Abstracts

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List of titles with links to abstracts by page number

  • Affatato et al 3  . . . Measurement of a very low neutron background within a significant gamma‐ray environment by means of a coincidence spectrometer with n‐γ pulse‐shape discrimination
  • Anderson et al 24  . . . Comment on a experiment at Yale on cold fusion
  • Anderson et al 43  . . . Neutron measurements in search of cold fusion
  • Celani et al 62  . . . Measurements in the Gran Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for nuclear effects in electrolysis with Pd/Ti and in different tests with deuterated high temperature superconductors
  • Ninno et al 122  . . . Emission of neutron bursts from a titanium‐deuterium gas system in a high‐efficiency low‐background experimental setup
  • Fernández et al 130  . . . Nuclear effects in electrolytically deuterated Ti and Pd electrodes
  • Golubnichyi et al 146  . . . Observation of nuclear particles and their correlation with acoustic and electromagnetic emission from palladium targets loaded by deuterium
  • Golubnichyi et al 151  . . . Recording of neutron and acoustic emissions from palladium target in a low background underground experiment
  • Granada et al 158  . . . Neutron measurements on (Pd‐D2O) electrolytic cells under pulsed current conditions
  • Hawkins et al 177  . . . Investigations of mechanisms and occurrence of meteorologically triggered cold fusion at the Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • Jianyu et al 193  . . . Experimental study on anomalous neutron production in deuterium/solid system
  • Jones et al 206  . . . In quest of a trigger mechanism for neutron emissions from deuterium/solid systems
  • Jorné 236  . . . Stress‐induced uphill diffusion of deuterium in palladium
  • Klein et al 247  . . . Anomalous heat output from Pd cathodes without detectable nuclear products
  • Kuzmann et al 262  . . . On the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe‐Zr amorphous alloy
  • McKee et al 275  . . . Neutron emission from low energy deuteron injection of deuteron‐implanted metal foils (Pd, Ti and In)
  • Menlove et al 287  . . . Reproducible neutron emission measurements from Ti metal in pressurized D2 gas
  • Meyerhof 302  . . . Statistical analysis of a ‘‘cold fusion’’ experiment
  • Takahashi et al 323  . . . Neutron spectra from D2O–Pd cells with pulse electrolysis
  • Wolf et al 341  . . . Neutron emission from deuterium‐loaded metals
  • Yamaguchi et al 354  . . . Nuclear fusion induced by the controlled out‐transport of deuterons in palladium
  • Cecil et al 375  . . . Observation of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin titanium foils
  • Chambers et al 383  . . . Search for energetic charged particle reaction products during deuterium charging of metal lattices
  • Jones et al 397  . . . Preliminary results from the BYU charged‐particle spectrometer
  • Li et al 419  . . . The precursor of ‘‘cold fusion’’ phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems
  • López et al 430  . . . Search for charged‐particle d‐d fusion products in an encapsulated Pd thin film
  • Taniguchi et al 445  . . . High sensitivity measurement of charged particles emitted during pulsed electrolysis of D2O
  • Taniguchi et al 453  . . . Relation between charged particle emission and induced anode current pulses accompanying D2O electrolysis
  • Cedzynska et al 463  . . . Tritium analysis in palladium with an open system analytical procedure
  • Claytor et al 467  . . . Tritium and neutron measurements from deuterated Pd‐Si
  • Gozzi et al 481  . . . First results from a ten electrolytic cells experiment
  • Matsumoto et al 494  . . . Tritium production process ‐ comparison between neutron emission rate and tritium production rate
  • Miley et al 507  . . . Detection of reaction products induced in plasma focus electrodes
  • Srinivasan et al 514  . . . Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples
  • Storms et al 535  . . . The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium
  • Tian et al 551  . . . Attempt to confirm the x‐ray radiography results reported by S. Szpak et al.
  • Wolf et al 552  . . . Tritium and tritons in cold fusion
  • Zhang et al 572  . . . Calorimetric observation combined with the detection of particle emissions during the electrolysis of heavy water
  • Chulick et al 584  . . . The effect of electron screening and velocity distribution on proton‐deuterium fusion rates in Jupiter
  • Gajda et al 591  . . . Nuclear fusion in Jupiter
  • McHargue et al 611  . . . Cold‐nuclear fusion within the core of the Earth?
  • Palmer 616  . . . Cold nuclear fusion in the Earth
  • Sheely 646  . . . Examination of the possibility of cold nuclear fusion occurring within the Earth’s mantle
  • Berrondo 653  . . . Computer simulation of D atoms in a Pd lattice
  • Bush 660  . . . Production of tritium, neutrons, and heat based on the transmission resonance model (TRM) for cold fusion
  • Cerofolini et al 668  . . . (D+D+)2e− binuclear atoms as activated precursors in cold and warm fusion
  • Chechin et al 686  . . . Fracto‐acceleration model of cold nuclear fusion
  • Chubb et al 691  . . . Lattice induced nuclear chemistry
  • Fonda et al 711  . . . Fluctuations and nonreproducibility in cold fusion from free quark catalysis
  • Gryzinski 717  . . . Theory of electron catalyzed fusion in Pd lattice
  • Hagelstein 734  . . . Coherent fusion mechanisms
  • Handel 782  . . . Influence of surface tension, nucleation centers, and electron effective mass on the achievable level of electrolytic deuterium loading
  • Jan̈del et al 790  . . . Pressure enhanced fusion rates in lattice channels
  • Jiang et al 801  . . . Point‐effect and non‐equilibrium conditions in electrolysis experiments
  • Kim 807  . . . Surface‐reaction theory of coland and warm fusion
  • Matsumoto 827  . . . Progresses in NATTOH model and new [particles] emitted during cold fusion
  • Preparata 840  . . . Fractofusion revisited
  • Rabinowitz et al 846  . . . Cluster‐impact fusion: Bridge between hot and cold fusion?
  • Tabet et al 867  . . . Nuclear effects in the collapsing lattice model for deuterated palladium: New results
  • Takahashi 884  . . . The roles of coherency and intermittency on D‐D fusion reaction in PdDx deuteride
  • Vysotskii et al 894  . . . The theory of non[threshold] cold fusion in solids (experimental addendum: Observation of fast neutrons and tritium)
  • Żakowicz et al 911  . . . Coupled channel model for ultra‐low energy deuteron‐deuteron fusion
  • Worledge 930  . . . Summary of progress

Abstracts ↑ list
Measurement of a very low neutron background within a significant gamma‐ray environment by means of a coincidence spectrometer with n‐γ pulse‐shape discrimination
S. Affatato, A. Bertin, M. Bruschi, D. Bulgarelli, V. M. Bystritsky, M. Capponi, I. D’Antone, S. De Castro, D. Galli, U. Marconi, I. Massa, M. Morganti, C. Moroni, M. Piccinini, M. Poli, N. Semprini‐Cesari, M. Villa, A. Vitale, G. Zavattini, and A. Zoccoli
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 3 (1991); DOI
We present the results of measurements of the gamma‐ray and neutron background in the Gran Sasso Laboratory, which were performed by a novel coincidence spectrometer allowing neutron identification by means of two different stages of pulse‐amplitude analysis. ↑ list


Comment on a experiment at Yale on cold fusion
Alan N. Anderson, and Steven E. Jones
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 24 (1991); DOI
Comments are presented on the experiment conducted at Yale in August 1989 to search for neutron emission from D2‐gas loaded metals. (AIP) ↑ list


