). Degrees of the generation rate of 4H/TSC (t = 0) transient clusters in Ni-H nano-particles and the life-time elongation of 4H/TSC-minimum state are speculatively studied. The auto-recovery capability of Ni nano-catalyst is considered as the key.(4) The 4H/TSC + Ni-isotope capture-and-fission process, previously proposed in our paper of JCMNS 1 (2007) 86-96 is another plausible scenario, to result in generation of clean fission products in A < 60 mass region. More enhanced 4p + Ni to fission rates than the previous prediction is expected due to the possible elongation of 4H/TSC-minimum-state life time without complete nuclear break-up of the symmetric cluster under dynamic condensation.

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3979. Takahashi, A., Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: D(H)-cluster, 4D fusion, 4H WS fusion, TSC theory

This paper explains the basic physics of cold fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC) theory. Models of TSC formation conditions in condensed matter are first proposed. Secondly formulas for cold fusion rates per D(H)-cluster are explained with typical quantitative results. The 4D/TSC fusion and the 4H/TSCWS fusion describe the D (deuterium)-system and the H (protium)-system, respectively.

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3980. Takahashi, N., et al., Detection of Pr in Cs ion-implanted Pd/CaO multilayer complexes with and without D2 gas permeation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Takahashi, N.
All Authors: Takahashi, N., Kosaka, S., Hioki, T., Motohiro, T.
Keywords: CaO/Pd multilayer complex, Cs Pr, Deuterium permeation, Nuclear transmutation

Iwamura-type nuclear transmutation, 133Cs –> 141Pr, with D2 permeation through Pd/CaO multilayer complex was examined. Using ICP-MS, the amounts of Pr were measured in the range 10E10 atoms/cm^2. The amounts of Pr measured in D2 permeated samples were larger than those in non-D2 permeated samples.

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3981. Takahashi, A., Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: BOLEP, 4D fusion, Final products, 4He, 3He, 4H WS fusion, n-Halo model, TSC theory

Prediction of nuclear products both for metal-deuterium systems and metal protium systems is made on the basic physics of cold fusion by the Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) theory. This paper focuses on final state nuclear reactions of intermediate compound states as 8Be* of 4D/TSC fusion and 4Li* of 4H/TSC WS fusion. Prediction of final products is made by the nucleonhalo model of the highly excited intermediate compound states.

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3982. Takahashi, A., et al., Anomalous Exothermic and Endothermic Data Observed by Nano-Ni-Composite Samples. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A., Kitamura, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Murota, T., Tahara, T.
Keywords: D(H)-gas absorption, Excess heat, Higher temperature, 2W/g-Ni, Ni-based nano-particle

To study the anomalous heat effect of Ni-based binary-metal-nano-powder samples by gas-phase hydrogen isotope absorption/desorption, three kinds of samples CNZ, CNZ-II and NZ were tested for the temperature range 300-573 K. The highest excess heat power, ca. 2W/g-Ni was obtained with CNZ at 573 K. Peculiar H(D)-isotopic effect and sudden heat sink by abrupt H(D)-desorption were observed. The heat phenomenon looks happening on surface of nano-particle.

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3983. Takahashi, A., Development status of condensed cluster fusion theory. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords:

3984. Takahashi, A., Fundamental of Rate Theory for CMNS. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Takahashi, A.
All Authors: Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Condensed matter nuclear reaction, Enhanced fusion rate, Fermi’s golden rule, Finite lifetime, 1 pm d–d distance, Time-dependent barrier factor, Trapped D(H) particles, 10 kW heat power

The condensed matter nuclear reactions (CMNR) are thought to happen for trapped H(D) particles within some chemical (electromagnetic) potential well with finite lifetime. As the lifetime is much longer than the collision time of two-body interaction of free particles, the CMNR reaction rates are significantly (of the order of 19-20 in magnitude) enhanced if we compare with estimated reactions rates by the two-body collision formula. The basis of CMNR rate theory is reviewed in this paper by extracting essence of the TSC theory tools developed until now. Derivation of Fermi’s golden rule with nuclear optical potential, rate formulas by Born-Oppenheimer wave function separation, estimation of bracket integral of inter-nuclear strong interaction rate, estimation of time dependent barrier penetration probability by the HMEQPET method for dynamic D(H)-cluster condensation/collapse process, and DD fusion power levels as functions of inter-nuclear d-d distance and effective existing (life) time are given. A DD fusion power level of 10 kW/mol-dd-pairs is possible for a 1 pm inter-nuclear d-d distance with 10 ato-seconds lifetime. The level of 2.8 nano-mol 4D/TSC formations/s may release 10 kW neutron-free heat-power with 4He ash.

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3985. Takata, N., et al., A preliminary attempt to measure neutrons from cold fusion. Denshi Gijutsu Kenkyusho Iho, 1989. 53: p. 1438 (in Japanese).

First Author: Takata, N.
All Authors: Takata, N., Kaneko, H., Nozaki, K., Sakuta, K., Tanimoto, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3986. Takeda, T. and T. Takizuka, Fractofusion mechanism. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1989. 58(9): p. 3073.

First Author: Takeda, T.
All Authors: Takeda, T., Takizuka, T.
Keywords: Theory, fractofusion

3987. Takeda, T., Theory of room temperature nuclear fusion. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 40 (in Japanese).

First Author: Takeda, T.
All Authors: Takeda, T.
Keywords: review

3988. Talcott, C.L., et al. Tritium Measurements: Methods, Pitfalls, and Result. in EPRI/NSF Planning Workshop. 1989. Washington, DC.

First Author: Talcott, C. L.
All Authors: Talcott, C. L., Storms, E., Jalbert, R. A., Hoffman, N., David, M. A.
Keywords: tritium, error, method, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

3989. Talcott, C.L. Palladium Lattice Dimension Changes Associated With the Two Legs of the Hystersis Loop. in JOWOG-12 Meeting, Atomic Weapons Estab. 1990. Aldermaston.

First Author: Talcott, C. L.
All Authors: Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: PdD, Lattice Parameter, PdH

3990. Talcott, C.L. and E. Storms. An Overview of “Cold Fusion”. in JOWOG-12 Meeting, Atomic Weapons Estab. 1990. Aldermaston, England.

First Author: Talcott, C. L.
All Authors: Talcott, C. L., Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3991. Taleyarkhan, R.P., et al., Comments on Shapira and Saltmarsh report. 2002, Purdue U.

First Author: Taleyarkhan, R. P.
All Authors: Taleyarkhan, R. P., Block, R. C., West, C. D., Lahey, R. T.
Keywords: review

3992. Taleyarkhan, R.P., et al., Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavation. Science, 2002. 295: p. 1868.

First Author: Taleyarkhan, R. P.
All Authors: Taleyarkhan, R. P., West, C. D., Cho, J. S., Lahey, R. T., Nigmatulin, R. I., Block, R. C.
Keywords: acoustic,, sonic,, neutron

3993. Taleyarkhan, R.P., et al., Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavation (Supplemental #1 for Science Online). Science, 2002. 295: p. 1868.

First Author: Taleyarkhan, R. P.
All Authors: Taleyarkhan, R. P., West, C. D., Cho, J. S., Lahey, R. T., Nigmatulin, R. I., Block, R. C.
Keywords: acoustic,, sonic,, neutron

3994. Taleyarkhan, R.P., et al., Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavation (Supplemental #2 for Science Online). Science, 2002. 295: p. 1868.

First Author: Taleyarkhan, R. P.
All Authors: Taleyarkhan, R. P., West, C. D., Cho, J. S., Lahey, R. T., Nigmatulin, R. I., Block, R. C.
Keywords: acoustic,, sonic,, neutron

3995. Taleyarkhan, R.P., et al., Recent Advances and Results in Acoustic Inertial Confinement Bubble Nuclear Fusion, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 139-157.

First Author: Taleyarkhan, R. P.
All Authors: Taleyarkhan, R. P., West, C. D., Lahey, R. T., Nigmatulin, R. I., Block, R. C., Cho, J. S., Xu, Y.
Keywords:

3996. Talley, T.L. Nuclear weapon Implications of “Cold” Fusion. in The 7th Biennial Nuclear Design Phys. Conf. 1989. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

First Author: Talley, T. L.
All Authors: Talley, T. L.
Keywords: theory, weapon

3997. Talley, T.L., Importance of Tritium Experiments. 1989.

First Author: Talley, T. L.
All Authors: Talley, T. L.
Keywords: theory, tritium, fractofusion

3998. Tamaki, M. and K. Tasaka. Field Formation of the Condensed Matter Fusion by Electro-Transport of Deuterium in Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tamaki, M.
All Authors: Tamaki, M., Tasaka, K.
Keywords: Pd, H, charge, structure, PdH, electromigration, ICCF-3, effective charge

A model of cold fusion was proposed. Electrotransport effect on deuterium in palladium was crystallographically examined and verified for the field formation of the condensed matter fusion. Electrotransported palladium hydride was analyzed by neutron radiographic technique. The effective number of the electric charge of hydrogen in PdH0.67 was evaluated to be +0.30 Ѡ0.05.

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3999. Tamayo, J.M.M., et al., Experiments on cold fusion at IMP. Rev. Inst. Mex. Pet., 1990. 22: p. 42 (in Spanish).

First Author: Tamayo, J. M. M.
All Authors: Tamayo, J. M. M., Rivas, J. M., Celis, B. Z., Garcia, F. P. R., Penaloza, O. N.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, gamma emission, heat-

4000. Tanabe, K., Plasmonic Concepts for Condensed Matter Nuclear Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 296-300.

First Author: Tanabe, K.
All Authors: Tanabe, K.
Keywords: Electromagnetic field enhancement, Laser, Metal nanoparticles, Metal nanoshells, Nanophotonics, Plasmonics, Power/energy density

We propose and numerically investigate a scheme to provide high-density optical or electromagnetic energy to fuel materials for condensed matter nuclear fusion. Surface plasmons in metal nanoparticulates strongly interact with electromagnetic fields at their resonance, resulting in an intense focusing of the incident energy around the metal surface. It is therefore possible to take the advantage of such high energy concentration, under laser or electric power input, for instance by simply coating the conventional Pd-based fuel materials with noble-metal nanoparticles or nanoshells. This field-enhancement effect can be a powerful method to boost the fusion-triggering electromagnetic or optical energy to significantly improve the reaction rate and experimental reproducibility, and to create low-D-load fusion systems. Importantly, this enhancement scheme is applicable to both gas- and liquid-phase systems, and furthermore, not only for laser/optical power, but also for the conventional electrolysis systems due to the equivalency between light and electromagnetic fields. We also show that the conventional fusion-catalyzing metals of Pd, Ni, and Ti themselves intrinsically exhibit a certain degree of field enhancement for their nanostructured form. Therefore, we point out that this plasmonic effect may have been unknowingly produced particularly in the electrolysis-type fusion experiments reported so far. This field-enhancement phenomenon thus could be a clue to solve the mystery of the energy supplied to overcome the gigantic Coulomb barrier to produce the fusion reaction observed with visible rates, as well as a powerful tool for further technical progress.

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4001. Tanaka, M., Parametric enhancement of the tunneling transmission through a potential barrier. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1992. 29: p. 1129.

First Author: Tanaka, M.
All Authors: Tanaka, M.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

4002. Tanaka, T. and S. Himeno. A possible enhancement mechanism. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Tanaka, T.
All Authors: Tanaka, T., Himeno, S.
Keywords: theory, electron screening

An enhancing mechanism of nuclear fusions is presented, most part of which is within the framework of the traditional theories. In this mechanism, electron currents play an important role, which are induced by an externally applied field or counterstreams of free electrons which naturally exist inside, surface and outside of bulk metals. At places of electron currents, the electric potential becomes negative and there relevant nuclei gather and collide. Then, if electrons exist in close vicinities in addition, there the electric potential barriers are lowered further and the tunneling effects which bring about nuclear fusions drastically increase. Resultantly, the rate of nuclear fusions enhances as a whole. Then, if shape of the current can be sufficiently fine and strong the increase is more drastic. It is not clear that at present the mechanism can make enhance the fusion to any extent

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4003. Tani, T. and Y. Kobayashi. Tunnel Disintegration and Neutron Emission Probability. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tani, T.
All Authors: Tani, T., Kobayashi, Y.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

It is shown that the main features of the so-called cold fusion, that is, poor reproducibility, high tin ratio and the energy spectrum of neutrons, can be explained by the “tunnel disintegration” of a deuterium and the subsequent “dipole disintegration” of a deuteron. Especially, the 2.45-MeV peak found in the energy spectrum, which has been considered to be owing to the d-d nuclear fusion, is explained by this mechanism, and therefore the observation of 2.45-MeV neutrons may not be a direct verification of the d-d nuclear fusion.

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4004. Tani, T. and Y. Kobayashi. A model for neutron emission from condensed matter. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tani, T.
All Authors: Tani, T., Kobayashi, Y.
Keywords: theory, neutron, ICCF-6

4005. Taniguchi, R., T. Yamamoto, and S. Irie, Detection of charged particles emitted by electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1989. 28(11): p. L2021.

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R., Yamamoto, T., Irie, S.
Keywords: neutron, method, particle emission, Pd, D2O, H2O

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:We have tried to obtain evidence for electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion by detecting charged particles associated with the nuclear reaction. Charged particles were detected by a conventional silicon surface barrier detector attached close to the thin foil cathode which formed the bottom of an electrolysis cell. The efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of this system are higher than those of neutron detection systems, which made it easy to determine whether the fusion occurred or not. The energy spectrum measured with the electrolysis of D2O suggested that the nuclear reaction took place in palladium cathode.

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4006. Taniguchi, N., et al., Conditions for cold nuclear fusion. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi, 1990(9): p. 992 (in Japanese).

First Author: Taniguchi, N.
All Authors: Taniguchi, N., Baba, S., Kawamura, K., Gamo, T.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, D2O, D2, titanium, gamma emission

4007. Taniguchi, R. and T. Yamamoto. High Sensitivity Measurement of Charged Particles Emitted During Pulsed Electrolysis of D2O. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R., Yamamoto, T.
Keywords: particle emission, D2O, Pd

4008. Taniguchi, R. and T. Yamamoto, High sensitivity measurement of charged particles using a silicon surface barrier detector. Hoshasen, 1990. 16: p. 29 (in Japanese).

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R., Yamamoto, T.
Keywords: particle emission, electrolysis, Pd

4009. Taniguchi, R., T. Yamamoto, and S. Irie, Fine structure of the charged particle bursts induced by D2O electrolysis. Bull. Univ. Osaka Prefect., Ser A, 1990. 39(2): p. 233.

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R., Yamamoto, T., Irie, S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

4010. Taniguchi, R. and T. Yamamoto. Fine Structure of the Charged Particle Bursts Induced by D2O Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R., Yamamoto, T.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Internal structures of charged particle bursts induced by the D2O electrolysis have been studied by use of a fast response measurement system. Charged particles were detected by a NE102a plastic scintillation counter. The electrolysis was continued at low temperature at 4у for 3 hours. After then, the cell was warmed up to several ten degrees of Celsius scale. During the warming-up, we caught some anomalous pulse emissions of charged particles. The pulse shapes of the bursts were found to be complicated and the duration of the bursts was distributed from 40 to 100 nanosecond . Comparison of these pulse shapes and standard response for a single particle suggests that the burst is a pile-up pulse and consists of many particles.

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4011. Taniguchi, R. Characteristic Peak Structures on Charged Particle Spectra During Electrolysis Experiment. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Taniguchi, R.
All Authors: Taniguchi, R.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, energy, ICCF-4

4012. Taniguchi, M., N. Kaji, and A. Takahashi. Search for Anomalous Nuclear Reactions in PdDx by Detection of Nuclear Products in Vacuum/Gas System. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Taniguchi, M.
All Authors: Taniguchi, M., Kaji, N., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, particle emission, neutron, ICCF-6

4013. Taniguchi, S., et al. ICP-MS Analysis of Electrodes and Electrolytes after HNO3/H2O Electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Taniguchi, S.
All Authors: Taniguchi, S., Shimadu, S., Narita, S., Odashima, T., Teshima, N., Ohmori, T.
Keywords: transmutation

4014. Tanzella, F.L., et al. Parameters affecting the loading of hydrogen isotopes into palladium cathodes. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Crouch-Baker, S., McKeown, A., McKubre, M. C. H., Williams, M., Wing, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, OCV, composition, electrolysis, surface analysis, ICCF-6

We have tested our new Degree of Loading (DoL) cell design which can be directly transferred to the SRI mass flow calorimeter. We have shown that appropriately prepared Pd cathodes can reach high loadings in this new design and that the cells can be transferred to the calorimeter without degrading the cathode’s or cell’s performance. In all of the experiments the cathode deloaded at higher current densities, and ostensibly identical cathodes yield significantly different D:Pd loading/current density profiles. In the new cell design high purity Pd from IMRA Materials and Johnson Matthey have generally loaded better than recent lots of 99.9% Engelhard Pd. Pd that IMRA Materials cast in air with added CaB6 held its loading best at higher current densities. Electrolyte additives Al, Si, Nd and Sm had no perceptible effect on loading behavior. The regular addition of Cl- ion, similar to what might happen when topping up open cells, can increase or maintain loading. The presence of Cu is detrimental to good loading . . .

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4015. Tanzella, F.L., M.C.H. McKubre, and P.L. Hagelstein. Methods for Observing Anomalous Energy Transfer in Solids. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: particle emission, gamma emission, Pd, D2O, H2O, electrolysis, replication ICCF-7

4016. Tanzella, F.L., et al. Triggered Energy Release From Palladium Deuteride (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Hagelstein, P. L., Orondo, P.
Keywords: heat, helium

Research ObjectiveTo understand what limits the rate of energy release (power) from the FPE in intentionally destructive experiments employing small, safe samples of ~1:1 PdD in a novel low temperature calorimeter.To search for evidence of potential products of nuclear reaction.To understand underlying reaction processes and mechanisms (theory).To generate, measure, and understand nuclear-level heat effects:* in small, safe samples of ~1:1 PdD* electrochemically formed from fine, short PdDx wires with various known He content* stimulated electrically and/or by laser pulse* measure heat in a novel calorimeter* verify nuclear effects by analyzing the wires for changes in their 3He and 4He content and ratio.

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4017. Tanzella, F.L. and M.C.H. McKubre. Calorimetry Of Pulse Electro-Melting of PdDx Wires. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

Several groups have reported anomalous effects (heat and nuclear products) in thin PdDx materials stimulated by different forms of electro-diffusion. We have designed and tested a calorimeter utilizes an “exploding wire” technique to examine the effect of a destructive electrodiffusion on a highly loaded PdDx wire. We have shown that highly loaded PdDx wires can be formed using high voltage electrolysis of very high purity D2O with a very thin Pd wire cathode and a thin Pt wire anode. The addition a partial monolayer of a recombination poison yields a highly loaded PdDx cathode. Following that step with the addition of a larger amount of that same poison seals the loaded wire and allows transfer to a cryogenic calorimeter. Our liquid nitrogen boil-off cryogenic calorimeter has been shown to have an accuracy of less than 0.4 J.

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4018. Tanzella, F.L., J. Bao, and M.C.H. McKubre. CMNS Research at SRI (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Bao, J., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

Three Major Parts of the Field Now* Electrochemical loading of Deuterons into Palladium   – The initial Fleischmann-Pons approach [FPE]   – Most work in the field has been in this class   – 90% of the effort at SRI has been directed to this* Gas loading of Deuterons into Palladium   – Les Case “nano”-Pd on C   – Arata-Zhang combined electrochemistry and gas loading* Gas loading of Protons (and D) into Nickel (and other metals)   – Work began by Piantelli in early 1990s   – Recent results at SRI

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4019. Tanzella, F.L., J. Bao, and M.C.H. McKubre, Cryogenic Calorimetry of “Exploding” PdDx Wires. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 90-100.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Bao, J., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cyrogenic calorimetry, Deuterium loading, Electrochemical, Detectability, Exploding wires

Reports in the literature have shown that thin PdDx structures have yielded anomalous effects (heat and nuclear products) when stimulated by different forms of electro diffusion. We have designed, constructed, and operated a calorimeter operating at 77 K with a minimum detectability of less than 0.1 J and an accuracy of less than 0.06 J, which utilizes an “exploding wire” technique to examine the effect of a destructive electro-diffusion on a highly loaded PdDx wire. We have shown, using a very thin Pd wire cathode and a thin Pt wire anode, that highly loaded PdDx wires can be formed using high-voltage electrolysis of very high-purity D2O. Highly loaded PdDx wires can disintegrate (“explode”) to form microscopic particles when subjected to high current density pulses at 77 K. Under certain conditions PdDx wires can yield excess energy when subjected to high-current density pulses at 77 K.

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4020. Tanzella, F.L., et al., Stimulation of Metal DeuterideWires at Cryogenic Temperatures. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Bao, J., McKubre, M. C. H., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cold fusion, Deuterium, Electrochemistry, Excess heat, Helium, Palladium

Several groups have reported anomalous effects (heat and nuclear products) in thin PdDx materials stimulated by different forms of electro-diffusion. Using our cryogenic calorimeter we have measured the energy released from destructive electro-diffusion of a highly loaded PdH(D)x wires, co-deposited PdH(D)xon highly loaded PdH(D)x wires, and NiH(D)x wires. Generally, the D loaded metals yielded greater and more reliable excess energy than seen with the H loaded metals. The co-deposited PdDxon highly loaded PdDxwires yielded greater excess energy than the bulk wire hydrides or PdDxco-deposited on Ag wires as predicted by the calculations of Hagelstein and DeChiaro. The addition of a partial monolayer of a recombination poison yields a highly loaded PdDx cathode. Electro-stimulation of NiH(D)xwires have also shown excess energy, suggesting that renewed interest in this system may be justified.

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4021. Tanzella, F.L., et al., Seeking X-rays and Charge Emission from a Copper Foil Driven at MHz Frequencies. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Bao, J., McKubre, M. C. H., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Charge emission, Collimated X-ray emission, Karabut experiment, Up-conversion, Vibrations

The absence of energetic nuclear particles in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment has been interpreted as indicating that a large nuclear quantum can be down-converted into a great many low energy vibrational quanta. Models that describe this also suggest that low energy vibrational quanta can be up-converted to produce nuclear excitation. Karabut’s collimated X-ray emission has been interpreted as being due to the up-conversion of vibrational energy in a small cathode to produce excitation in 201Hg. To test this, we developed a new experiment to vibrate a copper foil with and without surface Hg, and we looked for X-ray emission and charge emission from the surface. Signals were observed in the detectors in both cases; however, the signals in the X-ray detector did not respect the absorption edge of the Be window and are artifacts; and the large current signals associated with charge emission did not charge a capacitor in a simple configuration. We conclude that both are artifacts. The absence of collimated X-ray emission in this case is interpreted as due to the absence of strong low energy nuclear transitions in the copper, and also as ruling out a candidate theoretical model involving up-conversion due to interactions with negative energy transitions. A new interpretation of the Karabut experiment focuses now on lower frequency vibrations in the massive steel cathode holder and vacuum chamber as responsible for the up-conversion, and transfer of the up-converted energy to surface 201Hg to produce the collimated X-ray emission.

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4022. Tanzella, F.L., et al., Controlled Electron Capture: Enhanced Stimulation and Calorimetry Methods. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 301-311.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L., Godes, R., Herrera, R., Eveleigh, C.
Keywords: Controlled electron capture, Hydrogen, Isoperibolic, Nickel, Power compensation

The Controlled Electron Capture (CEC) method has been extended to use faster rise and fall time pulses, hydrogen isotope gas based systems at temperatures up to 650◦C, and more precise and accurate calorimetry relative to results presented earlier. Our isoperibolic (IPB) cell/calorimeter is operated as an isothermal compensation type calorimeter. Potential sources of error in this system are discussed as well the methods used to minimize them. In power compensation mode the cell is held at a constant temperature using a heater power feedback system and constant power pulses or DC power steps are added to the system, resulting in a reduction of heater power. The relationship between this heater power reduction and DC power passed along the reactor core yields a calibration curve at different temperatures that allows us to evaluate how much output power increased during a given stimulation pulse. The IPB cell/calorimeter was stimulated by commanding different pulse widths at constant amplitude with the pulse power held constant by appropriately varying the pulse repetition rate. At 250-300◦C the ratio of output power increase to input pulse power varied from 1.0 to over 2.0 depending on the pulse width at constant input power. That ratio was always 1.0 at all pulse widths attempted at 600◦C. These results have been seen tens of times. The amount of excess power was also dependent on the composition of the gas and the metal alloy coatings on the core. The outer layer of the core was always pure Ni. The composition of a multilayer metal-dielectric metal coated core was chosen to allow for reasonable hydrogen solubility and mobility at 300◦C. The results of various experiments are discussed Importantly these results presented here ignore the heater power necessary to maintain temperature and the losses in the pulse generator, which can be several times greater than either the stimulation power or power gain.

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4023. Tanzella, F.L., Isoperibolic Hydrogen Hot Tube Reactor Studies. 2018, SRI International.

First Author: Tanzella, F. L.
All Authors: Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords:

4024. Taplin, H. “Light Element Fission”, The Lithium-Fast Proton Nuclear Reaction. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Taplin, H.
All Authors: Taplin, H.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation, He, ICCF-7

4025. Tateno, H. and Y. Iwashita, An attempt to observe nuclear fusion in titanium by internal friction. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Suppl., 1991. 30: p. 41.

First Author: Tateno, H.
All Authors: Tateno, H., Iwashita, Y.
Keywords: titanium, internal friction, D2, H2

4026. Taubes, G., Cold Fusion Conundrum at Texas A & M. Science, 1990. 248: p. 1299.

First Author: Taubes, G.
All Authors: Taubes, G.
Keywords: history, tritium

4027. Taubes, G., Bad science. The short life and weird times of cold fusion. 1993, NY: Random House.

First Author: Taubes, G.
All Authors: Taubes, G.
Keywords: history, book,

4028. Taylor, C.A., Defining the scientific community: A rhetorical perspective on demarcation. Commun. Monogr., 1991. 58: p. 402.

First Author: Taylor, C. A.
All Authors: Taylor, C. A.
Keywords: history

4029. Taylor, S.F., et al. Search for Neutrons from Deuterated Palladium Subject to High Electric Currents. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Taylor, S. F.
All Authors: Taylor, S. F., Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, D, ICCF-4

4030. Tazima, K.L., et al. Time-Correlated Neutron Detection From Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Tazima, K. L.
All Authors: Tazima, K. L., Li, X. Z., Dong, S. Y., Wang, S. C., Mo, D. W., Luo, C. M., Lin, Q. R., Wu, X. D., Li, W. Z., Zhu, Y. F., Hou, P. L., Chang, L.
Keywords: Pd, D2, plasma, ion implantation, neutron, ICCF-2

4031. Terazawa, H., Are Super-Hypernuclei Found in Cosmic Rays? J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1991. 60: p. 1848.

