## Ignorance is bliss

There is at least one physicist arguing that LENR research is is unethical because (1) LENR does not exist, and (2) if it is possible, it would be far too dangerous to allow.

This came to my attention because of an article in IEEE Spectrum, Scientists in the U.S. and Japan Get Serious About Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions

I wrote a critique of that article, here.

Energy is important to humanity, to our survival. We are already using dangerous technologies, and the deadly endeavor is science itself, because knowledge is power, and if power is unrestrained, it is used to deadly effect. That problem is a human social problem, not specifically a scientific one, but one principle is clear to me, ignorance is not the solution. Trusting and maintaining the status quo is not the solution (nor is blowing it up, smashing it). Behind these critiques is ignorance. The idea that LENR is dangerous (more than the possibility of an experiment melting down, or a chemical explosion which already killed Andrew Riley, or researchers being poisoned by nickel nanopowder, which is dangerous stuff) is rooted in ignorance of what LENR is. Because it is “nuclear,” it is immediately associated with the fast reactions of fission, which can maintain high power density even when the material becomes a plasma.

LENR is more generally a part of the field of CMNS, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. This is about nuclear phenomena in condensed matter, i.e., matter below plasma temperature, matter with bound electrons, not the raw nuclei of a hot plasma. I have seen no evidence of LENR under plasma conditions, not depending on the patterned structures of the solid state. That sets up an intrinsic limit to LENR power generation.

We do not have a solid understanding of the mechanisms of LENR. It was called “cold fusion,” popularly, but that immediately brings up an association with the known fusion reaction possible with the material used in the original work, d-d fusion. Until we know what is actually happening in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment (contrary to fundamentally ignorant claims, the anomalous heat reported by them  has been widely confirmed, this is not actually controversial any more among those familiar with the research), we cannot rule anything out entirely, but it is very, very unlikely that the FP Heat Effect is caused by d-d fusion, and this was obvious from the beginning, including to F&P.

It is d-d fusion which is so ridiculously impossible. So, then, are all “low energy nuclear reactions” impossible? Any sophisticated physicist would not fall for that sucker-bait question, but, in fact, many have and many still do. Here is a nice paradox: it is impossible to prove that an unknown reaction is impossible. So what does the impossibility claim boil down to?

“I have seen no evidence ….” and then, if the pseudoskeptic rants on, all asserted evidence is dismissed as wrong, deceptive, irrelevant, or worse (i.e, the data reported in peer-reviewed papers was fraudulent, deliberately faked, etc.)

There is a great deal of evidence, and when it is reviewed with any care, the possibility of LENR has always remained on the table. I could (and often do) make stronger claims than that. For example, I assert that the FP Heat Effect is caused by the conversion of deuterium to helium, and the evidence for that is strong enough to secure a conviction in a criminal trial, far beyond that necessary for a civil decision, though my lawyer friends always point out that we can never be sure until it happens. The common, run-of-the-mill pseudoskeptics never bother to actually look at all the evidence, merely whatever they select as confirming what they believe.

“Pseudoskepticism’ is belief disguised as skepticism, hence “pseudo.” Genuine skeptics will not forget to be skeptical of their own ideas. They will be precise in distinguishing between fact (which is fundamental to science) and interpretation (which is not reality, but an attempt at a map of reality).

This immediate affair has created many examples to look at. I will continue below, and comment on posts here is always welcome, and I keep it open indefinitely. A genuine study may take years to mature, consensus may take years to form. “Pages” do not yet have automatic open comment, editors here must explicitly enable it, and sometimes forget. Ask for opening of comment through a comment on any page that has it enabled. An editor will clean it up and, I assume, enable the comments. (That is, provide a link to the original page, and we can also move comments).

This conversation is important, the future of humanity is at stake. Continue reading “Ignorance is bliss”

## Abstracts

Subpage of SAV
This page shows citations and abstracts for all papers found relevant or cited in papers on
Super-Abundant Vacancies
List of Links to Abstract Anchors

(to skip the list, use one of these links:)
Before 1990
1990 -1999
2000-2009
2010-

1956 Ames: The resistivity-temperature-concentration relationship in β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys
1960 Schindler: Low temperature dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of palladium and palladium nickel alloys containing absorbed hydrogen (No abstract, but see refs)
1960 Simmons: Measurements of Equilibrium Vacancy Concentrations in Aluminum
1965 Ferguson:  Neutron diffraction study of temperature-dependent properties of Palladium containing absorbed hydrogen
1965 Smith: Anomalous Electrical Resistivity of Palladium-Deuterium System Between 4.2° and 300° K
1968 Bambakidis:  Electrical resistivity as a function of deuterium concentration in palladium
1968 MuellerMetal Hydrides
1980 Semiletov:  Electron-Diffraction Studies of a Tetragonal Hydride PdH1 (No abstract)
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System : A survey of hydride formation and the effects of hydrogen contained within the metal lattices
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part II of a Survey of Features
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part III: Alloy Systems and Hydrogen Permeation
1984 Blaschko: Structural features occurring in PdDx within the 50 K anomaly region
1985 ASMMetallography and Microstructures
1988 Baba: The Transition of the hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered structure of Pd3Mn to the Ag3Mg structure
1989 Shirai: Positron Annihilation (No abstract)
1990 Srinivasan: Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples
1990 Baranowski: Search for “cold-fusion” in some Me–D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium
1991 Storms: The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium
1991 Noh: Hydrogen-induced metal atom mobility in palladium-rhodium alloys
1991 Okamoto: Thermodynamically Improbable Phase Diagrams
1991 Will: Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of Pd with deuterium
1992 Noh: An Illustration of phase diagram determination using H-induced lattice mobility