Neutron measurements in search of cold fusion
R. E. Anderson, C. A. Goulding, M. W. Johnson, K. B. Butterfield, S. Gottesfeld, D. A. Baker, T. E. Springer, F. H. Garzon, R. D. Bolton, E. M. Leonard, and T. Chancellor
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 43 (1991); DOI
We have conducted a search for neutron emission from cold fusion systems of the electrochemical type and, to a lesser extent, the high‐pressure gas cell type. Using a high‐efficiency well counter and an NE 213 scintillator, the experiments were conducted on the earth’s surface and in a shielded cave approximately 50 ft underground. After approximately 6500 h of counting time, we have obtained no evidence for cold fusion processes leading to neutron production. However, we have observed all three types of neutron data that have been presented as evidence for cold fusion: large positive fluctuations in the neutron counting rate, weak peaks near 2.5 MeV in the neutron energy spectrum, and bursts of up to 140 neutrons in 500‐μs intervals. The data were obtained under circumstances that clearly show our results to be data encountered as a part of the naturally occurring neutron background, which is due primarily to cosmic rays. Thus, observing these types of data does not, of itself, provide evidence for the existence of cold fusion processes. Artifacts in the data that were due to counter misbehavior were also observed to lead to long‐term ‘‘neutron bursts’’ whose time duration varied from several hours to several days. We conclude that any experiments which attempt to observed neutron emission must include strong steps to ensure that the experiments deal adequately with both cosmic‐ray processes and counter misbehavior. ↑ list


Measurements in the Gran Sasso Laboratory: Evidence for nuclear effects in electrolysis with Pd/Ti and in different tests with deuterated high temperature superconductors
F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori, B. Stella, F. Ferrarotto, M. Corradi, P. Marini, S. Fortunati, and M. Tului
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 62 (1991); DOI
Several experiments were performed at the INFN Underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) in order to detect nuclear signals, if any, coming from deuterated materials in the framework of so called ‘‘Cold Fusion.’’ We followed three, quite different, lines of experimental researches.In the first set of experiments we used electrolytic solutions of heavy water and 0.1 M LiOH with some addition of gaseous CO2, using as cathode a rod of pure Pd or Ti alloys and as anode a Pt net. We detected several intense bursts of gamma rays, lasting up to 15 minutes of duration time, with energy less than 300 KeV.In the second set of experiments we used pellets of sintered High Temperature Superconductors (HTSC) that underwent deuteration by high pressure (∼30 Bar) and temperature (∼370 K) gas loading procedure. The deuterated samples were several times cycled down to liquid nitrogen temperature and we detected by two independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (1.2% total efficiency), sporadic emission of signals mainly during these thermal cycles.Later on similar tests were performed independently by S. E. Jones and collaborators (Provo Univ., Utah) in a deep underground mine and a very intense and short neutron burst was detected by 16 independent 3He moderated neutron detectors (32% efficiency).In the third set of experiments some additional tests were performed using a low activity Am‐Be neutron source, in order to study possible phenomena of enhanced neutron emission by radiation stimulation in these HTSC deuterated compounds. We detected excess counts of 2 static standard deviations, pointing to increased D‐D cross section due to the effect of ceramic lattice. ↑ list


Emission of neutron bursts from a titanium‐deuterium gas system in a high‐efficiency low‐background experimental setup
A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi, C. Pontorieri, and P. Zeppa
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 122 (1991); DOI
The emission of neutrons from a titanium‐deuterium gas system has been detected by us in experiments performed in the Spring of 1989. One of the most striking features was the structure in bursts (duration of about 100 μs) of the neutron emission. Using a detection system proposed by H. Menlove, suitable to analyze the structure in bursts of the emission, a preliminary set of measurements has been performed with satisfactory results. A better tailored detector is now in use, and measurements in a low neutron background are being started. The first data about background and calibration measurements for this experiment will be reported. ↑ list


Nuclear effects in electrolytically deuterated Ti and Pd electrodes
F. Fernández, J. Sevilla, B. Escarpizo, and C. Sánchez
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 130 (1991); DOI
We describe in this communication experiments accomplished since September 1989 with Ti and Pd cathodes. In several runs nuclear products above background levels were detected. Results together with experimental details are discussed. The quality of nuclear detection is considered, by describing the calibration procedures as well as spurious factors that can lead to misleading interpretations. ↑ list


Observation of nuclear particles and their correlation with acoustic and electromagnetic emission from palladium targets loaded by deuterium
P. I. Golubnichyi, A. D. Philonenko, A. A. Tsaric, E. P. Kovalchuk, G. I. Merzon, and V. A. Tsarev
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 146 (1991); DOI
Neutron emission from a palladium target electrolytically loaded by deuterium was recorded. The emission was composed of several short (≤1 min) bursts each containing of the order of 10–102 neutrons superimposed on a weak (∼1 min−1) sporadic single neutron radiation. Two events with time correlation within 10 μs of proton, acoustic and radio emission were observed. The excess of tritium in the gas desorbed from the palladium target was found. ↑ list


Recording of neutron and acoustic emissions from palladium target in a low background underground experiment
P. I. Golubnichyi, A. D. Philonenko, A. A. Tsaric, V. V. Kuzminov, B. V. Pritichenko, G. I. Merzon, and V. A. Tsarev
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 151 (1991); DOI
42 events of correlated neutron and acoustic emissions from the electrolytically deuterized palladium target were recorded in the course of the experiment which had been fulfilled at the Baksan underground low background Laboratory. The expected number of false correlations was estimated to be close to 5 events. The results obtained confirm the predictions of the acceleration model which connects the cold fusion process with fracturing a deuterized matter. ↑ list


Neutron measurements on (Pd‐D2O) electrolytic cells under pulsed current conditions
J. R. Granada, R. E. Mayer, P. C. Florido, G. Guido, V. H. Gillette, S. E. Gómez, N. E. Patiño, and A. Larreteguy
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 158 (1991); DOI
We present in this work the results of neutron measurements performed on electrolytic cells containing deuterated Pd cathodes, using a high efficiency thermal neutron detection system in combination with a procedure involving a non‐stationary current through the cell’s circuit.Experiments carried‐out at our laboratory over a long period revealed a low level neutron production correlated with the current pulses, giving rise to characteristic patterns which were strongly dependent on the previous charging history of the cathodes employed.Another set of measurements was performed with essentially the same experimental set‐up, but on board a submarine 50 m under the sea surface. A very low background level was attained under these conditions, thus yielding a much improved signal‐to‐noise ratio as compared to our ground laboratory situation. The counting rates observed in the underwater measurements on cells containing deuterated Pd cathodes are well separated from those obtained in test (H2O) runs. ↑ list