First Author: Terazawa, H.
All Authors: Terazawa, H.
Keywords: theory, super heavy elements

4032. Terazawa, T., et al. Sustentation of higher deuterium loading ratio in palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Terazawa, T.
All Authors: Terazawa, T., Sano, T., Kamiya, Y., Oyabe, Y., Ohi, T.
Keywords: Pd, loading, OCV, over voltage, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-6

4033. Tesch, S., Yet again ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Radio. Fernsehen Elektro. (East Ger.), 1990. 39 53 (In German).

First Author: Tesch, S.
All Authors: Tesch, S.
Keywords: review

4034. Thacker, B. and J.E. Stratman, Transmuting common substances. The cold fusion controversy and the rhetoric of science. J. Business Tech. Commun., 1995. 9: p. 389.

First Author: Thacker, B.
All Authors: Thacker, B., Stratman, J. E.
Keywords: history

4035. Thomassen, K.L., Remarks by Keith I. Thomassen. J. Fusion Energy, 1991. 10(1): p. 123.

First Author: Thomassen, K. L.
All Authors: Thomassen, K. L.
Keywords: history

4036. Thompkins, P. and C. Byrd, The Secret Life of Plants. 1993, New York: Penguin Books.

First Author: Thompkins, P.
All Authors: Thompkins, P., Byrd, C.
Keywords: transmutation, biological,

4037. Thompson, A.W., Hydrogen Compatibility of Dispersion-Strengthened Alloys. Metal. Trans. A, 1974. 5: p. 1855.

First Author: Thompson, A. W.
All Authors: Thompson, A. W.
Keywords: H, strength, Ni

4038. Thompson, D.T., A report from the meeting in Salt Lake City. Platinum Met. Rev., 1990. 34: p. 136.

First Author: Thompson, D. T.
All Authors: Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: review

4039. Thompson, D.T., Further Evidence for Cold Fusion, A Report on the Third International Conference. Platinum Met. Rev., 1993. 37(1): p. 14.

First Author: Thompson, D. T.
All Authors: Thompson, D. T.
Keywords: review

4040. Tian, Z.Q., A proposal for a cold fusion study in the Ti/D system. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 92.

First Author: Tian, Z. Q.
All Authors: Tian, Z. Q.
Keywords: theory, titanium, D2

4041. Tian, J., et al. “Excess heat” and “heat after death” in a gas loading hydrogen/palladium system. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Li, X. Z., Yu, W. Z., Mei, M. Y., Cao, D. X., Li, A. L., Li, J., Zhao, Y. G., Zhang, C.
Keywords: Pd, H2, heat, gas loading

“Super-absorption” could occasionally appear when an H/Pd gas-loaded system was heated by an incandescent tungsten filament. The system-pressure was kept on in 10^-2 Pa for several hours without any aid of pumping. In this stage both “excess heat” and “heat after death” was observed once. By calibration, the feature constant of the system was 12.8ºC/W in maximum. When the “excess heat” appeared, the system temperature was reached 153ºC at the highest whereas the stable inputting power was 0.45mW. When the “heat after death” appeared-there was no power input to the system-the temperature of the system abruptly jumped up to 761ºC. In the former, 25kJ “excess heat” within 12 hours was measured which corresponded to 180 eV/atom Pd. And about 2MJ “heat after death” within 43 hours was corresponding to 13keV/atom Pd. The maximum excess powers in each case were 3.3 and 49W and the correlated power density were 230 and 3600 W/cm^3 Pd respectively. The variation results of concentration of Li-7and Li-6 and their abundance ratio in Pd suggested that the anomalous heat might come from a nuclear origin.

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4042. Tian, J., et al. Anomalous heat flow and its correlation with deuterium flux in a gas-loading deuterium-palladium system. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Liu, B., Li, X. Z., Yu, W. Z., Cao, D. X., Zhou, R., Yu, Z. W., Jiang, Z. F., Liu, Y., He, J., Zhou, R. X.
Keywords: heat, deuterium, D2, Pd, radiation

A special experimental device was designed to test the anomalous thermal effect of Pd with deuterium flux (Df ) caused by deuteron diffusion passing through a thin wall of a Pd tube under a D2 pressure difference across the Pd wall. It is found that the variation of the flux was the significant precursor of the anomalous heat, because a remarkable heat flow was detected when the Df  was becoming obviously larger. The experiment was repeated for more than 16 times, and the maximum heat flow detected was 4.8mW whereas the accuracy of the calorimeter is better than 30μW. There were no heat flow detected when the temperature of the device was increased and when the D2 pressure difference equaled to zero. Neither heat flow nor flux was observed in the control experiment using N2.gas. The results of TLD (Themoluminescence dosimeter) detection implied a nuclear origin of the heat flow because the dosage of radiation in reaction vessel was often higher than that in reference vessel.

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4043. Tian, J., et al. “Excess Heat” during Electrolysis in Platinium/K2CO3/Nickel Light Water System. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Jin, L. H., Weng, Z. K., Song, B., Zhao, X. L., Xiao, Z. J., Chen, G., Du, B. Q.
Keywords: nickel, hydrogen NiH, loading, heat

4044. Tian, J., et al. Heat Measurements And Surface Studies Of Pd Wires After Being Exposed To A H2 Gas-Loading System Irradiated With A YAG Frequency Doubling Laser. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Jin, L. H., Shen, B., Wang, Q., Dash, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Abstract: This study involved excess heat triggering attempts with a YAG frequency doubling laser (λ=532nm) used to irradiate palladium hydrides with different gas-loading ratios. The results showed that experiments using laser stimulation produced no significant excess heat evidence. However, on the surface of Pd sample there were some new elements including Ag and Cd. These were found in localized sites by SEM and EDS analysis.

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4045. Tian, J., et al. Excess Heat Triggering by 532nm Laser in a D/Pd Gas-Loading System. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Jin, L. H., Shen, B. J., Weng, Z. K., Lu, X.
Keywords: D/Pd gas-loading system, heat triggering, static pulsed laser, loading ratio, excess heat

A laser (λ=532 nm) operated in three modes (continuous, static pulsed and dynamic pulsed) was used to irradiate a series of palladium deuterides with different deuteron loading ratios in a D/Pd gas-loading system. (The loading ratios were D/Pd=0, 0.08, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.27.)  The results showed that static pulsed triggering produces a maximum excess heat effect of about 2.6 kJ within a half hour when the loading ratio of Pd was about 0.1 and input power was 25 mW. This corresponds to 4.9 × 10^-15 J/atom D or 1.8 × 10^4 W/cm^3 Pd. The reason the static pulsed triggering produced more excess heat than other two modes needs to be further studied. The proper ratio in the Pd lattice matching a suitable triggering power may be a key point for heat production.

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4046. Tian, J., et al., Excess Heat Triggered by Different Current in a D/Pd Gas-loading System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Tian, J.
All Authors: Tian, J., Shen, B., Jin, L. H., Zhao, X. G, Lu, X., Wang, H.-Y.
Keywords: Current triggering, Deuterium pressure, D/Pd gas-loading system, Excess heat

In order to study the relationship between the triggering current, deuterium pressure and the excess heat, a series of experiments were made in a D/Pd gas-loading system. By comparing the system constants (k=?T/?P) in both nitrogen and deuterium atmosphere we found an optimum current (8A) and a deuterium pressure (9×104 Pa) in which the system could release a maximum excess power (more than 80W). The reproducibility was 16/16 and the excess energy released in the longest experiment was about 300MJ within 40 days, which was corresponding to 104 eV for each palladium atom. Analysis of the palladium surface with a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) revealed that some new surface topographical feature with concentrations of unexpected elements (such as Ag, Sn, Pb and Ca) appeared after the current triggering. The results implied that the excess heat might come from a nuclear transmutation.

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4047. Tien, J.K., et al., Hydrogen Transport by Dislocations. Metal. Trans. A, 1976. 7: p. 851.

First Author: Tien, J. K.
All Authors: Tien, J. K., Thompson, A. W., Bernstein, I. M., Richards, P. M.
Keywords: H, diffusion, Excess Volume, dislocation

4048. Timashev, S.F., Possible mechanisms for nuclear-chemical transformations in a palladium matrix during heavy water electrolysis. Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1989. 63: p. 2283 (in Russian).

First Author: Timashev, S. F.
All Authors: Timashev, S. F.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

4049. Timashev, S.F., Nuclear-chemical transformations in the condensed phase. Zh. Fiz. Khim., 1995. 69: p. 1396 (in Russian).

First Author: Timashev, S. F.
All Authors: Timashev, S. F.
Keywords: Theory, electron capture, dineutron

4050. Tinsley, C., An Interview with Professor Martin Fleischmann. Infinite Energy, 1996(11).

First Author: Tinsley, C.
All Authors: Tinsley, C.
Keywords: History

An interview with Prof. Martin Fleischmann conducted by Christopher P. Tinsley. Source:xxxx://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue11/fleishmann.html

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4051. Tisenko, Y.A., Possible ways to achieve cold fusion. I. Sov. Phys. J., 1993. 36: p. 764.

First Author: Tisenko, Yu. A.
All Authors: Tisenko, Yu. A.
Keywords: discussion

4052. Tisenko, Y.A., Possible ways to achieve cold fusion. II. Sov. Phys. J., 1993. 36: p. 769.

First Author: Tisenko, Yu. A.
All Authors: Tisenko, Yu. A.
Keywords: titanium single crystal, ultrasound accustic

4053. Tisenko, Y.A., Possible ways to achieve cold fusion. III. Russ. Phys. J., 1994. 37: p. 590.

First Author: Tisenko, Yu. A.
All Authors: Tisenko, Yu. A.
Keywords: discussion

4054. Toimela, T. Effective Interaction Potential in the Deuterium Plasma and Multiple Resonance Scattering. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Toimela, T.
All Authors: Toimela, T.
Keywords: theory

Abstract The effective interaction potential for charged particles is calculated in the deuterium plasma formed in the surface region of the palladium cathode in the electrolysis of heavy water. It is shown that the Coulomb potential is overscreened producing, at certain distances, an attractive potential between deuterium nuclei pairs and also between the deuterium nuclei and the surface atoms. This behavior of the effective potential in the deuterium plasma can be regarded as a counterpart of the Friedel oscillations of the electron gas at zero temperature. Because of this attractive potential, there are bound states for the deuteron pairs as well as for the surface atoms and deuterons. In these bound states the equilibrium distance between the nuclei is of the order 0.15 – 0.2 Å depending on the number density of deuterons. The fusion rate is calculated for the bounded deuteron pairs and it is found to be of the order   per deuteron pair for the highest deuteron densities. Furthermore, it is shown that larger fusion rates are possible for the deuterons bound to the surface atoms. This may arise by a process, where the trapped deuterons share the released energy collectively via a proposed Multiple Resonance Scattering (MRS) mechanism. It is then found that the 4He-channel is the overwhelmingly dominant fusion channel. Moreover, the appearance of the transmutation processes in this MRS procedure are briefly discussed.

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4055. Toimela, T. Multiple Resonance Scattering. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Toimela, T.
All Authors: Toimela, T.
Keywords: theory

The previously proposed Multiple Resonance Scattering (MRS) theory is elaborated. In addition of predicting a radiationless fusion of two deuterium nuclei into a 4He-nucleus in its ground state, the MRS theory is also shown to be in agreement with the experimental results concerning the transmutations of heavier nuclei. A form for the nuclear active environment is suggested and new experiments are proposed to verify the MRS theory.

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4056. Toimela, T., Theoretical Study of the Transmutation Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Toimela, T.
All Authors: Toimela, T.
Keywords: LENR, Surface, Theory, Transmutation, WKB approximation

Transmutation reactions are studied from a theoretical point of view. An idea is proposed to explain the variations in the transmutation ability of different elements, especially the relative inertness of palladium compared to the other elements. Proposals are made in order to verify experimentally this explanation and to enhance the transmutation signal.

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4057. Toimela, T., On the Heat Transfer in LENR Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 69-75.

First Author: Toimela, T.
All Authors: Toimela, T.
Keywords: Heat transfer, LENR, Theory

Thermal conduction is considered in deuterated palladium. We assume that the energy released in a single LENR event thermalizes in a region that has a typical dimension on the order of a hundred nanometers. It is shown that thermal conductivity enables the heat transfer of the energy released in repeated events without causing the lattice to melt. Consequently, continuous power is possible. It is argued that power of close to one watt can arise from a single nuclear active environment, NAE. Both the experimental and theoretical consequences of the results are discussed.

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4058. Toki, H. and K. Sugimoto, Deuteron-alpha Bose-Einstein condensation for coherent deuteron fusion in Pd double structure cathode. Proc. Jpn. Acad., Ser. B, 2000. 76B(3): p. 35.

First Author: Toki, H.
All Authors: Toki, H., Sugimoto, K.
Keywords: Theory, Bose-Einstein

4059. Tomanek, D., Z. Sun, and S.G. Louie, Ab initio Calculation of Chemisorption Systems: H on Pd(001) and Pd(110). Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 4699.

First Author: Tomanek, D.
All Authors: Tomanek, D., Sun, Z., Louie, S. G.
Keywords: Density Of States, PdH, bonding, theory

4060. Tomas, P., et al., Deuterium nuclear fusion in metals at room temperature. Fizika (Zagreb), 1989. 21: p. 209.

First Author: Tomas, P.
All Authors: Tomas, P., Blagus, S., Bogovac, M., Hodko, D., Krcmar, M., Miljanic, D., Pravdic, V., Rendic, D., Vajic, M., Vukovic, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, D2O

4061. Tomellini, M. and D. Gozzi, On the possibility for local oversaturation of deuterium in palladium. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1990. 9: p. 836.

First Author: Tomellini, M.
All Authors: Tomellini, M., Gozzi, D.
Keywords: loading, theory

4062. Tom-nek, D., Z. Sun, and S.G. Louie, Ab initio Calculation of Chemisorption Systems: H on Pd(001) and Pd(110). Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 4699.

First Author: Tom-nek, D.
All Authors: Tom-nek, D., Sun, Z., Louie, S. G.
Keywords: Density Of States, PdH, bonding, theory

4063. Toriyabe, Y., et al. Elemental Analysis Of Palladium Electrodes After Pd/Pd Light Water Critical Electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Toriyabe, Y.
All Authors: Toriyabe, Y., Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Aoki, Y.
Keywords: transmutation, light water

Elemental analyses of palladium electrodes were conducted after a new type of light water electrolysis was performed at optimum conditions in a system designed to induce a nuclear reaction. This process is referred to as Pd/Pd light water critical electrolysis. The conjecture that a nuclear transmutation process is occurring in this experiment is easier to test in this system, because it is easy to determine whether the elements detected on the cathode surface are impurities or transmutation products. We assume that the elements found only on the cathode surface, and nowhere else in the cell as contamination, namely iron, titanium, chromium and so on, must be transmutation products. Furthermore, countless Ohmori-type palladium craters were observed for the first time for this system, and these are evidence that nuclear reactions occurred at the electrode surface.

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4064. Toriyabe, Y. and J. Kasagi. Development of New Detector System for Charged Particle Emission. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Toriyabe, Y.
All Authors: Toriyabe, Y., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: Charged particle,

4065. Toriyabe, Y., K. Yoshida, and J. Kasagi. Li+D and D+D Fusion Assisted with Acoustic Cavitation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Toriyabe, Y.
All Authors: Toriyabe, Y., Yoshida, K., Kasagi, J.
Keywords:

We have studied the Li+D and D+D fusion reactions in liquid Li by bombarding deuteron beams with energies below 70 keV. In the present work, an ultra sonic target system was developed to form acoustic cavitation bubbles in the liquid Li, in order to investigate the effect of the enhanced dynamic motion of the target. It was found that the ultra sonic effect strongly depends on a target condition and the D+D reaction could be enhanced very much due to the liquid Li cavitation. In addition, the D+D reaction rate is not constant but time dependent. Preliminary analyses indicate that decrease of the Coulomb energy barrier is about 2000 eV for a relatively stable condition. On the contrary, the Li+D reaction shows no meaningful effect for incident energies down to 30 keV. The present results indicate that not only density increase but also another mechanism enhancing reaction rates should be exist in liquid Li acoustic cavitation process.

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4066. Toumey, C.P., Conjuring science in the case of cold fusion. Public Understand. Sci., 1996. 5: p. 121.

First Author: Toumey, C. P.
All Authors: Toumey, C. P.
Keywords: history

4067. Tran, D.N., et al., Investigation of nuclear fusion at the normal temperature. Tap Chi Vat Ly, 1990. 15(1): p. 29 (in Vietnamese).

First Author: Tran, D. N.
All Authors: Tran, D. N., Tran, D. T., Truong, T. A., Phi, T. H., Tran, V. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, neutron-, tritium-

4068. Triassi, A. Variation Of The Concentration Of Isotopes Copper And Zinc In Human Plasmas Of Patients Affected By Cancer. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Triassi, A.
All Authors: Triassi, A.
Keywords: theory

4069. Tripodi, P., et al., Temperature coefficient of resistivity at compositions approaching PdH. Phys. Lett. A, 2000. 276: p. 122.

First Author: Tripodi, P.
All Authors: Tripodi, P., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Honnor, P. A., Di Gioacchino, D., Celani, F., Violante, V.
Keywords: Pd PdH resistivity

4070. Tripodi, P., et al. Dynamics of hydrogen loading in palladium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Tripodi, P.
All Authors: Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Borelli, R., Vinko, J. D.
Keywords: loading, Pd, hydrogen, resistence, electrolysis

4071. Tripodi, P., et al., The effect of hydrogen stoichiometry on palladium strain and resistivity. Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(47).

First Author: Tripodi, P.
All Authors: Tripodi, P., Armanet, N., Asarisi, V., Avveduto, A., Marmigi, A., Biberian, J. P., Vinko, J. D.
Keywords: palladium

The strain and the electrical resistivity of a Pd sample stressed by a constant tension have been investigated through a series of hydrogenation cycles in a continuous H stoichiometry [0 <= x <= 0.8] range. The isotropic lattice expansion for both “as drawn” and “annealed” Pd sample reveals a strain of only 1% from pure Pd to PdH0.8 in disagreement with literature data available; the measured effect is minimum at x = 0.13 (á + â phase) and then from x = 0.6 (â phase) it has an exponential increase. The contribution of the mechanical tensile stress on the total relative elongation of the wire is also investigated. An increase of the Pd sample tensile strain after each hydrogenation cycle is reported for “as drawn” samples, while for “annealed” samples the reverse behaviour is observed. Moreover, annealed samples show considerably higher value of tensile strain compared to “as drawn”. The variation of mechanical strain versus H content, for both “annealed” and “as drawn”, has a maximum at x = 0.52. Strain variation and resistivity variation versus H content exhibit similar behaviour.

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4072. Tripodi, P., et al., The effect of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles on palladium physical properties. Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(35).

First Author: Tripodi, P.
All Authors: Tripodi, P., Armanet, N., Asarisi, V., Avveduto, A., Marmigi, A., Vinko, J. D., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: palladium

A series of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles have been performed on palladium wire samples, stressed by a constant mechanical tension, in order to investigate the changes in electrical and mechanical properties. A large increase of palladium electrical resistivity has been reported due to the combined effects of the production of defects linked to hydrogen insertion into the host lattice and the stress applied to the sample. An increase of the palladium sample strain due to hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles in alpha -> beta -> alpha phase transitions is observed compared to the sample subjected to mechanical tension only. The loss of initial metallurgical properties of the sample occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle, i.e. a displacement from the initial metallic behavior (increase of the resistivity and decrease of thermal coefficient of resistivity) to a worse one occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle. A linear correlation between palladium resistivity and strain, according to Matthiessen’s rule, has been found.

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4073. Trower, W.P., Cold Fusion As Seen With X-Ray Vision. Physics Today, 1989. July: p. 13.

First Author: Trower, W. P.
All Authors: Trower, W. P.
Keywords: history

4074. Tsarev, V.A. and D.H. Worledge. Review of new results on cold nuclear fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A., Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: review

4075. Tsarev, V.A., Cold fusion. Sov. Phys. Usp., 1990. 33(11): p. 881.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: review

4076. Tsarev, V.A. Current Status of Cold Fusion. in First Int. Sakharov Conf. 1991. Moscow, USSR.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: review, USSR, Russia

4077. Tsarev, V.A. and P.I. Golubnichii, Geological manifestations of cold fusion. Sov. Phys. – Lebedev Inst. Rep., 1991(3): p. 22.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A., Golubnichii, P. I.
Keywords: geology

4078. Tsarev, V.A. Cold Fusion Studies in the USSR. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: review, USSR, Russia, ICCF-2

4079. Tsarev, V.A. and D.H. Worledge, New results on cold nuclear fusion: a review of the conference on anomalous nuclear effects in deuterium/solid systems, Provo, Utah, October 22-24, 1990. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 484.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A., Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: review

4080. Tsarev, V.A. Cold Fusion Researches in Russia. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: review, Russia, USSR, ICCF-3

A review of cold fusion research in the former Soviet Union during the past year is presented.

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4081. Tsarev, V.A. and V.A. Chechin, On the nonstationary quantum-mechanical nature of anomalous nuclear effects in a solid. Kratk. Soobshch. Fiz., 1992. 9-10: p. 47 (in Russian).

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A., Chechin, V. A.
Keywords: theory

4082. Tsarev, V.A. and D.H. Worledge, Cold fusion studies in the USSR. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 138.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A., Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: review

4083. Tsarev, V.A., Anomalous nuclear effects in solids (“cold fusion”): questions still remain. Sov. Phys. Usp., 1992. 35: p. 842.

First Author: Tsarev, V. A.
All Authors: Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: critique, review

4084. Tsirlin, M., Comment on the Article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Tsirlin, M.
All Authors: Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: Craters, Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions, Origin, Pd cathodes

Formation of small craters on the surface of Pd cathode during electrolysis in electrolytes based on heavy water is sometimes interpreted as a consequence of low-temperature nuclear reactions. In this note we discuss the validity of these statements.

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4085. Tsirlin, M., Concerning the Problem of Searching for the Optimal Palladium Cathode. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 56-67.

First Author: Tsirlin, M.
All Authors: Tsirlin, M.
Keywords: Deuterium absorption, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Pd cathodes, Structural and composition changes

This article attempts to describe the processes occurring on the surface of palladium cathodes during their electrolytic electrolysis in electrolyte on the base of heavy water. The discussion is based on the experimental data on which were obtained in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) experiments lead for a number of years in Energetics Technology (Israel) (ET). The results of these experiments were presented in detail at the international conferences on cold fusion (ICCF). The main subject of these presentations was the description of experimental techniques and analysis of the results of calorimetric measurements, which in a number of cases indicated anomalous heat release, sometimes very significant, accompanying the process of electrochemical deuteration of Pd cathodes. However, the processes occurring in the cathode material, in particular, its structural transformations occurring during the absorption of deuterium by palladium, in these reports have appeared practically outside of discussion. This article partially fills this gap and, as the author believes, brings some clarity to the problem of searching for “optimal” palladium cathodes from the point of view of the probability of initiation of LENR.

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4086. Tsuchida, T., Role of hydrogen atoms in palladium. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1963. 18: p. 1016.

First Author: Tsuchida, T.
All Authors: Tsuchida, T.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, susceptibility, Hall effect, Pd-Ag-H, lattice parameter

4087. Tsuchida, T., S. Sasabe, and M. Ozaki. The effects of nuclear reactions in solids on the phonon dispersion relation. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Tsuchida, T.
All Authors: Tsuchida, T., Sasabe, S., Ozaki, M.
Keywords:

In this study, theoretical predictions about the effects of nuclear reactions in solids on the phonon dispersion relations are shown. As an initial model, we have tried to treat one dimensional palladium deuteride and have obtained possible changes of phonon dispersion relations due to DD reactions. This method will be applied to the detection of nuclear reactions in solid by using nuclear scattering or Raman spectroscopy.

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4088. Tsuchiya, K., et al., Interaction between two neighboring deuterium atoms in palladium. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 1371.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Ohashi, Y. H., Ohashi, K., Fukuchi, M.
Keywords: theory, distance, jellium

4089. Tsuchiya, K., K. Ohashi, and M. Fukuchi. Mechanism of Cold Fusion in Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Ohashi, K., Fukuchi, M.
Keywords: theory, structure, ICCF-3

A new interpretation of cold nuclear fusion at the center of the boson cluster was given by R. T. Bush et al. The modified theory is given in this paper by adding the effect of screened d-d repulsion. Tunneling probability and power density of cold nuclear fusion in palladium are obtained, and the role of screening effect is found to be very important.

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4090. Tsuchiya, K., K. Ohashi, and M. Fukuchi, Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion II. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 493.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Ohashi, K., Fukuchi, M.
Keywords: Theory

4091. Tsuchiya, K., K. Ohashi, and M. Fukuchi, A possible mechanism for nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 452.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Ohashi, K., Fukuchi, M.
Keywords: theory, Boson clusters

4092. Tsuchiya, K. A possible model for nuclear reaction in metal vacancy including condensed Bose particles. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K.
Keywords: theory, Bose-Einstein, multi-body,

4093. Tsuchiya, K. Quantum states of deuterons in palladium. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K.
Keywords: theory

Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is one of the candidates to induce the nuclear fusions in solids, because d-d repulsions are screened by conduction electrons and deuterons can be condensed at defects  in solids. In this work, d-d fusion rate in Pd induced by BEC is estimated. The equivalent linear two-body method, which is based on an approximate reduction of many-body problems by variational principle, is used for the calculation. Thomas-Fermi and non-linear screening potentials are used as d-d interactions.

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4094. Tsuchiya, K. and H. Okumura. Theoretical Study of Nuclear Reactions Induced by Bose-Einstein Condensation in Pd. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Okumura, H.
Keywords: theory

4095. Tsuchiya, K., Quantum states of deuterons in palladium. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2004. 20: p. 1513-1519.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K.
Keywords: theory

4096. Tsuchiya, K., et al. Observation of Optical Phonon in Hydrogen Storage Pd Using Raman Spectroscopy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K., Watanabe, A., Ozaki, M., Sasabe, S.
Keywords: phonon, Ramen spectroscopy

The techniques of hydrogen loading in Pd are developed by many workers. And the states of hydrogen in Pd attract many interests because they might be related to the nuclear reactions. In this study, we have tried to observe optical phonon induced by hydrogen-hydrogen interactions in Pd using Raman spectroscopy. This measurement can be done for the sample completely sealed in a glass tube cutting off the influence of the external air, because glass materials are Raman inactive. In the measurement chamber of spectroscopy device, scattered waves of the incident laser beam from the hydrogen storage Pd are detected and Raman shifts including the information about the optical phonon in the sample are derived.

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4097. Tsuchiya, K., A Self-Consistent Iterative Calculation for the Two Species of Charged Bosons Related to the Nuclear Reactions in Solids. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Tsuchiya, K.
All Authors: Tsuchiya, K.
Keywords: Bose-Einstein condensation, Cold fusion, Rossi’s experiment, Self-consistent method

Many theoretical studies on cold fusion have been done by many workers using Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in order to find a possible mechanism of this phenomenon. In our previous work on BEC approach to the theoretical interpretation of cold fusion, we estimated the transition temperature of BEC in palladium deuteride [1]. It was based on theY.E.Kim’s work by using equivalent linear two-body (ELTB) method to the many-body problems of charged bosons trapped in an ion trap [2]. Recently, Kim et al. tried to explain the results of Rossi’s experiment [3] by using the ELTB method for a mixture of different two species of positive charged bosons trapped to the harmonic potential [4]. In this study, we verified Kim’s theory and considered how to perform the numerical calculation. A self-consistent iterative calculation was introduced and the coupled two equations corresponding to the two species of positive charged bosons were solved.