1993 FukaiEvidence of copious vacancy formation in Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure
1993 Fukai: in Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials (Probable citation error) (No abstract)
1993 Fukai: Some High-Pressure Experiments on the Fe — H System
1993 Oriani: The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals
1994 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures
1994 Balasubramaniam: Mechanism of hydrogen induced ordering in Pd3Mn
1994 Oates: On the Copious Formation of Vacancies in Metals
1994 Manchester: The H-Pd (hydrogen-palladium) System
1995 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in metal hydrides at high temperatures
1995 Felici: In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium 380 electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction
1995 Osono: Agglomeration of hydrogen-induced vacancies in nickel
1995 Nakamura: High-pressure studies of high-concentration phases of the TiH system
1995 Oates: On the formation and ordering of superabundant vacancies in palladium due to hydrogen absorption
1995 Lewis: The palladium-hydrogen system: Structures near phase transition and critical points
1996 Watanabe, Superabundant vacancies and enhanced diffusion in Pd-Rh alloys under high hydrogen pressures
1996 Gavriljuk: Hydrogen-induced equilibrium vacancies in FCC iron-base alloys
1997 Birnbaum: Hydrogen in aluminum
1997 Fukai: Superabundant Vacancy Formation and Its Consequences in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys
1998 Skelton: In situ monitoring of crystallographic changes in Pd induced by diffusion of D
1998 Hayashi: Hydrogen-Induced Enhancement of Interdiffusion in Cu–Ni Diffusion Couples
1998 Staker: The Uranium – Vanadium equilibrium phase diagram
1999 dos Santos:  A high pressure investigation of Pd and the Pd–H  system
1999 Buckley: Calculation of the radial distribution function of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system
2000 Fukai:  Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd–H alloys
2000 Eliaz: Hydrogen-assisted processing of materials
2000 Tripodi: Temperature coefficient of resistivity at compositions approaching PdH
2001 Fukai: Superabundant vacancy formation in Ni–H alloys
2001 Miraglia: Investigation of the vacancy ordered phases in the Pd–H system
2001 Fukai: Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies and Diffusion Enhancement in Some FCC Metals
2001 Klechkovskaya: Electron diffraction structure analysis—from Vainshtein to our days
2001 Nagumo: Hydrogen thermal desorption relevant to delayed-fracture susceptibility of high-strength steels
2001 Miraglia: Investigation of the vacancy-ordered phases in the Pd–H system
2002 Fukai: Phase Diagram and Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Cr-H Alloys
2002 Shirai: Positron annihilation study of lattice defects induced by hydrogen absorption in some hydrogen storage materials
2002 Chalermkarnnon: Excess Vacancies Induced by Disorder-Order Phase Transformation in Ni3Fe
2003 Santos: Analysis of the nanopores produced in nickel and palladium by high hydrogen pressure
2003 Tateyama: Stability and clusterization of hydrogen–vacancy complexes in α-Fe: An ab initio study
2003 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in M–H alloys and some of its consequences: a review
2003 Fukai, Superabundant vacancy–hydrogen clusters in electrodeposited Ni and Cu
2003 Fukai: The phase diagram and superabundant vacancy formation in Fe–H alloys under high hydrogen pressures
2003 Fukai: Superabundant Vacancies Formed in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys
2003 Pitt: Tetrahedral occupancy in the Pd-D system observed by in situ neutron powder diffraction
2004 Cizek: Hydrogen-induced defects in bulk niobium
2004 Koike: Superabundant vacancy formation in Nb–H alloys; resistometric studies
2004 Kyoi: A novel  magnesium–vanadium hydride synthesized by a gigapascal-high-pressure technique
2004 Tavares: Evidence for a superstructure in hydrogen-implanted palladium
2004 Araki: Phase Diagram of Hydrogen in Palladium
2004 Nagumo: Hydrogen related failure of steels – a new aspect
2004 Tripodi: Magnetic and transport properties of PdH: intriguing superconductive observations
2005 FukaiThe Metal–Hydrogen System: Basic Bulk Properties
2005 Harada: A relation between the vacancy concentration and hydrogen concentration in the Ni–H, Co–H and Pd–H systems
2005 Fukai: The structure and phase diagram of M–H systems at high chemical potentials—High pressure and electrochemical synthesis
2005 Iida: Enhanced diffusion of Nb in Nb–H alloys by hydrogen-induced vacancies
2005 Tanguy: Superabundant vacancies in a metal-hydrogen system:  Monte Carlo simulations
2005 Zhang: First-Principles Study of Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Metal Hydrides
2006 Sakaki: The effect of hydrogenated phase transformation on hydrogen-related vacancy formation in Pd1−xAgx alloy
2006 Sakaki: The effect of hydrogen on vacancy generation in iron by plastic deformation
2007 Fukai: Formation mechanism of defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies
2007 Fukai: (Citation error, see Harada2007)
2007 Harada: The defect structure with superabundant vacancies to be formed from fcc binary metal hydrides: Experiments and simulations
2007 Fukai: Formation of Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Electroplated Nickel-Iron Alloy Films
2007 Eriksson: Resistivity changes in Cr/V(0 0 1) superlattices during hydrogen absorption
2008 Kala: Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers
2008 Mukaibo: Heat Treatment for the Stabilization of Hydrogen and Vacancies
in Electrodeposited Ni-Fe Alloy Films
2009 Vekilova: First-principles study of vacancy–hydrogen interaction in Pd
2009 Wen: Hydrogen-enhanced dislocation activity and vacancy formation during nanoindentation of nickel
2009 Sugimoto: Migration mechanism in defect metal hydrides containing
superabundant vacancies
2009 Shackelford: Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers
2009 Tripodi: The effect of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles on palladium physical properties
2009 Tripodi: The effect of hydrogen stoichiometry on palladium strain and resistivity
2009 Degtyareva Electronic origin of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride
under high hydrogen pressures
2010 Yagodzinskyy: Effect of hydrogen on plastic strain localization in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel
2010 Richmond: Evidence for hydrogen induced vacancies in Plutonium metal.
2011 Isaeva: Dynamic stability of palladium hydride: An ab initio study
2011 Chen: On the formation of vacancies in α-ferrite of a heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire
2011 Fukumuro: Influence of hydrogen on room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films: thermal desorption spectroscopy
2011 Zaginaichenko: The structural vacancies in palladium hydride. Phase diagram
2011 Khalid: Hydrogen-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO single crystals investigated by magnetotransport
2011 Fukai: Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Metals: Implication for Electrodeposition
2012 Knies: In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1
2012 Azofeifa:Temperature- and hydrogen-induced changes in the optical properties of Pd capped V thin films
2012 Carat: An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) by Edmund Storms
2013 Hisanaga: Hydrogen in Platinum Films Electrodeposited from Dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution
2013 Fukumuro: Hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films
2013 Yabuuchi: Effect of Hydrogen on Vacancy Formation in Sputtered Cu Films Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
2013 Nagel: Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials
2014 Supryadkina, Ab Initio Study of the Formation of Vacancy and Hydrogen–Vacancy Complexes in Palladium and Its Hydride
2014 Tsirlin: Comment on the article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’
2014 Nazarov: Ab initio study of H-vacancy interactions in fcc metals: Implications for the formation of superabundant vacancies
2014 Houari:  Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides
2014 Liu:  Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries
2015 Wulff: Formation of palladium hydrides in low temperature Ar/H2-plasma
2015 Fukada: In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C
2015 Robertson: Hydrogen Embrittlement Understood
2016 Fukada: Multiple phase separation of super-abundant-vacancies in Pd hydrides by all solid-state electrolysis in moderate temperatures around 300 °C
2017 Bukonte: Thermodynamics of impurity-enhanced vacancy formation in metals
2017 Paolone: Hydrogen and deuterium solubility in commercial Pd–Ag alloys for hydrogen purification
2017 Sugimoto: Hydrogen-induced superabundant vacancy formation by electrochemical methods in bcc Fe: Monte Carlo simulation
2018 Staker: Coupled Calorimetry and Resistivity Measurements, in Conjunction with an Emended and More Complete Phase Diagram of the Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen System

REFERENCES AND ABSTRACTS

1956 —

S. L. Ames and A. D. McQuillan, Acta Met. 4 (1956) 609.

The resistivity-temperature-concentration relationship in β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys

An attempt has been made to test the tentative conclusion reached in earlier work on the resistivity/ composition curves for β-phase titanium-niobium alloys that the extrapolated resistivity/temperature relationship for unalloyed β-titanium at temperatures below the α-β transformation temperature would have a form more to be expected from a semiconductor than from a pure metal. This has been done by means of similar studies of β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys in which resistivity measurements were made over a temperature range of 400–904°C and at compositions up to TiH. The form of the resistivity/composition curves has precluded their direct extrapolation to zero hydrogen content except at temperatures only just below the transformation temperature, but a more detailed analysis of the experimental results has provided some basis for a not unreasonable extrapolation of the resistivity/composition isotherms at lower temperatures, and the results thus obtained agree qualitatively with those of the earlier work. The validity of the various assumptions made is discussed. The present results indicate that at 480°C, below the transformation temperature, the resistivity of β-titanium would have fallen only 2% below the value of the resistivity immediately above the transformation temperature, and not by the 40% to be expected of a normal metal.

1960 —

A. I. Schindler, R. J. Smith and E. W. Kammer,  Proceedings of the International Congress of Refrigeration, Copenhagen, August 19-26, 1959, 10th Congress, Vol. 1, p. 74, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1960. May be available from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, search for “PB 146217” Googlebooks.

Low temperature dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of palladium and palladium nickel alloys containing absorbed hydrogen

1960 —

R. O. Simmons and R. W. Balluffi, Phys. Rev. 117, 52 (1960)

Measurements of the High-Temperature Electrical Resistance of Aluminum: Resistivity of Lattice Vacancies

Measurements of change in length and change in lattice parameter were made at identical temperatures on 99.995% aluminum in the temperature range 229 to 656°C. Length changes,
ΔL, were measured on an unconstrained horizontal bar sample using a rigid pair of filar micrometer microscopes. X-ray lattice parameter changes, Δa, were observed using a high-angle, back-reflection, rotating-single-crystal technique. The measurements are compared to earlier work. The relative expansions ΔL/L and Δa/a were equal within about 1:105 from 229 to 415°C. At higher temperatures additional atomic sites were found to be generated: the difference between the two expansions could be represented by 3(ΔL/L – Δa/a) = exp(2.4)exp(−0.76 ev/kT. At the melting point (660°C) the equilibrium concentration of additional sites is 3(ΔL/L−Δa/a)=9.4×10−4. This result is independent of the detailed nature of the defects, for example, the lattice relaxation or degree of association. The nature of the defects is considered and it is concluded that they are predominantly lattice vacancies; it is estimated that the divacancy contribution at the melting point may well be less than about 15%, corresponding to a divacancy binding energy ⩽ 0.25 ev. The observed formation energy agrees with the values obtained by quenching techniques and by interpretation of the high-temperature electrical resistivity of identical material by Simmons and Balluffi. The present work is the first direct measurement of formation entropy; the value is near that expected from theoretical considerations. The contribution of the thermally generated defects to other physical properties at high temperatures is considered briefly.

1965 —

G. A. Ferguson, Jr., A. I. Schindler, T. Tanaka, and T. Morita, Phys. Rev, 137 (2A) (1965) 483.

Neutron diffraction study of temperature-dependent properties of Palladium containing absorbed hydrogen

Neutron diffraction techniques have been employed to study the hydrogen-atom configuration in a single-phase sample of beta-PdH at several selected temperatures. The suggested low-temperature (T55°K) structure of this compound is one which conforms to the space group R¯3m, which differs from the high temperature (T55°K) structure [Fm 3m]. The low-temperature structure is formed by a partial migration of hydrogen atoms from octahedral to nearby tetrahedral crystallographic sites in the face-centered cubic palladium lattice. Approximate values of the root-mean-square vibrational amplitude of the hydrogen atoms have been determined to be 0.25 Å (T=293°K) and 0.17 Å (T=4.2°K). The anomalous behavior observed in measurements of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and heat capacity of this compound is explained by the transfer of the hydrogen atoms between the lattice sites.

