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Ultradense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0) and their relation to ordinary Rydberg matter: a review
Leif Holmlid1 and Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen2
1 Atmospheric Science, Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Göteborg, Sweden
2 Norrønt AS, Vaterlandsveien 19, 3470 Slemmestad, Norway and Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland
Received 5 November 2018, revised 22 February 2019
Accepted for publication 22 March 2019
Published 24 April 2019
The extremely large density of ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) has been proved in numerous experiments by three laser-induced methods, namely Coulomb explosions observed by particle time-of-flight (TOF) and TOF mass spectrometry, rotational emission spectroscopy in the visible, and annihilation-like meson ejecting nuclear reaction processes. The density of H(0) at the quite common spin level s = 2 is of the order of 100 kg cm−3. The theory of ultra-dense
hydrogen H(0) is described briefly, especially the ‘mixed’ spin quantum number s and its relation to the internuclear distances. The orbital angular momentum of the bonding electrons in H(0) is l = 0, which gives the H(0) designation. At s = 2 with electron total angular momentum L = ħ, the internuclear distance is 2.24 pm, and at s = 1 thus L = ħ/2, it is as small as 0.56 pm. The internuclear distances are measured by optical rotational spectroscopy with a precision as good as 10−3, thus with femtometer resolution. The dimensional factor (ratio of internuclear distance
to the electron orbit radius) was determined to be 2.9 by electrostatic stability calculations for ordinary Rydberg matter. This value is found to be valid with high precision also for H(0) clusters with different shapes. Superfluidity and a Meissner effect at room temperature are only found for the long chain clusters H2N(0), while the small H3(0) and H4(0) clusters do not have any super properties. Instead, they are the clusters in which most of the nuclear reaction processes take place. These processes give meson showers (most types of kaons and pions) and, after meson decay, large fluxes of muons and other leptons. Published applications of these
results already exist in the field of nuclear reactions, energy production (patented fusion reactor), space physics (the solar wind), and in astrophysics (dark matter and the interstellar medium).
Supplementary material for this article is available online
Keywords: ultra-dense hydrogen, quantum material, cluster, mass spectrometry
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The research on ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) which has its most common internuclear distance at 2.3 pm in spin state s = 2, falls into several different fields. This means that it may be quite complex to combine the existing information on a certain aspect into a coherent understanding. For this reason, this review attempts to combine this information to make it understandable for example for chemical physicists, for whom the discovery of entirely new types of molecules (clusters) and
materials with never before imagined properties may be the most interesting (Holmlid 2013a, 2013b, 2017a, 2017b, Olafsson and Holmlid 2016). Especially the superfluidity and the Meissner effect at room temperature and at a few hundred
K above that are worth mentioning, since this is the first material found with super properties above room temperature (Andersson and Holmlid 2011, Andersson et al 2012, Holmlid and Fuelling 2015). The most useful formation process for ultra-dense hydrogen employs chemical catalysis, and one of the main fields of application is within particle physics. Other applications are within space physics (Holmlid 2018b), nuclear fusion (Holmlid 2017d, 2017e), hydrogen storage and
material characterization. The main theme may be considered to be in the field of cluster science but then in a very specialized range due to the extremely small physical size of the clusters studied: a 30-atom H(0) cluster normally has a size
less than an ordinary hydrogen atom bond, and the resolution in the bond lengths measured is in the femtometer range. Most of this research has been done by researchers at Gothenburg University, Sweden. It has been replicated and verified by researchers in Norway and Iceland. This research field is of great interest for future energy development in the world and a separate research project was initiated in Norway in 2015 to verify some of the results presented in this paper. The research group in Norway has built several H(0) reactors and have since 2016 detected and verified relativistic meson velocities <0.7c from ultra-dense deuterium, distance dependent meson decay from ultra-dense hydrogen clusters, muon spectra in PMTs, electricity from charged particles moving through coils, neutron detection from muon capture and muon catalyzed fusion, detection of multiparticle emission from hydrogen H(0) clusters, x-ray and microwave elimination studies.
A third research group from Iceland started construction of H(0) reactors in 2018 and they have by January 2019 replicated and verified relativistic velocities of 0.3c–0.9c from ultra-dense hydrogen. The present review paper is designed to connect the different subfields and to provide a guide for further research in this scientifically central field concerned with the forms of matter at the three different length scales.
The wider context of this review is the fundamental forms of matter at the three different length scales according to Hirsch (2012). The relation of these length scales through the fine structure constant α is extremely interesting, and ultra-dense hydrogen and ordinary Rydberg matter (RM) of hydrogen are the two smallest length scales with the superfluid and superconductive form at the largest length scale.
Thus, these condensed forms of hydrogen contain the physics of all the three different length scales of matter which has not been understood previously. The famous ‘zitterbewegung’ of the electrons due to Schrödinger gives clearly observable physical effects in ultra-dense hydrogen. The short interatomic distances in ultra-dense hydrogen, measured with femtometer resolution, gives a new background to the facile nuclear processes observed both spontaneously and after laser-pulse induction. This is a new (or revived) context for nuclear physics which does not require large experimental facilities. It however requires other experimental facilities as explored here to fully understand the fundamental physics involved. The survival of mankind may depend on how well and fast this small-scale nuclear physics in ultra-dense hydrogen can be implemented for energy production on Earth and for space propulsion. In the time of ‘nanomaterials’, it should be noted that ultra-dense hydrogen is indeed a picomaterial, probably the only possible picomaterial.
(Draft in progress)