Investigations of mechanisms and occurrence of meteorologically triggered cold fusion at the Chinese Academy of Sciences
N. Hawkins, S. Sh Yi, X. Zh. Qi, X. D. Li, L. Wang, and Q. X. Zu
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 177 (1991); DOI
Morrison’ at CERN notes regional variation in fusion cell results and various workers have ascribed this to possible sociological factors. In view of the observation by other workers of gamma and neutrons from electric storms, the present paper seeks physical causes of such variation in terms of meteorological conditions.Previous work on Abrikosov vortices (rotating strings of electron Cooper pairs responsible for Type‐II superconductivity) and their possible availability in near or actual electric storm conditions is reviewed. This work suggests fusion may be found in certain standard open cells, but not where lack of meteorological availability or the use of closed cells prevents the Abrikosov vortices being available inside the apparatus.No general method of direct testing for Abrikosov vortices is known, so no opinion for or against these ideas is offered. Tests made at the Chinese Academy of Sciences for the presence of meteorological triggers (of any type) for fusion events are described. Both continuous and short‐burst fusion are reported to occur if, and only if, the meteorological trigger‐conditions are present.This is taken as being possibly the first observation of meteorological triggers for cold fusion and the first reported observation of continuous fusion from this source. Various possible causal mechanisms behind the detailed results are discussed. A future experimental program to confirm and further define these effects is outlined.No claim can yet be made for definite confirmation of the Abrikosov vortex hypothesis, or any other cold fusion trigger or reaction details. ↑ list


Experimental study on anomalous neutron production in deuterium/solid system
He Jianyu, Zhu Rongbao, Wang Xiaozhong, Lu Feng, Luo Longjun, Liu Hengjun, Jiang Jincai, Tian Baosheng, Chen Guoan, Yuan Yuan, Dong Baiting, Yang Liucheng, Qiao Shengzhong, Yi Guoan, Guo Hua, Ding Dazhao, and H. O. Menlove
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 193 (1991); DOI
A series of experiments on both D2O electrolysis and thermal cycle of deuterium absorbed Ti Turnings has been designed to examine the anomalous phenomena in Deuterium/Solid System. A neutron detector containing 16 BF3 tubes with a detection limit of 0.38 n/s for two hour counting was used for electrolysis experiments. No neutron counting rate statistically higher than detection limit was observed from Fleischmann & Pons type experiments. An HLNCC neutron detector equipped with 18 3He tubes and a JSR‐11 shift register unit with a detection limit of 0.20 n/s for a two hour run was employed to study the neutron signals in D2 gas experiments. Different material pretreatments were selected to review the changes in frequency and size of the neutron burst production. Experiment sequence was deliberately designed to distinguish the neutron burst from fake signals, e.g. electronic noise pickup, the cosmic rays and other sources of environmental background. Ten batches of dry fusion samples were tested, among them, seven batches with neutron burst signals occurred roughly at the temperature from −100 degree centigrade to near room temperature. In the first four runs of a typical sample batch, seven neutron bursts were observed with neutron numbers from 15 to 482, which are 3 and 75 times, respectively, higher than the uncertainty of background. However, no bursts happened for H2 dummy samples running in‐between and afterwards and for sample batch after certain runs. ↑ list


In quest of a trigger mechanism for neutron emissions from deuterium/solid systems
S. E. Jones, D. Bennion, D. Buehler, J. B. Czirr, D. L. Decker, J. Harb, R. Hunter, G. L. Jensen, E. P. Palmer, W. Pitt, S. Taylor, J. Thorne, D. Tolley, and J. C. Wang
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 206 (1991); DOI
The triggering of neutron emission in electrolysis experiments has not been achieved. (AIP) ↑ list


Stress‐induced uphill diffusion of deuterium in palladium
Jacob Jorné
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 236 (1991); DOI
High concentrations of deuterium in palladium can be locally achieved due to the stress‐induced diffusion of deuterium against its concentration gradient. These high deuterium to palladium ratios, beyond the value attained at the boundaries, can locally increase the rate of nuclear fusion. Recent reports indicate that neutron bursts have been observed in systems where the deuterated palladium was subjected to stress gradients. ↑ list


Anomalous heat output from Pd cathodes without detectable nuclear products
A. C. Klein, L. L. Zahm, S. E. Binney, J. N. Reyes Jr., J. F. Higginbotham, A. H. Robinson, M. Daniels, and R. B. Peterson
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 247 (1991); DOI
A series of experiments has been conducted to explore the effects of electrolyzing heavy water (D2O) using palladium and platinum electrodes. Over 40 weeks of experimental runs have been conducted in four cells which electrolyze heavy water using palladium and platinum electrodes. Tritium production, neutron and gamma radiation, and cell temperatures were monitored simultaneously and continuously throughout the runs. These experiments have resulted in seven elevated temperature events similar to those claimed by Pons and Fleischmann, with no correlating detection of nuclear products. The seven events which have occurred to date all take the same general form in which the apparent heat output of a cell, as seen in terms of the change in cell fluid temperature, increases in a distinct and significant step. A single light water cells, identical in all respects to those using heavy water, has been operated for over 15 weeks and has produced no temperature excursions, and also no nuclear products. ↑ list


On the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe‐Zr amorphous alloy
E. Kuzmann, A. Vértes, M. Varsányi, L. Kiss, L. Korecz, F. Deák, Á. Kiss, and T. Masumoto
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 262 (1991); DOI
We performed neutron, γ and Mössbauer spectroscopic experiments in order to study the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe90Zr10 and Fe89Zr11 amorphous ribbons having high hydrogen absorbing ability. No significant changes in the neutron and γ spectra were found at deuterization performed at different cathodic potentials. The observed differences in the Mössbauer spectra of samples deuterized in air and in nitrogen atmosphere can be explained by decrease of deuterium uptake as well as by a small heat effect due to reaction of hydrogen with oxygen dissolved in water in the case of electrolysis carried out in air. ↑ list


Neutron emission from low energy deuteron injection of deuteron‐implanted metal foils (Pd, Ti and In)
J. S. C. McKee, G. R. Smith, J. J. G. Durocher, K. Furutani, C. B. Kwok, H. L. Johnston, M. S. Mathur, J. K. Mayer, A. Mirzai, Y. H. Yeo, K. S. Sharma, and G. Williams
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 275 (1991); DOI
In examination of the possibility of observing D‐D fusion reactions at or near room temperature, our group at Manitoba has searched for an enhancement in the neutron production rate resulting from stopping deuterons interacting with implanted deuterons in a metal matrix. This non‐equilibrium process was selected as an alternative to electrolysis as a means of injecting the material. The deuterons were implanted into the metal matrix by a small high current accelerator which accelerated a mixed beam of D+ of energy 60 keV and molecular D2+ which upon dissociation at the surface of the metal yields two 30 keV D+ ions. The precise composition of the beam was unknown. The presence of neutrons was registered continuously during the experimental runs. Scintillation light was detected as the neutrons transferred a portion of their energy to protons in a large plastic scintillator detector. Anomalous occurrences were observed during the operation of the experiment, in the form of sudden increases in the observed neutron detection rates. We undertook to repeat the experiment under more controlled conditions, with the intent of resolving to our satisfaction whether anomalous neutron production was actually occurring. In addition, an attempt to measure X‐ray production within the target metal was made. The build up to deuterons in the metal matrix was such that where the density of deuterons in a commercially available TiD target would be expected to be on the order of 4×1028 m3, our implantation scheme resulted in deuteron densities up to 2×1031 m3 in the matrix. We argue that the loss of deuterons from the matrix will be small compared to build up rates. The results of our 1989 experiment are being compared with theory and the results of a more recent one (July 1990), currently under analysis. Funding has recently been obtained from our local electric utility, Manitoba Hydro, for the production of analyzed beams of D0, D+ and D2+ for future implantation experiments. Work in this area is now under way. ↑ list