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4098. Tsvetkov, S.A., et al., Molecular-dynamics calculation of phase transitions in the Pd-D system and cold nuclear fusion. Phys. Metals Metallogr., 1993. 76: p. 399.

First Author: Tsvetkov, S. A.
All Authors: Tsvetkov, S. A., Bondarenko, N. B., Bel’tyukov, I. L., Varaksin, A. N., Zhivoderov, A. A.
Keywords: Theory, phase transition, PdD, distance

4099. Tsvetkov, S.A. Possibility Of Using Of Cold Fusion For Nuclear Waste Products Transmutation. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Tsvetkov, S. A.
All Authors: Tsvetkov, S. A.
Keywords: transmutation, nuclear waste

Abstract The possibility of using of cold fusion for nuclear waste products transmutation is investigated in this paper. In generally a method is based on saturation of the titanium by a mixture of deuterium and air. Possible nuclear fusion reactions are discussed. Their “burning out” sections, effective half-life periods and intensity of neutron beams are evaluated. Applicability of the method for a transmutation of the nuclear waste containing Cesium -137 is considered.

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4100. Tsvetkov, S.A., E.S. Filatov, and V.A. Khokhlov. EXCESS HEAT IN MOLTEN SALTS OF (LiCl-KCl)+(LiD+LiF) AT THE TITANIUM ANODE DURING ELECTROLYSIS. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Tsvetkov, S. A.
All Authors: Tsvetkov, S. A., Filatov, E. S., Khokhlov, V. A.
Keywords: Excess heat, molten salt

The electrochemical cell and technique of realization of precision calorimetric measurements is developed. Experiments with molten salts containing of deuteride lithium are carried out. Calorimetric measurements made on the titanium anode during experiments. Measurements made in an inert atmosphere of helium and in an atmosphere of deuterium at various density of an electrolysis current. Excess heat was obtained on the titanium anode in an atmosphere deuterium at electrolysis. The X-ray diffraction analysis made on the used titanium anode. The analysis of the received results is resulted.

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4101. Tsvetkov, S.A., Initiation of the Cold Fusion Reactions by Air Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Tsvetkov, S. A.
All Authors: Tsvetkov, S. A.
Keywords: Deuterium, Nuclear reactions, Titanium

The approach to cold fusion phenomenon based on interactions between deuterium and the components of air in titanium is considered. Experimental results which point at release of excess heat and neutrons are shown. On the basis of these results the nuclear fusion method and the device for its realization are patented. The application of this nuclear fusion method for nuclear waste transmutation, in particular caesium-137, is considered. On the basis of the calculations given conclusion about applicability of the method is made. According to the experimental data, saturation of titanium with deuterium-air mix results in temperature increase of the titanium deuteride sample by 45у, in comparison with saturation of the same sample with pure deuterium. The calculation of excessive heat emission based on these results is given. The conditions necessary for the cold fusion reactions to occur are formulated.

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4102. Tsyganov, E.N., Cold Nuclear Fusion. Phys. At. Nucl., 2012. 75(2).

First Author: Tsyganov, E. N.
All Authors: Tsyganov, E. N.
Keywords: theory

4103. Tsyganov, E.N., et al., Registration of energy discharge in D + D -> 4He* reaction in conducting crystals (simulation of experiment). Nucl. Instr. Meth. B, 2013.

First Author: Tsyganov, E. N.
All Authors: Tsyganov, E. N., Golovatyuk, V. M., Bavizhev, M. D., Dabagov, S. B.
Keywords: fusion

4104. Tsyganov, E.N., et al., Cold Nuclear Fusion in Metal Environment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Tsyganov, E. N.
All Authors: Tsyganov, E. N., Bavizhev, M. D., Buryakov, M. G., Golovatyuk, V. M., Lobastov, S. P., Dabagov, S. B.
Keywords: Deuterium, Excess power, Nickel, Palladium, Platinum

This paper discusses the mechanism of cold fusion with deuterium and other elements implanted in the potential sites of conductive crystals. Cold fusion in metals becomes possible due to the fact that the implantation of atoms in a crystal guides them to their p excitation levels, which are determined primarily by the positioning of free conduction electrons in a zone of potential sites. The excitation energy of the p-states is about 10-14 eV. The excited atoms’ orientation in the crystal is not random but dictated by the crystal lattice’s electrostatic potentials. Calculations show that the transparency of the Coulomb potential barrier, for example, in the case of DD-fusion, increases by about 60 orders of magnitude if two deuterium atoms meet each other in the minima of the conducto-ڳ potentials in the crisscross orientation. Most of the papers are devoted to the process of DD-fusion in the electrolytic saturation by deuterium in crystals, a process that is extensively studied in these experiments. This paper also briefly comments on other experimental results related to cold fusion.

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4105. Tuggle, D.G., et al., Solid State Fusion Update. 1990: Los Alamos.

First Author: Tuggle, D. G.
All Authors: Tuggle, D. G., Claytor, T. N., Menlove, H. O., Catapano, L.
Keywords: Pd, D, neutron,

4106. Tuggle, D.G., T.N. Claytor, and S.F. Taylor. Tritium Evolution from Various Morphologies of Palladium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Tuggle, D. G.
All Authors: Tuggle, D. G., Claytor, T. N., Taylor, S. F.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, Gas Discharge, D2, ICCF-4

4107. Turanciol, F. Cold Fusion is Confirmed. in ICENES. 1991.

First Author: Turanciol, F.
All Authors: Turanciol, F.
Keywords: theory?

4108. Turner, L., Thoughts Unbottled by Cold Fusion. Phys. Today, 1989. Sept.: p. 140.

First Author: Turner, L.
All Authors: Turner, L.
Keywords: theory resonance, tunneling

4109. Turner, L., Peregrinations on cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 447.

First Author: Turner, L.
All Authors: Turner, L.
Keywords: theory

4110. Turner, L., Peregrinations on Cold Fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1994. 9(4): p. 447.

First Author: Turner, L.
All Authors: Turner, L.
Keywords: theory

4111. Turney, J., Lost in Limbo, in New Scientist. 2003. p. 48.

First Author: Turney, Jon
All Authors: Turney, Jon
Keywords: Review

4112. Uchida, H. and E. Fromm, Effect of Palladium and Oxygen Layers on the Hydrogen Absorption Rate of Tantalum Films at 300 K. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 95: p. 153.

First Author: Uchida, H.
All Authors: Uchida, H., Fromm, E.
Keywords: Ta, H2, loading

4113. Uchida, H., et al. Detection of Radioactive Emissions in the Electrolytic Deuteriding-Dedeuteriding Reactions of Pd and Ti. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Uchida, H.
All Authors: Uchida, H., Hamada, Y., Matsumura, Y., Hayashi, T.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2O, gamma emission, electrolysis, radiation ICCF-3

This report demonstrates the occurrence of radioactive emissions detected by GM (Geiger Mueller) counter in the electrolytic deuteriding de-deutreriding reactions of Pd and Ti. For the Pd samples annealed or cold worked, the excess counts higher than BG (background levels = 32 Ѡ2 cpm) by factors 1.5 to 2 in average were measured almost continuously and reproducibly during the pulses modulated electrolysis over 600 mA/cm^2. The excess counts were measured for a wild even after electrolysis. For the Ti samples annealed or cold worked, the burst-like GM counts over 200 cpm were often measured at low current densities below 10 mA/cm^2. The much higher burst-like GM counts over 1500 cpm were measured after electrolysis.

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4114. Uchikawa, H., T. Okazaki, and K. Sato, New Technique of Activating Palladium Surface for Absorption of Hydrogen or Deuterium. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1993. 32: p. 5095.

First Author: Uchikawa, H.
All Authors: Uchikawa, H., Okazaki, T., Sato, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H, D, method

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Activation is carried out by heating a Pd specimen at about 600 у for several minutes in air. The activated surface is blue, and it is bleached when immersed hi hydrogen gas. The blue film is identified as PdO, and the bleached surface consists of nanocrystallites of metallic Pd, as proved by electron diffraction. An activated Pd plate 0.7 mm in thickness is capable of absorbing, in 1 h, about 70 at% of H or D, the saturation value, in hydrogen gas of 1 atm at room temperature. The atomic ratio of H absorbed in Pd has been estimated to be about 70% when Pd metal is in equilibrium with hydrogen gas of 1 atm at 25у. . . .

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4115. Udovic, T.J., et al., Vibrational dynamics of hydrogen and deuterium in crystalline Pd9Si2. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 255.

First Author: Udovic, T. J.
All Authors: Udovic, T. J., Rush, J. J., Fanagan, T. B., Noh, H., Andersson, Y.
Keywords: Pd-Si-D, structure, Pd-Si-H

4116. Ueda, S., K. Yasuda, and A. Takahashi. Study of Excess Heat and Nuclear Products with Closed Electrolysis System and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ueda, S.
All Authors: Ueda, S., Yasuda, K., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, He+, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, ICCF-7

4117. Uhm, H.S. and W.M. Lee. High Deuterium Concentration in Palladium for Application to Cold Fusion. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Uhm, H. S.
All Authors: Uhm, H. S., Lee, W. M.
Keywords: loading, method, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-2

4118. Uhm, H.S. and W.M. Lee, High concentration of deuterium in palladium from plasma ion implantation. Phys. Fluids B, 1991. 3: p. 3188.

First Author: Uhm, H. S.
All Authors: Uhm, H. S., Lee, W. M.
Keywords: ion implantation, method

4119. Uhm, H.S. and W.M. Lee, High concentration of deuterium in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 75.

First Author: Uhm, H. S.
All Authors: Uhm, H. S., Lee, W. M.
Keywords: loading, Pd, PdD, PdD2

4120. Ulmann, M., et al., Surface and electrochemical characterization of Pd cathodes after prolonged charging in LiOD + D2O solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 286: p. 257.

First Author: Ulmann, M.
All Authors: Ulmann, M., Liu, J., Augustynski, J., Meli, F., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: surface analysis, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, OCV, transmutation

4121. Upadhyay, C.S., Some views on spin relativity and its impact on science. Indian J. Theo. Phys., 2000. 48: p. 149.

First Author: Upadhyay, C. S.
All Authors: Upadhyay, C. S.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, spin-spin

4122. Urutshoev, L. and V.I. Liksonov, Experimental Detection of ‘Strange’ Radiation and Transformations of Chemical Elements. Prikl. Fiz., 2000. 4: p. 83.

First Author: Urutshoev, L.
All Authors: Urutshoev, L., Liksonov, V. I.
Keywords: transmutation,, Ti,, Zr,, gamma radiation., high voltage

4123. Urutshoev, L., et al., A Study on the Possibility of Initiating Tungsten Alpha Decay Using Electric Explosion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 1-26.

First Author: Urutshoev, L.
All Authors: Urutshoev, L., Filippov, D., Voitenko, D., Astapenko, G., Birykov, A., Markoliya, A., Alabin, K.
Keywords: Alpha- beta-decay, Alpha-decay, Electrical explosion of conductors, Gas phase analysis, Gas mass-spectrometer, Optical spectral line

Experiments with electric explosion of tungsten wires are described. These are intended to check the results of G.L. Wendt and C.E. Irion’s experiments published in 1922. The historical and theoretical background of this study are described in detail. The gas phase formed in the chamber after the electric explosion was carefully studied in the experiments. The results of the study do not contradict with the results of the Wendt and Irion experiments.

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4124. Urutskoev, L., et al., Detection of Abnormal Quantity of Hydrogen upon Electrical Explosion of Titanium Foil in a Liquid. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 106-118.

First Author: Urutskoev, L.
All Authors: Urutskoev, L., Filippov, D., Rukhadze, A., Lebedev, L.
Keywords: Electrical explosion, Hydrogen

Experimental studies of pulse electrical explosion of thin titanium foils in water, with discharge power of ∼0.2 GW are described. Production of a considerable amount of molecular hydrogen is revealed whose origin cannot be explained either by water decomposition or by known chemical reactions. A nuclear mechanism for the formation of the observed molecular hydrogen upon electric explosion is hypothesized. Emphasis is laid on some measurements confirming the hypothesis.

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4125. Vaidya, S.N. and Y.S. Mayya, The Role of Combined Electron-Deuteron Screening in D-D Fusion in Metals, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. C 3.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N., Mayya, Y. S.
Keywords: theory,

4126. Vaidya, S.N. and Y.S. Mayya, Theory of screening-enhanced D-D fusion in metals. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Lett., Part 2, 1989. 28(12): p. 2258.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N., Mayya, Y. S.
Keywords: theory, diffusion

4127. Vaidya, S.N. and Y.S. Mayya, The role of combined electron-deuteron screening in deuteron-deuteron fusion in metals. Pramana, 1989. 33: p. L343.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N., Mayya, Y. S.
Keywords: Theory, screening

4128. Vaidya, S.N., On the possibility of coherent deuteron-deuteron fusion in a crystalline Pd-D lattice. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 481.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N.
Keywords: theory, coherent

4129. Vaidya, S.N., Comments on the model for coherent deuteron-deuteron fusion in crystalline Pd-D lattice. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 112.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N.
Keywords: theory, coherent

4130. Vaidya, S.N., Deuteron screening, nuclear reactions in solids, and superconductivity. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 405.

First Author: Vaidya, S. N.
All Authors: Vaidya, S. N.
Keywords: Theory, screening, superconductivity, Bose condensate

4131. Vaiman, L.A., et al., Observation of reactions in cold fusion during sorption or desorption of deuterium from palladium from the gas phase. Akad. Nauk USSR, Fiz.-Mat. Nauk, 1989(6): p. 62 (in Russian).

First Author: Vaiman, L. A.
All Authors: Vaiman, L. A., Valiev, A. N., Ketko, A. Ya., Kiseleva, E. V., Skorodumov, B. G., Ulanov, V. G., Yatsevich, I. O.
Keywords: Pd, D2, particle emission, neutron

4132. Vakarin, S.V., et al. Influence of Perfection of Sodium Tungsten Bronze Single Crystals on Neutron Emission. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Vakarin, S. V.
All Authors: Vakarin, S. V., Samgin, A. L., Andreev, V. S., Tsvetkov, S. A.
Keywords: solid electrolyte, neutron, Na-W-O, tungsten bronze, ICCF-5

Correlation between crystal structure perfection and neutron emission has been found. Positive result on neutron generation has been established only for crystals with “specific” X-ray diffraction pattern. ‘This allows to treat X-ray data as a selection criterion. The crystals has proven to be rather perfect. Damage of perfection of the surface layer results in absence of the effect .

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4133. Valat, M., R. Hunt, and R. Greenyer, Celani’s Wire Excess Heat Effect Replication. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Valat, M.
All Authors: Valat, M., Hunt, R., Greenyer, R.
Keywords: Constantan wire, Hydrogen, Nickel nano-powder

This paper describes progress made by the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project while attempting to replicate Celani’s experiments. Celani claimed to see consistent and reproducible excess heat generation results coming from treated constantan wires using different protocols. The design of the cell is described in detail, with attention to the choice of materials, the design geometry and operating conditions. Differences between the original experiment and later replications that improved believability are explored. Results and interpretations are discussed.

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4134. Valat, M., R. Hunt, and R. Greenyer, Martin Fleischmann Memorial Project status review. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Valat, M.
All Authors: Valat, M., Hunt, R., Greenyer, R.
Keywords:

4135. Valat, M., Preface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21.

First Author: Valat, M.
All Authors: Valat, M.
Keywords:

It was with a profound sense of duty that our French Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science held its first “Symposium sur les Réactions Nucléaires à Basse Énergie” during the weekend of March 18-20, 2016, in Avignon, France. After 27 years of sustained research in the field of CMNS, this was the first time a conference was held for the French speaking community.

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4136. Valat, M., et al., Investigations of the Lugano HotCat Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 81-96.

First Author: Valat, M.
All Authors: Valat, M., Goldwater, A., Greenyer, R., Higgins, R., Hunt, R.
Keywords: Andrea Rossi, e-cat, Lithium aluminum hydride, Lugano report, Nickel, Replication

Since its release, the “Lugano Report” has attracted a lot of attention from many scientific groups as well as individuals. Following attempts to reproduce the claimed results, the Martin Fleischmann Memorial Projecty(MFMP) is adding significant insights to the replication community across the Internet. The first part of the paper describes the replication of the Lugano Report’s thermal measurements. It presents the experimental setup, instrumentations as well as the results produced by the MFMP team. The second part describes attempts to reproduce the excess energy claimed in the Report. After ten experiments and five incremental revisions of the apparatus, MFMP published results on the Internet showing apparent correlation between anomalous heat production and broadband low energy gamma radiation. This paper offers a review of these two significant experiments, done in March 2015 and January 2016.

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4137. Valone, T. One Cold Fusion Speaker is One Too Many for a Future Energy Conference. in APS April Meeting, Session S13 – General Physics. 2001. Washington.

First Author: Valone, T
All Authors: Valone, T
Keywords: history

4138. Van, J., Scientists Try to Put Chill on Cold Fusion, in Chicago Tribune. 1989: ChicagoEditor.

First Author: Van, J.
All Authors: Van, J.
Keywords: newspaper, conference, history

4139. van de Vate, J.F., O. Reifenschweiler, and G. van de Ligt, Onderzoekingen Naar De Temperatuurvastheid Van Fijnverdeelde Metaal-Tritium-Systemen In Vacuum. 1960, Philips Corporation.

First Author: van de Vate, J. F.
All Authors: van de Vate, J. F., Reifenschweiler, O., van de Ligt, G.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:xxxx://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:34d2c20b-6847-4f3d-af49-71211557d4ea/tn2014-00264.pdfThe paper is in Dutch. It includes a Summary in English:The temperature stability of finely dispersed metaltritium systems in vacuum was investigated. The tritium content of the metals was measured by a new method based on the radio-activity of the tritium. Ways were found to prepare metal-tritium systems, sufficiently temperature-stable for technical applications. In addition, the experiments were found to be of interest in checking various classical and modern theories on the formation of hydrides.

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4140. van de Vate, J.F., O. Reifenschweiler, and G. van de Ligt, The Internal And External Bremsstrahlung Associated With, Beta-Decay In Tritium. 1960, Philips Corporation.

First Author: van de Vate, J. F.
All Authors: van de Vate, J. F., Reifenschweiler, O., van de Ligt, G.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:xxxx://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:e06e3502-3173-4795-9f16-b9e79f106107/tn2014-00266.pdfBy “Bremsstrahlung” is meant the continuous quantum radiation arising when electrons undergo braking in the fields of atomic nuclei. Discovered by Rontgen as long ago as 1895, this type of radiation occurs when the beta-electrons from a disintegrating beta-emitter are braked in the surrounding matter, being termed “external bremsstrahlung” in this case. But in such isotopes the beta-electron is also accompanied by a type of radiation that is independent of the surrounding matter. This type is called “internal bremsstrahlung”, because it is generated by the electron inside the radioactive atom, during the decay process. It was first demonstrated by Aston 1) in the “twenties” when, in the course of gamma-ray measurements on RaE, he detected a soft, inhomogeneous form of gamma-radiation.

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4141. Van der Merwe, P.T., Enhanced fusion induced by affiliated muons. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 696.

First Author: Van der Merwe, P. T.
All Authors: Van der Merwe, P. T.
Keywords: theory, muon

4142. Van Noorden, R., Cold fusion back on the menu, in Chemistry World. 2007.

First Author: Van Noorden, R.
All Authors: Van Noorden, R.
Keywords: Review,

4143. Van Siclen, C.D. and S.E. Jones, Piezonuclear fusion in isotopic hydrogen molecules. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1986. 12: p. 213.

First Author: Van Siclen, C. D.
All Authors: Van Siclen, C. D., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: theory

4144. Van Swaay, M. and C.E. Birchenall, Permeability and diffusion of hydrogen through palladium. Trans. Metal. Soc., AIME, 1960. 218: p. 285.

First Author: Van Swaay, M.
All Authors: Van Swaay, M., Birchenall, C. E.
Keywords: Diffusion, H, Pd, solubility, phase diagram

4145. Van Vucht, J.H.N. and K.H.J. Buschow, Note on the Occurrence of Intermetallic Compounds in the Lithium-Palladium System. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 48: p. 345.

First Author: Van Vucht, J. H. N.
All Authors: Van Vucht, J. H. N., Buschow, K. H. J.
Keywords: Pd-Li, Phase Diagram, Lattice Parameter

4146. VanVeen, R.J.A.R., Koude fusie. Ned. Tijdschr. Natuurkd., 2000. 66(4).

First Author: VanVeen, R. J. A. R.
All Authors: VanVeen, R. J. A. R.
Keywords: review

4147. Varaksin, A.N., et al., Computer modelling of phase transitions in deuterised palladium (possible mechanism of low-temperature nuclear fusion). Fiz. Metal. Metalloved., 1991(9): p. 30 (in Russian).

First Author: Varaksin, A. N.
All Authors: Varaksin, A. N., Zhivoderov, A. A., Bondarenko, N. B., Shipitsin, V. F.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

4148. Vasanthi, N., S.A. Raj, and L.M. Saleena, Silica Favours Bacterial Growth Similar to Carbon. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Vasanthi, N.
All Authors: Vasanthi, N., Raj, S. A., Saleena, L. M.
Keywords: Biological transmutation, Ecological survival, Silicate mineral utilisation, Silicate solubilising bacteria

Silicate solubilising bacteria were isolated from soil, river water, pond sediment and talc mineral. The isolates were characterised and found to belong to the genera Bacillus and Pseudomonas sp. Some of the isolates are also identified by 16S r RNA sequencing. Both Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates solubilised magnesium trisilicate under in vitro conditions either in the presence or in the absence of glucose. Bacillus megaterium isolated from soil solubilised talc, feldspar and magnesium trisilicate by releasing silica in solution. This also exhibited growth exclusively on silicate in the absence of a carbon source and after removal CO2 in the head space of the flask containing medium. Bacillus mucilaginosus, a silicate solubilising species, exhibited growth on acid washed sand (pure quartz) and also in silicic acid in the absence of carbon source revealing the capability of the bacteria to utilise silica or silicate for its growth. The carbon analysis by SEM with EDAX revealed the presence of carbon in cells grown exclusively on silica suggesting the biological transmutation of silica to carbon. The ability of silicate solubilising bacteria to grow exclusively on silica or silicate in the absence of carbon reveals not only their ecological survival in a carbon-free environment in earth but also their likely survival in other celestial bodies.

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4149. Vaselli, M., et al., Screening effect of impurities in metals: a possible explanation of the process of cold nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 927.

First Author: Vaselli, M.
All Authors: Vaselli, M., Harith, M. A., Palleschi, V., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P.
Keywords: theory, screening

4150. Velev, O.A. and R.C. Kainthla, Heat flow calorimeter with a personal-computer-based data acquisition system. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 351.

First Author: Velev, O. A.
All Authors: Velev, O. A., Kainthla, R. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat, method

4151. Verbruggen, A.H., C.W. Hagen, and R. Griessen, Gorsky Effect in Concentrated a-PdHx. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1984. 14: p. 1431.

First Author: Verbruggen, A. H.
All Authors: Verbruggen, A. H., Hagen, C. W., Griessen, R.
Keywords: PdH, diffusion, Pd, hydrogen

4152. Verner, G.M., M.R. Swartz, and P.L. Hagelstein, Summary report: ‘Introduction to Cold Fusion’ — IAP course at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Verner, G. M.
All Authors: Verner, G. M., Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

4153. Verner, G.M., M.R. Swartz, and P.L. Hagelstein, Development of a Cold Fusion Science and Engineering Course. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 47-52.

First Author: Verner, G. M.
All Authors: Verner, G. M., Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CF academic course, CF curriculum, CF education, CF training, LANR academic course, LANR education, LENR academic course, LENR education

For three consecutive years, an introductory non-credit short course was taught on the science and engineering of cold fusion (CF). It reviewed its origin, extent, basis and substantial experimental proof of the observed excess energy (XSE) from active cold fusion (lattice assisted nuclear reactions) systems. The range of CF technologies spanned from early aqueous CF/LANR systems to recent day nanomaterials. While academic officials are slow to recognize cold fusion and its viability, the fact is that the subject and its science have entered the academic domain, and students can learn that the phenomenon is real and reproducible.

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4154. Veziroglu, T.N. Mossbauer Study of the Local Hydrogen Distribution Near Substitutional Impurities in b-PdHx. in The Miami International Symposium on Metal-Hydrogen Energy Systems. 1981. Miami: Pergamon Press.

First Author: Veziroglu, T. N.
All Authors: Veziroglu, T. N.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, impurity, Mossbauer

4155. Veziroglu, T.N., An Obituary note to John O’Mara Bockris (1923-2013). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Veziroglu, T. N.
All Authors: Veziroglu, T. N.
Keywords: Hydrogen association, Hydrogen economy, Hydrogen energy system, John Bockris, John O’Mara Bockris

An Obituary note to John O’Mara Bockris.

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4156. Vielstich, W., et al., Search for neutrons from controlled deuterium concentrations in palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 303: p. 211.

First Author: Vielstich, W.
All Authors: Vielstich, W., Iwasita, T., von Buttlar, H., Farzin, K., Uebelguenn, K.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

4157. Vigier, J.P. New Hydrogen Energies in Specially Structured Dense Media: Capillary Chemistry and Capillary Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Vigier, J. P.
All Authors: Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

The analysis of presently observed facts suggests that excess heat (above breakeven) and con commitment cold fusion processes result from two different mechanisms which have a common origin in E. M. Current behavior in dense media (the Ampere forces). They both result from already known properties of nuclear forces and quantum mechanics.

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4158. Vigier, J.P. New Hydrogen (Deuterium) Bohr Orbits in Quantum Chemistry and Cold Fusion Processes. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Vigier, J. P.
All Authors: Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: theory

4159. Vigier, J.P., On cathodically polarized Pd/D systems. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 221: p. 138.

First Author: Vigier, J. P.
All Authors: Vigier, J. P.
Keywords: theory

4160. Vignati, M. Transformation From Heat of Low Temperature Sources into Work. Fundamentals for a Maximum of Efficiency. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Vignati, M.
All Authors: Vignati, M.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The problem of converting the heat produced by cold fusion into work, meets with a classical limit consisting in the second principle of thermodynamics, because the heat produced within electrolytic cells is released to the heavy water, and remains at a low thermal degree. However, this paper draws attention to the existence of ideal thermodynamic cycles the efficiency of which is considerably higher than the efficiency attained by the corresponding Carnot cycle between the same temperatures. In addition to this, it can be shown that combinations of these cycles can attain even higher efficiencies. Owing to the characteristics of these cycles and combinations of cycles, and being also possible to put them into practice, they could be taken into consideration for projects aiming at the transformation into work of the heat produced by cold fusion or other heat sources at low temperature.

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4161. Vijh, A.K. and A. Belanger, Electrocatalysis of the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction by Metals and Silver-Palladium Alloys in Relation to Their Electronic Configuration. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1989. 11: p. 147.