1965 —

R. J. Smith,  NASA TN D-2568 (1965). Copy available.

The electrical-resistivity data of the palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) system with an atom ratio D/Pd of approximately 0.65 contain a peak near 40° K. This peak is similar to that obtained for the palladium-hydrogen (Pd-H) system and is accounted for by octahedral-tetrahedral transitions of some of the deuterium ions in the face-centered cubic lattice of palladium. Also, the resistivity is proportional to the temperature between 110° K and room temperature, as might be expected for palladium with a filled d-band; however, this relation is nonlinear for the Pd-H system, which indicates a broader temperature range for octahedral-tetrahedral transitions by hydrogen ions.

1967 Lewis —

F. A. Lewis,  Academic Press, London (1967) pp. 7, 9, 22 and 119. Googlebooks.

[From “An Appreciation“] The book “The Palladium-Hydrogen System” was written by F. A. Lewis and published in 1967 by Academic Press (37). Palladium alloys and isotopes of hydrogen were also included in the book which has continued as a valuable reference forty years after its publication. Fred was very meticulous about citing references properly which makes this book and his many review articles valuable for searches of the literature.

1968 —

Gust Bambakidis, Robert J. Smith, and Dumas A. Otterson, NASA TN D-4970, 1968 (Copy available.)

Electrical resistivity as a function of deuterium concentration in palladium

The electrical resistivity of the palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) system was measured
to a deuterium- to palladium-atom ratio of 0.9 at temperatures of 273, 77, and 4.2 K.
The resistivity ratio p(x)/p(0) was plotted as a function of the atom ratio x at 273 and
4.2 K. A modification of Mott’s model for the resistivity of transition-metal alloys was
used to calculate the structural resistivity. A good fit to the data at 4.2 K was obtained
by assuming that the number of d-holes per Pd atom takes on the value of 0. 55 to 0.60

1968 —

W. Mueller, J Blackledge and G. Libowitz (ed), Academic Press, N. Y. (1968) pp. 69 and 82.  Googlebooks. (view of p. 69 available, not 82.) Kindle available.

Metal Hydrides

Metal Hydrides focuses on the theories of hydride formation as well as on experimental procedures involved in the formation of hydrides, the reactions that occur between hydrides and other media, and the physical and mechanical properties of the several classes of hydrides. The use of metal hydrides in the control of neutron energies is discussed, as are many other immediate or potential uses, e.g., in the production of high-purity hydrogen and in powder metallurgy.
It is hoped that this book will serve as a valuable reference to students, research professors, and industrial researchers in metal hydrides and in allied fields. Selected chapters may serve specialists in other fields as an introduction to metal hydrides. The information contained herein will also be of lasting and practical value to the metallurgist, inorganic chemist, solid-state physicist, nuclear engineer, and others working with chemical or physical processes involving metal-hydrogen systems.
We have attempted to cover completely the field of metal hydrides. D. T. Hurd, in An Introduction to the Chemistry of Hydrides, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952, and D. P. Smith, in Hydrogen in Metals, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1948, did this adequately many years ago, but these two books are now outdated. Recent books by G. G. Libowitz (Solid State Chemistry of Binary Metal Hydrides, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1965) and K. M. Mackay (Hydrogen Compounds of the Metallic Elements, Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, 1966) introduce the field of metal hydrides to graduate students and nonexperts but make no attempt to be comprehensive. In addition to the published literature, we have reviewed all appropriate unclassified information from classified documents.

1980 —

Semiletov, S. A., R. V. Baranova, Yu P. Khodyrev, and R. M. Imamov.  Kristallografiya 25, no. 6 (1980): 1162-1168.

ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF A TETRAGONAL HYDRIDE PDH1

No abstract found. Many papers on crystallography.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (l), 20-27 . Copy available.

The Palladium-Hydrogen System : A survey of hydride formation and the effects of hydrogen contained within the metal lattices

A very substantial amount of additional information has been published concerning hydrides of the platinum group metals over the two decades since the hydrides of palladium and palladium alloys were the subject of an earlier review article in this Journal. In addition to the many articles in the general literature, the subject matter has formed a major part of the programmes of several scientific conferences and of a number of books and monographs appearing over this period. Furthermore, silver-palladium diffusion tubes are incorporated into hydrogen generators built by Johnson Matthey, and utilised for such diverse applications as the hydrogenation of edible oils, manufacture of semiconductors, annealing of stainless steel and the cooling of power station alternators. In view of the considerable interest being shown in both theoretical and technical aspects of these systems this unusually long review is presented, and will be published in parts during the year.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (2), 70 (copy available)

The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part II of a Survey of Features

This article completes the review of the relationship between equilibrium pressure and composition, which was started in the first part of the paper, before going on to consider some other aspects of the hydrogen-palladium system.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (3), 121 (Copy available)

The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part III: Alloy Systems and Hydrogen Permeation

Hydrogen absorption by series of palladium alloys with several other metals has now been quite extensively investigated with reference to systematic alterations of pressure-composition relationships, other related thermodynamic factors and various physical parameters. Hydrogen permeation has been an important area of both academic and technological interest with relation, for example, to effecting reductions of deformations associated with phase transitions, while retaining the high values of hydrogen solubilities and hydrogen diffusion coefficients in palladium at convenient temperatures.

1984 —

O. Blaschko, J. Less-Comm. Met., 100 (1984) 307–320

Structural features occurring in PdDx within the 50 K anomaly region

The concentration-dependent ordered states of deuterium occurring in PdDx at low temperatures are discussed in the light of recent experimental and theoretical work. The ordering processes occur within the temperature region of the known 50 K anomaly in the specific heat.

1985 —

Metals Handbook, Vol. 9, 9th ed., 1985, American Society for Metals, Metals Parks, OH (1985) p.245. Googlebooks. There are more recent editions.

Metallography and Microstructures

1988 —

K. Baba, Y. Niki, Y. Sakamoto, A. P. Craft. Ted B. Flanagan, J. Mats. Sci. Letters, November 1988, Vol. 7 Issue 11, pp 1160-1162

The transition of the hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered structure of Pd3Mn to the Ag3Mg structure

In previous papers [1, 2], we have shown that when an  initially disordered and an initially ordered alloy  (Ag3Mg-type structure) of Pd3Mn were exposed to  hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures at pH2 > 1 MPa,  they transform to an ordered LI2 structure with an  accompanying introduction of large dislocation densities. This hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered alloy, when annealed in vacuo at 778 K for 24 h, transforms to a one-dimensional long-period structure of the Ag3Mg type. The temperature range where the Ll2-type structure is stable in the absence of hydrogen was not determined.

The goal of this work is to obtain detailed information about the reverse transformation from the hydrogen-induced LI2 structure to the Ag3Mg structure, using electrical resistance measurements and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations.

The Pd3Mn alloy was prepared from palladium (purity 99.98 wt %) and managnese  [sic, manganese] (99.99 wt %) using high-frequency induction heating under an argon atmosphere. The button was then rolled to a thickness of 100 to 140 μm. The samples used for electron microscopy were in the form of discs of 3 mm diameter which were trepanned from the foil, and for electrical resistance measurements samples were cut from the foil so that the dimensions were 2 mm x 25 mm.

The samples of the hydrogen-induced LI2-type ordered strucure used in this study were prepared  from the following two kinds of the alloy starting material: one was “initially disordered” and the other was “initially ordered” (Ag3Mg structure). The former samples were prepared by a rapid quenching from about 1190 K into ice-water, while simultaneously breaking the closed silica tubes which contained the samples wrapped in titanium foil and then sealed in vacuo. The samples of the Ag3 Mg-type structure were prepared by slow cooling in vacuo from about 1175 K to room temperature at a cooling rate of 2 K h-1. All of the samples were lightly abraded with fine emery paper and then chemically etched with a solution of 2 : 2 : 1 H2SO4 : HNO3 : H2O mixture.

1989 —

Y. Shirai, F. Nakamura, M. Takeuchi, K. Watanabe, and M. Yamaguchi, in Eighth International Conference on Positron Annihilation, edited by V. Dorikens, M. Drikens, and D. Seegers (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 488. Paper not found. Book available used. Not listed on World Scientific site, but the title was found on Google Scholar. No abstract.