Reproducible neutron emission measurements from Ti metal in pressurized D2 gas
H. O. Menlove, M. A. Paciotti, T. N. Claytor, H. R. Maltrud, O. M. Rivera, D. G. Tuggle, and S. E. Jones
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 287 (1991); DOI
During the past year, we have measured neutron emission from samples of titanium (Ti) metal and sponge in pressurized D2 gas. In January 1990, we improved our sample preparation procedure and our detector sensitivity level so that the neutron‐emission measurements are now reproducible, but not yet predictable. We have measured excess neutron emission from the majority of our most recent samples using our high‐sensitivity neutron detectors. The improved sensitivity in our new detector system was obtained by using low‐radioactive‐background stainless steel tubes, a small detector volume with high efficiency, and additional cosmic‐ray shielding. Our most sensitive detector consists of two independent segments making up inner and outer rings of 3He tubes. The combined total efficiency is 44%. In addition to inner and outer ring segments, we have three separate detector systems operating in parallel control experiments to monitor environmental change. We have measured neutron bursts from a variety of samples containing Ti metal and D2 gas. The low‐multiplicity bursts, emitting from 2 to 10 n, occur much more frequently than the higher multiplicity bursts. By measuring high‐mass samples (300 g Ti) over several weeks, with many liquid nitrogen temperature cycles, we have detected neutron emission above the background from most of the samples with a significance level of 3 to 9 σ. ↑ list


Statistical analysis of a ‘‘cold fusion’’ experiment
W. E. Meyerhof
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 302 (1991); DOI
Gas loaded D/Pd and H/Pd rods (1 mm diameter) were used to investigate correlated thermal and nuclear effects. Simultaneous measurements were made of gas pressure, electric current, voltage drops, rod and chamber temperature, and neutrons. D/Pd and H/Pd ratios were monitored by resistance changes in the rod segments. Two deuterium runs (totaling 3000+ hours), one hydrogen run (nearly 1000 hours), and background runs (nearly 2000 hours) have been completed. two neutron bursts were recorded in the first deuterium experiment. No bursts, but periods of increased activity, were observed in the second deuterium run. No increased activity was observed in the hydrogen experiment. Accurate agreement with Poisson counting statistics was found in the background and hydrogen runs. Neutron bursts observed in the first deuterium run exceeded, by several orders of magnitude, the Poisson prediction. A slight resistance increase in one rod segment was observed during one of the neutron bursts. No simultaneous increase in rod temperature was observed. Several potential triggering mechanisms were tried. Further experiments will examine an observed possible resonance‐like effect. ↑ list


Neutron spectra from D2O–Pd cells with pulse electrolysis
A. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, T. Iida, and M. Watanabe
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 323 (1991); DOI
Clear excess neutron counts and corresponding fast neutron spectra were measured in biased‐pulse electrolysis experiments with D2O–Pd cells. 2.45 MeV components by low energy d–d reactions were observed repeatedly. The spectra had sometimes mysterious higher energy components in the 3–6 MeV region, which could only be explained as the byproduct of 3‐body (d–d–d) fusion. The chaotic evolution of excess neutron counts and spectral shifts suggested that the competing process of 2‐body and 3‐body fusion would take place in the 0–2 mm depth of Pd cathode surface region. The hypothetical model of excitation screening effect could qualitatively explain the observed phenomena. ↑ list


Neutron emission from deuterium‐loaded metals
K. L. Wolf, J. Shoemaker, D. E. Coe, and L. Whitesell
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 341 (1991); DOI
Experimental results are presented for neutron emission from cells that used several methods for deuterium loading of Pd and Ti metal samples. Most experiments have given negative results on the level relevant for a 5–6 per cent efficient NE213‐based detection system that has an average background of 0.5 n/m. Positive indications of weak neutron emission have been observed with a set of five Pd‐Ni electrolytic cells that use considerably more Pd than is usually the case. Three of these five cells produced a positive indication in a recent experiment which used a completely different type of neutron detector situated in a deep mine for an environment free of cosmic rays. While the present experiments do not constitute a proof of neutron emission in cold fusion, the evidence for the effect is encouraging. It must be demonstrated that other cells can be constructed that utilize the same type of material, and that the effect can be scaled up to higher levels. ↑ list


Nuclear fusion induced by the controlled out‐transport of deuterons in palladium
Eiichi Yamaguchi, and Takashi Nishioka
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 354 (1991); DOI
We present a new technique for inducing anomalous nuclear effects in solid systems. The key factor of this method is to place thin film oxides on a surface of deuteron‐loaded palladium (Pd:D) plate. The oxides provide the surface barriers for ionic transport of deuterons. The controlled out‐transport of deuteron atoms then produces D accumulation layers at the Pd surfaces. By using this ‘‘surface‐barrier’’ technique, we have observed gigantic neutron bursts of (1–2×106 n/s, explosive gas release, uniform biaxial bending caused by plastic deformation, and excess heat evolution, all at the same time, from oxide/Pd:D/Au systems set in a vacuum chamber. We have also observed the latter three phenomena by applying this method to Pd:H systems having the same heterostructures. This is the first evidence for the fact that the excess heat production is not caused by D–D reactions. ↑ list


Observation of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin titanium foils
F. E. Cecil, H. Liu, D. Beddingfield, and C. S. Galovich
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 375 (1991); DOI
Intense bursts of energetic charged particles from deuterium gas loaded thin foils of Ti 662 subject to fairly high D.C. electric currents and non‐equilibrium thermal conditions have been observed. The energies of the particles range from less than 1 MeV to greater than 10 MeV. By observing energy shifts through thin foils of Al, the particles are tentatively identified as tritons, 3He, and possibly alpha particles. Control measurements carried out with comparably prepared Ti‐H samples evinced no particle bursts. ↑ list


Search for energetic charged particle reaction products during deuterium charging of metal lattices
G. P. Chambers, G. K. Hubler, and K. S. Grabowski
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 383 (1991); DOI
Thin titanium films have been bombarded with low energy (350–1000 eV) deuterium ions at high current density (0.4 mA/cm2) in an effort to produce fusion reactions at ambient temperatures. A silicon particle detector was used to observe possible reaction products. Evidence for nuclear reactions occurring at a rate of at least 10−16 events/deuteron pair/s is presented. ↑ list


Preliminary results from the BYU charged‐particle spectrometer
Steven E. Jones, Troy K. Bartlett, David B. Buehler, J. Bart Czirr, Gary L. Jensen, and J. C. Wang
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 397 (1991); DOI
The detection system developed at Brigham Young University for charged‐particle studies is reported. (AIP) ↑ list


The precursor of ‘‘cold fusion’’ phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems
Xingzhong Li, Shiyuan Dong, Keli Wang, Yueying Feng, Lee Chang, Chengmo Luo, Renyong Hu, Pingli Zhou, Dawei Mo, Yongfa Zhu, Chongli Song, Yingtang Chen, Minyan Yao, Chuang Ren, and Qiankun Chen
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 419 (1991); DOI
It is suggested to detect the precursor of the ‘‘cold fusion’’ phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems, in order to solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of the first step of the experiment are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. It is shown that the surface condition has important impact on this phenomenon. ↑ list


