It’s been said many times on LENR Forum, and is even stated in the infamous Exhibit 5, wherein an E-cat-supplied steam pressure of 0.0 barg (by definition, atmospheric pressure) is considered impossible, because, it is claimed, the reservoir at the E-cat, into which the water returns, is open to the air, so it is also at 0.0 barg, so steam would not flow.
The contrary claim, then, is that the pressure at the condenser is below atmospheric, which would allegedly create backflow from the return, the water would not return. Something is being overlooked.
This does not mean much about what actually happened, which may be difficult to disentangle. For other reasons, the pressure of 0.0 barg, with relatively stable temperature, as shown in the Penon report, seems quite unlikely, so this is merely about the argument, not the fact.
There was a pump in the customer area, that has been revealed. So imagine this arrangement:
Boiler – pressure gauge — [application for steam] = condenser – pump – flow meter – return tank.
I think that would work. The pressure could be 0.0 at the gauge if we neglect the difficulty of keeping it exactly balanced at that (and that this would be a complex design requirement makes no sense — but at least it is not impossible.)
However, once a pump is introduced, it could also be used to introduce air into the return line, to cause overstated flow.
The central failure of the Doral test was lack of independent oversight. Rossi was in charge, and, given that, there are many possible errors and many possible ways, in addition, to deliberately fake a megawatt. If the power had been visibly dissipated, this would have been a verification of whatever measures existed of steam flow, but, of course, that was not done, the arrangement created by Rossi concealed it.