First Author: Vijh, A. K.
All Authors: Vijh, A. K., Belanger, A.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, Pd-Ag, H, theory

4162. Villa, M., On the gamma radiation measurements on the Rossi system. 2011, Bologna University and INFN Sezione di Bologna.

First Author: Villa, M.
All Authors: Villa, M.
Keywords: radiation

We report here on the measurement of gamma emission from the system built by Rossi et al. to produce energy. While the details of the production system are still not known, an international patent request (WO/2009/125444) and a paper describing the main characteristics and performances are available: copper synthesis starting from an hydrogenated nickel compound and energy production lasting for months. On the 14th of January 2011, the first public test of this system was performed under partially controlled conditions. . . .

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4163. Violante, V. and A. De Ninno. Collision Between Two Deuterons in Condensed Matter: Ion Trap Mechanism. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., De Ninno, A.
Keywords: theory, ion trap, ICCF-5

In this paper is studied the behaviour of ions confined by means of quadrupolar electro-dynamic containment around palladium lattice tetrahedral sites. Ion confinement in a quadrupolar trap is known to be strongly influenced by the initial conditions and trap parameters. The considered system is a lattice ion trap for deuterons, supposing that over a certain concentration they occupy the tetrahedral sites. The electron motions seem to have a dominant role in the dynamics of two deuterons moving around such lattice sites. A mathematical model allows us to describe, with a computer simulation, the deuteron dynamics and reveals an approach mechanism that could strongly decrease the mean distance between two positive charges embedded in a lattice.

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4164. Violante, V. and A. De Ninno. Quantum mechanical description of a lattice ion trap. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., De Ninno, A.
Keywords: Theory, phonon, distance, ICCF-6

4165. Violante, V. and A. De Ninno, Lattice ion trap: a possible mechanism inducing a strong approach between two deuterons in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 219.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., De Ninno, A.
Keywords: theory, distance

4166. Violante, V. Extended Analysis of the Lattice Radio-Frequency Trap as Possible Collision Mechanism Between Nucleus in Condensed Matter. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

4167. Violante, V., A. Torre, and G. Dattoli, Lattice ion trap: classical and quantum description of a possible collision mechanism for deuterons in metal lattices. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 156.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Torre, A., Dattoli, G.
Keywords: Theory, Schroedinger

4168. Violante, V., Lattice ion-trap confinement for deuterons and protons: Possible interaction in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1999. 35: p. 361.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V.
Keywords: theory, distance

4169. Violante, V., et al. Hydrogen Isotopes Interaction Dynamics in Palladium Lattice. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sibilia, C., Di Gioacchino, D., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

4170. Violante, V., et al., 3 Dimensional Analysis of the Lattice Confinement Effect on ion Dynamics. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39(2 (March)).

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Torre, A., Selvaggi, G., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, distance

4171. Violante, V., et al., Three-dimensional analysis of the lattice confinement effect on ion dynamics in condensed matter and lattice effect on the d-d nuclear reaction channel. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 266.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Torre, A., Selvaggi, G., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory charge oscillations

4172. Violante, V., et al. X-ray emission during electrolysis of light water on palladium and nickel thin films. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Borelli, R., Bettinali, L., Santoro, E., Rosada, A., Sarto, F., Pizzuto, A., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, H2O, radiation, Pd, Ni, thin films, x-ray, sputtering, transmutation, tritium

Electrochemical experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the emission of X-rays during electrochemical hydrogen loading of thin metallic films of Pd and Ni. An estimate of the inventory of the most significant chemical elements in the cells has also been done. The activity was developed within the framework of a cooperative research effort between ENEA and SRI. In order to minimize the background due to environmental contamination, the experimental cells were manufactured using only two materials (pure polyethylene and pure platinum). The thin films were produced by sputtering pure materials on supports made of the same pure polyethylene used for the cells.

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4173. Violante, V., et al. Metallurgical effects on the dynamic of hydrogen loading in Pd. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Borelli, R., Pizzuto, A., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Adrover, A., Giona, M., Capobianco, L.
Keywords: loading, Pd, hydrogen, resistence, electrolysis, stress

A theoretical work based on computer modeling is presented in order to explain the difference on the hydrogen electrochemical loading dynamics for two shapes of palladium cathodes. Pd foils and wires have been investigated solving the transport equations, in order to study the effect of self stress propagating. The results allow us to study the influence of the stress relaxing (via dislocation slipping) on the loading process.

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4174. Violante, V., et al. Search For Nuclear Ashes In Electrochemical Experiments. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Apicella, M., Capobianco, L., Sarto, F., Roada, A., Santoro, E., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Sibilia, C.
Keywords: transmutation, x-rays, isotope shift

Electrochemical experiments have been carried out in order to identify traces of nuclear processes occurring in condensed matter. The experimental activity was primarily designed to reduce the background element impurities by using ultra-pure cleaning procedures to eliminate contamination. The working conditions allowed to obtain a clear signal from the investigated phenomena. Neutron activation, SIMS and high resolution Mass Spectrometer analysis yielded  experimental data greater than the measurement error and well above the detection limits of the instruments. The isotopic abundance has been studied for some elements and a strong difference as been observed between experimental data and natural values. A correlation has been observed between the shift of the isotopic composition and a weak emission of  X-rays, in some experiments.

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4175. Violante, V., et al. Analysis Of Ni-Hydride Thin Film After Surface Plasmons Generation By Laser Technique. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Sibilia, C., Paoloni, S., Sarto, F.
Keywords: nickel, transmutation

A nickel-hydride thin film was studied by the Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) method. The differences between a “black” film and a pure nickel film “blank” behaviour are showed. The black Ni-hydride film has been obtained by a short electrolysis with 1 M  Li2SO4 electrolyte in light water. A shift in the minimum of the observed reflected light occurs, together with a change in the minimum shape, i.e. its half-height width increases. This two phenomenon are due to the change in the electronic band structure of the metal induced by the electron added in the lattice by hydrogen. The changing of the electronic structure, revealed by the laser coupling conditions, leads to consider that an hydride phase was created. Both the blank (not hydrogenated) and black (hydrogenated) specimens were taken under He-Ne laser beam at the reflectance minimum angle for about three hours. A SIMS analysis was also implemented to reveal differences in the isotopic composition of Cu, as marker element, between the blank and black films, in order to study the coupled effect of electrolysis and plasmon-polariton excitation on LENR processes in condensed matter.

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4176. Violante, V., et al. Study Of Lattice Potentials On Low Energy Nuclear Processes In Condensed Matter. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Mazzitelli, G., Capobianco, L., Sarto, F., Santoro, E., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Miley, G. H., Luo, N., Shrestha, P., Sibilia, C.
Keywords: theory

The phenomena of anomalous heating effects in deuterated metals gained worldwide attention through the famous announcement of “cold fusion” in 1989. Recently, a number of experiments have identified nuclear reaction products that are attributed to hydrogen or deuterium interaction with the host metal. Consequently workers have renamed this field  as “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter”. This work has used a variety of configurations and a variety of loading techniques giving reaction products ranging from Helium-4, Tritium,  to an array of heavy elements.

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4177. Violante, V., et al. Progress in Excess Power Production by Laser Triggering. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Bertolotti, M., Castagna, E., Dardik, I., McKubre, M. C. H., Moretti, S., Lesin, S., Sibilia, C, Sarto, F., Tanzella, F. L., Zilov, T.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat,

4178. Violante, V., et al. Progress in Excess Power Production by Laser Triggering (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Bertolotti, M., Castagna, E., Dardik, I., McKubre, M. C. H., Moretti, S., Lesin, S., Sibilia, C, Sarto, F., Tanzella, F. L., Zilov, T.
Keywords: laser stimulation, excess heat

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same title.

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4179. Violante, V., et al. Progress In Excess Power Experiments With Electrochemical Loading Of Deuterium In Palladium. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Moretti, S., Bertolotti, M., Castagna, E., Sibilia, C, Sarto, F., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Dardik, I., Lesin, S., Zilov, T.
Keywords: Excess heat

4180. Violante, V., et al. Joint Scientific Advances in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F., Castagna, E., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Hubler, G. K., Knies, D., Dardik, I., Sibilia, C.
Keywords: Review

A joint effort performed by ENEA, SRI, Energetics Technologies, NRL and the University of Rome La Sapienza allowed to obtain a remarkable level of sheared reproducibility both in high loading of palladium with deuterium and in observing excess power production during calorimetric experiments. The excess heat was observed with a signal well above the measurement uncertainty, with up to 70% of reproducibility.The wide-ranging scientific work carried out in optimizing the palladium electrodes and the accuracy of the calorimetry are the reasons for the success of this project.

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4181. Violante, V., et al. Material Science on Pd-D System to Study the Occurrence of Excess Power. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

A recent joint work [1] identified the crucial role of material science in improving control of the Pd-D system to enhance the production of excess power during electrochemical loading of palladium foils with deuterium. Very high reproducibility, close to 100%, in loading Pd up to D/Pd ~1 (atomic fraction) was achieved. High loading about the threshold value of 0.9 is considered necessary to achieve the effect. This work demonstrated it is necessary but not sufficient. As a consequence, the focus of our research moved to the material properties of cathodes, especially surface characteristics, and an effort to correlate these properties with cathode performance during electrolysis. This paper describes the material properties examined that appear to produce excess heat.

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4182. Violante, V. and F. Sarto, eds. Proceedings 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Part 1). 2009, ENEA: Rome, Italy. 385.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F.
Keywords:

This file is from:xxxx://iccf15.frascati.enea.it/docs/proceedings.htmlThis is Part 1, title page to page 184.Part 2, page 185 to page 385, is here:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ViolanteVproceedinga.pdf

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4183. Violante, V. and F. Sarto, eds. Proceedings 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (Part 2). 2009, ENEA: Rome, Italy. 385.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F.
Keywords:

This file is from:xxxx://iccf15.frascati.enea.it/docs/proceedings.htmlThis is Part 2, page 185 to page 385.Part 1, title page to page 184 is herexxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ViolanteVproceeding.pdf

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4184. Violante, V., et al. Evolution and Progress in Material Science for Studying the Fleischmann and Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Hubler, G. K., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Sibilia, C, Del Prete, P., Zilov, T.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Research FrameSince 1996 in ENEA material status was identified to be responsible of the loading1) Material science study to increase both reproducibilityand signals 2) Calorimetric experiments conceived to have anappropriate signal/noise ratio 3) Theoretical work to identify methods to trigger the effect

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4185. Violante, V., et al. Evolution and Progress in Material Science for Studying the Fleischmann and Pons Effect (FPE). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Torre, A., Hubler, G. K., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Sibilia, C, Del Prete, P., Zilov, T.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Calorimetric experiments have revealed a crucial role of the metallurgy and surface characteristics for reproducing the FPE. A material status to have an improved probability to observe the effect under electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium has been identified by means of statistical approach. The evolution of the research approach is described in this work.

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4186. Violante, V., et al., The Study of the Fleischman and Pons Effect through the Materials Science Development. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Chemical potential, Diffusion coefficient, Dimensionless transport equation, Gorsky effect

The state of the palladium metal has been identified on the basis of statistical data to play fundamental roles in producing the Fleischman-Pons excess heat effect. The deuterium loading dynamics and its equilibrium concentration are mostly controlled by the metallurgy; a minimum threshold loading (D/Pd ∼ 0.9) is necessary to observe the excess. The crystallographic orientation is also correlated with the phenomenon such that mainly 100 oriented samples gave the highest reproducibility. A specific cathode surface morphology, identified by means of the power spectral density function, represents an additional identified condition to observe the effect. Materials specimens respecting the characteristics described above have been used to obtain a transportable reproducibility. Designed materials giving excess power have been produced but the amplitude of the signals and full reproducibility are not yet achieved. Other features of the material such as the nature and content of impurities and defects seems to be crucial in obtaining the required palladium characteristics.

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4187. Violante, V., et al., RF detection and anomalous heat production during electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium, in EAI – Energia, Ambiente e Innovazione. 2014, ENEA.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Pagano, G., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F.
Keywords: Heat

The production of excess power during electrochemical loading of palladium with deuterium was discovered in 1989 by Prof Martin Fleischmann and Prof Stanley Pons. In this article a picture of the research activities performed to correlate the effect and the material status is given. The structures of the electrochemical interface during the excess event and in the absence of excess power are compared, revealing a resonant equivalent circuit when the electrode is active. RF signals have also been detected when the anomalous heat production takes place

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4188. Violante, V., et al. Excess Power during Electrochemical Loading: Materials, Electrochemical Conditions and Techniques (Powerpoint Slides). in ICCF18 Conference. 2015. University of Missouri.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sarto, F., Sansovini, M., Makris, T. D., Torre, A., Knies, D., Kidwell, D., Grabowski, K. S., Dominguez, D. D., Hubler, G. K., Duncan, R., El-Boher, A., Azizi, O., McKubre, M. C. H., La Gatta, A.
Keywords: Deuterium, Electrolysis, Excess of Power, Materials, Palladium

The critical role of the electrode material characteristics in increasing the probability for observation of excess of power during electrochemical loading of palladium cathodes with deuterium is investigated, and, excesses of power production obtained by using palladium material with these identified characteristics are reported. Characterizations have been performed by using SEM and AFM microscopy as well as electrochemical analysis and XPS. The emerging scenario suggested by these results is that the poor control in achieving the identified material status is reflected in the reproducibility of the excess heat phenomenon.

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4189. Violante, V., et al., Excess Power during Electrochemical Loading: Materials, Electrochemical Conditions and Techniques. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sarto, F., Sansovini, M., Makris, T. D., Torre, A., Knies, D., Kidwell, D., Grabowski, K. S., Dominguez, D. D., Hubler, G. K., Duncan, R., El-Boher, A., Azizi, O., McKubre, M. C. H., La Gatta, A.
Keywords: Deuterium, Electrolysis, Excess of Power, Materials, Palladium

The critical role of the electrode material characteristics in increasing the probability for observation of excess of power during electrochemical loading of palladium cathodes with deuterium is investigated, and, excesses of power production obtained by using palladium material with these identified characteristics are reported. Characterizations have been performed by using SEM and AFM microscopy as well as electrochemical analysis and XPS. The emerging scenario suggested by these results is that the poor control in achieving the identified material status is reflected in the reproducibility of the excess heat phenomenon.

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4190. Violante, V., et al., Review of materials science for studying the Fleischmann and Pons effect. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sarto, F., Sansovini, M., Torre, A., La Gatta, A., Duncan, R., Hubler, G. K., El-Boher, A., Azizi, O., Pease, D., Knies, D., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold fusion, deuterium, electrochemical loading, materials science, palladium.

4191. Violante, V., et al., Heat Production and RF Detection during Cathodic Polarization of Palladium in 0.1 M LiOD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Violante, V.
All Authors: Violante, V., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Pagano, G., Sansovini, M., Sarto, F.
Keywords: Anomalous heat effect in metal hydride, Electrochemistry, Electromagnetic stimulation, Fleischmann and Pons effect, Metal hydrides and deuterides, Palladium, Palladium alloys, Radiofrequency

AbstractThe study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE), i.e. the production of excess power production during electrochemical loading of deuterium in palladium (in the past labeled cold fusion) has had a notably multidisciplinary character, involving solid state and nuclear physics, material science, electrochemistry and other fields. Correlations between the material status and the occurrence of the effect as well as some changes in the electrochemical interface status have been observed. Although during the last two decades, in several calorimetric experiments the effect was observed to be well above the measurement uncertainty, the mechanism producing the excess power is not completely understood. So far, the lack of reproducibility has been responsible for the absence of a clear explanation of the phenomenon based on experimental apparatus designed to enhance the spectrum of information required to define the effect. Recently, In order to improve this aspect of this research, specific work has been carried out to investigate whether the excess power was produced concurrently with the emission of Radio Frequency from the active cathode. Suitable probes and triggering included in the RF experimental system revealed RF signal emission during electrochemical loading of palladium samples, and a correlation between the heat production, in active samples, and RF signal emission was found. The preliminary results highlight the importance of performing studies on the electrodynamic effects that may be involved in the phenomenon, and the importance of the design of appropriate instruments designed to investigate unexplored regions of metal hydrogen systems.

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4192. Vokhnik, O.M., et al., Search for effects related to nuclear fusion in the optical breakdown of heavy water. Sov. J. Nucl. Phys., 1992. 55(12): p. 1772.

First Author: Vokhnik, O. M.
All Authors: Vokhnik, O. M., Goryachev, B. I., Zubrilo, A. A., Kutznetsova, G. P., Popov, Yu. V., Svertilov, S. I.
Keywords: laser, neutron, D2O

4193. Von Buttlar, H., W. Vielstich, and H. Barth, Deuterium und tritumtrennfaktoren bei der elektrolytischen wasserstoffabscheidung. Berichte Bunsengesellschaft, 1963. 67: p. 650.

First Author: Von Buttlar, H.
All Authors: Von Buttlar, H., Vielstich, W., Barth, H.
Keywords: H, D, T, fractionation, separation, overpotential

4194. Voss, D., Whatever happened to cold fusion?, in Phys World. 1999. p. 12.

First Author: Voss, D.
All Authors: Voss, D.
Keywords: history

4195. Vysotskii, V. and R.N. Kuz’min. The Theory of Nonthreshold Cold Fusion in Solids. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kuz’min, R. N.
Keywords: theory

4196. Vysotskii, V. and R. Kuz’min. On Possibility of Non-Barrier DD-Fusion in Volume of Boiling D2O During Electrolysis. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kuz’min, R.
Keywords: theory, bubble, ICCF-4

4197. Vysotskii, V. and R.N. Kuz’min, Nonequilibrium Fermi condensate of deuterium atoms in microvoids of crystals and the problem of barrier-free cold nuclear fusion. Tech. Phys., 1994. 39(7): p. 663.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kuz’min, R. N.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

4198. Vysotskii, V., A.A. Kornilova, and I.I. Samoyloylenko. Experimental discovery of phenomenon of low-energy nuclear transformation of isotopes (Mn55=Fe57) in growing biological cultures. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoyloylenko, I. I.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, ICCF-6

4199. Vysotskii, V., A.A. Kornilova, and I.I. Samoylenko, Experimental discovery and investigation of the phenomenon of nuclear transmutation of isotopes in growing biological cultures. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(10): p. 63.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I.
Keywords: biological, transmutation

4200. Vysotskii, V., et al. Experimental Observation and Study of Controlled Transmutation of Intermediate Mass Isotopes in Growing Biological Cultures. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I., Zykov, G. A.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, ICCF-8

4201. Vysotskii, V., et al. Experimental Observation and Study of Comtrolled Transmutation of Intermediate Mass Isotopes in Growing Biological Cultures. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I., Zykov, G. A.
Keywords: biological, transmutation, ICCF-8

4202. Vysotskii, V., et al. Direct Observation and Experimental Investigation of the Process of Gamma-Decay Controlling in Quantum Nucleonics. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Sorokin, A. A., Komisarova, V. A., Reiman, S. I., Riasnii, G. K.
Keywords: half-life, radioactivity, gamma emission, theory ICCF-8

4203. Vysotskii, V., et al., Observation and mass-spectrometry. Study of controlled transmutation of intermediate mass isotopes in growing biological cultures. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(36): p. 64.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I., Zyhov, A.
Keywords: biological, transmutation

4204. Vysotskii, V., et al., Observation and mass-spectrometry. Study of controlled transmutation of intermediate mass isotopes in growing biological cultures. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(36): p. 64.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I., Zykov, G. A.
Keywords: biological, transmutation

4205. Vysotskii, V. Optimized dd-fusion without Coulomb barrier in a volume of cold gas of deuterium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory, laser, D2,

4206. Vysotskii, V., et al. Catalytic influence of caesium on the effectiveness of nuclear transmutation on intermediate and heavy mass isotopes in growing biological cultures. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Samoylenko, I. I., Zykov, G. A.
Keywords: transmutation, biological

4207. Vysotskii, V., et al. The Theory And Experimental Investigation Of Controlled Spontaneous Conversion Nuclear Decay Of Radioactive Isotopes. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Perfiliev, Y., Kulikov, L.
Keywords:

This paper paper discusses the theory and results of a direct experimental investigation into the control of internal electron conversion channels of radioactive isotopes’ spontaneous decay. This occurs by controlling the action of an oriented crystal matrix on the motion of conversion electrons. The same effect takes place at any beta-processes (including at decay of a neutron with an emission of electrons and neutrino). It was shown that parameters of internal electron conversion decay greatly depended on the structure of the crystal matrix and on the distance between the excited nucleus and the crystal matrix.

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4208. Vysotskii, V., et al. Successful Experiments On Utilization Of High-Activity Waste In The Process Of Transmutation In Growing Associations Of Microbiological Cultures. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Shevel, V., Tashirev, A., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: transmutation, biological, nuclear waste remediation

The problem of utilization of high-activity waste by effect of nuclear transmutation in growing associations of microbiological cultures was study. For the first time we have observed utilization of several kinds of highly active isotopes in the volume of distilled water extracted from first contour of water-water atomic reactor to nonradioactive nuclei.

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4209. Vysotskii, V. and A.A. Kornilova. The Spatial Structure Of Water And The Problem Of Controlled Low Energy Nuclear Reactions In Water Matrix. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: theory

Ordinary water has a number of unique features, among which there are its stable spatial structure and long-term “memory.” Numerous experiments confirm the existence of water memory, which is activated under the influence of various physical fields (e.g., magnetic field, mechanical impact, abrupt temperature or pressure change) and may store information about such influence for many hours and days. Such activated water has altered physical and chemical (including biochemical) features. An increasing number of reliable experiments show that the continuous model is inadequate for describing the structure of water.

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4210. Vysotskii, V., et al. Experiments On Controlled Decontamination Of Water Mixture Of Long-Lived Active Isotopes In Biological Cells. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Odintsov, A., Pavlovich, V., Tashirev, A., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords:

4211. Vysotskii, V., et al. Experimental Observation And Combined Investigation Of High-Performance Fusion Of Iron-Region Isotopes In Optimal Growing Microbiological Associations. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Tashirev, A., Kornilova, J.
Keywords: biological transmutation

4212. Vysotskii, V., A. Tashyrev, and A.A. Kornilova, Experimental Observation and Modeling of Cs-137 Isotope Deactivation and Stable Isotopes Transmutation in Biological Cells, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 295-309.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Tashyrev, A., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords:

4213. Vysotskii, V. and A.A. Kornilova, Low-energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation of Stable and Radioactive Isotopes in Growing Biological Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 146-160.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: Isotope transmutation, Low-energy reaction, Microbiological association

The report presents the results of combined (Mossbauer and mass-spectroscopy) qualifying examinations of stable isotope transmutation processes in growing microbiological cultures, in the iron-region of atomic masses. It is shown that transmutation during the process of growth of microbiological cultures, at optimal conditions in microbiological associations, is 20 times more effective than the same transmutation process in the form of “One-line” (clean) microbiological cultures. In the work, the process of direct, controlled decontamination of highly active intermediate lifetime and long-lived reactor isotopes through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. For the first time, an accelerated deactivation rate is observed that is 35 times larger than the controlled deactivation of the Cs137 isotope. A theoretical model of low-energy nuclear transmutation in biological objects

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4214. Vysotskii, V. and S. Adamenko, Low-energy Subbarrier Correlated Nuclear Fusion in Dynamical Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Adamenko, S.
Keywords: Coherent correlated states, Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation, Subbarrier low-energy reactions

In the work the method of formation of a correlated coherent states of nuclei in the nuclear-synthesis systems and application of the method for essential optimization of low-energy nuclear interaction are considered. The relation of the correlation coefficient of these nuclei to the probability of their passage through a Coulomb barrier in order to realize a nuclear reaction is studied. We have determined the form of such an optimum dependence of the correlation coefficient on time, at which the formation of a maximally correlated states of particles and the attainment of the maximum variance of their coordinates under a parametric pumping of a harmonic oscillator are possible. The conditions allowing the choice of those possible laws of variations of the frequency of a harmonic oscillator, which cause the formation of a correlated state, are established. The possible type of a parametric pumping which induces the fast asymptotic formation of the completely correlated state of a particle with giant increasing variance of the coordinate under the parabolic barrier and similar increasing of nuclear reactions probability are determined.

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4215. Vysotskii, V., The Problem of Creating a Universal Theory of LENR. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: theory, critique

It is well known that the total probability of nuclear reactions with participation of charged particles is defined as the action of the Coulomb barrier. This fundamental limitation stimulates the use of fast particles in the composition of a thermonuclear plasma, which leads at once to the necessity to solve the extremely complicated technological problems related to the formation and confinement of such a plasma. It is also obvious that the choice of the “thermonuclea-ݠapproach makes any attempt of using (under terrestrial conditions) the reactions of synthesis on the base of isotopes heavier than deuterium or tritium absolutely unreal.

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4216. Vysotskii, V., On Problems of Widom-Larsen Theory Applicability to Analysis and Explanation of Rossi Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V.
Keywords: Inverse beta-decay, LENR, Ponderomotive force, Rossi experiments,Widom–Larsen theory

The effectiveness and possibility of application of Widom-Larsen (W-L) theory for explanation of Rossi experiments on stimulation of (p, Ni^A) low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) is analyzed. The carried out analysis has shown that W-L theory, which is connected with the inverse reaction of beta-decay in variable electric field of surface plasmon in metal hydride, is unsuitable for the description and explanation of Rossi experiments in metal hydrides.

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4217. Vysotskii, V., et al., Stimulated (B^11 p) LENR and Emission of Nuclear Particles in Hydroborates in the Region of Phase Transfer Point. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Chernysh, V., Gavrilova, N., Lotonov, A.
Keywords: LENR, Hydroborates, Nuclear fusion

In thiswork, we consider the characteristics of proton (hydrogen) processes that take place in a special class of crystals (hydroborates), linked to the task of isolating and separating hydrogen and nuclear fusion with the participation of hydrogen. Preliminary results on observation of stimulated B11 + p = He4 + !E reaction in hydroborates are presented.

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4218. Vysotskii, V., M. Vysotskyy, and S. Adamenko, Application of Correlated States of Interacting Particles in Nonstationary and Periodical Modulated LENR Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Vysotskyy, M., Adamenko, S.
Keywords: Coherent correlated states, LENR, Transparency of Coulomb potential barrier

In the report the universal mechanism of optimization of low energy nuclear reactions on the basis of coherent correlated states of interacting particles at different kinds of nonstationary periodical action to the system is considered. We have considered the peculiarities and investigated the efficiency of the creation of a correlated state under a periodic action on a harmonic oscillator. This method is shown to lead to rapid formation of a strongly correlated particle state that provides an almost complete clearing of the potential barrier even for a narrow range of oscillator frequency variations. Several successful low energy fusion experiments based on usage of correlated states of interacting particles are discussed.

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4219. Vysotskii, V., A.A. Kornilova, and V. Chernysh, Features and Giant Acceleration of “Warm” Nuclear Fusion at Interaction of Moving Molecular Ions (D-…-D)+ with the Surface of a Target. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Chernysh, V.
Keywords: Moving nano-clusters, Correlated states, Neutron generation,Warm nuclear fusion

The nuclear interaction mechanism and optimization methods of (dd) synthesis under bombardment of solid targets by linear oriented molecular ions consisting of a few deuterium atoms (nano-clusters) are discussed. Preliminary results on observation of optimized d + d = He3 + n reaction during collective interaction are presented.