Search for charged‐particle d‐d fusion products in an encapsulated Pd thin film
E. López, B. Neuhauser, F. Ziemba, J. Jackson, E. Mapoles, J. McVittie, and R. Powell
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 430 (1991); DOI
Motivated by reports by Fleischmann and Pons and also Jones et al. of nuclear fusion occurring at room temperature, we attempted to look for charged particle reaction products from d‐d fusion in a deuterated palladium thin film. A silicon nitride encapsulated palladium thin film (340 nanometers thick and one square centimeter in area) was fabricated on top of a semiconductor particle detector and implanted with an 80 keV D2+ beam. The purpose of the nitride cap was to prevent deuterium from diffusing out or from being sputtered away during implantation. The detector temperature was maintained below 200 K in order to reduce pressure on the cap. During the first run of this experiment, after the ion implanter had been turned off, apparent charged particle pulses as well as bursts of activity in two nearby Geiger counters were observed with the film loaded to a nominal 150% deuterium‐to‐palladium ratio and a 1.3% does of 6Li. No spectrum was obtained because of equipment malfunction. In a second run no apparent charged particles pulses were observed, but a record of the neutron flux due to induced fusion during implantation suggested that the nitride cap had failed. More experimental runs are expected in the near future. ↑ list


High sensitivity measurement of charged particles emitted during pulsed electrolysis of D2O
Ryoichi Taniguchi, and Takao Yamamoto
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 445 (1991); DOI
Charged‐particle detection is one of the most sensitive methods to find the evidence of possible cold nuclear fusion. Using the pulsed electrolysis method, we have increased its sensitivity further and tried to detect weaker reactions of cold nuclear fusion. Charged particles were detected by a silicon surface‐barrier detector. The detector was set under the bottom of an electrolysis cell and closely to a thin palladium‐foil cathode. The electrolysis current of the D2O cell was intermitted at regular intervals of about several hours. The foreground (with electrolysis) and background (without electrolysis) were measured alternately. The data at the same phase of the electrolysis current were put together, so that the effect of the background radiation were reduced and the signal‐to‐noise ratio was improved. The experimental results of counting rates and the energy spectrum indicate that some kinds of nuclear reaction occurred in the cathode. ↑ list


Relation between charged particle emission and induced anode current pulses accompanying D2O electrolysis
Ryoichi Taniguchi, and Takao Yamamoto
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 453 (1991); DOI
To search the evidence predicted by the fracto‐fusion model, we tried to observe the charged particles and micro‐discharges accompanying the electrolysis of D2O. To detect the micro‐discharges, a current pick‐up was set at the anode input, and the high‐frequency component in the anode current was monitored. A detector for charged particles was attached close to a thin palladium‐foil cathode. The counting rate of the pulse‐like responses induced on the anode current was found to be a few counts per hour at the beginning of electrolysis, and then decreased slowly. The counting rate indicated a correlation with the temperature of the electrolyte, but no obvious correlation with charged particle emission was observed. ↑ list


Tritium analysis in palladium with an open system analytical procedure
K. Cedzynska, S. C. Barrowes, H. E. Bergeson, L. C. Knight, and F. G. Will
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 463 (1991); DOI
The formation of tritium in palladium cathodes during the electrolysis of heavy water solutions is investigated. (AIP) ↑ list


Tritium and neutron measurements from deuterated Pd‐Si
T. N. Claytor, D. G. Tuggle, H. O. Menlove, P. A. Seeger, W. R. Doty, and R. K. Rohwer
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 467 (1991); DOI
Evidence has been found for tritium and neutron production in palladium and silicon stacks when pulsed with a high electric current. These palladium‐silicon stacks consist of alternating layers of pressed palladium and silicon powder. A pulsed high electric current is thought to promote non‐equilibrium conditions important for tritium and neutron production. More than 2000 hours of neutron counting time has been accumulated in a underground, low background, environment with high efficiency counters (21%). Neutron emission has occurred as infrequent bursts or as low level emission lasting for up to 20 hours. In eight of 30 cells, excess tritium greater than 3 sigma has been observed. In each of these measurements, with the powder system, the ratio of tritium detected to total integrated total neutrons inferred has been anomalously high. Recent cells have shown reproducible tritium generation at a level of about 0.5 nCi/hr. Several hydrogen and air control cells have been run with no anomalous excess tritium or neutron emission above background. A [significant] amount of the total palladium inventory (18%) has been checked for tritium contamination by three independent means. ↑ list


First results from a ten electrolytic cells experiment
D. Gozzi, P. L. Cignini, L. Petrucci, M. Tomellini, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice, and G. M. Urciuoli
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 481 (1991); DOI
A Fleischmann & Pons‐type experiment was performed making use of ten electrolytic cells electrically connected in series with constant current crossing them. The experiment lasted about three months during which the maximum current value reached was 2.5 A corresponding on the avearage to 500 mA/cm2. Neutrons, tritium in the solution and in the recombined gases, γ ‐ray and temperature of the electrodes were measured. For about ten days, when the current density was set over 320 mA/cm2 a remarkable increase of the neutron detector counting‐rate with respect to the background level (2 counts/h) was observed. The pattern of the emission was burst‐type. In the first part of that period, we found in three cells out of nine (one of the ten cells was in light water) a significant excess of tritium with respect to the expected value calculated for the electrolytic enrichment. The other cells, included that in light water, did not show any excess of tritium the value of which was in very good agreement with the calculated value. ↑ list


Tritium production process ‐ comparison between neutron emission rate and tritium production rate
Osamu Matsumoto, Kan Kimura, Yuko Saito, Haruo Uyama, and Tsuyoshi Yaita
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 494 (1991); DOI
When the electrolysis of 0.5 M D2SO4‐D2O solution was carried out using Pd or palladized Pd as a cathode material and Pt as an anode material, the emission of neutrons was detected by means of the fission track method and the production of tritium was investigated with a liquid scintillation method and a TPD using a mass spectrometer. The emission rate of neutrons was in the same orders of magnitude as the neutron flux in the background (103s1). Otherwise, the existence of tritium in the cathode material after the electrolysis was identified by the measurement of the β‐ray emission when the specimens were immersed in the liquid scintillator. Moreover, mass peaks of m/z=5 and 6 which were considered due to DT as well as T2 were identified in TPD, through the resolution of the mass spectrometer was not so high. The tritium production rate estimated by the β‐ray emission measurement was size orders of magnitude larger than the neutron emission rate. The difference betweeen them are briefly discussed. ↑ list


Detection of reaction products induced in plasma focus electrodes
G. H. Miley, O. Barnouin, and B. Temple
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 507 (1991); DOI
‘‘Cold Fusion’’ experiment have been performed elsewhere using a dense plasma focus machine. It is the purpose of an oncoming study at the UI to reproduce and extend these experiments using a similar device at the University of Illinois. The Illinois facility is described as well as the technique that will be used. Extensions are suggested. ↑ list


Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples
M. Srinivasan, A. Shyam, T. C. Kaushik, R. K. Rout, L. V. Kulkarni, M. S. Krishnan, S. K. Malhotra, V. G. Nagvenkar, and P. K. Iyengar
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 514 (1991); DOI
The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then at least six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non‐equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focus device for deuteriding its central titanium electrode. Stemming from earlier observations both at BARC and elsewhere that tritium yield is ≂108 times higher than neutron output in cold fusion experiments, we have channelised our efforts to the search for tritium rather than neutrons. The presence of tritium in a variety gas/plasma loaded titanium samples has been established successfully through a direct measurement of the radiations emitted as a result of tritium decay, in contradistinction to other groups who have looked for tritium in the extracted gases. In some samples we have thus observed tritium levels of over 10 MBq with a corresponding (t/d) ratio of ≳105. ↑ list


