Proton conductor LENR

Ed Storms, from a private email:

The issue is the possible site of the NAE. People keep assuming it is in the Pd structure. They assume the finely divided Pd, such as is present on the surface of the Case carbon, is active as result of its large surface/volume ratio.  They then propose to create active material by using finely divided Pd. They cite the Arata work that used palladium-black as supporting evidence.  This evidence is flawed because the finely divided Pd quickly sintered and no longer consisted of small particles of metal.  The belief that fine particles of Pd are required then drives future studies. 
A problem exists with this logic. We now know that LENR can occur in several kinds of proton conductors (listed below) in which Pd is not present.  In this case, the D atoms are created by applied current rather than by using a catalyst such as Pd.  These observations demonstrate that Pd is not required to host the LENR reaction. 
These observations are important because they demonstrate that a structure (vacancies) unique to Pd is not required and that the universal characteristics of the NAE might be better sought elsewhere.  Consequently, we might consider that the NAE is present in the unique form of carbon used by Case and in the ZrO2 used in the Japanese studies, with Pd being needed only to supply D atoms to the NAE located nearby.  A debate about this possibility is long overdue.  The consequence of such a debate is important because it relates directly to how to best create the NAE.
And then Ed gave a list of references:

1.            J.-P. Biberian, Excess heat measurements in AlLaO3 doped with deuterium, in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Ed: S. Pons, (IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France, Monte-Carlo, Monaco, 1995), 49.

This document was difficult to find. Eventually, I found the Proceedings for ICCF-5, and created a TOC for them, and split copies of all papers.

2.            J.-P. Biberian, G. Lonchampt, L. Bonnetain, J. Delepine, Electrolysis of LaAlO3 single crystals and ceramics in a deuteriated atmosphere, in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion, Ed: F. Jaeger, (ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT, Vancouver, Canada, 1998), 27.

The Conference Proceedings are not hosted anywhere I could find. But I found the paper on Biberian’s web site, under Articles. 

3.            J. P. Biberian, G. Lonchampt, Deuterium gas loading of palladium using a solid state electrolyte, in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Ed: X. Z. Li, (Tsinghua Univ. Press, Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China, 2002), 17.

4.            T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, M. Kitaichi, K. Kuroiwa, M. Enyo, Excess heat evolution and analysis of elements for solid state electrolyte in deuterium atmosphere during applied electric field. J. New Energy 1, 79 (1996).

5.            T. Mizuno, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, M. Kitaichi, K. Kurokawa, Anomalous heat evolution from a solid-state electrolyte under alternating current in high-temperature D2 gas. Fusion Technol. 29, 385 (1996).

6.            T. Mizuno, M. Enyo, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, Anomalous heat evolution from SrCeO3-type proton conductors during absorption/desorption in alternate electric field, in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Ed: T. O. Passell, (Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304, Lahaina, Maui, 1993), vol. 2, 14.

7.            T. Mizuno, K. Inoda, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, M. Kitaichi, K. Kurokawa, T. Ohmori, M. Enyo, Formation of 197Pt radioisotopes in solid state electrolyte treated by high temperature electrolysis in D2 gas. Infinite Energy 1, 9 (1995).

That issue is available for purchase from Infinite Energy.  

8.            T. Mizuno, K. Inoda, T. Akimoto, K. Azumi, M. Kitaichi, K. Kurokawa, T. Ohmori, M. Enyo, Anomalous gamma peak evolution from SrCe solid state electrolyte charged in D2 gas. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 22, 23 (1997). Britz, Mizu1997

9.            R. A. Oriani, An investigation of anomalous thermal power generation from a proton-conducting oxide. Fusion Technol. 30, 281 (1996).

(to be reviewed)

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