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4220. Vysotskii, V. and M. Vysotskii, Coherent correlated states of interacting particles – the possible key to paradoxes and features of LENR. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Vysotskii, M.
Keywords:

4221. Vysotskii, V., A.A. Kornilova, and A.O. Vasilenko, Observation and investigation of anomalous X-ray and thermal effects of cavitation. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A., Vasilenko, A. O.
Keywords:

4222. Vysotskii, V. and A.A. Kornilova, Microbial transmutation of Cs-137 and LENR in growing biological systems. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Vysotskii, V.
All Authors: Vysotskii, V., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords:

4223. Waanders, F.B. and J.J.A. Smit, Koue kernsmelting” (Cold fusion). Spectrum, 1990. 28: p. 46 (in Afrikaans).

First Author: Waanders, F. B.
All Authors: Waanders, F. B., Smit, J. J. A.
Keywords: Discussion

4224. Waber, J.T. and T.L. Elifritz, The OGG-Schafroth theory of high temperature superconductivity and its relation to cold fusion. 1990.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T., Elifritz, T. L.
Keywords: theory

4225. Waber, J.T. Solid State Boson Condensation Model of Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T.
Keywords: theory, boson, ICCF-3

This theoretical study is based on the second suggest ion of Leaf Turner which was independently developed by Chubb and Chubb. It lead to the selection rule, Bosons In, Bosons out, which helps to explain the low yield of tritons, protons, neutrons and 3He. The production of the boson 4He has now been correlated with simultaneous production of excess heat.

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4226. Waber, J.T. and M. de Llano, Cold Fusion as Boson Condensation in a Fermi Sea. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 496.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T., de Llano, M.
Keywords: theory

4227. Waber, J.T. and O.L. Egorova-Cheesman. Boson Condensation Involved in Radiation-Less Fusion. II. Spinodal Decomposition of Palladium/Palladium Deuteride System and the Andreev Effect. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T., Egorova-Cheesman, O. L.
Keywords: phase diagram, PdD, formation, theory, dislocation, ICCF-5

The palladium/palladium deuteride system has an immiscibility gap between two face centered cubic solutions which is the necessary condition for spinodal decomposition. The interface between the alpha and beta phases will contain a high concentration of dislocations to the coherency strains of the lattice prior to the actual separation and formation of the beta phase, as deuterium is introduced.Deuterium atoms will be trapped in these dislocations in the atomic diffusion significantly reduced. . . .

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4228. Waber, J.T. Synthesis of the Theory of dd Fusion with the Solid State Theory of Bipolarons. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

4229. Waber, J.T. Production of excess heat based on Bosons in, Bosons out principle. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Waber, J. T.
All Authors: Waber, J. T.
Keywords: theory, Bosons,

4230. Wada, N. and K. Nishizawa, Nuclear fusion in solid. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 1989. 28(11): p. L2017.

First Author: Wada, N.
All Authors: Wada, N., Nishizawa, K.
Keywords: Pd, D2, gas discharge, neutron

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Spontaneous neutron emissions were intermittently detected from activated palladium rods well soaked with deuterium gas in a closed glass bulb. By the stimulation of the palladium rods with a high voltage discharge between the rods, a burst of neutron flux 2 × 10^4 times larger than background was detected. Atoms or molecules of mass number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were found in the residual gas. Nuclear fusion in solid is interpreted in terms of the supersaturation of the solid solution of deuterium.

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4231. Wada, N., Possibility of room temperature nuclear fusion. Suri Kagaku, 1990. 330: p. 69 (in Japanese).

First Author: Wada, N.
All Authors: Wada, N.
Keywords: review

4232. Wagman, D.D., et al., The NBS Tables of Chemical Properties, Selected Values for Inorganic and C1 and C2 Organic Substances in SI Units. J. Phys. and Chem. Ref. Data, 1982. 11(#2): p. 238.

First Author: Wagman, D. D.
All Authors: Wagman, D. D., Evans, W. H., Parker, V. B., Schumm, R. H., Halow, I., Bailey, S. M., Churney, K. L., Nuttall, R. L.
Keywords: H, H2O, D, D2O, thermodynamic

4233. Wagner, J.E., A Calorimetric Study of the Palladium Hydride and Deuteride Systems ( A Preliminary Report). 1985.

First Author: Wagner, J. E.
All Authors: Wagner, J. E.
Keywords: Pd, Hydrogen, Deuterium, thermodynamic, Partial Enthalpy

4234. Wagner, F.T., et al., A comparison of calorimetric methods applied to the electrolysis of heavy water on palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 295: p. 393.

First Author: Wagner, F. T.
All Authors: Wagner, F. T., Moylan, T. E., Hayden, M. E., Naerger, U., Booth, J. L.
Keywords: heat, method, critique, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

4235. Waisman, J.L. and N.J. Kertamus. Excess Heat; The Microprinciples. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Waisman, J. L.
All Authors: Waisman, J. L., Kertamus, N. J.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

4236. Waisman, J.L. and R.H. Summerl. The pathway to commercial applications for the deuterium-palladium systems. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Waisman, J. L.
All Authors: Waisman, J. L., Summerl, R. H.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-7

4237. Wakao, S., K. Ozeki, and H. Sawa, Gamma-ray emission from hydrogen-absorbing metal cathodes in D2O. J. Adv. Sci., 1990. 2(3): p. 149 (in Japanese with English abstract).

First Author: Wakao, S.
All Authors: Wakao, S., Ozeki, K., Sawa, H.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, Ni-Ti, Ni-V-Zr, D2O electrolysis, H2O, gamma emission

4238. Wallace, K. and R. Stringham. A Tribute To Gene Mallove – The “Genie” Reactor. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Wallace, K.
All Authors: Wallace, K., Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

ABSTRACT “Genie”, a 40 KHZ sonofusion reactor consists of  2 opposing 40 KHz piezos separated by 4 mm of D2O, with a centered Ti target foil, with one piezo transmitting, the other receiving and taking that signal, amplifying it, then feeding it back to the transmitter as the resonating frequency of the reactor.  This process makes for efficient watt input, Qi, where 80% of these watts will be used as the acoustic input, Qa, to the “Genie” sonofusion reactor.  In the reactor the transient cavitation bubbles, TCBs, produce billions of low energy high density jets per second that accelerate deuterons into foil targets producing excess heat, Qx.   The Qx is determined by calorimetric measurements of experiments that use coolant water circulated to the surface of the well insulated reactor and data collected in the form of T in and T out at steadystate temperatures and coolant flow rate.  The total watts out, Qo, minus Qa ideally should equal zero, and we know that this calorimetry method has several losses that are not measured.  This makes the method very conservative when looking for Qx.  The Qx must make up those heat losses before making its presence known.  The result from experiments of system I using flow x DT x 4.184 for Qo – Qi = Qx shows that Qx values over unity are the norm.  System II used a more realistic calculation for Qx where flow x DT x 4.184 for Qo – Qa = Qx showed increased results. The calibration of the reactor with a Joule heater, JH, and substituting H2O for D2O produced measurements that showed the reactor calorimetry was close to zero Qx production as one would expect.  These measurements showed that heat in = heat out, a good zero indicating no Qx, for the operation of the “Genie” sonofusion reactor.

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4239. Walling, C. and J. Simons, Two innocent chemists look at cold fusion. J. Phys. Chem., 1989. 93: p. 4693.

First Author: Walling, C.
All Authors: Walling, C., Simons, J.
Keywords: theory, heavy electron

4240. Walters, R.T. and M.W. Lee, Two Plateaux for Palladium Hydride and the Effect of Helium from Tritium Decay on the Desorption Plateau Pressure for Palladium Tritide. J. Less-Common Met., 1990.

First Author: Walters, R. T.
All Authors: Walters, R. T., Lee, M. W.
Keywords: Pd, tritium, He, PdT, PdH, pressure, thermodynamic

4241. Wan, C.M., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation/Absorption in Pd/Pd/LiOD/D2O/Pd Electrolysis System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Wan, C. M.
All Authors: Wan, C. M., Chen, S. K., Liang, C. Y., Linn, C. J., Chu, S. B., Wan, C. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The annealed PD cathode, which was deuterium-loaded for 3500 min, showed anomalous heat generation. Anomalous heat absorption was regularly repeated from 4000th to 7500th min of deuterium loading in the same cell. The current density was 2700 mA/cm^2. Total heat production was 0.3 to 3.3 MJ. He production of PD per-unit volume was 3.2 to 35.2 kJ/mm^3. Total absorption was 22 kJ and absorption density was 217 J/mm^3 in a typical absorption.

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4242. Wan, C.M., et al. Repeated Heat Bursts in the Electrolysis of D2O. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Wan, C. M.
All Authors: Wan, C. M., Lihn, C. J., Chin, Z. H., Liang, C. Y., Chen, S. K., Wan, C. C., Perng, T. P.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, stress, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Electrolysis of D2O with Pd rod was performed under static or dynamic charging condition. The current densities were increased in steps in a long duration of electrolysis. During static charging, the Pd electrode was removed from the cell and partially outgassed in air. Resumpt ion of the charging produced several repeated heat bursts. In the dynamic test, cyclic torsion was applied to the Pd electrode during the charging . No abnormal reaction was found during the torsion , but sometimes repeated occurrance of heat burst was observed after the cease of torsion. Possible causes for the heat bursts are proposed.

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4243. Wang, X.W., S.G. Louie, and M.L. Cohen, Hydrogen interactions in PdHn (1 <= n <= 4). Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(8): p. 5822.

First Author: Wang, X. W.
All Authors: Wang, X. W., Louie, S. G., Cohen, M. L.
Keywords: theory, distance

4244. Wang, R., Remarks on the possibility of cold fusion. Commun. Theor. Phys. (China), 1990. 13: p. 549.

First Author: Wang, R.
All Authors: Wang, R.
Keywords: theory, muon

4245. Wang, C., et al. Identification of the Energetic Charged Particles in Gas-Loading Experiment of “Cold Fusion” Using CR-39 Plastic Track Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Wang, C.
All Authors: Wang, C., Kang, T. S., Wang, K. L., Dong, S. Y., Feng, Y., Mo, D. W., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, titanium D2 CR-39 ICCF-2

4246. Wang, K.L., et al. Search for Better Material for Cold Fusion Experiment Using CR-39 Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Wang, K. L.
All Authors: Wang, K. L., Li, X. Z., Dong, S. Y., Wang, S. C., Mo, D. W., Luo, C. M., Lin, Q. R., Wu, X. D., Li, W. Z., Zhu, Y. F., Zhou, P. L., Chang, L.
Keywords: D2, particle emission Pd titanium, CR-39 ICCF-2

4247. Wang, D.L., et al. Experimental Studies on the Anomalous Phenomenon in Pd Metal Loaded with Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Wang, D. L.
All Authors: Wang, D. L., Chen, S. H., Fan, D., Chen, W. J., Li, Y. J., Fu, Y. B., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2 D2O, neutron, tritium, electrolysis, X-ray ICCF-3

The anomalous phenomenon in metal loaded with deuterium has been studied, using the electrolysis and the cycle method of temperature and pressure (CMPT). In this report, the experimental results are introduced, including the explosion occurred, and neutron and tritium measured in electrolysis experiment. The sensitization phenomenon of x-ray film was found in CMPT experiment. It is considered that the reason of sensitization is derived from the chemical reaction and the anomalous effect in metal loaded with deuterium.

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4248. Wang, X., et al. A New Device for measuring Neutron Bursts in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Wang, X.
All Authors: Wang, X., Tang, P., Zhang, W., Liu, H., Lu, F., Chen, G., Liu, J., Chen, Z., Zhu, R.
Keywords: titanium D2, neutron, method ICCF-4

4249. Wang, D., et al., Neutrons, gamma-rays and x-rays in a gas discharge. Yuanzi Yu Fenzi Wuli Xuebao, 1993. 10(3): p. 2789 (in Chinese).

First Author: Wang, D.
All Authors: Wang, D., Chen, S., Li, Y., Liu, R., Wang, M., Fu, Y., Zhang, X., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: gas discharge, D2, neutron, x-ray, gamma emission, Pd

4250. Wang, D., et al., Research and progress of nuclear fusion phenomenon at normal temperature. Trends Nucl. Phys., 1995. 12(4): p. 31 (in Chinese).

First Author: Wang, D.
All Authors: Wang, D., Chen, S., Li, Y., Wang, M., Fu, Y.
Keywords: review, neutron, x-ray

4251. Wang, T., et al. Anomalous Phenomena in E<18 KeV Hydrogen Ion Beam Implantation Experiments on Pd and Ti. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Piao, Y., Hao, J., Wang, X., Jin, G., Niu, Z.
Keywords: ion implantation, H2, Pd, titanium, particle emission, X-ray, neutron ICCF-6

4252. Wang, T., et al. Interpretation of Excess Energy in Terms of Quasi-Atom Multi-body Model. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Piao, Y., Jin, G., Niu, Z., Hao, J., Wang, X.
Keywords: theory, X-ray, ICCF-6

4253. Wang, X., et al., Time distribution of neutron burst in thermal D/soiled system. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1996. 41(1): p. 73.

First Author: Wang, X.
All Authors: Wang, X., Tang, P., Zhang, W., Liu, H., Chen, Z., Li, Z., Zhou, C., Zhu, R., Ding, D.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

4254. Wang, T., et al. Nuclear and Atomic Cluster Effect of Deuterium Molecular Ion (D3+). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Ochiai, K., Maruta, K., Datemichi, J., Sugimoto, H., Iida, T., Takahashi, A., Piao, Y.
Keywords: ion bombardment, X-ray, cluster, D2, ICCF-7

4255. Wang, T., et al. Study of Possible Indirect Fusion Reaction in Solids. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Ochiai, K., Maruta, K., Iida, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion bombardment, particle emission, D2, ICCF-7

4256. Wang, T., et al. Anomalous Radiation Induced by 1-300 keV Deuteron Ion Beam Implantation on Palladium and Titanium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Ochiai, K., Wang, Z., Jing, G., Iida, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion implantation, D2, Pd, titanium, particle emission X-ray ICCF-7

4257. Wang, T., et al. Study of the Deuterated Titanium Ti2Hx Samples by Using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) and Materials Analysis Methods. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Ding, B., Wang, Z., Zheng, S., Hang, Y., Li, W.
Keywords: titanium, TiH, surface analysis, loading ICCF-8

4258. Wang, T., et al. Nuclear Phemonena in P+Ti2Hx Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Zhu, Y., Wang, Z., Li, S., Zheng, S.
Keywords: Ti, ion bombardment particle emission, H2, TiH titanium, transmutation. ICCF-8

4259. Wang, T., et al., Investigating the Unknown Nuclear Reaction in a Low-Energy (E<300 keV) p + T2Hx Experiment. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 146.

First Author: Wang, T.
All Authors: Wang, T., Wang, Z., Chen, J., Jin, G., Piao, Y.
Keywords: particle emission TiH ion bombardment helium

4260. Wang, Q. and J. Dash. Effect Of An Additive On Thermal Output During Electrolysis Of Heavy Water With A Palladium Cathode. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Wang, Q.
All Authors: Wang, Q., Dash, J.
Keywords: titanium, excess heat

A titanium additive to a heavy water-sulfuric acid electrolyte has been found to increase the thermal output during electrolysis with a palladium foil cathode.  Eight runs, about six hours each, over a period of 16 days, gave an average of 1.8 watt excess thermal power output compared with a light water control cell. This is about twice the excess obtained in co-deposition experiments. The excess thermal power output ranged from 0.5 Ѡ0.1 W to 2.6 Ѡ0.1 W, which was an average of about 17 % more than the input power. The additive apparently catalyzes heat producing reactions on the surface of the palladium. After electrolysis, the Pd cathode contained localized surface concentrations of Ag, Ni, Fe, Ti, S, and Pt.

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4261. Wang, D. and X. Zhang, Experimental discovery of X-ray new spectral series and interpretation. High Power Laser Part. Beams, 2005. 17(9): p. 1335-1340.

First Author: Wang, D.
All Authors: Wang, D., Zhang, X.
Keywords: x-ray detection

Note: This paper is in Chinese. Here is the English abstract:Hydrogen (deuterium) gas discharge source was used to bombard target of non-crystalloid deuterate polyethylene polymethylmethacrylate, etc. The scattering spectrum was measured. There are several sharp X-ray spectral lines on the scattering spectrum, but the primary spectrum of the discharge does not include these lines of the scattering spectrum. It is confirmed that they are neither the characteristic X-ray of C, O or other possible impurity element, nor diffractive spectral lines, nor the ¡ѡbsorption cut off¡үf electron bremsstrahlung spectrum. It is most likely that they are a kind of X-ray spectral series of new kind of atom state. A new theory model called small hydrogen atom was put forward to explain the spectrum. It assumes that the discharge of hydrogen gas will produce small hydrogen atoms. . . .

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4262. Wang, X.F. and Y. Arata, The Importance of the Removal of Helium from Nano-Pd Particles after Solid Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 13-18.

First Author: Wang, X. F.
All Authors: Wang, X. F., Arata, Y.
Keywords: Helium, Nano-Pd particles, Removal, Solid fusion

According to the measuring results of our paper presented at ICCF15 (2009), helium as an important evidence of solid-state fusion has been confirmed clearly by mass analyzer “QMS”.After one solid fusion cycle, the produced helium remained inside the particles. To measure the quantity of helium correctly, the residual helium inside these particles must be completely removed. However, it is not very easy. In this paper, one of the methods to solve the problem of the removal from the nano-Pd particle is discussed.

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4263. Wark, A.W., et al., The effect of ultra sound on the electrochemical loading of hydrogen in palladium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 418: p. 199.

First Author: Wark, A. W.
All Authors: Wark, A. W., Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: loading, ultrasound, Pd, H2O

4264. Warner, J. and J. Dash. SEM and EDS Characterization of Titanium Cathodes Before and After Electrolysis in Heavy Water. in Microscopy and Microanalysis. 1999. Portland, OR.

First Author: Warner, J.
All Authors: Warner, J., Dash, J.
Keywords: transmutation

A series of experiments were conducted with titanium cathodes and platinum anodes electrolyzed in heavy water-sulfuric acid electrolyte in closed cells. Each of the cathodes in these experiments was cut from the same titanium foil (99.99% Ti). Each cathode underwent a pre-experiment and a post-experiment SEM (ISI-SS40) and EDS (LINK AN10000) analysis. Of the eight experimental cathodes, three showed post-experimental evidence of localized chemical changes. This is consistent with other findings from this lab. Results obtained on one of these cathodes are presented here.

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4265. Warner, J. and J. Dash. Heat Produced During the Electrolysis of D2O with Titanium Cathodes. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Warner, J.
All Authors: Warner, J., Dash, J.
Keywords: titanium, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, surface analysis transmutation ICCF-8

4266. Warner, J., J. Dash, and S. Frantz. Electrolysis of D2O With Titanium Cathodes: Enhancement of Excess Heat and Further Evidence of Possible Transmutation. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Warner, J.
All Authors: Warner, J., Dash, J., Frantz, S.
Keywords: titanium electrolysis D2O H2SO4 heat transmutation ICCF-9

Abstract: Using Ti-Pt electrodes in closed electrolytic cells containing D2O-H2SO4 electrolyte, evidence for excess thermal power generation has been observed (i.e. Power out – Power in > 0).  It had been noted that experiments (8-cell) with smaller cathodes (larger perimeter to area ratio) performed better than experiments (SEC system) in which larger cathodes (smaller perimeter to area ratio) were used.  In an effort to increase the magnitude of the excess power output, slits were introduced into the larger cathodes to increase the perimeter to area ratio.  Two SEC systems were used during the course of these experiments.  Using data from the first SEC system we find that four of seven (57%) of the experiments with slit cathodes showed an excess thermal power, averaging 322 mW (ranging from 136 to 509 mW) and five of fourteen (36%) of the experiments with no cathode slits gave excess thermal power, averaging 171 mW (ranging from 115 to 233 mW).  Overall, 10 of 13 (77%) of the experiments with slit cathodes showed excess power while only 5 of 15 (30%) of the experiments with no slits in the cathodes showed excess power.  This result shows an increase in both the magnitude and reproducibility of the excess power output effect.  In addition, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was performed on several cathodes (post-experiment) where greater concentrations of unexpected elements are found in those cells that showed excess power compared to those cells that did not show excess power.

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4267. Wasserman, A., Electrochemical method of reducing aluminum oxide and producing additional energy. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 168.

First Author: Wasserman, A.
All Authors: Wasserman, A.
Keywords: heat, Al, electrolysis

4268. Watanabe, K., et al. A Search for Fracture-Induced Nuclear Fusion in Some Deuterium-Loaded Materials. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Watanabe, K.
All Authors: Watanabe, K., Fukai, Y., Niimura, N., Konno, O.
Keywords: titanium, YBa2Cu3O7, D2, fractofusion, neutron ball mill friction ICCF-3

Attempts to detect neutron emission attributable to D-D nuclear fusion accompanying fracture of deuterium-loaded materials have been carried out using a ball mill specially designed for this purpose.Chips of Ti, Ti-alloys, Y and YBa2Cu3O7-x, loaded with deuterium were crushed in the ball mill to about 10 μm in size it about 60 or 120 minutes, and neutrons were counted by an array of 4 ~ 12 3He detectors surrounding the ball mill. The signal-counting efficiency was 0.3 ~ 4%.No positive signature has been obtained for the occurrence of fracture-induced fusion.

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4269. Wayte, R., A Technique for Making Nuclear Fusion in Solids. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Wayte, R.
All Authors: Wayte, R.
Keywords: Nuclear fusion, Solid state

A technique is described for making nuclear fusion at room temperature by compressing a powder mixture comprising a deuterideand catalytic material. The result is explosive beyond known chemical reaction for the materials.

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4270. Weaver, C., et al., Progress in Development of Diamond-based Radiation Sensor for Use in LENR Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Weaver, C.
All Authors: Weaver, C., Prelas, M. A., Kasiwattanawut, H., Shim, J., Watermann, M., Mathai, C, Gangopadhyay, S., Lukosi, E.
Keywords: Charged particle spectroscopy, Diamond sensors, Radiation detection

This work discusses the ongoing development of diamond-based radiation sensors for spectrometry within the environments found in low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. Specifically discussed are the efforts to demonstrate the robustness of palladium-electrode sensors. This includes fabrication methods, characterization and calibration techniques, and the results of deuterium gas loading trials which demonstrate performance throughout the entire test. The results are positive. One notable peak in the spectrometry results; additional trials are required to both determine the cause of this peak and determine which criteria.

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4271. Weaver, C., et al., Investigation of Possible Neutron Production by D/Ti Systems under High Rates of Temperature Change. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Weaver, C.
All Authors: Weaver, C., Prelas, M. A., Shimn, J., Kasiwattanawut, H., Gangopadhyay, S., Mathai, C
Keywords: Keywords: Gas loading, Neutron production, Temperature shock, Titanium

This paper discusses recent attempts to reproduce thermal shock experiments from 1991 using additional diagnostics. This was motivated by an apparent series of neutron bursts which were observed during the deuterium loading of titanium powder at cryogenic temperatures. The neutron count rate and temperature measurements are presented for control and experimental trials. Some neutrons were observed during trials, but the magnitude of the burst which motivated this work could not be replicated. Control trials with inert gas, which should produce no reaction, also demonstrated neutron signal. Future experimental directions are also discussed.

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4272. Weber, S.E., et al., Theory of hydrogen pairing in metals. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 485.

First Author: Weber, S. E.
All Authors: Weber, S. E., Liu, F. S., Khanna, S. N., Rao, B. K., Jena, P.
Keywords: theory, H pairing, PdH2

4273. Wei, S.H. and A. Zunger, Instability of diatomic deuterium in fcc palladium. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 367.

First Author: Wei, S. H.
All Authors: Wei, S. H., Zunger, A.
Keywords: theory, distance, structure, PdH

4274. Wei, S.H. and A. Zunger, Stability of atomic and diatomic hydrogen in fcc palladium. Solid State Commun., 1990. 73: p. 327.

First Author: Wei, S. H.
All Authors: Wei, S. H., Zunger, A.
Keywords: theory, distance, lattice parameter

4275. Wei, Q., et al. Excess heat in Pd/C catalyst electrolysis experiment (Case-type cathode). in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Wei, Q.
All Authors: Wei, Q., Cui, Y.O., Pan, G. H., Deng, X. Q., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: heat, electrolysis, D2O, Case catalyst

At high temperatures, the Pd/C catalyst cathode (Case-type) electrolysis in heavy water might produce more excess heat than at room temperature. While the “excess heat” in Case-type experiment was apparently confirmed at the higher temperature, the method raised new problems with electrolysis near boiling temperatures.

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4276. Wei, Q., X.Z. Li, and Y.O. Cui. Excess Heat In Heavy Water–Pd/C Catalyst Cathode (Case-Type) Electrolysis At Temperatures Near The Boiling Point. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Wei, Q.
All Authors: Wei, Q., Li, X. Z., Cui, Y.O.
Keywords: catalyst, Pd

4277. Wei, Q., et al. Deuterium (Hydrogen) Flux Permeating through Palladium and Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Wei, Q.
All Authors: Wei, Q., Liu, B., Mo, Y., Zheng, S., Cao, D. X., Wang, X., Tian, J.
Keywords: theory

Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating palladium has been analyzed using mass spectroscopy (SRS RGA200) in a new apparatus. The “mass 6” component has been confirmed again. It is found that Langevin rate of D3+ generation in the mass spectrometer plays an important role. However, “mass 6” component cannot be attributed to D3+ only. The palladium plays an important role as well. The mixture of deuterium and hydrogen gas has been used to test the prediction of resonant tunneling theory as well.

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4278. Wei, Q., et al. High Resolution Mass Spectrum for D2 (H2) Gas Permeating Palladium Film. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Wei, Q.
All Authors: Wei, Q., Li, X. Z., Liu, B., Mueller, N., Schoch, P., Orhre, H.
Keywords: loading,

4279. Wei, Q., et al. Element Analysis of the Surface Layer on the Pd and Pd-Y Alloy after Deuterium Permeation. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Wei, Q.
All Authors: Wei, Q., Rao, Y. C., Zheng, S., Luo, D. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: gas loading,

4280. Weinberger, S., Warming Up to Cold Fusion, in Washington Post Magazine. 2004. p. W22.

First Author: Weinberger, S.
All Authors: Weinberger, S.
Keywords: Review

Peter Hagelstein is trying to revive hope for a future of clean, inexhaustible, inexpensive energy. Fifteen years after the scientific embarrassment of the century, is this the beginning of something?

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4281. Welborn, V., The cold fusion story: A case study illustrating the communication and information seeking behavior of scientists. Sci. Technol. Librarian, 1991. Spring: p. 51.

First Author: Welborn, V.
All Authors: Welborn, V.
Keywords: history

4282. Wendt, G.L. and C.E. Irion, Experimental attempts to decompose tungsten at high temperatures. Science, 1922. 55(1425): p. 422-423.