The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium
Edmund Storms, and Carol Talcott‐Storms
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 535 (1991); DOI
When Pd gains or loses hydrogen or deuterium, the lattice expands or contracts causing a change in physical dimension. Under certain conditions, there is an additional expansion that is largely irreversible. Repeated gain and loss of hydrogen caused this excess volume to steadily increase. After all dissolved hydrogen has been removed, the diameter of a rod is found to have increased and the length to have decreased. These changes suggest the creation of micropores and/or dislocations within the metal. Such changes in the ennvironment with Pd metal can alter the local D/Pd ratio, affect the diffusion of impurities and, perhaps, affect the Fleischmann‐Pons Effect.Palladium cathodes that have been purposely contaminated with tritium show a rapid removal of the tritium with over 95% going into the evolved gas. This loss of tritium is first‐order with a half‐life that depends at least on cell current, amount of excess volume and electrode shape. The pattern of tritium release is consistent with the presence of micropores and is significantly different from that observed in active cold fusion cells. When used as an anode, over 99% of this dissolved tritium appears in the electrolyte thereby providing a method for its quantitative determination. ↑ list


Attempt to confirm the x‐ray radiography results reported by S. Szpak et al.
Zhong‐Qun Tian, Steven C. Barrowes, and Haven E. Bergeson
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 551 (1991); DOI
The technique of Szpak for obtaining x‐ray radiographs from working electrolytic cells has been followed, in order to confirm his results. Each experiment was run with two cells, one with light water and one with heavy water, to verify that the nuclear difference was crucial to any observed effects. His technique, if confirmed offers the possibility of obtaining the energy of emitted x‐rays. ↑ list


Tritium and tritons in cold fusion
K. L. Wolf, L. Whitesell, H. Jabs, and J. Shoemaker
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 552 (1991); DOI
An analysis is conducted on reports of tritium production and of charged‐particle emission from deuterated palladium and titanium. Possible sources of error are outline and the lack of definitive experiments is discussed. Extensive sets of experiments are reported in which two previously reported results are checked in detail. A search for charged‐particle emission was conducted on deuterated titanium and 6−6−2 titanium alloy that was subjected to cryogenic cycling. Two delta E‐E silicon telescopes were used to count 42 samples for 3–4 cycles each from 84K to room temperature. No charge‐one particles were detected and alpha particle yields of a few counters per day corresponded to background levels. A search for tritium production from 1 mm diameter palladium wire was conducted on 130 electrolytic cells in D2O and H2O, and in 250 metal samples. Several samples associated with one lot of palladium stock showed latent tritium levels well above background. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of nuclear reactions in the electrolytic cells. ↑ list


Calorimetric observation combined with the detection of particle emissions during the electrolysis of heavy water
Zhong L. Zhang, Bao Z. Yan, Ming G. Wang, Jin Gu, and Fu Tan
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 572 (1991); DOI
Several calorimetric measurements on electrolysis processes for monitoring the ‘‘cold fusion’’ event are represented in this work. A Calvet microcalorimeter with its auxiliaries such as amplifier, recorder, computer etc. was used here for measuring the output power generated during these processes. And at the same time, the total electric input power was recorded for comparing with differences between the out power (or the power measured by the calorimeter) and the electric power minus the equivalent of the D2O (or H2O) formation enthalpy (1.54 (voltage) x I (current)) continuously. After a period of cell operation, over about two weeks, a steady production of ‘‘Excess Heat’’ could be demonstrated on the recordings. In particular, there are sporadic power ‘‘excursions’’ or ‘‘burst’’ monitored in uncertain time. There results could not incontestably show that the cold fusion event has been monitored. Because, at the same time, the neutrons, tritiums, and other particles produced during the processes had not been found out by some types of films being able to detect different kinds of particles yet. ↑ list


The effect of electron screening and velocity distribution on proton‐deuterium fusion rates in Jupiter
Gary S. Chulick, Robert A. Rice, and Yeong E. Kim
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 584 (1991); DOI
Coulomb screening, in conjunction with a particle velocity distribution, enhances the rate of P‐D fusion at extremely low temperature (≊1 eV). Therefore, this process will be much more significant in various geophysical and astrophysical situations than hitherto believed. As a particular case, we demonstrate, given an appropriately strong screening potential, that pfusion may provide a significant portion of the excess heat radiated by Jupiter. ↑ list


Nuclear fusion in Jupiter
Mariusz Gajda, and Johann Rafelski
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 591 (1991); DOI
We study nuclear fusion occurring according to conventional wisdom in the planet Jupiter. In particular, we consider if in a standard evolutionary model of Jupiter a significant part of Jupiter’s luminosity has been due to nuclear fusion at any time during its evolution. Nuclear rate equations in dense matter allowing for screening and pressure effects have been integrated in time. ↑ list


Cold‐nuclear fusion within the core of the Earth?
Lanny R. McHargue, Paul E. Damon, and Timothy D. Swindle
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 611 (1991); DOI
It is proposed that the core of the Earth where metal hydrides are subject to high pressure and temperature conditions is a suitable site for ‘‘cold‐nuclear’’ fusion to proceed. This is compatible with recent experimental evidence, that shows that low levels of cold‐nuclear fusion may take place in hydrides, that hydrogen is soluble in iron at high pressures, and in some models up to 0.4% by weight of the core of the Earth may be hydrogen. If it is assumed that 3He is produced within the Earth by cold‐nuclear fusion, and production and escape to the atmosphere has attained steady‐state, the terrestrial fusion rate λf is between 0.3×1025to 4.4×10−25 fusions per second, per deuteron. In contrast to terrestrial radiogenic heat production, cold‐nuclear fusion can produce only 105 of the observed terrestrial heat flow. ↑ list


Cold nuclear fusion in the Earth
E. Paul Palmer
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 616 (1991); DOI
Evidence that p‐d or d‐d fusion could be occurring in the earth stimulated the original laboratory search for cold fusion. That evidence is reviewed here. It is found that the geologic ratio of heat to 3He is too high to be explained by the usually accepted fusion processes. Laboratory evidence indicates that fusion can be made to occur in processes of fracture and high strain rate similar to earth processes. An extension of the Oppenheimer‐Phillips theory of neutron tunneling advanced to illustrate alternate fusion paths which could explain the high heat/3He ratio. The search for fusion as a source for additional heat and non‐primordial 3He is further stimulated by recent data and analysis indicating that radioactivity can supply less than five percent of the earth’s heat budget. Evidence of deep convection suggests that primordial 3He should have been lost in early earth formation and in ongoing outgassing. In this paper, only surface‐related (seawater) deuterium is considered. ↑ list


Examination of the possibility of cold nuclear fusion occurring within the Earth’s mantle
Eugen V. Sheely
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 646 (1991); DOI
The following paper examines the possibility of using hot springs to demonstrate that cold nuclear fusion is occurring within the mantle of the earth. Both stable and unstable isotope analysis are discussed. ↑ list