Positron Annihilation

1990 —

M. Srinivasan, A. Shyam, T. C. Kaushik, R. K. Rout, L. V. Kulkarni, M. S. Krishnan, S. K. Malhotra, V. G. Nagvenkar, and P. K. Iyengar, , AIP Conference proceedings 228 – Anomalous nuclear effects in deuterium/solid system. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York, p 514-534. (Copy available)

Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples

The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then at least six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non‐equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focusdevice for deuteriding its central titanium electrode. Stemming from earlier observations both at BARC and elsewhere that tritium yield is ≂108 times higher than neutron output in cold fusion experiments, we have channelised our efforts to the search for tritium rather than neutrons. The presence of tritium in a variety gas/plasma loaded titanium samples has been established successfully through a direct measurement of the radiations emitted as a result of tritium decay, in contradistinction to other groups who have looked for tritium in the extracted gases. In some samples we have thus observed tritium levels of over 10 MBq with a corresponding (t/d) ratio of ≳105.

1990 —

B. Baranowski, S. M. Filipek, M. Szustakowski, J. Farny, W. Woryna, . J. Less-Common Met. 158, 347-357 (1990). Britz Bara1990

Search for ‘cold fusion’ in some Me–D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium

Metallic palladium and nickel were treated with gaseous deuterium at 298 K to pressures of 3.1 GPa and 1.0 GPa respectively. The high concentrated deuterides did not exhibit, at long time equilibrium as well as in dynamic conditions, evidence of neutron emission nor evolution of heat due to possible “cold fusion”. The volume concentrations of deuterium definitely exceeded those achieved by electrolytic charging. Electrical resistance measurements of palladium deuteride up to 3.1 GPa of gaseous deuterium indicated a further uptake of deuterium above the estimated stoichiometry of octahedral vacancies. A partial filling up of tetrahedral vacancies probably takes place. Electrolytic charging in high pressures of gaseous deuterium did not improve the negative observations above. Thus the observations of Fleischmann and Pons are not confirmed at higher volume concentrations of deuterium in the palladium and nickel lattice as well in equilibrium as in dynamic conditions (phase transitions, high pressure electrolysis).

1991 —

Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates,  Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., 1991. 21: p. 269. Britz, P.Flan1991

In this review an attempt is made to highlight some of the important properties of the palladium-hydrogen system. (The term hydrogen will be used as a collective term when referring to all three isotopes, but otherwise the names of the specific isotopes, protium, deuterium, and tritium, will be used.) Most of the data in the literature are for the palladium-protium  system; generally the three isotopes behave similarly, however, the thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) behavior of the isotopes differ quantitatively and these differences are discussed below.

1991 —

E. K. Storms, C. Talcott-Storms,  Fusion Technol. 20, 246 (1991). Britz Stor1991a

The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium

The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated palladium cathode is determined and compared with the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction. Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen absorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can be lost from the cathode, thereby reducing the hydrogen concentration. This effect is influenced, in part, by impurities, the shape of the electrode, the charging rate, the concentration of hydrogen achieved, and the length of time the maximum concentration is present.

1991 —

H. Noh, Ted B. Flanagan, B. Cerundolo, and A. Craft, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 25 (1991) 225-230

H-Induced atom mobility in Palladium-Rhodium alloys

[Introduction] The phase diagram for the Pd-Rh system shows a miscibility gap which has been characterized down to temperatures of ~800K [1,2]. The limiting solid solution concentrations at 800 K are Pd0.90Rh0.10 and Pd0.10Rh0.90+. Normally, when Pd-Rh alloys are prepared and cooled from temperatures above the miscibility gap to temperatures well below, the fcc solid solution alloys are metastable and show no tendency to segregate according to the phase diagram. For this reason the phase diagram has not been extended to temperatures below about 800 K. In the most recent study [2] the phase boundaries were established by electrical resistivity changes. Those authors found no evidence for two phase formation from electron microprobe analysis. From this they concluded that the scale of the spinodal decomposition which occurs upon phase segregation was too fine, <10 nm, to detect any spatial compositional variations.

There have been several investigations of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium-rhodium alloys[3,4,5]. These alloys have been found to form hydride phases and, in contrast to most other substitutional elements in palladium, rhodium does not decrease the H/M ratio of the hydride phase. The hydrogen pressure for hydride formation increases with XRh.

It is known that hydrogen can induce metal atom mobility under conditions where such mobility does not occur in the absence of hydrogen. One recent example of such H-induced lattice mobility is the ordering of disordered Pd3Mn in the presence of hydrogen at temperatures where ordering is too slow to observe in the absence of hydrogen. Using Pd-Rh alloys, whose compositions lie well within the miscibility gap, two methods will be used in an attempt to observe hydrogen-induced segregation: (i) the alloys will be exposed to 5.0 MPa of H2 at 523 K; under these conditions the alloy’s hydride phase does not form, and (ii) the alloys will be cycled through the  α →  α’ phase change where α’ is the hydride phase. The rationale for the first approach is that dissolved hydrogen might induce segregation of the homogeneous alloy into Pd- and Rh- rich regions because under these conditions the resulting alloy having Pd-enriched regions should dissolve more hydrogen than the homogeneous alloy; the rationale for the second approach is that the lattice mobility which occurs as the hydride/dilute phase interface moves through the solid might assist segregation. [“Experimental” follows]

1991 —

H. Okamoto and T. Massalski, J. Phase Equilibria, 12, No.2 (1991) p148-168. Open copy available.

Thermodynamically Improbable Phase Diagrams

Phase diagrams showing very unlikely boundaries, while not explicitly violating thermodynamic principles or phase rules, are discussed. Phase rule violations in proposed phase diagrams often become apparent when phase boundaries are extrapolated into metastable regions. In addition to phase rule violations, this article considers difficulties regarding an abrupt change of slope of a phase boundary, asymmetric or unusually pointed liquidus boundaries, location of miscibility gaps, and gas/liquid equilibria. Another frequent source of phase diagram errors concerns the initial slopes of liquidus and solidus boundaries in the very dilute regions near the pure elements. Useful and consistent prediction can be made from the application of the van’t Hoff equation for the dilute regions.

1991 —

F. G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M. C. Yang, J. R. Peterson, H. E. Bergeson, S. C. Barrowes, W. J. West and D. C. Linton, “Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of Pd with deuterium”, in Conference Proceedings  of Italian Physical Society, Vol. 33 for ‘The Science of cold fusion – Proc. of second Annual conf. on cold fusion’, edited T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, Como, Italy, 29 June – 4 July 1991, held at A. Volta Center for Sci. Culture, Villa Olmo, (1991) pp. 373-383. (Copy available)

1992 —

H. Noh, Ted B. Flanagan, M.H. Ransick, Scripta Met. et Ma., Vol. 26 (1992) 353-358.

An Illustration of phase diagram determination using H-induced lattice mobility

[Introduction] It has been recently shown that hydrogen-induced lattice mobility (HILM) can lead to ordering of a disordered alloy at temperatures where the ordering is immeasurably slow in the absence of the dissolved hydrogen [1]. In this research we report an example of HILM where hydrogen catalyzes a longer range metal atom diffusion than that needed for the disorder → order transition. In the present case a nearly homogeneous alloy will be shown to undergo segregation under the influence of HILM. This can be of importance as an aid in the establishment of equilibrium for the determination of phase diagrams at relatively low temperatures where, because of sluggish equilibrium, they cannot be determined in the absence of H. It should be emphasized that hydrogen is not a component of the phase equilibrium, but acts as a catalyst promoting equilibrium under conditions where it is not established after long times in its absence.

Pd-Rh has a miscibility gap shown in figure 1 [2, 3]; segregation according to this phase diagram does not, however, normally occur when the alloys are cooled from elevated temperatures and consequently a continuous series of metastable fcc solid solutions can be prepared. Raub et al [2] found that annealing the Rh0.26Pd0.74 alloy at 873 K for 1 year did not result in segregation into Pd- and Rh-rich phases. A Rh0.51Pd0.49 alloy segregated into Pd- and Rh-rich phases after annealing at 873 K for 6 months. Evidence for segregation was obtained from the presence of two sets of fcc lattice parameters. Shield and Williams [3] did not find any evidence for phase separation in slowly cooled samples using analytical techniques but confirmed the earlier phase diagram from resistivity changes as the phase envelope was entered.

Alloy-H systems are usually thermodynamically characterized from their isotherms where pH2 is measured as a function of H/M. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure is a measure of the relative chemical potential of hydrogen, i.e.,

ΔμH =  μH – 1/2μH2  = 1/2RT ln pH2 [1]

In single phase regions of the solid the H2 pressure (and ΔμH) changes continuously with HIM. When two solid phases co-exist with the gaseous phase, however, a pressure invariant region (the plateau pressure) occurs.

