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Wikiversity/Cold fusion/Theory/Hydrino theory
[The following misrepresents hydrino theory which is nothing to do with fusion but rather is a different mathematical solution for electrons than QMs Schroedinger equation based on purely classical electromagnetism or Maxwell's equations. ELECTRONS ARE MODELED AS VERY THIN SHELLS around the nucleus and this allows lower orbits than the normal hydrogen ground state that are reachable when a hydrogen atom collides with a catalyst capable of receiving the exact difference in energy between the H ground state and the lower orbit hydrino state. The catalyst later radiates the energy which is released. Turns out energy can be obtained from the H in water that greatly exceeds the energy required to disassociate the H and O.]
Actually, in this case, it would be deuterinos, presumably, deuterium atoms with an electron in a collapsed quantum state, below the previously-understood ground state. This theory was elaborated by Randall Mills, of w:Blacklight Power, who is working on hydrogen chemical reactors that allegedly take advantage of hydrinos for power generation. Early on, Mills proposed that deuterinos might be responsible for some level of fusion in palladium deuteride, because the lower-energy electrons would be able to shield deuterium nuclei and allow them to approach each other, similarly to muon-catalyzed fusion. MCF works because the electronegative muon is much heavier than an electron, so "muonic hydrogen" can approach another nucleus, being overall neutrally charged, and the tighter orbit in the ground state is tight enough to allow fusion. The proposed hydrinos would have tighter orbits because of lower energy (catalysis having transferred energy from the former regular electron), so the proposal is that these can catalyze fusion.
If Mills is able to demonstrate practical applications of hydrino formation, as Blacklight Power is attempting, perhaps this theory would be revisited, but few, if any, working in the field think that hydrino theory is applicable at all to cold fusion. The theory itself, of course, generally rejected, and the evidence for it presented by Mills et al is discounted. But because this theory has been published, and noticed by secondary sources, it is listed here.
This theory would present the same problem in terms of reconciliation with experimental results; the fusion branching ratio would presumably be the same as with MCF, but neutrons and tritium, easily detectable reaction products from the two main branches, are only seen at levels very far below the that necessary to correspond to the measured excess heat.
The hydrino theory is not only excluded theoretically, a deuteron hydrino would only be able to have ordinary fusion, with the He3 production and neutrons, and the tritium production and fast protons. These are the products of hydrino-hydrino fusion. So it is not only a fantasy about nonexistent proton-electron forces, it also doesn't explain the effect. Further, there is no way it could lead to Pd fission of any sort, as has been observed in the transmutation studies.