Computer simulation of D atoms in a Pd lattice
M. Berrondo
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 653 (1991); DOI
We calculate the equilibrium configurations of a system of deuterium atoms absorbed in palladium. The interaction potential energy is taken as a sum of pair functionals including non‐additive effects, which are crucial for this case. We conclude from our calculations that the most probable configuration for the deuterium in the β‐phase of PdD involves at least a partial occupation of the tetrahedral sites of the fcc palladium unit cell. ↑ list


Production of tritium, neutrons, and heat based on the transmission resonance model (TRM) for cold fusion
Robert T. Bush
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 660 (1991); DOI
The TRM has recently been successful in fitting calorimetric data having interesting nonlinear structure. The model appears to provide a natural description for electrolytic cold fusion in terms of ‘‘fractals’’. Extended to the time dimension, the model can apparently account for the phenomenon of heat ‘‘bursts’’. The TRM combines a transmission condition involving quantized energies and an [energy] shift of a Maxwell‐Boltzmann energy distribution of deuterons at the cathodic surface that appears related to the concentration overpotential (hydrogen overvoltage). The model suggest three possible regimes vis‐a‐vis tritium production in terms of this energy shift, and indicates why measurable tritium production in the electrolytic case will tend to be the exception rather than the rule in absence of a recipe: Below a shift of approximately 2.8 [MeV] there is production of both tritium and [measurable] excess heat, with the possibility of accounting for the Bockris curve indicating about a 1% correlation between excess heat and tritium. However, over the large range from about 2.8 [MeV] to 340 [MeV]  energy shift there is a regime of observable excess heat production but little, and probably no measurable, tritium production. The third regime is more hypothetical: It begins at an energy shift of about 1 keV and extends to the boundaries of ‘‘hot’’ fusion at about 10 keV. A new type of [nuclear] reaction, trint (for transmission resonance‐induced neutron transfer), is suggested by the model leading to triton and neutron production.A charge distribution ‘‘polarization conjecture’’ is the basis for theoretical derivation for the low‐energy limit for an energy‐dependent branching ratio for D‐on‐D. When the values of the parameters are inserted, this expression yields an estimate for the ratio of neutron‐to‐triton production of about 1.64×109. The possibility of some three‐body reactions is also suggested. A comparison of the TRM’s transmission energy levels for palladium deuteride and titanium deuteride is interesting when compared to recent data on neutron emission by Zelenskii. Theoretical work relating the TRM to stoichiometric considerations appear to enhance the significance of this hypothetical model. ↑ list


(D+D+)2e− binuclear atoms as activated precursors in cold and warm fusion
G. F. Cerofolini, N. Re, and A. Foglio Para
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 668 (1991); DOI
It is shown that the binuclear heliumlike atom (D+D+)2e, where the D+−D+ nuclear separation is of the order of 0.5a0 (a0 being the Bohr radius) and the electron configuration resembles that of the helium atom, is a metastable configuration which can be formed by overcoming an energy barrier of the order of 2E0 (−E0 being the hydrogen ground‐state electronic energy). Since the temperature conditions allowing the binuclear heliumlike atoms to be formed are obtained during the implantation of heavy clusters into deuterated targets, (D+D+)2e seems the natural candidate to explain the warm fusion events observed during the impact of heavy water clusters onto titanium deuteride. The hypothesis that (D+D+)2e is the fusing species in other cold fusion phenomena (electrolytic fusion, fusion induced by a thermodynamic instability, and chemofusion) is discussed. ↑ list


Fracto‐acceleration model of cold nuclear fusion
V. A. Chechin, V. A. Tsarev, P. I. Golubnichyi, A. D. Philonenko, and A. A. Tsarik
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 686 (1991); DOI
Assumptions, predictions and experimental status of fracto‐acceleration model of cold nuclear fusion are discussed. ↑ list


Lattice induced nuclear chemistry
Scott R. Chubb, and Talbot A. Chubb
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 691 (1991); DOI
Just as electrons cease to be point particles when they are injected into a solid, deuterons cease to be point particles when they become bound to the interior of a deuteride host. Additional quantum mechanical effects, well‐known from the behavior of electrons bound within a solid state environment at low temperature, have the potential to profoundly affect the transport of deuteronic charge in a solid in a manner that runs contrary to conventional wisdom based on free space thinking. During the prolonged electrolysis of LiOD by Pd, these kinds of effects can be used to explain the associated anomalous cold fusion heating phenomenon through interplay between the highly nonequilibrium circumstances associated with overcharging PdDx beyond the value x=1 and the quantum mechanical implications that result from 1) periodic order, 2) lattice‐induced broadening of deuteronic charge, and 3) the large lattice strain energies that result when individual deuterons compete for a common location. This interplay provides a means for satisfying the necessary conditions for the formation and subsequent nuclear decay of a new, chemical matter phase, which we have named Bose Bloch Condensate (BBC). The combination of overcharging and periodic order provide the ingredients for this new form of nuclear interaction, governed by new selection rules that result from known quantum mechanical effects. We have named this new form of interaction, Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC). In this paper, we provide an explanation of the manner in which interplay between periodic order and overcharging provide the necessary prerequisite conditions for occupation of the BBC state and the rules for subsequent interaction through LINC. ↑ list


Fluctuations and nonreproducibility in cold fusion from free quark catalysis
Luciano Fonda, and Gordon L. Shaw
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 711 (1991); DOI
We have speculated on the possibility that cold d‐d fusion in transition metals occurs as the result of catalysis by small numbers (consistent with present experimental limits on their non‐observance) of free stable ūū=Q anti‐diquarks (electric charge Z=−4/3, mass greater than some fraction of a GeV, and short‐range strong repulsion with hadrons). A Q would be released in a non‐equilibrium process, catalyze the d‐d fusion at a rate of 1010/Q/s, and then be captured on a heavy element, thus producing bursts of fusion products. The He4+ Q channel should dominate (over the 3 body channels He3+ n+Q, and t+p+Q) so another key prediction is that the burst of He4 should be emitted with a unique energy greater than several MeV (dependent on the Q mass). Bursts of emitted neutrons would have a 3‐body energy spectrum. Regardless of the present cold fusion experiment, the Q hypothesis is attractive in that is could provide power production with (perhaps) relatively low radioactivity, if Q’s exist and can be accumulated. ↑ list


Theory of electron catalyzed fusion in Pd lattice
Michal Gryzinski
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 717 (1991); DOI
When an electron is placed in the center of mass of two deuterons, those being attracted by a negative charge of the electron may reach zero separation and fuse. The idea which forms in fact the essence of Coulomb barrier tunnelling is applied to interpretation of cold fusion experiments. Theoretical model describing behaviour of hydrogen in Pd‐lattice is presented and molecular mechanism of nuclear fusion is described. Accordingly to the formulated theory hydrogen in Pd lattice exists mostly in the form of linear H+2(D+2, DH+) quasimolecules, which during α→β phase transition may lose stability and may collapse, forming tighly bound nuclear system. Synthesis of tritium from deuterons and protons, accordingly to the scheme D+e+p→T+h∫dη, is, therefore, quite possible. It is a characteristic feature of electron catalyzed nuclear fusion that energy is in principle released in the form of soft X‐rays. Arguments are presented that a single‐crystal Pd‐electrode has to be used to achieve high fusion rates. ↑ list