Hydrogen dissolves readily in Pd-Rh alloys forming hydride phases when the hydrogen concentrations exceed the terminal hydrogen solubilities. The plateau pressures increase with XRh [4, 5, 6]. This Pd-alloy system is unique because the extent of the two phase co-existence region does not decrease with increase of atom fraction of substituted metal as it does for other Pd-alloys. Typical hydrogen isotherms for homogeneous Pd-Rh alloys consist of a small dilute phase region where the pressure increases markedly with H content; this is followed by a two phase, invariant (plateau) pressure region and finally a single phase region at high hydrogen contents obtains where the pressure increases markedly with H content. If this alloy were to segregate into Pd-rich and Rh-rich phases according to the phase diagram (Fig. 1 ), then the isotherm should alter in a predictable way. […]

1993 —

Y. Fukai, N. Okuma,  Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1256-1259 (1993). Britz Fukai1993

Evidence of copious vacancy formation in Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure

From in situ observation of X-ray diffraction of Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure (5 GPa) and temperatures (≤800°C), anomalous lattice contraction of the hydride was found to occur in 2~3 h. This contraction, amounting to ~0.5 Å3 per a metal atom, remained in the recovered specimen even after the hydrogen was removed by heating to 400°C, but was annealed out at 800°C. The concentration of vacancies responsible for this effect is estimated at ~20% of metal-atom sites. Anomalous concentration dependence of the hydrogen-induced volume and enhanced diffusion of metal atoms are explained in terms of this effect.

1993 —

Y. Fukai, Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), Vol. II, pp. 451–456. [the Fukai paper appears to be in Vol I? Vol 1 is missing.] [paper needed, not found]

1993 —

Y. Fukai, M. Yamakata, and T. Yagi, Z. Phys. Chem. 179, 119 (1993).

Some High-Pressure Experiments on the Fe — H System

In situ X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed of the hydriding process of iron under high hydrogen pressure and temperatures using a synchrotron radiation source. After hydrogenation, a sample of FeHx, in equilibrium with ~6 GPa of fluid Hundergoes a sequence of phase transitions dhcp → fcc → new phase → melt, at 650~700°C. 800~900°C and 1200°C. respectively. The structure of the new high-temperature phase is tentatively identified as a defect-bcc structure in which many vacancies exist in one of the simple cubic sublattices of bcc-Fe.

1993 —

R. A. Oriani, “The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals”, 4th International conference on cold fusion (ICCF-4), Lahaina, Maui, HI: Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (1993). Vol 1, page 18.

The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals

To attempt to optimize the anomalous phenomena that today go under the label “cold fusion” the experimentalist should be aware of the many aspects of the behavior of hydrogen in metals and of its entry into and egress from metals. This paper discusses the equilibrium characteristics of the isotopes of hydrogen in metals. The first section discusses the thermodynamics of the terminal solutions of metal-hydrogen systems including the enthalpies of solutions, H-H interactions, effect of third elements, distribution of isotopes between the phases, site occupation, and the molar volume of hydrogen in metallic solutions.

The mobility of hydrogen in a metal lattice is a very large subject. This discussion is restricted to the kinetics of hydrogen diffusion, at and above room temperature, with respect to the variation with temperature, hydrogen concentration, isotopic mass and concentration of third elements. A distinction is made between the effects on the mobility and the effects associated with the non-ideality of the solution. The decrease of the diffusivity due to attractive interactions with lattice defects such as those generated by cold work are discussed in terms of trapping theory. Brief consideration is given to diffusion of hydrogen along grain boundaries and along dislocation cores as well as to diffusion motivated by gradients of electrical potential, of temperature and of mechanical stress.

When hydrogen is absorbed from the molecular gas at fixed pressure and temperature, the overall driving force can be expressed in terms of thermodynamic parameters; the kinetic impediments to the ingress of hydrogen control the rate of entry and these are discussed. When hydrogen is presented to the metal by electrochemical means or by partially dissociated hydrogen gas the driving force for entry into the metal cannot be expressed thermodynamically, although the concept of input fugacity is often used. This concept is discussed and incorrect inferences sometimes made from it are pointed out. The entry and the egress of hydrogen produces mechanical stresses in the metal which modify the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems. They necessitate a distinction to be made between coherent and incoherent phase diagrams, and change the driving force for the exchange of hydrogen between the metal and the environing gas phase. More importantly, the generated stresses can relax by producing dislocations, grain rotation, cracks and microvoids. Examples of these phenomena are discussed. The generation of such lattice defects interacts in complicated ways with the intrinsic decohesioning effect of dissolved hydrogen to seriously affect the mechanical properties of metals. Some implications of these considerations for cold fusion research are pointed out.

1994 —

Y. Fukai, N. Okuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1640-1643 (1994). Britz Fukai1994

Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures

In situ x-ray diffraction on Pd hydride under 5 GPa of hydrogen pressure show that lattice contraction due to vacancy formation occurs in 2-3 h at 700-800 °C, and two-phase separation into PdH and a vacancy-ordered phase of Cu3Au structure (Pd3VacH4) on subsequent cooling. After recovery to ambient conditions and removal of hydrogen, the vacancy concentration in Pd metal was determined by measuring density and lattice parameter changes to be 18 ± 3 at.%. This procedure provides a new method of introducing superabundant vacancies in metals.

1994 —

R. Balasubramaniam, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 30, No. 7 (1994) 875-880.

Mechanism of hydrogen induced ordering in Pd3Mn

[Introduction] In the Pd-Mn system (Fig 1), the Pd3Mn composition undergoes an order-disorder transformation [1-4]. Pd3Mn, above its critical temperature (Tc), has a disordered fcc structure an~ attains an ordered structure when it is slowly cooled below its Tc. On the other hand, if it is quenched rapidly to a temperature below Tc, it retains its disordered fcc stucture. This ‘quenched’ structure is truly not disordered because electron diffraction studies [2,5,6,7] have indicated that faint superlattice reflections of the ordered structure exist in the rapidly quenched material. Therefore, the fully disordered structure is difficult to [obtain] even by rapid quenching. This aspect of the transformation has to be noted as this will have relevance in the proposed mechanism described below. The ordered Pd3Mn structure can be precisely indexed as being of the A3Zr type [8] and not of the Ag3Mg type [2,9] by recognizing a center of symmetry [8]. It is denoted as the long period structure (LPS) of the L12-s type. The phase diagram of the Pd-Mn system (Fig 1) [10, 11] also shows composition dependence of the critical ordering temperature (obtained during heating and cooling) for hypostoichiometric Pd3Mn compositions. It is important to note that in these hypostochiometric compositions, a two phase region separating the ordered and disordered phase fields does not exist, thus indicating that this transformation is of the second order. The disordered phase is denoted as α (Fig i) and the ordered phase obtained by slow cooling as α-L12-s . The phase transitions in the Pd-Mn system have • . 2-6 • , • been investigated by a variety of techniques and the reader is [referred] to reference [11] for details of the transformations and phase domains.

It was first shown by Flanagan et al. [6] that the introduction of hydrogen at relatively low pressures and high temperatures (below Tc ) induced ordering of both the L12-s type and the ‘quenched’ structure to the ordered L12 structure. For example, at 523K and a partial pressure of hydrogen 5MPa, Pd3Mn transforms to the L12 structure (Cu3Au type) [6]. Incidentally, this was the first time that the L12 form of Pd3Mn had been prepared [6] and this implied that hydrogen could be employed to prepare ordered structures that are not possible to produce by conventional methods like annealing of the alloy. It is important to note that the L12 is the stable form of Pd3Mn below the critical temperature and the transformation to the L12 form does not occur even for long periods of exposure at high temperatures in the absence of hydrogen [6]. […]

1994 —

W. A. Oates and H. Wenzl, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 30, No. 7 (1994) 851-854.

On the Copious Formation of Vacancies in Metals

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) have recently given convincing evidence for the formation of extremely high vacancy concentrations (≈ 20% of the metal atom sites) when Ni and Pd are annealed for a few hours at high temperatures (≤ 800°C) when under high H2 pressures (≈ 5GPa), i.e., at very high H concentrations. As indicated by Fukai and Ōkuma (1), the implications of this effect, especially through its possible influence on enhanced metal diffusion, could be profound.

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) discuss some other results which also seem to indicate large vacancy concentrations at very high H concentrations. These include the maximum observed H concentration exceeding that expected from structural considerations (2) and an anomalous change in the apparent partial molar volume of H in Pd alloys at high H concentrations (3).

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) gave a tentative explanation for the formation of large vacancy concentrations in terms of vacancy-hydrogen complexes. In the following we develop a simple model which may explain the origin of such large vacancy concentrations in a more plausible way.

1994-

Manchester, F.D., San-Martin, A. & Pitre, J.M. JPE (1994) 15: 62. DOI there is a preview of the first two pages, used in lieu of an abstract below. There is a list of references on the journal page. Anchors have been added and used as links from citations here, see the subpage Manchester 1994 references

The Pd-H system is the paradigm of metal hydrogen systems: the longest studied (since 1866 [1866Gra]), the easiest to activate for hydrogen absorption, and probably the richest in the number of physically interesting phenomena that have been observed in this type of system. In matters of the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption, the details of phase diagram delineation, description and analysis of electronic properties and a number of other features, work on the Pd-H system has tended to provide leading developments that have subsequently been used in other metal-hydrogen systems.