First Author: Wendt, G. L.
All Authors: Wendt, G. L., Irion, C. E.
Keywords: Transmutation

4283. Wenzl, H., Fruitless experiments to prove ‘cold nuclear fusion’. Phys. Bl., 1989. 45: p. 408(In German).

First Author: Wenzl, H.
All Authors: Wenzl, H.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

4284. Werjefelt, B. Energy From Magnetic Materials/Magnetic Fields. in IAP Program on Cold Fusion. 1995. MIT.

First Author: Werjefelt, B.
All Authors: Werjefelt, B.
Keywords: magnetic energy, zero point

4285. Werle, H., et al., Trials to induce neutron emission from a titanium-deuterium system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 391.

First Author: Werle, H.
All Authors: Werle, H., Fieg, G., Lebkuecher, J., Moeschke, M.
Keywords: titanium D2, neutron

4286. Werth, J., et al., Experimental Investigations into the Pons-Fleischmann Effect. 1990.

First Author: Werth, J.
All Authors: Werth, J., Hunter, G. W., R. , P. G., Balko, E. N.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis

4287. Whaley, K.B., Boson enhancement of finite-temperature coherent dynamics for deuterium in metals. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 41(6): p. 3473.

First Author: Whaley, K. B.
All Authors: Whaley, K. B.
Keywords: theory, screening

4288. White, C.T., et al., Limits of chemical effects on cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 363.

First Author: White, C. T.
All Authors: White, C. T., Dunlap, B. I., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Mintmire, J. W.
Keywords: theory, distance

4289. White, C.T., et al., D-D (H-H) interactions within the interstices of Pd. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1, 1991. 30: p. 182.

First Author: White, C. T.
All Authors: White, C. T., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Mintmire, J. W.
Keywords: theory, review, critique

This paper can be downloaded at the web site of the Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, xxxx://www.ipap.jp/jjap/index.htm. Until January 2004, anyone could register and download papers there at no cost. The journal is now charging for reprints. We hope to make reprints of this and other cold fusion related papers available here. The title, abstract and keywords for this paper are available at in this library. The abstract begins:Embedded atom, local-density-functional, and Hartree-Fock methods are used to calculate the effective interaction between deuterium (or equivalently within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation hydrogen) nuclei within palladium. No effects were found to suggest that the repulsion between deuterons in gas phase D2 is reduced within the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of this transition metal.

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4290. Wicke, E., H. Brodowsky, and H. Zichner, Hydrogen in Metals II Hydrogen in palladium and palladium alloys, ed. G. Alefeld and J. Vàlkl. 1978, Berlin: Springer-VerlagWicke, E.

First Author: Wicke, E.
All Authors: Wicke, E., Brodowsky, H., Zichner, H.
Keywords: Pd, phase Diagram, H, loading, pressure,

4291. Wickenden, D.K. and O. Reifenschweiler, Some Investigations into the Bremsstrahlung of Tritium. 1961, Philips Corporation.

First Author: Wickenden, D. K.
All Authors: Wickenden, D. K., Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

This paper is from the Philips Corporation Repository hosted by TU Delft Library:xxxx://repository.tudelft.nl/assets/uuid:48116fe3-dadb-481e-b282-cea0bb47609e/tn2014-00263.pdfThe internal and external bremsstrahlung of tritium have been investigated by a new method, using titanium-tritium films. A great discrepancy was found between the experimental results and the theory. The experimental values of the ratio I-EBS were between four and thirty times lower than the ratio I-IBS predicted by theory. This discrepancy may be due either to the generation of characteristic x-radiation in the experimental arrangement used or to the fact that the theory is not applicable to tritium on account of its extremely low atomic number and beta-ray energy. The wide scatter in the experimental results may likewise be due to the generation of characteristic x-radiation.

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4292. Widom, A. and L. Larsen, Ultra low momentum neutron catalyzed nuclear reactions on metallic hydride surfaces. Eur. Phys. J. C, 2006. 46(1): p. 107-111.

First Author: Widom, A.
All Authors: Widom, A., Larsen, L.
Keywords: Theory

4293. Wiesmann, H., Examination of cathodically charged palladium electrodes for excess heat, neutron emission, or tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 350.

First Author: Wiesmann, H.
All Authors: Wiesmann, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, neutron, tritium

4294. Wiley, W., Utah scientists research cold fusion in France, in The Denver Post. 1994: DenverEditor. p. 9.

First Author: Wiley, W.
All Authors: Wiley, W.
Keywords: history

4295. Wilhelmi, Z., et al., Search for neutron emission in the deuterium-palladium system. Nukleonika, 1990. 35(7-9): p. 175.

First Author: Wilhelmi, Z.
All Authors: Wilhelmi, Z., Szeflinski, Z., Tarasiuk, J., Turowiecki, A., Zlomanczuk, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission H2O

4296. Will, F.G., Groups Reporting Cold Fusion Evidence. 1990, National Cold Fusion Institute: Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Will, F. G.
All Authors: Will, F. G.
Keywords: Review

A table showing 92 groups from 10 countries that reported replications of cold fusion by September 12, 1990. Published by the National Cold Fusion Institute. This table reproduced from Mallove, E., Fire From Ice. 1991, NY: John Wiley, pp. 246-248

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4297. Will, F.G., et al. Studies of Electrolytic and Gas Phase Loading of Palladium with Deuterium. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Will, F. G.
All Authors: Will, F. G., Cedzynska, K., Yang, M. C, Peterson, J. R., Bergeson, H. E., Barrowes, S. C., West, W. J., Linton, D. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, D, tritium, loading, neutron, electrolysis, ICCF-2, heat

Highlights are presented of recent results obtained on deuterium and hydrogen loading of palladium both in electrolytes and in the gas phase. Reproducible tritium generation has been found on palladium cathodes with deuterium loadings approaching one deuterium atom per palladium atom. Tritium generation has been observed on four out of four such highly loaded cathodes. No tritium has been observed in four light water control cells operating simultaneously. Total tritium analysis was performed on all hermetically sealed cells before and after each experiment. Tentative evidence is presented for neutron generation and a single anomalous heat excursion. A novel high-pressure electrochemical cell is also described which employs a fuel cell approach, thereby avoiding oxygen evolution. Two anomalous heat excursions have been observed in this cell with excess power values up to 30%. Gas phase experiments of the Wada-type have been performed on palladium, using electrical discharges to activate the palladium. Neutron bursts up to 280 neutrons in 128 microseconds and tritium enhancements in the palladium of up to 25X background have been observed in the palladium. In both electrolytic and gas phase experiments, the tritium distribution in the palladium wires was found to be non-uniform.

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4298. Will, F.G., K. Cedzynska, and D.C. Linton. Tritium Generation in Palladium Cathodes With High Deuterium Loading. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Will, F. G.
All Authors: Will, F. G., Cedzynska, K., Linton, D. C.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, contamination, D/Pd, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Tritium up to fifty times background has been observed upon electrolyzing 1N D2 SO4 in four out of four cells when using Pd cathodes “of a certain type”. No tritium was detected in four control cells, containing H2S04 in H2O, employing Pd cathodes cut from the same wire spool. Tritium amounts were from 7 x 10^10 to 2.1 × 10^11 atoms, corresponding to average generation rates from 5.1 × 10^4 to 2 × 10^5 atoms/sec/cm^2. In all cases, D/Pd and H/Pd loadings of 1 Ѡ0.05 were attained. A cyclic loading/unloading regime rather than the usual continuous constant current regime was applied to attain these high loadings. Tritium analysis was performed in Pd, electrolyte and the gas head space of the sealed cells. Maximum tritium concentrations of 8.9 × 10^10 atoms/g Pd, 180 times the detection limit, were found in the D-loaded Pd cathodes, none in the Η-loaded Pd, Also, no tritium within detection limit was found in 150 unused Pd pieces. Of these, 13 were cut randomly from the same wire spool as the four D-loaded Pd cathodes. The probability that the tritium in the latter was due to random spot contamination is computed as 1 in 2,380. It is concluded that the tritium was generated by nuclear reactions in the Pd. However, no tritium was detected in four D-loaded Pd cathodes of a different type in spite of attaining loadings D/Pd = 1. Different metallurgical history and impurity contents may play an important role.

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4299. Will, F.G., K. Cedzynska, and D.C. Linton, Reproducible tritium generation in electrochemical cells employing palladium cathodes with high deuterium loading. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 360: p. 161.

First Author: Will, F. G.
All Authors: Will, F. G., Cedzynska, K., Linton, D. C.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, H2O, loading

Reproducible tritium generation well above background has been observed in tightly closed D2SO4-containing cells in four out of four Pd wire cathodes of one type. Tritium analysis was performed before and after each experiment on the Pd, the electrolyte and the gas in the head space. No tritium generation was observed in four identical Pd cathodes in H2SO4 cells operated at the same time under the same conditions. A cyclic loading-unloading regime with low current densities, rather than the usual continuous constant current regime, was employed to attain D/Pd and H/Pd loadings of 1 Ѡ0.05 reproducibly. D/Pd loadings greater than 0.8 Ѱ.05 appear to be necessary to generate tritium. The largest amount of tritium, generated in 7 days of continuous electrolysis, was 2.1 x 10E11 tritium atoms, compared with a background of 4 x 10E9 tritium atoms. The concentration of tritium and its axial distribution in the Pd were determined and concentrations of up to 9 x 10E10 atoms/g Pd were found compared with a maximum background of 5 x 10E8 atoms g-1. The T/D ratio in the Pd is about 100 times larger than in the electrolyte or gas and indicates that tritium generation occurs in the Pd interior rather than at its surface. No tritium generation was observed in two other types of Pd electrodes in D2SO4, despite the attainment of D/Pd ratios near 1:1. Thus high D/Pd ratios appear to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for tritium generation in D2SO4 electrolysis.

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4300. Will, F.G., Hydrogen + oxygen recombination and related heat generation in undivided electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1997. 426: p. 177.

First Author: Will, F. G.
All Authors: Will, F. G.
Keywords: Theory, recombination, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, critique, Jones

4301. Williams, D.E.G., et al., Upper bounds on ‘cold fusion’ in electrolytic cells. Nature (London), 1989. 342: p. 375.

First Author: Williams, D. E. G.
All Authors: Williams, D. E. G., Findlay, D. J. S., Craston, D. H., Sene, M. R., Bailey, M., Croft, S., Hooton, B. W., Jones, C. P., Kucernak, A. R. J., Mason, J. A., Taylor, R. I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat, neutron, tritium, critique, Harwell

4302. Wilson, R.H., et al., Analysis of experiments on the calorimetry of LiOD-D2O electrochemical cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 332: p. 1.

First Author: Wilson, R. H.
All Authors: Wilson, R. H., Bray, J. W., Kosky, P. G., Vakil, H. B., Will, F. G.
Keywords: critique, heat, Fleischmann, electrolysis, Pd, heat, D2O

4303. Wipf, H. and V. Erckman, On Permeation Techniques for Electrotransport Studies on Metal-Hydrogen Systems. Scr. Metall., 1976. 10: p. 813.

First Author: Wipf, H.
All Authors: Wipf, H., Erckman, V.
Keywords: V, Nb, Ta, H, charge, electromigration

4304. Wisniewski, R. and A.J. Rostocki, Hall Effect in the Pd-H System. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1971. 3(2): p. 251.

First Author: Wisniewski, R.
All Authors: Wisniewski, R., Rostocki, A. J.
Keywords: Hall Effect, Pd, H, Effective Electrons, H/Pd

4305. Witherspoon, T.C., W.D. McFall, and T.C. Lewis, Absorption of Hydrogen by Palladium/Rhodium Alloys and the Possible Existence of b-Phase Rhodium Hydride. Nature Phys. Sci., 1973. 242: p. 44.

First Author: Witherspoon, T. C.
All Authors: Witherspoon, T. C., McFall, W. D., Lewis, T. C.
Keywords: Pd-Rh, Phase Diagram, pressure, H2, structure

4306. Witherspoon, M.C., R.C. Johnston, and F.A. Lewis, The Steady-State Hydrogen Content of Catalytically Active Noble Metal Cathodes During Hydrogen Bubble Evolution at High Current Densities. Electrochim. Acta, 1975. 20: p. 519.

First Author: Witherspoon, M. C.
All Authors: Witherspoon, M. C., Johnston, R. C., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: overVoltage, H2O, Pd, loading

4307. Wolf, K.L., et al. A Search for Neutrons and Gamma Rays Associated with Tritium Production in Deuterated Metals. in NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Metals. 1989. Washington, DC.

First Author: Wolf, K. L.
All Authors: Wolf, K. L., Lawson, D. R., Packham, N. J. C., Wass, J. C.
Keywords: Pd D2O, Tritium neutron, gamma emission

4308. Wolf, K.L., et al. Tritium and Tritons in Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Wolf, K. L.
All Authors: Wolf, K. L., Whitesell, L., Jabs, H., Shoemaker, J.
Keywords: Pd titanium, tritium, D2O, contamination, Charged Particle particle emission

4309. Wolf, W.L., et al. Neutron Emission from Deuterium-Loaded Metals. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Wolf, W. L.
All Authors: Wolf, W. L., Shoemaker, J., Coe, D. E., Whitesell, L.
Keywords: neutron titanium, D2, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

4310. Wolf, K.L., et al., Neutron emission and the tritium content associated with deuterium-loaded palladium and titanium metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 105.

First Author: Wolf, K. L.
All Authors: Wolf, K. L., Packham, N. J. C., Lawson, D., Shoemaker, J., Cheng, F., Wass, J. C.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, critique, T/n

4311. Wolf, K.L., Activation Data and Reaction Update. 1993: LANL Memo from T. Claytor.

First Author: Wolf, K. L.
All Authors: Wolf, K. L.
Keywords: transmutation,

4312. Wolfer, W.G., The Elastic Properties of Aged Tritides. 1990.

First Author: Wolfer, W. G.
All Authors: Wolfer, W. G.
Keywords: youngs Modulus, elastic. PdH, PdT,

4313. Woo, T. and S. Noh, Lattice Squeezed Nuclear Reaction (LSNR) of Power-Cell for Nanoscopic Investigations Using Ion Beam Injections. Int. J. Green Energy, 2011. 8: p. 511-517.

First Author: Woo, T.
All Authors: Woo, T., Noh, S.
Keywords: Lattice squeezed nuclear reaction, Low energy nuclear reaction, Transmutation

4314. Worledge, D.H. Technical Status of Cold Fusion Results and Meeting Summary. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Worledge, D. H.
All Authors: Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: history, review

4315. Worledge, D.H. Technical Status of Cold Fusion Results. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Worledge, D. H.
All Authors: Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: review, ICCF-1

4316. Worsham, J.E., M.K. Wilkinson, and C.G. Shull, Neutron-Diffraction Observations on the Palladium-hydrogen and Palladium-deuterium systems. J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1957. 3: p. 303.

First Author: Worsham, J. E.
All Authors: Worsham, J. E., Wilkinson, M. K., Shull, C. G.
Keywords: PdH, PdD, D2, H2, structure, neutron diffraction

4317. Wu, C.K., et al., Experimental observation of lack of room temperature fusion between palladium and heavy water. Hua Hsueh, 1989. 47(2): p. 139 (in Chinese).

First Author: Wu, C. K.
All Authors: Wu, C. K., Yao, Y. T., Wang, C. W., Lin, E. K.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat- gamma emission

4318. Wu, B., et al., The SEM observation of palladium-deuterium system after the gas discharge process. Gaojishu Tongxun, 1991. 1(9): p. 1 (in Chinese).

First Author: Wu, B.
All Authors: Wu, B., Jin, S., Shang, F., Yao, D., Ding, Y., Yao, J., Yao, P.
Keywords: gas discharge, surface analysis, Pd, D2, CR-39

4319. Wu, W., et al. Anomalous heat effect during permeation of deuterium gas through the palladium tube. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Wu, W.
All Authors: Wu, W., Li, X. Z., Du, J. H., Tian, J., Hao, J. Z., Ma, B., Chen, J. P., Liu, B., Lei, S. Y.
Keywords: diffusion, heat, permeation, IR camera, Pd

4320. Wyrzykowski, K. and B. Baranowski, Pressure-Concentration Isotherms of Pd-H Thin Films up to 0.2 GPa of Gaseous Hydrogen. J. Less-Common Met., 1988. 141: p. 73.

First Author: Wyrzykowski, K.
All Authors: Wyrzykowski, K., Baranowski, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, pressure

4321. Xiao, J. and P. Li, The possibilities for initiation of the cold fusion of the deuterons in the hydrogen storage materials. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1999. 24: p. 741.

First Author: Xiao, J.
All Authors: Xiao, J., Li, P.
Keywords: Review, discussion.

4322. Xu, J., et al. D-D Distance in PdD0.4 at High Pressure. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Xu, J.
All Authors: Xu, J., Manghnani, M. H., Huang, N. Z., Gao, Q.
Keywords: PdD, distance, theory, high pressure

4323. Xu, Y. and A. Butt, Confirmatory experiments for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation. Nucl. Eng. Des., 2005. 235(10-12): p. 1317-1324.

First Author: Xu, Y.
All Authors: Xu, Y., Butt, A.
Keywords: Sonofusion

4324. Xuwu, A., et al., Calorimetric investigation of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium. Thermochim. Acta, 1991. 183: p. 107-115.

First Author: Xuwu, A.
All Authors: Xuwu, A., Yan, H., Han, B., Guo, D., Xie, D., Zhu, Q., Hu, R., An, X.
Keywords: heat, D2O, electrolysis

4325. Yabuuchi, N. Quantum Mechanics on Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yabuuchi, N.
All Authors: Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

According to plasma thermonuclear fusion, the deutron collide with target deutron, needs high temperature thermal energy, because the deutron change thermal energy into movement energy.But, nuclear fusion based on the characteristic of deutron as wave which does not need hightemperature thermal energy. because amplitude of wave cause the nuclear fusion easy. and the amplitude of wave field of deautrons resulting in tunneling effect. . . .

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4326. Yabuuchi, N. Two Types of Nuclear Fusion in Solids. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Yabuuchi, N.
All Authors: Yabuuchi, N.
Keywords: theory

4327. Yagi, M., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from a SiO2-D2 system. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1989. 137(6): p. 421.

First Author: Yagi, M.
All Authors: Yagi, M., Mitsugashira, T., Satoh, I., Hara, M., Shiokawa, Y., Inoue, K., Masumoto, K., Suzuki, S.
Keywords: SiO2, D2, neutron

4328. Yagi, M., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from a titanium-deuterium system. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137(6): p. 411.

First Author: Yagi, M.
All Authors: Yagi, M., Shiokawa, Y., Suzuki, S., Hara, M., Satoh, I., Masumoto, K., Mitsugashira, T.
Keywords: titanium D2, neutron

4329. Yague, A.R., Cold nuclear fusion and its history. Metal. Electr. (Spain), 1990. 54(618): p. 134 (in Spanish).

First Author: Yague, A. R.
All Authors: Yague, A. R.
Keywords: review

4330. Yamada, H., et al. Neutron Emission from Palladium Electrodes in Deuterium Gas under Highly Non-uniform Electric Field. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Sugaya, N., Kamioka, T., Matsukawa, M., Fujiwara, T., Noto, K.
Keywords: Gas discharge, Pd, neutron, D2, ICCF-3

The fusion reproducibility in palladium (Pd) has been searched with the detection of excess and neutron for point-to-plane electrode configuration in deuterium (D2) and in hydrogen (H2) gas atmosphere using a Pd, nickel (Ni) and tungsten (W) point. Excess neutron counts were observed using D2 loaded Pd points under DC high voltage applications. To the contrary, no count except background was observed with other points under the similar test condition. The observed highest counting rate was 61 counts for 10 seconds from the Pd is equivalent to the neutron emission of ~ 1×10 ^5 n/(s*cm^3).

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4331. Yamada, H., et al., Carbon Production on Palladium Point Electrode with Neutron Burst under DC Glow Discharge. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 55.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Nonaka, H., Dohi, A., Hirahara, H., Fujiwara, T., Li, X. Z., Chiba, A.
Keywords: transmutation,, carbon,, gas discharge,, Pd

4332. Yamada, H. and T. Fujiwara, Neutron emission from palladium point electrode in pressuriszed deuterium gas under DV voltage application. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 14.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Fujiwara, T.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, D2, neutron, H2, transmutation

4333. Yamada, H., et al. Tritium Production in Palladium Deuteride/Hydride in Evacuated Chamber. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Narita, S., Inamura, I., Nakai, M., Iwasaki, K., Baba, M.
Keywords: Pd, layer, MnO, D2, tritium, autoradiograph, transmutation, ICCF-8

The controlled out-diffusion method was employed to induce a nuclear reaction in a palladium (Pd) plate with a MnOx film. The time-resolved mass spectra for Pd deuteride revealed tritium (T) production during the out-diffusion experiment. Similar time behaviors of mass number 1-4 and 6 in the spectra was also observed for Pd hydride. Film blackening was observed for most Pd deuteride as well as Pd hydrides using a normal monochromatic negative photographic film. The radiation from the Pd plate consists of two kinds of components for a Pd hydride. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy has shown considerable increase in counts of Li for Pd hydride after the out-diffusion experiment.

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4334. Yamada, H., et al., Producing a radioactive source in a deuterated palladium electrode under direct-current glow discharge. Fusion Technol., 2001. 39: p. 253.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Uchiyama, K., Kawata, N., Kurisawa, Y., Nakamura, M.
Keywords: glow discharge ion implanation Pd, D2 gamma emission film transmutation

4335. Yamada, H., et al. Production of Ba and several anomalous elements in Pd under light water electrolysis. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Narita, S., Fujii, Y., Sato, T., Sasaki, S., Omori, T.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, H2O, Pd, heat, Na2CO3,

4336. Yamada, H., et al. Analysis By Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy For Nuclear Products In Hydrogen Penetration Through Palladium. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Narita, S., Onodera, H., Suzuki, N., Tanaka, N., Nyui, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2, transmutation, gas loading

Elemental analysis was performed for the palladium foil through which the hydrogen gas penetrated. We analyzed sample surface by Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy and searched for newly produced elements during the gas permeation process. Significant increase of the counts for Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag were found after the permeation. These elements could have been produced by nuclear transmutation.

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4337. Yamada, H., et al. Producing Transmutation Elements on Plain Pd-foil by Permeation of Highly Pressurized Deuterium Gas. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Yamada, H.
All Authors: Yamada, H., Narita, S., Taniguchi, S., Ushirozawa, S., Kurihara, S., Higashizawa, M., Sawada, H., Itagaki, M., Odashima, T.
Keywords: gas loading, transmutation

4338. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka. Nuclear Fusion Induced by the Controlled Out-Transport of Deuterons in Palladium. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Nishioka, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, heat, theory, layer, Au-Pd, electrolysis

4339. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka, Cold fusion induced by controlled out-diffusion of deuterons in palladium. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2, 1990. 29(4): p. L666.

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Nishioka, T.
Keywords: Au-Pd, D2, heat, neutron, layer

A gigantic neutron burst of (1-2)×10^6 n/s has been detected from deuterated Pd plates with heterostructures set in a vacuum chamber. An explosive release of D2 gas, biaxial bending of all the samples, and excess heat evolution were also observed at the same time. It has been concluded that these phenomena are caused by the cooperative production of D accumulation layers at Pd surfaces due to controlled out-diffusion of D-atoms.

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4340. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka. Direct Evidence for Nuclear Fusion Reactions in Deuterated Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Nishioka, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2, Helium, particle emission ICCF-3

Using our own “in vacuo” method with a heterostructure of deuterated Pd (Pd:D), we have succeeded in the first highly reproducible and “in situ” detection of 4He production. The real time observation has been performed by high-resolution quadrupole mass spectroscopy (0.001 amu at 4 amu). The amount of 4He gas produced was closely correlated with the evolution of excess heat, and it increased with the loading ratio of D to Pd. At the highest loading ratio of D to Pd, we have also observed T production by detecting HT. The amount of HT increased in the final stages of 4He production. The system of H-loaded Pd (Pd:H) heterostructure, on the other hand, produced neither 4He nor T. Furthermore, the energy spectrum of charged particles detected during these experiments has revealed that a particles with an energy of 4.5-6 Me V and protons with an energy of 3 Me V were emitted from the oxide surface of Pd. The amount, however, was extremely small in comparison with that of 4He detected. These results indicate that a new class of nuclear fusion occurs in the Pd:D and Pd:H systems.

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4341. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka, Helium-4 production and its correlation with heat evolution. Oyo Butsuri, 1993. 62(7): p. 712 (in Japanese).

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Nishioka, T.
Keywords: review, Pd helium PdD

4342. Yamaguchi, E. and T. Nishioka, Helium-4 production from deuterated palladium. Kaku Yugo Kenkyu, 1993. 69(7): p. 743 (in Japanese).

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Nishioka, T.
Keywords: Au-Pd-PdO, helium, D2, coating

4343. Yamaguchi, M., et al., Thermodynamic theory of magnetic field effects on chemical equilibra and applications to metal-hydrogen systems. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253: p. 191.

First Author: Yamaguchi, M.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, M., Yamamoto, I., Ishikawa, F., Goto, T., Miura, S.
Keywords: theory, susceptibility, PdH

4344. Yamaguchi, E. and H. Sugiura. Excess Heat and Nuclear Products from Pd:D/Au Heterostructures by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Yamaguchi, E.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, E., Sugiura, H.
Keywords: deloading, neutron, heat, He, particle emission Pd-Au, layer, ICCF-7

4345. Yamaguchi, T., et al. Investigation of Nuclear Transmutation Using Multilayered CaO/X/Pd Samples Under Deuterium Permeation. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Yamaguchi, T.
All Authors: Yamaguchi, T., Sasaki, A., Nohmi, T., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: transmutation

We constructed an experimental system in which accelerator analyses by PIXE, ERDA, NRA and RBS can be made in situ under deuterium (D) gas permeation through multilayered CaO/X/Pd samples to induce nuclear transmutation in the element X. Furthermore, to examine the effect of flow direction, we made a D gas permeation system separated from the accelerator beam-line chamber for ex-situ accelerator analysis. We report the results of recent experiments in this paper.

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4346. Yamamoto, T., T. Oka, and R. Taniguchi, In-situ observation of deuteride formation in palladium electrochemical cathode by x-ray diffraction method. Annu. Rep. Osaka Prefect. Radiat. Res. Inst., 1990. 30: p. 79.

First Author: Yamamoto, T.
All Authors: Yamamoto, T., Oka, T., Taniguchi, R.
Keywords: loading, Pd, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter

4347. Yamamoto, N., et al., In situ electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance studies of water electrolysis at a palladium cathode in acidic aqueous media. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 463.

First Author: Yamamoto, N.
All Authors: Yamamoto, N., Ohsaka, T., Terashima, T., Oyama, N.
Keywords: loading, method, Pd, film, electrolysis

4348. Yamamoto, T., et al., In situ observation of deuteride formation in palladium foil cathode by an x-ray diffraction method. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 1381.