Coherent fusion mechanisms
Peter L. Hagelstein
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 734 (1991); DOI
Coherent fusion theory is a theory of nuclear reactions which may occur through the collective participation of many nuclear systems; also part of this subject is a search for reactions which obtain large reaction rate when proceeding coherently.We continue our examination of coherent depp and depd reactions which we have previously proposed as candidate reactions to explain reported cold fusion phenomena. This scenario is augmented with semi‐coherent reactions, and we study neutrino emission and virtual neutron states.These studies provide motivation for considering simpler but closely related direct coherent neutron transfer reactions, and the semi‐coherent analog reactions; a theory for these reactions is developed, and the reaction dynamics are found to be consistent with some of the experimental reports. ↑ list


Influence of surface tension, nucleation centers, and electron effective mass on the achievable level of electrolytic deuterium loading
Peter H. Handel
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 782 (1991); DOI
The small cold, or piezonuclear, fusion rate in metals and metallic alloys is a sensitive function of deuterium loading. The latter can be performed by electrolysis of D2O, or by gas loading. Electrolysis2,3 is known to be particularly effective in achieving high loading fractions. Here we first examine the effect of surface nucleation centers for D2 bubbles on the achievable level of electrolytic loading. We then discuss phenomenologically the effect of the effective mass of the electrons on the achievable level of loading by any method, and on the fusion rate, as well as the influence of heavy fermion effects. ↑ list


Pressure enhanced fusion rates in lattice channels
M. Jan̈del, and M. Sahrling
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 790 (1991); DOI
The fusion rate of a pair of deuterons in a lattice channel can be enhanced by the pressure of the surrounding spectator deuterons. We calculate the enhancement factor in a simplified model. It is essential to find the fluctuations that dominate the fusion yield and to know precisely the equation of state of the deuteron system. In strongly coupled systems we find that the fusion rate is poorly estimated by using a classical mean potential as an effective repulsive barrier. ↑ list


Point‐effect and non‐equilibrium conditions in electrolysis experiments
X. L. Jiang, N. Xu, and L. J. Han
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 801 (1991); DOI
In this paper, the point‐effect and the magnetic self‐pinch of electrolysis are suggested to be the important factors to produce conditions that are far from equilibrium and are essential for cold nuclear fusion. The fusion reactions occur on the isolated tiny areas of the surface due to the directed moving deuteron flux. There are some conceivable mechanism by which the collective phenomena of a number of particles by kinetic many‐body theory could be used to explain the enhancement of fusion rate. ↑ list


Surface‐reaction theory of coland and warm fusion
Y. E. Kim
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 807 (1991); DOI
A surface‐reaction theory of cold and warm fusion involving a surface fusion mechanism, a hysteresis effect, and resonances is described for the results of excess heat generation, neutron production, and tritium production from electrolysis and gas/metal fusion experiments. Many of the reported results of excess heat and neutron production are explained by the surface‐reaction theory. It is argued that resonance enhancement of the deuterium fusion cross‐section at extremely low energies is required to describe the observed rates of tritium production and other anomalous nuclear effects. Based on the surface‐reaction theory, theoretical criteria and experiments conditions are described for improving the fusion rates and the reproducibility of [electrolysis] and gas/metal [experiments]. Several experimental measurements are proposed to test the [surface]‐reaction theory. ↑ list


Progresses in NATTOH model and new [particles] emitted during cold fusion
T. Matsumoto
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 827 (1991); DOI
Progresses of NATTOH model are described, in which the cold fusions is based on hydrogen‐catalyzed fusion reactions of intra‐and inter‐clusters. A critical equation and time‐behaviors of power have been derived. And related experiments are also described: emission of new particles ‘‘iton’’ and ‘‘quad‐neutron’’. The latter has decayed by the gravity to an explosion. Furthermore microscopic observations of Pd metals suggests that not only hydrogens but also Pd metals can be burned by the gravity decay. ↑ list


Fractofusion revisited
Giuliano Preparata
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 840 (1991); DOI
Fractoemission, an intense and prolonged emission of charged particles of both signs and electromagnetic radiation subsequent to the mechanical creation of fractures in solids is discussed. The relationship of fractoemission to fractofusion is explored. (AIP) ↑ list


Cluster‐impact fusion: Bridge between hot and cold fusion?
M. Rabinowitz, Y. E. Kim, R. A. Rice, and G. S. Chulick
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 846 (1991); DOI
Beams of D2O clusters with 10∼1000 eV per deuterium yield unexpectly high fusion rates. This is an energy range intermediate between hot and cold fusion, and as such may serve as a link bridgin the two regimes. We present a theoretical model capable of explaining apparently conflicting experimental results with beams of D2O clusters in which fusion rates higher than expected were observed, and beams of D clusters in which no fusion was observed. Calculated results indicate that total deuterium‐deuterium fusion rates can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude by the use of deuterium‐heavy atom cluster beams. A set of experimental test is proposed. ↑ list


Nuclear effects in the collapsing lattice model for deuterated palladium: New results
Eugenio Tabet, and Alexander Tenenbaum
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 867 (1991); DOI
The collapsing lattice model is developed based on the assumption that rapid material transitions in deuterated metals can induce a coherent release of elastic energy. (AIP) ↑ list


The roles of coherency and intermittency on D‐D fusion reaction in PdDx deuteride
H. Takahashi
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 884 (1991); DOI
The anomalous nuclear phenomena observed in intermittent neutron emission and the extremely large branching ratio (105–108) of tritium to neutron production are associated with coherent phonon excitation and de‐excitation due to phase transitions in the low temperature PdDx deuteride. The non‐linearity, which comes from the many‐body effect of the surrounding atoms of deuteron and palladium in the phase transition, plays an important role in the intermittent neutron burst and in generating a larger fusion reaction rate than the fusion rate calculated by screened Coulomb potential, based on the mean field theory. ↑ list


The theory of non[threshold] cold fusion in solids (experimental addendum: Observation of fast neutrons and tritium)
V. I. Vysotskii, and R. N. Kuz’min
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 894 (1991); DOI
An essentially new mechanism of eliminating the barrier in nuclear reactions of synthesis due to quantum‐mechanical averaging of paired and many‐body energy of interacting particles in microvoids in a solid is proposed. The results of calculations within the first order of perturbation theory indicate a complete ‘‘elimination’’ of the barrier in spherical microvoids of [optimal] radius RO≂7.5 Å. The same effect takes place in microslits with width LO≂3 Å. In structural inhomogeneities of both [types] with characteristic dimensions less than the optimal ones RO, LO, within the particles being condensed at the levels of quantized motion, as the concentration increases[, an] increasing pressure against the walls results in stretching the inhomogeneities up to the critical size, at which nonthreshold synthesis is realized. The characteristic time of the reaction realization in voids and slits has optimal size t∼105s. ↑ list


Coupled channel model for ultra‐low energy deuteron‐deuteron fusion
W. Żakowicz, and J. Rafelski
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 911 (1991); DOI
We study the dd nuclear reaction cross section in a multi channel approach. An extrapolation of the existing cross sections to zero dd energy by means of a dynamical three channel model is given. In particular the correct velocity behavior at low energies is obtained for the Debye screened dd Coulomb interaction. We consider the dd threshold resonances. ↑ list


Summary of progress
David H. Worledge
AIP Conference Proceedings 228, 930 (1991); DOI
first slide: SUMMARY OF PROGRESS, David H. Worledge, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94303. International Progress Review on Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems Provo, Utah October 24, 1990 ↑ list


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