The T-X phase diagram (Fig. 1) assessed here for pressures* above 102 Pa, consists of the α and α’ phases, in both of which the H occupies, randomly, the interstitial octahedral sites of the fcc Pd lattice. Table 1 gives the crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the system.

Fig. 1 Assessed Pd-H phase diagram. T-X projection from a P-X-T surface onto a plane at P = 102 Pa.

Table 1 (a) In the literature this has often been referred to as the βmin value for the Pd-H lattice parameter [75Sch]. (b) This structure is an ordered arrangement of vacancies in the fcc H(D) lattice on interstitial octahedral sites in the Pd lattice. The Pearson symbol has been chosen to count both the vacancies and the interstitial H(D) corresponding to a structure that is stoichiometric at X = 0.5 to maintain consistency with the usual listings of this symbol for tetragonal structures. (c) Values for lattice parameters of tetragonal cell estimated from [75Sch] with the help of [84Hem] for the X value and temperature given by [83Bon]. (d) As in (b), except that counting interstitials together with vacancies corresponds to a structure that is stoichiometric at X = 1. (e) Values for lattice parameters of tetragonal cell estimated from [75Sch] with the help of [84Hem] for the X value and temperature given by [79Ell]. The sets of tetragonal lattice parameters referred to in (c) and (e) are for PdD x.

Refs in table: [78Kin], [64Mae],  [64Axe], [78And2], [79Ell], [81Bla]

The α phase is the low-concentration phase of the system, separated from the high-concentration α’ phase by a mixed (α + αt’) phase region. The boundary of this mixed phase region was delineated by taking an average of the limiting T-X values for the isotherm plateaus (see Fig. 2) determined by [64Wic], [73Fri], [83Las], [85Las], and [87Wic] from experimental P-X isotherms shown in Fig. 3. Because hysteresis** is observed in absorption and desorption isotherms for T < Tc [36Gil, 60Eve89Fla], it is possible to draw two different sets of boundaries for the mixed-phase region at each temperature. For clarity, only P-X desorption isotherms reproduced from the available literature are displayed in Fig. 3. (See further discussion on locating coexistence boundaries below.)
———
*For H-in-metal systems, the equilibrium pressure of the H gas surrounding the metal is always a significant thermodynamic variable, in contrast to most situations involving metallic alloys. Thus, sections of the P-X-T surface in a T-X plane and a P-X plane are always necessary. In the presentation given here, P is the pressure in pascals, T is the temperature plotted in both K and °C. and X is the H concentration expressed either as atomic percent H or as X = H/Pd, the atomic ratio.
**Hysteresis in metal-hydrogen systems with mixed phase regions, as in the α/α’ regions of the Pd-H system, arises from plastic deformation due to a large volume change as one phase, e.g.  α, changes to the other, e.g.  α’, or vice versa (see [89Fla]).
———

At -25 °C   the maximum H solubility in the α phase is X = 0.017 (1.68 at.% H), whereas the single α’ phase exists for X > 0.60 (37.6 at. % H). The two-phase region in Fig. I bounded by the coexistence curve closes at the critical point located at T = 293°C, X = 0.29 (22.5 at.% H), and P = 20.15 × 105 Pa (see Table 2). There is no distinction between the α and α’ phases above this critical temperature consistent with the applicability of the lattice gas model for the Pd-H system [60Hill, 69Ale,76Man]. Table 2 compares critical point parameters reported for the Pd-H system. Values obtained by [78Pic] are not included because they lack the overall consistency of those quoted in Table 2, and there is no compelling reason to try to justify this. With the exception of the values from [74Riba], the critical point parameters have all been observed from analysis of absorption/desorption isotherms only.

[37Lac1] used what amounted to a lattice gas calculation in the Bragg-Williams (i.e. mean field approximation [37Lac2]) to calculate the form of the Pd-H absorption isotherms and, using the Maxwell equal area rule, to determine the location of the α/α’ coexistence curve. [37Lac1] used the experimentally determined location of the critical point (i.e. Tc and Xc [36Gil]) to fix the value of the attractive H-H interaction and the value he assumed for the maximum permitted H concentration. The [37Lac1] calculation, apart from giving the first statistical thermodynamic model for H absorption in Pd-H, provided a parametric relation for analyzing the absorption of H in Pd, which is useful today (see “Solubility”). However, the [37Lac1] model was not founded on an assessment of the basic mechanisms responsible for the attractive H-H interaction or on other basic physical features of the Pd-H system. Also using a lattice gas calculation [79Die] estimated values for Tc and Xc and the form of the coexistence curve, which were roughly comparable to those obtained from experiment. [79Die] used a description of the elastic contribution to the H-H interaction, which was based on the earlier work of [74Wag] and [74Hor], and added to this an estimate of the electronic contribution to this interaction. […]

1994 —

There is some error here, there must be a paper by Lewis in 1994 that is somehow missing. I’ll look for it.

1995 —

H. Osono, T. Kino, Y. Kurokawa, Y. Fukai,J. Alloys and Compd. 231, 41-45 (1995). Britz Oson1995

Agglomeration of hydrogen-induced vacancies in nickel.

Scanning electron microscope observations of Ni samples annealed after recovery from high temperature heat treatment in the hydride phase showed the presence of numerous holes 20–200 nm in size. From various features of the holes they are identified as voids formed by agglomeration of supersaturated vacancies (about 5 at.% in concentration) which have diffused from the surface to the interior of the sample during heat treatment.

1995 —

K. Nakamura and Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd. 231, 46 (1995).  Britz Naka1995

High-pressure studies of high-concentration phases of the TiH system

In situ X-ray diffraction at high pressure (5 GPa) and high temperatures (less than or approximately 1100 °C) of the TiH system revealed that two different kinds of phase transition take place at high hydrogen concentrations. [H]/[Ti] ≳ 2, a reversible transition due to absorption-desorption of hydrogen and an irreversible transition due to the formation of metal-atom vacancies. The general implication of the formation of defect-hydride phases in the phase diagrams of MH systems is discussed.

1995 —

Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd. 231, 35 (1995) Britz Fukai1995

Formation of superabundant vacancies in metal hydrides at high temperatures

It has been found from X-ray diffraction on several MH systems under high p, T conditions that a large number of M-atom vacancies amounting to ca. 20 at.% are formed at high temperatures, leading to a vacancy-ordered L12 structure in some f.c.c. hydrides. The energetics of vacancy formation in hydrides suggests that defect-hydrides containing many vacancies are generally more stable thermodynamically than ordinary defect-free hydrides and therefore most phase diagrams of MH systems reported heretofore are metastable.

1995 —

R. Felici, L. Bertalot, A. DeNinno, A. LaBarbera and V. Violante, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 66(5) (1995) 3344. Britz P.Feli1995.

In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium 380 electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

A method to determine the concentration of deuterium inside a palladium cathode during the electrolysis of LiOD–heavy water solution is described. This method is based on the measurement of the host metal lattice parameter which is linearly related to the concentration in a wide range. A hard‐x‐ray beam which is able to cross two glass walls and few centimeters of water solutions without suffering a strong attenuation has been used. The measurement of the lattice parameter is performed in situ, during the electrolysis, by using energy dispersive x‐ray diffraction. The sample volume illuminated by the x‐ray beam is limited to a small region close to the surface and depends on the incident photon energy.In principle, this allows one to study the dynamics of the charging process and to determine the concentration profile in the range from few up to tens of micrometers. The deuterium concentration, determined by this method, was then checked by degassing the cathode in a known volume and was always found in a very good agreement, showing that the charging was uniform for the whole sample.

1995 —

W. A. Oates and H. Wenzl, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 33, No. 2 (1995) 185-193.

On the formation and ordering of superabundant vacancies in palladium due to hydrogen absorption

Fukai and Ōkuma (1,2) have recently presented some extremely interesting results concerning the formation of high concentrations of vacancies (¤) in Pd and other metals which result from the absorption of hydrogen. In their first paper (l), they showed that when Pd is annealed for long times (hours) at high temperatures (≈ 800°C) in high pressures of H2(g) (≈ 5 GPa), vacancy concentrations as high as N¤/NPd  ≈ 0.2 can be obtained (1). In their second paper (2), they demonstrated that these vacancies can order when the alloys containing high vacancy concentrations are slowly cooled to lower temperatures (below ≈ 6OO°C).