First Author: Yamamoto, T.
All Authors: Yamamoto, T., Taniguchi, R., Oka, T., Kawabata, K.
Keywords: electrolysis, OCV, loading, Pd, x-ray diffraction

4349. Yamamoto, H. A catalytic role of atomic oxygen on anomalous heat generation. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Yamamoto, H.
All Authors: Yamamoto, H.
Keywords: theory, Miles, hydrino

4350. Yamamoto, H. An Explanation of Earthquakes by the Blacklight Process and Hydrogen Fusion. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Yamamoto, H.
All Authors: Yamamoto, H.
Keywords: theory

4351. Yamashita, I., et al., Hydrogenation characteristics of TiFe1-xPdx (0.05*x*0.30) alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 238.

First Author: Yamashita, I.
All Authors: Yamashita, I., Tanaka, H., Takeshita, H., Kuriyama, N., Sakai, T., Uehara, I.
Keywords: H2 Ti-Fe-Pd, phase diagram, pressure

4352. Yamaura, S., et al., Hydrogen absorption of nanoscale Pd particles embedded in ZrO2 matrix prepared from Zrâ€â€ŢPd amorphous alloys. J. Mater. Res., 2002. 17(6): p. 1329.

First Author: Yamaura, S.
All Authors: Yamaura, S., Sasamori, K., Kimura, H., Inoue, A., Zhang, Y., Arata, Y.
Keywords:

4353. Yamazaki, O., et al., Hydrogen absorption and Li inclusion in a Pd cathode in LiOH solution. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 390: p. 127.

First Author: Yamazaki, O.
All Authors: Yamazaki, O., Yoshitake, H., Kamiya, N., Ota, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, Li, H2O, overvoltage, surface

4354. Yamazaki, O., et al., Hydrogen absorption in Pd cathode in alkaline solutions. Oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1996. 64: p. 62 (in Japanese).

First Author: Yamazaki, O.
All Authors: Yamazaki, O., Watanabe, Y., Yoshitake, H., Kamiya, N., Ota, K.
Keywords: Pd, loading, surface analysis

4355. Yan, X., et al., Room temperature deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction rate – a strong- -coupling plasma model. Chin. Phys. Lett., 1989. 6: p. 343.

First Author: Yan, X.
All Authors: Yan, X., Tsai, S., Guo, S., Zhang, Z.
Keywords: theory

4356. Yang, C.S., et al. Observation of Excess Heat and Tritium on Electrolysis of D2O. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Yang, C. S.
All Authors: Yang, C. S., Liang, C. Y., Perng, T. P., Yuan, L. J., Wang, C. M., Wang, C. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, tritium, electrolysis

4357. Yang, F., On cold fusion. Nucl. Tech. (China), 1990. 13(12): p. 705 (in Chinese).

First Author: Yang, F.
All Authors: Yang, F.
Keywords: review

4358. Yang, J., A new fusion mechanism. Hunan Shifan Daxue Ziran Kexue Xuebao, 1991. 14(2): p. 126 (in Chinese).

First Author: Yang, J.
All Authors: Yang, J.
Keywords: theory

4359. Yang, J., (2)(1)H-e touched capturing and (2)(1)H-(2)(0)N fusion. Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Norm. Hunanensis, 1992. 15(1): p. 18.

First Author: Yang, J.
All Authors: Yang, J.
Keywords: Theory, dineutron

4360. Yang, J., et al., ‘Abnormal’ nuclear phenomena and possible nuclear process. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 203.

First Author: Yang, J.
All Authors: Yang, J., Chen, D., Zhou, G., Wu, Q., Huang, J., Tang, L., Cheng, X., Xie, D., Gu, L.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

4361. Yang, J., L. Tang, and X. Chen, Possible nuclear process in deuterium-metal system. J. Changsa Univ. Elec. Power (Nat. Sci.), 1996. 11(3): p. 289.

First Author: Yang, J.
All Authors: Yang, J., Tang, L., Chen, X.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

4362. Yang, J., L. Tang, and X. Chen, Dineutron model research of cold fusion. Acta Sci. Nat. Univ. Norm. Hunanensis, 1996. 19(2): p. 25.

First Author: Yang, J.
All Authors: Yang, J., Tang, L., Chen, X.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

4363. Yang, T.H. and S.I. Pyun, An investigation of the hydrogen absorption reaction into, and the hydrogen reaction from, a Pd foil electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 414: p. 127.

First Author: Yang, T. H.
All Authors: Yang, T. H., Pyun, S. I.
Keywords: loading, Pd, overvoltage

4364. Yanokura, M., et al., An approach to the cold fusion through hydrogen isotopes analysis by the heavy ion Rutherford scattering. Chem. Lett., 1989: p. 2197.

First Author: Yanokura, M.
All Authors: Yanokura, M., Minami, M., Yamagata, S., Nakabayashi, S., Aratani, M., Kira, A., Tanihata, I.
Keywords: loading, surface analysis, PdD, Pd, D2, electrolysis, D2O

4365. Yao, Y.D., et al., Observation of cathodic charging on a palladium electrode in heavy water. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1990. 9: p. 228.

First Author: Yao, Y. D.
All Authors: Yao, Y. D., Wang, C. W., Lin, E. K., Wu, J. K.
Keywords: loading, electrolysis, Pd neutron, gamma emission D2O, H2O, diffusion

4366. Yaroslavskii, M.A., Nuclear reactions induced by temperature changes and phase transitions in solids. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 307: p. 600 (in Russian).

First Author: Yaroslavskii, M. A.
All Authors: Yaroslavskii, M. A.
Keywords: neutron, D2O, chemical

4367. Yaroslavskii, M.A., Possible mechanism for the initiation of nuclear reactions during temperature changes and phase transitions in condensed materials. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 308: p. 95 (in Russian).

First Author: Yaroslavskii, M. A.
All Authors: Yaroslavskii, M. A.
Keywords: neutron, chemical, biological

4368. Yasuda, K., Y. Nitta, and A. Takahashi. Study of Excess Heat and Nuclear Products with Closed D2O Electrolysis Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yasuda, K.
All Authors: Yasuda, K., Nitta, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: electrolysis tritium-, Pd, D2O, neutron-, 4He-, heat+, D/Pd, ICCF-6

4369. Yasui, K. Fractofusion Mechanism. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yasui, K.
All Authors: Yasui, K.
Keywords: fractofusion, theory, ICCF-3

The fractofusion mechanism of Cold Fusion is investigated theoretically. The conditions necessary for fractofusion are clarified. The origin and quantity of the electrical field inside cracks in the conductor are clarified also. The characteristics of Cold Fusion are explained by the mechanism. Almost all the total neutron yields experimentally observed are smaller than the upper limit predicted by the fractofusion mechanism. It indicates that they can be explained by the fractofusion mechanism.

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4370. Yasui, K., Fractofusion mechanism. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 400.

First Author: Yasui, K.
All Authors: Yasui, K.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

4371. Yi, K., et al., A study of D-D fusion in TiD target induced by 197Au bombardment. Nucl. Techniques (China), 1994. 17: p. 722 (in Chinese).

First Author: Yi, K.
All Authors: Yi, K., Jiang, D., Qian, X., Lin, J., Ye, Y.
Keywords: ion bombardment, TiD, Au, particle emission

4372. Yi-Fang, C. and L. Zheng-Rong. Nonlinear barrier penetration and cold fusion. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yi-Fang, C.
All Authors: Yi-Fang, C., Zheng-Rong, L.
Keywords: theory, barrier, ICCF-6

4373. Yoshida, Y., Y. Aradono, and T. Hirabayashi, Verification of room temperature nuclear fusion. 1. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1991. 37(4): p. 21 (in Japanese).

First Author: Yoshida, Y.
All Authors: Yoshida, Y., Aradono, Y., Hirabayashi, T.
Keywords: review

4374. Yoshihara, K., T. Sekine, and T. Braun, An attempt to detect fracto-fusion during microwave irradiation of D2O loaded silica gel. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1989. 137: p. 333.

First Author: Yoshihara, K.
All Authors: Yoshihara, K., Sekine, T., Braun, T.
Keywords: SiO2, D2, microwave, neutron, fractofusion, tritium

4375. Yoshikawa, N., et al. Search for Tritium in Pd+D Systems by a Gas Proportional Chamber. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yoshikawa, N.
All Authors: Yoshikawa, N., Aoki, T., Kurata, Y., Ebihara, H., Mori, K.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2, electrolysis, Au-Pd, layer, ICCF-6

4376. Yoshino, H., E. Igari, and T. Mizuno, Replicable Model for Controlled Nuclear Reaction using Metal Nanoparticles (PowerPoint slides), in The 2014 Cold Fusion [LANR] Colloquium at MIT. 2014: MIT.

First Author: Yoshino, H.
All Authors: Yoshino, H., Igari, E., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Excess heat, nanoparticle

Purposes of this Report1. Formalize a replicable CF methodology with Ni and D2 Gas: Derive a formula based on test results only using Ni nanoparticles as metal and D2 gas, which generated the best results.2. Analyze the Gas Composition during the Test: Accurately analyzed the changes of gas composition during the test, which we believe hasn’t been reported before.3. Find CF Reaction Kinetics: Aim to find the reaction kinetics.

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4377. You, J.H., et al., Interior adsorption, channel collimation, and nuclear fusion in solids. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 7293.

First Author: You, J. H.
All Authors: You, J. H., Cheng, F. H., Cheng, F. Z., Huang, F. H.
Keywords: theory, cluster

4378. Yu, C.Z. and Y.F. Chang. Internal Conversion Mechanism in Cold Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Yu, C. Z.
All Authors: Yu, C. Z., Chang, Y. F.
Keywords: theory

4379. Yuan, L.J., et al. Neutron Monitoring on Cold-Fusion Experiments. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yuan, L. J.
All Authors: Yuan, L. J., Wan, C. M., Liang, C. Y., Chen, S. K.
Keywords: neutron, Fused Salt, Pd, heat, replication, ICCF-3

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4380. Yue, S., Z. Qingfu, and G. Qingquan. The crystal change and “excess heat” production by long time electrolysis of heavy water with titanium cathode due to deuterium atom entering the lattice of titanium. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Yue, S.
All Authors: Yue, S., Qingfu, Z., Qingquan, G.
Keywords: Ti, D2O, electrolysis, heat

4381. Yuhara, T. and H. Futami, Method for Identifying Nuclides that Can be Produced in Cold Nuclear Fusion. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 135.

First Author: Yuhara, T.
All Authors: Yuhara, T., Futami, H.
Keywords: theory, transmutation

4382. Yuki, H., et al. Reaction rates of the D+D reaction in metal at very low energies. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Yuki, H.
All Authors: Yuki, H., Satoh, T., Ohtsuki, T., Aoki, T., Yamazaki, H., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: theory screening, ICCF-6

4383. Yuki, H., T. Satoh, and T. Ohtsuki, D + D reaction in metal at bombarding energies below 5 keV. J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys., 1997(23): p. 1459-1464.

First Author: Yuki, H.
All Authors: Yuki, H., Satoh, T., Ohtsuki, T.
Keywords: ion bombardment, titanium, D2 ion implantation, theory

Abstract. In order to study the electron screening effect on low-energy nuclear reactions in metals, the D + D reaction in Ti and Yb was investigated. Yields of protons emitted in the D(d, p)T reactions from the deuteron bombardment of Ti and Yb thick targets with bombarding energies between 2.5 and 7.2 keV were measured. The obtained yields were compared with those predicted by using the parametrization of cross sections at higher energies. It was found that the reaction rates in metals are enhanced over those of the bare nuclei for Ed < 5 keV, and the enhancement can be interpreted as caused by the electron screening. The electron screening potentials in Ti and Yb are deduced to be 19 Ѡ12 eV and 81 Ѡ10 eV, respectively.

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4384. Yuki, H., et al., Measurement of the D(d,p) reaction in Ti for 2.5 < Ed < 6.5 keV and electron screening in metal. J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1997. 66: p. 73.

First Author: Yuki, H.
All Authors: Yuki, H., Sato, T., Ohtsuki, T., Yorita, T., Aoki, Y., Yamazaki, H., Kasagi, J., Ishii, K.
Keywords: ion bombardment, titanium, D2 ion implantation, theory

In order to study the electron screening effect on low-energy nuclear reactions in metals, the D+D reaction in Ti was investigated. Measured were thick target yields of protons emitted in the D(d, p)T reaction from the bombardment of Ti metal with deuteron energies between 2.5 and 6.5 keV. The obtained yields were compared with those predicted by using the parameterization of cross sections at higher energies. It was found that the reaction rates in Ti are slightly enhanced over those of the bare D+D reaction for Ed < 4.3 keV, and the enhancement can be interpreted as caused by the electron screening. The electron screening potential in Ti is deduced for the first time to be 19 Ѡ12 eV.

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4385. Yuki, H., Anomalous enhancement of DD reaction in Pd and Au/Pd/PdO heterostructure targets under low-energy deuteron bombardment. JETP Lett., 1998. 68(11).

First Author: Yuki, H.
All Authors: Yuki, H.
Keywords: ion bombardment, titanium, D2 ion implantation, theory

Yields of protons emitted in the D + D reaction in Pd, Au/Pd/PdO, Ti, and Au foils are measured by a dE-E counter telescope for bombarding energies between 2.5 and 10 keV. The experimental yields are compared with those predicted from a parametrization of the cross section and stopping power at higher energies. It is found that for Ti and Au target the enhancement of the D(d,p)T reaction is similar to that observed with a deuterium gas target (several tens of eV). The dependence of the yields on the bombarding energy corresponds well to the screening potential parameters Ux=250ѱ5 eV for Pd and 601Ѳ3 eV for Au/Pd/PdO. Possible models of the enhancement obtained are discussed.

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4386. Yun, K.S., et al., Calorimetric observation of heat production during electrolysis of 0.1 M LiOD + D2O solution. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 306: p. 279.

First Author: Yun, K. S.
All Authors: Yun, K. S., Ju, J. B., Cho, B. W., Cho, W. I., Park, S. Y.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat+

4387. Yurichev, I.A. and E.G. Ponyatovsky, Isomorphic Transitions and Critical Phenomena in F.C.C. Metals Under Hydrogen Pressure. Phys. Stat. Sol. A, 1980. 58: p. 57.

First Author: Yurichev, I. A.
All Authors: Yurichev, I. A., Ponyatovsky, E. G.
Keywords: Pd, nickel hydrogen Phase Diagram, thermodynamic

4388. Zahm, L.L., et al., Experimental Investigations of the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd and Pt Electrodes. 1989.

First Author: Zahm, L. L.
All Authors: Zahm, L. L., Klein, A. C., Binney, S. E., Reyes, J. N., Higginbotham, J. F., Robinson, A. H., Daniels, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+

4389. Zahm, L.L., et al., Experimental investigations of the electrolysis of D2O using palladium cathodes and platinum anodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 281: p. 313.

First Author: Zahm, L. L.
All Authors: Zahm, L. L., Klein, A. C., Binney, S. E., Reyes, J. N., Higginbotham, J. F., Robinson, A. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, gamma emission, tritium

4390. Zak, J., Low-temperature fusion of light nuclei in the Fleischmann-Pons reaction. Inz. Aparat. Chem., 1989. 28(5): p. (in Polish).

First Author: Zak, J.
All Authors: Zak, J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat

4391. Zakharova, V.P. and G.A. Kotel’nikov, To the question of cold nuclear fusion. Atom. Tekh. za Rubez., 1989. 9: p. 28 (in Russian).

First Author: Zakharova, V. P.
All Authors: Zakharova, V. P., Kotel’nikov, G. A.
Keywords: history

4392. Zakowicz, W. and J. Rafelski. Coupled Channel Model for Ultra-Low Energy Deuteron-Deuteron Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Zakowicz, W.
All Authors: Zakowicz, W., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: theory

4393. Zakowicz, W., Possible resonant mechanism of cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 170.

First Author: Zakowicz, W.
All Authors: Zakowicz, W.
Keywords: theory, resonance

4394. Zaromb, S., The Latest Environmental Contributions of John O’Mara Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Zaromb, S.
All Authors: Zaromb, S.
Keywords: Catalysts for methanol synthesis, Converting captured CO2 to methanol, Methanol from natural gas, Methanol synthesis, reactor, Syngas by steam reforming

While widely acknowledged as the father of the Hydrogen Economy and worthy to be dubbed as grandfather of the Methanol Economy, John O’Mara Bockris (JOMB) continued to inspire important environmental advances to the end of his most creative life. His co-invention of what may turn out to be a ground-breaking US Patent 8,413,420 helps to open the way to capturing CO2 from automotive exhausts and its conversion to recyclable methanol fuel, thereby greatly reducing and possibly even reversing global warming. Most recently, in a letter dated shortly before his death, published herein as the Appendix, JOMB pointed to inexpensive mass production of methanol from natural gas via the syngas route which may lead to the displacement of gasoline by methanol as the main automotive fuel and to major reductions in global CO2 emissions.

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4395. Zawodny, J., Method for Producing Heavy Electrons, Patent US 2011/0255645 Al. 2011, NASA.

First Author: Zawodny, J.
All Authors: Zawodny, J.
Keywords:

A method for producing heavy electrons is based on a material system that includes an electrically-conductive material is selected. The material system has a resonant frequency associated therewith for a given operational environment. A structure is formed that includes a non-electrically-conductive material and the material system. The structure incorporates the electrically-conductive material at least at a surface thereof. The geometry of the structure supports propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a selected frequency that is approximately equal to the resonant frequency of the material system. As a result, heavy electrons are produced at the electrically-conductive material as the surface plasmon polaritons propagate along the structure.Patent Assignee: NASA

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4396. Zelenskii, V.F., et al., Experimental investigation of cold D-D-fusion by ion implantation. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990(1): p. 91 (in Russian).

First Author: Zelenskii, V. F.
All Authors: Zelenskii, V. F., Bozhko, V. P., Golovnya, V. Ya., Oleinik, S. N.
Keywords: ion implantation, Pd, nickel, titanium, neutron, gamma emission

4397. Zelenskii, V.F., et al., Experiments on cold nuclear fusion in Pd and Ti saturated with deuterium by ion implantation. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1990. 52(1): p. 65 (in Russian).

First Author: Zelenskii, V. F.
All Authors: Zelenskii, V. F., Rybalko, V. F., Morozov, A. N., Tolstolutskaya, G. D., Kulish, V. G., Pistryak, S. V., Martynov, I. S.
Keywords: Pd titanium, ion implantation, D2, neutron, particle emission, fractofusion

4398. Zelenskii, V.F. and V.F. Rybalko, Studies of neutron emission by mechanical destruction of Ti and Pd samples, saturated with deuterium. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1991. 2(56): p. 46 (In Russian).

First Author: Zelenskii, V. F.
All Authors: Zelenskii, V. F., Rybalko, V. F.
Keywords: titanium, TiD, neutron, fractofusion

4399. Zelenskii, V.F., et al., Preliminary results of the second series of experiments on cold fusion. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Fiz. Radiats. Povr. Radiats. Materialoved., 1991. 2(56): p. 48 (In Russian).

First Author: Zelenskii, V. F.
All Authors: Zelenskii, V. F., Rybalko, V. F., Morozov, A. N., Pistryak, S. V., Tolstolutskaya, G. D., Kulish, V. G.
Keywords: ion implanatation, Pd, Ti, D2, particle emission

4400. Zelensky, V.F., Fusion of Light Atomic Nuclei in Vacuum and in Solids and Two Ways of Mastering Nuclear Fusion Energy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 146-167.

First Author: Zelensky, V. F.
All Authors: Zelensky, V. F.
Keywords: Anomalous gamma-conversion, Chemonuclear fusion, Cold fusion

Two ways of mastering nuclear fusion energy, viz., controlled thermonuclear fusion and cold fusion, are considered. This paper deals with the intensive cold fusion model, hereinafter referred to as the chemonuclear fusion hypothesis. The determining role of virtual photons and electrons of anomalous internal gamma-conversion in cold fusion is shown. The chemonuclear fusion hypothesis for the 2D-, HD- and (7Li-1H)gas-transition metal systems provides an explanation of cold fusion. It is demonstrated that this hypothesis can serve as a base for the development of cold fusion reactors.

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4401. Zelensky, V.F., et al., Experimental Device of Cold HD-Fusion Energy Development and Testing (Verification Experiment). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 168-178.

First Author: Zelensky, V. F.
All Authors: Zelensky, V. F., Gamov, V. O., Ulybkin, A. L., Virich, V. D.
Keywords: Anomalous gamma-conversion, Chemonuclear fusion, Cold fusion

The work is devoted to experimental check of the intensive cold fusion model (the chemonuclear fusion scenario) developed. For experiments, the experimental device of cold fusion energy in HD-nickel system has been made. To create an “active pseudocomposite” layer (offered in V.F. Zelensky, The Int. Conf. on Cold Fusion-20. Japan, 2016) on the electrode surface, an operating procedure has been developed for processing nickel electrodes of the energy generator. All the phenomena expected in the chemonuclear fusion scenario were observed in the “verification experiment” (except gamma-radiation caused by the bineutron-nickel nucleus interaction). The conclusion is drawn that the chemonuclear fusion scenario successfully explains the process of intensive cold fusion in three fusion systems (2D-, HD- and (7Li-1H)gas-transitive metal), and thus, can form the basis for the development of cold fusion reactors.

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4402. Zelentsov, V.V., New but well forgotten [matters]. Koord. Khim., 1989. 19: p. 1296 (in Russian).

First Author: Zelentsov, V. V.
All Authors: Zelentsov, V. V.
Keywords: review

4403. Zhang, Z.-L., et al. Calorimetric Observation Combined with the Detection of Particle Emissions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Yan, B. Z., Wang, M. G., Gu, J., Tan, F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, tritium, electrolysis

4404. Zhang, J.S., The estimation of the difference between d(n,n)3He and d(d,p)T cross sections in the cold fusion. Commun. Theor. Phys. (China), 1991. 16: p. 439.

First Author: Zhang, J. S.
All Authors: Zhang, J. S.
Keywords: theory

4405. Zhang, Q.F., et al. The Detection of 4-He in Ti-Cathode on Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Zhang, Q. F.
All Authors: Zhang, Q. F., Gou, Q. Q., Zhu, Z. H., Xio, B. L., Lou, J. M., Liu, F. S., S., J. X., Ning, Y. G., Xie, H., Wang, Z. G.
Keywords: titanium, D2O, heat+, Helium electrolysis ICCF-3

The Ti- cathode has been examined after electrolysis with remarkable phenomenon of “excess heat” by SIMS. The special mass peak of 4 amu in SIMS spectra of Ti- cathode has been detected by a series of experiments. It’s concluded that the mass peak of 4 amu is the mass peak of 4He in Ti-Cathode produced in cold fusion.To avoid interference of Dz and HzD with 4He in SIMS spectra , the negative SIMS spectra are used in the detection of 4He.

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4406. Zhang, X., et al. On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Zhang, X.
All Authors: Zhang, X., Zhang, W.-S., Wang, D., Chen, S., Fu, Y., Fan, D., Chen, W.
Keywords: explosion, Pd, D2O, ICCF-3

An explosion in a D/Pd electrolytic system is analyzed; it is not a chemical explosion but a cold fusion reaction. A possible mechanism of cold fusion is presented.

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4407. Zhang, Z.-L. and S.I. Liu. Thermodynamic Theory of Cold Nuclear Fusion (C.N.F.). in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Liu, S. I.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

A new discipline known as solid-state theory of thermodynamics has been established in the period (1979-1991) by Shu-I Lui. . . . .

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4408. Zhang, W.X., Possibility of phase transitions inducing cold fusion in palladium/deuterium systems. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 82.

First Author: Zhang, W. X.
All Authors: Zhang, W. X.
Keywords: theory, phase change

4409. Zhang, Q.Q., et al. The Excess Heat Experiments on Cold Fusion in a Titanium Lattice. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Zhang, Q. Q.
All Authors: Zhang, Q. Q., Gou, Z., Zhu, J., Lou, F., Liu, J. S., Miao, B., Ye, A., Cheng, S.
Keywords: titanium, D2O heat+, surface analysis, structure, electrolysis ICCF-4

4410. Zhang, F.X. and S.X. Jin, Effect of electron screening and ionic correlation on the fusion rate of deuterium in Pd/D system. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1993. 38(9): p. 718.

First Author: Zhang, F. X.
All Authors: Zhang, F. X., Jin, S. X.
Keywords: Theory, plasma

4411. Zhang, Q., et al., The excess heat experiments on cold fusion in titanium lattice. Chin. J. At. Mol. Phys., 1995. 12(2): p. 165.

First Author: Zhang, Q.
All Authors: Zhang, Q., Gou, Q., Zhu, Z., Luo, J., Liu, F., Sun, J., Miao, B., Ye, A., Cheng, X.
Keywords: electrolysis titanium, D2O, heat+

4412. Zhang, Z.-L., et al., Precision calorimetric studies of H2O electrolysis. J. Thermal Anal., 1995. 45: p. 99.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Sun, X., Zhou, W., Zhang, L., Li, B., Wang, M., Yan, B. Z., Tan, F.
Keywords: Pd, heat, H2O

4413. Zhang, Q., et al., The relationship of crystal structure transition of Ti-cathode and ‘excess heat’ on cold fusion. Chin. J. At. Mol. Phys., 1996. 13(3): p. 257 (in Chinese).

First Author: Zhang, Q.
All Authors: Zhang, Q., Gou, Q., Zhu, Z., Liu, F., Luo, J., Sun, Y.
Keywords: theory phase transition Ti, heat

4414. Zhang, Z., et al., Calorimetric studies on the electrorefining process of copper. J. Thermal Anal., 1997. 50: p. 89.

First Author: Zhang, Z.
All Authors: Zhang, Z., Liu, F., Liu, M., Wang, Z., Zhong, F., Wu, F.
Keywords: heat+, Cu, co-deposition, D2O

4415. Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and H.Q. Li, The maximum hydrogen (deuterium) loading ratio in the Pd|H2O(D2O) electrochemical system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1997. 434: p. 31.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, X.-W., Li, H. Q.
Keywords: theory, loading, OCV, electrolysis

Based on the Volmer-Heyrovsky-Tafel mechanism, Frumkin adsorption and thermodynamic data of hydrogen (deuterium) absorption in Pd, effects of surface parameters on the hydrogen deuterium) loading ratio into Pd in the hydrogen (deuterium) evolution reaction are discussed. There is a change of mechanism from the Volmer-Tafel route to the Volmer-Heyrovsky route when the current density rises, and there exists the maximum loading ratio at a certain current density when the symmetry factor of the Heyrovsky step is less than that of the Volmer reaction. The theoretical results fit the experimental data presented before very well; other factors that affect the loading ratio are discussed as well.

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4416. Zhang, Q., et al., The experimental study on the ‘excess heat’ for deuteron absorbed in the lattice of titanium. Chin. J. At. Mol. Phys., 1998. 15: p. 210 (In Chinese).