The hydrogen chemical potential, μH is very high under the conditions used in these experiments. This can be seen in Fig. (l), which shows ½(μH2μ0H2)/RT as a function of H2(g) pressure at 1000K (3). μ0H2 is the ideal gas reference state value at 1 bar and the temperature of interest. It should be appreciated that, in this temperature and pressure range, the curve represents a substantial extrapolation from the available experimental results. Such extrapolations are sensitive to the analytical form chosen for the fluid’s equation of state (a modified van der Waals equation in this case) and although the rapid increase in PH with H2(g) pressure in the GPa range shown in Fig. (1) is undoubtedly correct, the quantitative aspects of the relation may be questionable.

A brief explanation for the formation of the high vacancy concentrations in terms of a simple statistical model has been given previously (4). In the present note we wish to present a more quantitative confirmation of this model and also demonstrate how it can also explain the ordering of the ‘superabundant’ vacancies in Pd observed by Fukai and Ōkuma (2).

1995 —

F.A.Lewis, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 20, Issue 7, 1995, Pages 587-592

The palladium-hydrogen system: Structures near phase transition and critical points

A wide ranging survey is presented updating information and opinions on the correlations which occur between structural change and hydrogen pressure-hydrogen content-temperature (pc(n)-T) relationships in the palladium-hydrogen and other related systems. Particular attention is directed to problems of the estimation and definition of the limits of composition over the α ↔ β phase transition region and near to designated critical points. (Published with permission of Platinum Metals Review, in which this paper was first published in Vol. 38, No. 3, July 1994. Copy available. See Lewis1994)

1996 —

K. Watanabe, N. Okuma, Y. Fukai, Y. Sakamoto, and Y. Hayashi, Scr. Mater. 34, 551 (1996).

Superabundant vacancies and enhanced diffusion in Pd-Rh alloys under high hydrogen pressures

In our recent experiments on a number of metal-hydrogen systems, we discovered that the equilibrium concentration of metal-atom vacancies is greatly enhanced under high hydrogen pressures [l-5]. The vacancy concentration as high as x, – 0.2 was attained when Ni and Pd specimens were held at 700 – 800°C in fluid hydrogen of 5 GPa [1,2]. In Pd hydride, formation of a Cu,Au-type vacancy-ordered structure was also observed [2].
We suggested that this phenomenon of superabundant vacancy formation should be the cause of the hydrogen-induced migration of metal atoms reported for some Pd alloys. In quenched specimens of Pd, &I,,~ alloy, where no phase separation was observed in vacuum after annealing at 600°C for 1 year [6], Noh et al. obtained indications of phase separation after annealing for only 4 h in 5.5 MPa of H2 gas [7,8]. Similar indication of hydrogen-induced phase separation was reported subsequently for Pd-Pt alloys[9]. These experiments were, however, not sufficiently convincing because their inference of phase separation was based on the form of “diagnostic” p-x-T curves without any direct structural information.
The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed structural information on the formation of superabundant vacancies and its effects on the phase separation process in P&&h0 2 alloys by performing in situ Xraydiffraction at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures.

1996 —

V. Gavriljuk, V. Bugaev, Y. Petrov, A. Tarasenko, and B. Yanchitski, Scr. Mater. 34, 903 (1996).

Hydrogen-induced equilibrium vacancies in FCC iron-base alloys

Dissolution of interstitials leads to an increase of equilibrium concentration of the site vacancies as a result of two main contributions: increase of entropy of solid solution and expenditure of energy for injection of the interstitial atoms. After hydrogen outgassing vacancies become thermodynamically unstable and form dislocation loops which can be detected by means of TEM. In our opinion, the concept of hydrogen-induced vacancies can be useful for interpretation of hydrogen-induced phase transformations and mechanism of plastic deformation of hydrogenated materials.

1997 —

H. Birnbaum, C. Buckley, F. Zaides, E. Sirois, P. Rosenak, S. Spooner, and J. Lin, J. Alloys Compd. 253, 260 (1997).

Hydrogen in aluminum

The introduction of solute hydrogen in high purity aluminum has been studied using a variety of experimental techniques. Very large hydrogen concentrations were introduced by electrochemical charging and by chemical charging. Length change and lattice parameter measurements showed that the hydrogen was trapped at vacancies which entered in a ratio close to Cv/CH=1. Small angle X-ray scattering showed that the hydrogen-vacancy complexes clustered into platelets lying on the {111}.

1997 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Kurokawa, H. Hiraoka, J. Japan Inst. Metals, 61 (1997) 663–670 (in Japanese).

Superabundant Vacancy Formation and Its Consequences in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys

A theory is proposed for the formation of super-abundant vacancies, in metal-hydrogen alloys, amounting to 10~20 at%, considering hydrogen effects to decrease the formation energy of a vacancy by cluster formation and the configurational entropy of the system at high hydrogen concentrations. A formula derived for the vacancy concentration is found to give excellent descriptions of experimental results on nickel-hydrogen and molybedenum-hydrogen alloys obtained under high hydrogen pressures. Some of the consequences of the superabundant vacancy formation are discussed, including solubility enhancement, formation of defect structures and voids, and enhancement of metal-atom diffusion.

1998 —

E. Hayashi Y. Kurokawa and Y. Fukai, Phys.Rev.Lett., 80(25) (1998) 5588.

Hydrogen-Induced Enhancement of Interdiffusion in Cu–Ni Diffusion Couples

Drastic enhancements of the interdiffusion were observed in Cu-Ni diffusion couples when samples were heated under high hydrogen pressures (5GPa). Interdiffusion coefficients measured between 600800°C were increased by 104 times on the Ni-rich end and by 10 times on the Cu-rich end. The observation is explained in terms of superabundant vacancy formation in the presence of interstitial hydrogen atoms.

1998 —

E.F. Skelton, P.L. Hagans, S.B. Qadri, D.D. Dominguez, A.C. Ehrlich and J.Z. Hu,Phys. Rev., B58 (1998) 14775.

In situ monitoring of crystallographic changes in Pd induced by diffusion of D

Crystallographic changes in a palladium wire cathode were monitored in situ, as deuterium was electrochemically deposited on the surface and diffused radially into the wire. Initially, the wire was pure Pd. A constant electrolysis current density of 1 mA/cm2 was maintained and D slowly diffused into the wire. As the D concentration increased, the wire transformed from pure Pd, to the α phase, and finally into the β phase. This reversible phase transformation begins on the surface and progresses radially inward. During the experiment, x-ray-diffraction data were collected from a volume element of about 180 pl. This volume element was systematically moved in 50-μm steps from the edge to the center of a 1.0 mm diameter Pd wire. Throughout the course of the experiment, the bulk value of x in PdDx, as determined from simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity, increased from 0 to ∼0.72. For each setting of the volume element, a monotonic increase in the volume of the α phase was observed, until the material entered the two-phase region. Once the β phase appeared, the volumes of both phases decreased slightly with continued loading. The integrated intensities of diffraction peaks from each phase were used in conjunction with the known phase diagram to estimate the rate of compositional change within the volume element. The diffusion rate for the solute atoms was estimated to be 57±nm/s, based on the temporal and spatial dependence of the integrated intensities of the diffraction peaks from each phase. These data also were used to evaluate the time dependence of the concentration of the solute atoms c/t and their diffusivity D. The value of c/t increased linearly from 6.2×105s1 at the surface, to  1999

1998 —

M. R. Staker, J. Alloys Compd. 266 (1998) 167-179.

The Uranium – Vanadium equilibrium phase diagram

Three uranium-rich alloys of uranium–vanadium (U–V) were melted and processed to bars for final heat treatment. The microstructures were studied via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness measurements. The results necessitate revisions in positions of phase fields in the uranium-rich portion of the phase diagram, but confirm positions of phase lines at the vanadium-rich side. The revised diagram shows substantially lower solubility limits for α, β and γ phases and a shift in γ-eutectoid composition from 2.08 to 1.0 wt.% vanadium. The role of carbon in causing these original disparities is analyzed. For hypereutectoid γ-quenched U–V alloys, the transition from acicular to banded martensitic structure occurs between 1.45 and 1.65 wt.% V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid γ-quenched alloys indicates suitability of these alloys in structural applications requiring high density.

1999 —

D. S. dos Santos, S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, J. Alloys and Compd. 291, L1-L5 (1999). Britz dSan1999

A high pressure investigation of Pd and the Pd–H  system

The effect of high pressure (3.5 GPa) on the Pd and Pd–H systems has been investigated. We have been able to induce a cubic–monoclinic structural transformation in the case of pure Pd treated at 450°C for 5 h. Hydrogen has been introduced at high pressures using an alternative hydrogen source (C14H10). It is shown that such a route can be operated to produce vacancy-ordered phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature.

1999 —

C.E. Buckley, H.K. Birnbaum, D. Bellmann, P. Staron, J. Alloys Compd., 293–295 (1999) 231–236.