First Author: Zhang, Q.
All Authors: Zhang, Q., Liu, F., Sun, Y., Cheng, L., Zhou, X., Cheng, X.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, D2O

4417. Zhang, W.-S. and X.-W. Zhang, A numerical approach to the voltammograms of a thick plate Pd|H electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 445.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: loading

The kinetics of H sorption in a thick plate Pd|H electrode in cyclic voltammetry (CV) are studied by numerical methods and the effects of various parameters on the peak potential, peak current and hydrogen concentration are discussed. We find that the hydrogen concentration in PdHx is much less than the equilibrium value and give a simple criterion for the existence of phases occurring during CV. The voltammetric electro-sorption of H into Pd and electro-desorption of H from Pd are controlled by the adsorption of H on Pd and diffusion of H in Pd, respectively. By comparison with the previous experimental results, it is concluded that there are two sorts of adsorption, strong and weak playing key roles in H absorption into Pd at anodic and cathodic overpotentials (vs. RHE), respectively.

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4418. Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and X.G. Zhao, Voltammograms of thin layer Pd/H(D) electrodes in the coexistence of a and ß phases. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 458: p. 107.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, X.-W., Zhao, X. G
Keywords: PdH, PdD, phase diagram, OCV

The kinetics of a thin layer Pd H(D) electrode at the coexistence of α and β phases in cyclic voltammetry are studied and the effects of various parameters are discussed. It is found that the voltammogram of the α ↔ β phase transition is trigonal in shape which differs significantly from those for diffusion and adsorption. The kinetic characteristics of the α + β mixed region are controlled by the deviation of parameters from the thermodynamic values. These results indicate that cyclic voltammetry can be used for studying the kinetics of phase transition occurring in a layer electrode. The present treatment is verified by comparison with the previous experimental results.

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4419. Zhang, Q.F., et al., Research of calorimeter of water electrolysis open system. Sichuan Lianhe Daxue Xuebao, Gongcheng Kexueban (J. Sichuan Union Univ., Eng. Sci. Ed.), 1999. 3(5): p. 33 [in Chinese].

First Author: Zhang, Q. F.
All Authors: Zhang, Q. F., Kiu, F. S., Sun, Y., Chen, L. C., Yang, Q. D.
Keywords: heat, critique, Fleischmann

4420. Zhang, Z. and Z. Z., A probable theoretical model on deuterion-deuterion two-body tight bound states. Nucl. Phys. Rev. (China), 1999. 16: p. 95 [in Chinese].

First Author: Zhang, Z.
All Authors: Zhang, Z., Z., Zhang.
Keywords: Theory

4421. Zhang, W.-S. and Z.-L. Zhang, Effects of self-stress on the hydrogen absorption into palladium hydride electrodes of plate form under galvanostatic conditions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1999. 474.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: loading

Effects of diffusion induced stress on the hydrogen absorption into plate form electrodes of β-phase PdHx are discussed numerically based on the Volmer-Tafel route of the hydrogen evolution reaction, and thermodynamic considerations involving stress fields and non-ideal interactions of hydrogen in the electrode. It is found that the self-induced stresses enhance the absorption rate and may exceed the yield stress, especially when the thickness of the plate and/or charging current (or negative potential) increase. On the other hand, a plate with both sides exposed to electrolyte absorbs hydrogen more rapidly than that with only one side exposed to electrolyte under the same equivalent thickness and other conditions. Of course, the stresses developed in the former plate are always greater than those of the latter.

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4422. Zhang, W.-S., et al., Numerical simulation of hydrogen (deuterium) absorption into &#946;-phase hydride (deuteride) palladium electrodes under galvanostatic conditions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1999. 474.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, X.-W., Wu, F.
Keywords: loading

The kinetics of H(D) absorption into a β-phase PdHx (PdDx) electrode are discussed numerically, based on the Volmer-Tafel route of the hydrogen (deuterium) evolution reaction and thermodynamic and kinetic data of H(D) in the b-phase PdHx (PdDx). It is found that the asymptotic loading ratio of H(D) is determined only by the Tafel step under galvanostatic conditions. The kinetics of H(D) absorption can be characterised by a parameter  . . .

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4423. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang. Effects of Temperature on Loading Ratios of Hydrogen (Deuterium) in Palladium Cathodes under the Galvanostatic Conditions. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, overvoltage, pressure, theory, ICCF-8

On the basis of the thermokinetics of the hydrogen (deuterium) evolution reaction and the thermodynamics of Pd+H(D) system, we analytically and numerically discuss effects of temperature on the loading ratio of hydrogen (deuterium) absorption into electrodes of β-phase PdHx (PdDx) under the galvanostatic charging condition. It is found that the change of the loading ratio with temperature depends on the absorption enthalpy, adsorption enthalpy and apparent activation energy of the exchange current density of the Tafel reaction. Our theoretical predictions fit the available experimental results well.

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4424. Zhang, Z.-L., et al. Measurements of Excess Heat in the Open Pd/D2O Electrolytic System by the Calvet Calorimetry. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, W.-S., Zhong, M. H., Tan, F.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-8

Excess heat was observed in the Pd|D2O electrolytic system using a Calvet type microcalorimeter. It was found that the average excess power was 0.025 W over 79 hours period. This result corresponds to a volume excess power of 8.75 W /cm^3 Pd or a surface excess power of 0.044 W /cm^2 Pd, and a specific excess heat of 2.48 MJ/cm^3 Pd or 228 eV/atom Pd. The current density and D/Pd ratio for excess power production were lower than the recognized ‘threshold’ values 100-150 mA/cm^2 and 0.83-0.92 D/Pd, this indicates that the critical requirement for reproduction of the anomalous heat can be ‘cut down’ using high sensitivity calorimetry. By comparison with that of the Pd/D2O system, no anomalous excess heat was measured in the Pd/H2O electrolytic system within the experimental uncertainty.

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4425. Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang, Effects of self-induced stress on the steady concentration distribution of hydrogen in fcc metallic membranes during hydrogen diffusion. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 2000. 62.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, X.-W., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: loading

Based on the thermodynamics involving the lattice expansion due to hydrogen insertion, the interaction between hydrogen atoms and the blocking effect in hydrogen diffusion, we discuss the profiles of hydrogen concentration and self-induced stress, and their interaction in the steady state during hydrogen diffusion across elastic membranes of fcc metals or alloys. Contrary to the conventional viewpoint, it is found that the selfinduced stress suppresses the departure of the concentration distribution from the linearity. The residual stress profile depends on the phase of metal-hydrogen system. However, the diffusion flux is independent of the existence and magnitude of self-stress; this conclusion means that the conventional steady-state method for measurement of the diffusion coefficient can be applied experimentally even while the self-stress effect is significant. Finally, although these results are obtained from the fcc metal-hydrogen system, our conclusions can be extended to the diffusion problem of other interstitials in solid samples.

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4426. Zhang, W.-S. and Z.-L. Zhang, Steady concentration distribution of hydrogen in elastic membranes during hydrogen diffusion. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2000. 302.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: loading

A critical discussion on non-linear steady-state concentration profiles for hydrogen diffusion in elastic metallic membranes, proposed by other authors, is provided based on mathematical analysis and numerical simulation. It is shown that the non-linear distribution is non-existent and the linear form is the only solution for the ideal solid solution phase.

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4427. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang, Effects of temperature on hydrogen absorption into palladium hydride electrodes in the hydrogen evolution reaction. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2000. 481.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: loading

On the basis of the thermokinetics of the hydrogen (deuterium) evolution reaction and the thermodynamics of Pd+H(D) system, we analytically and numerically discuss effects of temperature on the loading ratio of hydrogen (deuterium) absorption into electrodes of β-phase PdHx (PdDx) under the galvanostatic charging condition. It is found that the change of the loading ratio with temperature depends on the absorption enthalpy, adsorption enthalpy and apparent activation energy of the exchange current density of the Tafel reaction. Our theoretical predictions fit the available experimental results well.

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4428. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang. Electrochemical effects on the resistance measurements of Pd/H electrode. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-F., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, resistivity, PdH

Additional resistances contributed to that of PdHx electrode in an electrolyte using the direct current method are calculated. It is found that an electrode with a large ratio of length to radius, an active surface, a surrounding electrolyte with high conductance and high electrolysis current will induce substantial additional resistances.

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4429. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang. Primary calorimetric results on closed Pd/D2O electrolysis systems by calvet calorimetry. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-F., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, seebeck, electrolysis, LiOD

Anomalous heat absorption was observed in a closed Pd|D2O electrolysis system by Calvet calorimetry. The average excess power was ~ 14.6 mW over 105 hours period, which corresponds to a volume excess power of ~ 10.3 W/cm^3 Pd and heat absorption of 3.81 MJ/cm^3 Pd or 350 eV/atom Pd.

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4430. Zhang, Z.-L. and W.-S. Zhang. Possibility of electron capture by deuteron. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: theory, dineutron, deuteron, electron capture, transmutation

In this work, the results about deuteron capturing electron are obtained from some calculation according to the experimental data presented in “NUCLEAR WALLET CARDS”. The half-life of such electron capture decay is about 1.04 × 10^11 y, which is almost as same as t1/2 =1.28 × 10^9 year of K^40, the t1/2 = 1.3 × 10^13 year of Te^123 and t1/2 =1.4 × 10^17 year of V50 shown in that “CARDS”. The mass defect of this process is 6.694207691 × 10^-5 u. . . .

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4431. Zhang, Z.-L., W.-S. Zhang, and Z.-Q. Zhang. Further study on the solution of Schrodinger equation of hydrogen-like atom. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-L.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-Q.
Keywords: theory, schrodinger

In this work the Schrodinger equation of the hydrogen-like atom is analytically solved. Three sets of analytical solution are obtained if the factor r-l is not neglected. The first solution is the same as the traditional radial wave function; another one diverges; the last one is far different from the traditional solution. On the consideration of the finite size of the nucleus, the third wave function does not diverge while r approaches to zero. Its radial wave function has below characteristics: (1) the angular-momentum quantum number l must be greater than the principal quantum number n; (2) l must not be 0 or 1; (3) the electron-cloud distribution differs from the traditional one; (4) the electron is closer to the nucleus by comparison with that in traditional results. On the other hand, the validity of solutions needs to be verified experimentally.

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4432. Zhang, Z.-Q., Z.-L. Zhang, and W.-S. Zhang. Are there some loose bound states of nucleus-nucleus two-body system? in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Zhang, Z.-Q.
All Authors: Zhang, Z.-Q., Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: theory, schrodinger, bound states

We obtain the possible solutions of the stable Schrodinger equation with Coulomb barrier and square well potential induced by nuclear force for a two nuclei system. The wave functions, energy eigenvalues and the existence condition of the possible loose bound states of this system are given. The binding energy is few keV for ground states of some light nuclei here.

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4433. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang, Effects of self-induced stress in tubular membranes during hydrogen diffusion. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2002. 336.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L., Zhang, X.-W.
Keywords: loading

Various effects induced by self-stress during hydrogen diffusion across metallic tabular membranes are discussed. The up-hill diffusion in the initial time of permeation, the time course of inner pressure change, the steady distributions of hydrogen concentration and residual stress in membranes, and the acceleration of permeation rate on interruption of hydrogen charging are properly interpreted.

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4434. Zhang, W.-S. and Z.-L. Zhang, Effects of hydrogen self-stress in thin circular-plates with clamped edges. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2002. 346.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: loading

A description of self-stress produced by hydrogen absorption into thin metallic circular-plates with clamped edges is presented. The plate deflects when the average hydrogen content exceeds a critical value, which depends mainly on the size of the plate, if no external load is applied; the plate distortion exhibits bistable characteristics, i.e. the deflection direction may be either upward or downward. On the other hand, a plate deflects prior to hydrogen insertion while an external force is imposed on it. The self-stresses and their effects on the solubility and diffusivity of hydrogen in plates are discussed as well.

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4435. Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang, Some problems on the resistance method in the in situ measurement of hydrogen content in palladium electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2002. 528.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, Z.-F., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: loading

Some problems on the resistance method in determining the hydrogen content in PdHx electrodes are discussed. First, the resistivity ratio of PdHx, the temperature coefficient of resistivity and the resistance of PdHx, and the resistance of Pd  having undergone hydriding-dehydriding cycles are discussed. It is found that the resistivity ratio is somewhat higher than the resistance ratio with the same x value and their difference depends on the internal stress-state arising from hydrogen insertion. Another fact that has been omitted in past work is that the temperature coefficients of PdHx resistance and resistivity increase while x > 0.7. The Pd resistance decreases with hydriding-dehydriding cycle number due to the shape deformation of the electrode, which occurs. . . .

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4436. Zhang, W.-S., Effects of electrochemical reaction and self-stress on hydrogen diffusion in tubular membranes during galvanostatic charging. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2003. 256-357.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: loading

Based on theories of hydrogen electrode reactions at the palladium surface and self-stresses of hydrogen in thin tubular shells established earlier, we numerically calculate transport properties of hydrogen across a tubular membrane under galvanostatic charging conditions. It is found that the exited hydrogen flux is much less than the charging current since the hydrogen combination reaction takes place at the outer surface. On the other hand, the overall system is in an unstable state after a long time charging; this makes the determination of hydrogen diffusivity difficult in experiments. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data obtained before.

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4437. Zhang, W.-S., et al., Effects of reaction heat and self-stress on the transport of hydrogen through metallic tubes under conditions far from equilibrium. Acta Mater., 2004.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Hou, M.-Q., Wang, H.-Y., Fu, Y. B.
Keywords: loading

A thermokinetic model of hydrogen diffusion across a metallic tube is established. It includes the enthalpy change of the metal-hydrogen reaction, heat losses, dependences of reaction rate and hydrogen diffusion coefficient on temperature, and self-stress effects, etc. A phenomenon, the super fast diffusion of hydrogen before the up-hill diffusion and Fickian diffusion during hydrogen gas charging process, which has been found experimentally for 35 years, is presented by this model. Effects of pressures and other parameters are discussed.

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4438. Zhang, W.-S., et al., Numerical simulation of diffusivity of hydrogen in thin tubular metallic membranes affected by self-stresses. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2004. 29.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Hou, M.-Q., Wang, H.-Y., Fu, Y.
Keywords: loading

Based on the self-stress theory for hydrogen in thin tubular shells, we numerically calculate apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of hydrogen in membranes obtained from the time-lag and half-rise methods under chemopotential- and flux-step boundary conditions. It is found that ADCs differ from the diffusion coefficient under stress-free conditions when either the initial concentration or the chemopotential-step (or flux-step) is taken to be a nonzero value. At the same time, effects of other parameters on values of ADC are discussed as well. The theoretical results are qualitatively consistent with the available experimental data. Our results indicate that a small current will give the minimum error in determining the diffusion coefficient while the initial hydrogen content is nonzero.

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4439. Zhang, W.-S., Resistance shifts of a Pd|H electrode in measurement and electrolysis with direct currents. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2004. 571.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: loading

Some mistakes in the paper published in the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 528 (2002) 1 are corrected. The resistance changes of a Pd|H electrode caused by the co-conduction of the electrolyte, the concentration-cell effect and collection of electrolysis current in the in situ resistance measurement using direct currents are calculated analytically. Some advice is given for resistance measurements.

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4440. Zhang, W.-S., J. Dash, and Q. Wang. Seebeck Envelope Calorimetry With A Pd/D2O+H2SO4 Electrolytic Cell. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Dash, J., Wang, Q.
Keywords: Excess heat, Ti

Anomalous excess heat in Pd/D2O+H2SO4 electrolytic cells was confirmed using an accurate method of heat measurement, Seebeck Envelope Calorimetry. A cell was placed in the calorimeter, which measures the output heat flux directly and avoids many of the problems other methods have. The maximum excess power thus far was 1.3 W (or 11 W cm^-3) with input power of 13 W at a current density of 0.4 A cm^-2. Calibrations were carried out before and after electrolysis experiments using a Pt/H2O+H2SO4 electrolytic cell, a dummy cell with inner resistor, or a pure resistor. Different calibrations gave consistent device constants within experimental error. Pd cathodes were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry. Unexpected elements were observed on the sample surface after electrolysis.

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4441. Zhang, W.-S. and J. Dash. Excess Heat Reproducibility And Evidence Of Anomalous Elements After Electrolysis In Pd/D2O+H2SO4 Electrolytic Cells. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Dash, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Electrolyte temperature is a key factor in excess heat production using Pd|D2O+H2SO4 electrolytic cells. Best results are obtained when the electrolyte temperature is close to the boiling point. Stable excess heat is generated by events on or near the Pd cathode surface. In addition to the stable excess heat, heat bursts are sometimes observed. These occurred most frequently in experiments using 2 mm diameter tubes for the cathodes. Excess heat measured by isoperibolic calorimetry is directly verified by Seebeck envelope calorimetry. Experiments with D2 SO4 replacing H2SO4 in heavy water electrolyte showed that there was no affect on excess heat production. After electrolysis, localized concentrations of silver were found on Pd cathode surfaces. Three characteristic surface features, (1) craters with rims containing electroplated Pt; (2) cracks in the sample; and (3) palladium regions around the cathode edges are preferred locations for the occurrence of silver.

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4442. Zhang, W.-S., J. Dash, and Z.-L. Zhang. Construction of a Seebeck Envelope Calorimeter and Reproducibility of Excess Heat. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Dash, J., Zhang, Z.-L.
Keywords: Calorimetry heat

A heat-flow calorimeter was designed and built. Its measurements are 26 cm × 26 cm × 26 cm (17.6 dm3 ).18,796 thermocouples are used to measure the heat-flow from the vessel walls to the outer walls, for which temperature is controlled within 0.01у from 0 to 100у by a refrigerating/heating circulator. Homogeneity of temperature in the measuring vessel is improved by a fan with constant power. The calibration was performed with an electric heater, with input power up to 50 W. The device constant is 5.8954 Ѡ0.0025 W V-1; the time constant is 501.7 Ѡ3.2 s; the uncertainty is 0.6% at 2 W to 0.06% at 50 W. Nonlinearity of this calorimeter is analyzed. The calorimeter can be utilized for studies of kinetics and thermodynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems of decimeter-size. A Sony 26650 Li-ion rechargeable battery was tested with this device during charging and discharging, and an electrolytic cell with Pd-D2O was also tested with this device.

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4443. Zhang, W.-S. Characteristics of excess heat in DPd|D2O+D2SO4 electrolytic cells measured by electrolytic Seebeck Envelope Calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: Excess heat

Pre-electrolysis at the boiling point in open Pd|D2O cells is an effective method to activate a palladium cathode, which can produce excess power in subsequent electrolysis in closed systems for several months. The reproducibility is 23/45. Another characteristic of excess heat is the apparent resistance of electrolytic cell changes irreversibly with temperature.

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4444. Zhang, W.-S. Characteristics of excess heat in DPd|D2O+D2SO4 electrolytic cells measured by electrolytic Seebeck Envelope Calorimetry. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: Excess heat

1. Introduction * What are key factors for reproducibility of excess heat? * (1) Temperature increment delta T * (2) Pre-electrolysis

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4445. Zhang, W.-S., Paradigm of Cold Fusion: A Perspective on Scientific Philosophy. Infinite Energy, 2009.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: review

Technical differences between cold fusion and hot fusion, and scientific distinctions between low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and classical nuclear reactions, are presented. It is pointed out that LENR is realized through interactions of multi-scale coupling; it is characterized by nonlinearity, non-equilibrium and complexity. The techniques of cold fusion are small-scale, distributed and flexible. All of these characteristics are consistent with trends of contemporary science and technology, whereas hot fusion departs from these tendencies.

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4446. Zhang, W.-S. Characteristics of Excess Heat in Pd|D2O+D2SO4 Electrolytic Cells Measured by Seebeck Envelope Calorimetry. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords:

Pre-electrolysis at the boiling point in open Pd|D2O cells is an effective method to activate a palladium cathode, which can produce excess power in subsequent electrolysis in closed systems for several months. The reproducibility is 23/45. Another characteristic of excess heat is the apparent resistance of electrolytic cell changes irreversibly with temperature.

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4447. Zhang, W.-S., Construction, calibration and testing of a decimeter-size heat-flow calorimeter. Thermochim. Acta, 2010(499).

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

A Seebeck Envelope Calorimeter (SEC) was designed and built. The inner volume is 17.6 L. Its outer wall temperature was controlled within 0.01у. The device constant was 6 W/V and its time constant was 5 minutes. Dash-type cells were tested. Both an isoperibolic calorimeter and the SEC measured excess heat with the same Pd cathode of 25 × 25 × 0.3 mm3. The SEC showed excess heat ranging from 0.15 Ѡ0.02 to 0.41 Ѡ0.03 W (average value 0.22 W) at applied current of 3 to 3.5 A (0.24 to 0.28 A cm^-2).

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4448. Zhang, W.-S., Experimental studies on condensed matter nuclear science (in Chinese). Science (Shanghai), 2010. 62(5): p. 20-25.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S.
Keywords: review

In Chinese. A review of results since 1989. The field, known as condensed matter nuclear science, has grown to encompass nuclear transmutations, nuclear reaction cross section increases, and other anomalies.

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4449. Zhang, W.-S., et al., Thermal Analysis of Explosions in an Open Palladium/Deuterium Electrolytic System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Zhang, W.-S.
All Authors: Zhang, W.-S., Zhang, X.-W., Wang, D., Qin, J.-G., Fu, Y.
Keywords: Cold fusion, CMNS, Explosion, Pd/D electrolytic system, Pd tube, LENR

An explosion occurred in an open Pd/D electrolytic system at a low current density of 62 mA cm−2. The average power was greater than 6.7 W (65 W cm−3 Pd or 430% of input power), and the incubation time was less than half an hour before the explosion. Thermal analysis indicates that the power of the explosion was 5.1-5.5 kW (or 50-53 kW cm−3 Pd), and the event developed in 2-17 s. It is concluded that this explosion was most probably caused by low energy nuclear reactions taking place in the Pd tube cathode rather than by chemical reactions.

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4450. Zhang, H., Test of Abnormal Heat in Hydrogen Loaded Metal (in Chinese). 2016, LENR-CANR.org: Personal Communication.

First Author: Zhang, H.
All Authors: Zhang, H.
Keywords: Excess heat, nickel

This report describes the experimental replication of the significant abnormal exothermic phenomenon observed with the Rossi E-CAT apparatus.

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4451. Zhang, H., Test of Abnormal Heat in Hydrogen Loaded Metal (translation). 2016, LENR-CANR.org: Personal Communication.

First Author: Zhang, H.
All Authors: Zhang, H.
Keywords: Excess heat, nickel

This report describes the experimental replication of the significant abnormal exothermic phenomenon observed with the Rossi E-CAT apparatus.

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4452. Zhong, L.X. Searching for Truth With High Expectations- 5 Year Studies on Cold Fusion in China. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Zhong, L. X.
All Authors: Zhong, L. X.
Keywords: review, ICCF-4

4453. Zhou, X., X.Z. Li, and B. Liu. Bethe’s Calculation For Solar Energy And Selective Resonant Tunneling. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Zhou, X.
All Authors: Zhou, X., Li, X. Z., Liu, B.
Keywords: theory

The Selective Resonant tunneling model is compared with Bethe’s early model for the solar energy calculation. They are similar in considering the resonance effect, the weak interaction, and the assumption for nuclear potential and the Coulomb barrier in order to obtain the correct result for the energy density in the sun. However, the selectivity of resonant tunneling is new in the present selective resonant model.

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4454. Zhou, D., et al., Energetic Particles Generated in Earlier Pd + D Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Zhou, D.
All Authors: Zhou, D., Wang, C., Sun, Y., Liang, J. B., Zhu, G., Forsley, L., Li, X. Z., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: CR-39 detectors, Energy distributions, LENR particles, LET method, LET spectra

Energy of low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) is clean, cheap, sustainable and can solve all environmental problems. Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectrum method using CR-39 detectors is the best method to investigate particles generated in LENRs. This paper introduces LET method and presents LET spectra and energy distributions for particles produced in Pd + D reactions obtained by re-analyzing the original data measured with CR-39 detectors by SPAWAR group using LET spectrum method.

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4455. Zhu, S.B., J. Lee, and G.W. Robinson, Kinetic energy imbalance in inhomogeneous materials. Chem. Phys. Lett., 1989. 161: p. 249.

First Author: Zhu, S. B.
All Authors: Zhu, S. B., Lee, J., Robinson, G. W.
Keywords: theory

4456. Zhu, S.B., J. Lee, and G.W. Robinson, Non-Maxwell velocity distributions in inhomogeneous materials. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 465.

First Author: Zhu, S. B.
All Authors: Zhu, S. B., Lee, J., Robinson, G. W.
Keywords: theory

4457. Zhu, S.B., J. Lee, and G.W. Robinson, Nonlinear effects on thermonuclear reaction rates. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 144: p. 361.

First Author: Zhu, S. B.
All Authors: Zhu, S. B., Lee, J., Robinson, G. W.
Keywords: theory

4458. Zhu, R., et al., Measurement of neutron burst production in thermal cycle of D2 absorbed titanium chips. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 349.

First Author: Zhu, R.
All Authors: Zhu, R., Wang, X., Lu, F., Ding, D., He, J., Liu, H., Jiang, J., Chen, G., Yuan, Y., Yang, L., Chen, Z., Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

4459. Zhu, R., et al., Measurement of anomalous neutron from deuterium/solid system. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1991. 25: p. 84 (in Chinese).

First Author: Zhu, R.
All Authors: Zhu, R., Wang, X., Lu, F., Luo, L., He, J., Ding, D., Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: titanium, D2, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

4460. Zhu, S., et al., An investigation of cold fusion. Nucl. Techniques (China), 1993. 16(8): p. 475 (in Chinese).

First Author: Zhu, S.
All Authors: Zhu, S., Xiao, X., Lu, T., Chen, Q., Que, Z., Liu, J., Xie, H., Sha, R., Liu, F., Sun, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2, neutron

4461. Ziegler, J.F., et al., Electrochemical Experiments in Cold Nuclear Fusion. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 62(25): p. 2929.

First Author: Ziegler, J. F.
All Authors: Ziegler, J. F., Zabel, T. H., Cuomo, J. J., Brusic, V. A., Cargill, III, G. S., O’Sullivan, E. J., Marwick, A. D.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, particle emission, layer, electrolysis, x-ray diffraction

4462. Zimmermann, G.J., Internal Friction and Modulus Behaviour of Pd-H with H-Contents Up to n=0.9. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 49: p. 49.

First Author: Zimmermann, G. J.
All Authors: Zimmermann, G. J.
Keywords: Pd, H, Internal Friction, loading, PdH

4463. Zuqia, H., A possible explanation of the room temperature nuclear fusion. Beijing Shifan Daxue Xuebao. Ziran Kexueban, 1989. 2: p. 43.

First Author: Zuqia, H.
All Authors: Zuqia, H.
Keywords: theory

4464. Zywocinski, A., et al., Analysis for light atoms produced in the bulk phase of a tubular palladium/ silver alloy cathode working electrode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 319: p. 195.

First Author: Zywocinski, A.
All Authors: Zywocinski, A., Li, H. L., Tuinman, A. A., Campbell, P., Chambers, J. Q., Van Hook, W. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd-Ag helium tritium

4465. Zywocinski, A., et al., Calorimetric measurements during long-term electrolysis of some LiOD solutions. Thermochim. Acta, 1992. 197: p. 277.

First Author: Zywocinski, A.
All Authors: Zywocinski, A., Li, H. L., Campbell, P., Chambers, J. Q., Van Hook, W. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, He, tritium, heat-

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