Calculation of the radial distribution function of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system

Aluminum foils of 99.99% purity were charged with hydrogen using a gas plasma method with a voltage in the range of 1.0–1.2 keV and current densities ranging from 0.66 to 0.81 mA cm−2, resulting in the introduction of a large amount of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that within experimental error there was a zero change in lattice parameter after plasma charging. This result is contradictory to almost all other FCC materials, which exhibit a lattice expansion when the hydrogen enters the lattice interstitially. It is hypothesised that the hydrogen does not enter the lattice interstitially, but instead forms a H-vacancy complex at the surface which diffuses into the volume and then clusters to form H2 bubbles. The nature and agglomeration of the bubbles were studied with a variety of techniques, such as small angle, ultra small angle and inelastic neutron scattering (SANS, USANS and INS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), precision density measurements (PDM) and X-ray diffraction. The USANS and SANS results indicated scattering from a wide range of bubble sizes from <10 Å up to micron size bubbles. Subsequent SEM and TEM measurements revealed the existence of bubbles on the surface, as well as in the bulk and INS experiments show that hydrogen is in the bulk in the form of H2 molecules. In this paper we calculate the radial distribution function of the bubbles from the SANS and USANS results using methods based on the models derived by Brill et al., Fedorova et al. and Mulato et al. The scattering is assumed to be from independent spherical bubbles. Mulato et al. model is modified by incorporating smearing effects, which consider the instrumental resolution of the 30 m SANS spectrometer at NIST. The distribution functions calculated from the two methods are compared, and these distributions are then compared with the range of particle sizes found from TEM and SEM techniques.

2000 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Ishii, T. Goto, and K. Watanabe, J. Alloys Compd. 313, 121 (2000).

Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd–H alloys

Temporal variation of the lattice parameter of Pd was measured under high hydrogen pressures (2–5 GPa) and temperatures (672–896°C) by X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation, and observed lattice contraction was interpreted as being due to the formation of a large number of vacancy–hydrogen (Vac–H) clusters, i.e. superabundant vacancies. Analysis of the result led to the conclusion that a major part of Vac–H clusters (amounting to ∼10 at.%) were introduced by diffusion from the surface, after a small number of them had been formed at some internal sources. The thermal-equilibrium concentration of Vac–H clusters at high temperatures shows a saturation behavior, which indicates the presence of a maximum possible concentration (ca.16 at.%) of the clusters. The formation energy, entropy and volume of a Vac–H cluster are found to be 0.72 eV, 7.2k and 0.60Ω, respectively, and the migration energy and volume are 1.20 eV and 0.49Ω, respectively. Various other implications of the results are also discussed.

2000 —

N. Eliaz, D. Eliezer, D. L. Olson, “s”, Mat. Sc. and Engr. A289 (2000) 41-53.

Hydrogen-assisted processing of materials

Under certain conditions, hydrogen can degrade the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of most structural alloys; however, it also has some positive effects in metals. Several current and potential applications of hydrogen for enhancing the production and processing of materials are reviewed. These include thermohydrogen processing (THP) and forming of refractory alloys, processing of rare earth-transition metal magnets by hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation–decomposition–desorption–recombination (HDDR), hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) and microstructural refinement, extraction of elements from ores and alloys, and the use of hydrogen as a reducing gas for welding and brazing. Hydrogen is found to enhance the formability, microstructure and properties of a large variety of materials, including steels, Ti-based alloys and metal matrix composites(MMCs), refractory metals and alloys, rare earth-transition metal alloys, metalloid-containing metallic glasses, etc.

2000 —

P. Tripodi, M. C. H. McKubre, F. L. Tanzella, P. A. Honnor, D. Di Giacchino, F. Celani, V. Violante, Physics Letters A 276 (2000) 122-126.  Britz P.Trip2000. See also Tripodi2009a and Tripodi2009b

Temperature coefficient of resistivity at compositions approaching PdH

Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficient of resistivity, λ, versus hydrogen concentration, H/Pd, at very high concentrations in the Pd–H system. Unusually high hydrogen compositions were achieved using an electrochemical loading procedure which allowed stable Pd–H systems to be obtained. It is well known that increasing the H/Pd concentrations leads to three different phases (αα+ββ), respectively, in the Pd–H system; the β phase is thought to end in an asymptotic limit. Possible evidence that a new phase (γ) exists, bordering the β phase at compositions H/Pd > 0.9 is reported and discussed.

2001 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Shizuku, Y. Kurokawa, J. Alloys Compds. 329, 195-201 (2001). Britz Fukai2001

Superabundant vacancy formation in Ni–H alloys

X-ray diffraction measurements on the Ni–H system were made using synchrotron radiation at high hydrogen pressures p(H2)=3∼5 GPa and high temperatures T≲1000°C. Gradual lattice contraction occurring over several hours at high temperatures revealed the formation of superabundant vacancies (vacancy-hydrogen clusters). Superlattice reflections due to ordered arrangements of Vac-H clusters were also observed. The concentration of Vac-H clusters (xcl≅0.30), deduced from the magnitude of the lattice contraction, was very nearly independent of pressure and temperature, and indicates the maximum possible cluster concentration to be accommodated by the metal lattice. A simple enlightening description of the physics of superabundant vacancy formation is given in Appendix A.

2001 —

S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, E. K. Hill, S. S. M. Tavares, D. Dos Santos, J. Alloys and Compounds 317, 77-82 (2001). Britz Mira2001

Investigation of the vacancy ordered phases in the Pd–H system

It has been shown that hydrogen–metal reactions operated at high pressures (3–5 GPa) may lead to hydrogen-induced lattice migration. The occurrence of fast diffusion processes that take place within the metal lattice has been established. Under these conditions, modifications of the diffusion kinetics and of the phases equilibria allow to produce vacancy-ordered phases with high vacancy concentrations (20%). An alternative route which leads to such phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature is presented. The structural properties of the Pd-(vacancy, H) system which have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy will be discussed. In the case of palladium, the vacancy-ordered state is characterized by the loss of superconductivity with respect to the Pd hydride. This spectacular modification of the physical properties will be presented and discussed in the light of band structure calculations that have been performed modeling different types of decorated vacancies with octahedral coordination.

2001 —

Y. Fukai, T. Haraguchi, E. Hayashi, Y. Ishii, Y. Kurokawa, and J. Yanagawa, Defect Diffus. Forum 194, 1063 (2001).

Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies and Diffusion Enhancement in Some FCC Metals

Lattice contractions caused by the formation of extremely high concentrations of vacancies (superabundant vacancies of ~ 10 at.% ) were observed in the fcc phases Mn-H, Fe-H, Co-Hi, Ni-H and Pd-H samples at high temperatures(≤900°C ) and high H2 pressures ( ≤5 GPa). Comprehensive measurements in the Pd-H system, analysed in terms of our theory of vacancy- hydrogen ( Vac-H) cluster formation, have allowed to determine the formation and migration properties of the Vac-H clusters. From the observed lattice contraction process and concomitant diffusion enhancement, it is concluded that most Vac-H clusters are introduced by diffusion from the surface over a long time but some of them are created instantly at internal sources.

2001 —

Klechkovskaya, V.V. & Imamov, R.M. Crystallogr. Rep. (2001) 46: 534.

Electron diffraction structure analysis—from Vainshtein to our days

The physical grounds of the modern electron diffraction structure analysis have been analyzed. Various methods and approaches developed in electron diffraction studies of various structures are considered. The results of the structure determinations of various inorganic and organic materials are discussed.

2001 —

S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, E. Hlil, S. Tavares, and D. D. Santos, J. Alloys Compd. 317-318, 77 (2001).

Investigation of the vacancy-ordered phases in the Pd–H system

It has been shown that hydrogen–metal reactions operated at high pressures (3–5 GPa) may lead to hydrogen-induced lattice migration. The occurrence of fast diffusion processes that take place within the metal lattice has been established. Under these conditions, modifications of the diffusion kinetics and of the phases equilibria allow to produce vacancy-ordered phases with high vacancy concentrations (20%). An alternative route which leads to such phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature is presented. The structural properties of the Pd-(vacancy, H) system which have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy will be discussed. In the case of palladium, the vacancy-ordered state is characterized by the loss of superconductivity with respect to the Pd hydride. This spectacular modification of the physical properties will be presented and discussed in the light of band structure calculations that have been performed modeling different types of decorated vacancies with octahedral coordination.

2001 —

M. Nagumo, M. Takamura, and K. Takai, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 32, 339 (2001).

Hydrogen thermal desorption relevant to delayed-fracture susceptibility of high-strength steels

The susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of martensitic steels has been examined by means of a delayed-fracture test and hydrogen thermal desorption analysis. The intensity of a desorption rate peak around 50 °C to 200 °C increased when the specimen was preloaded and more remarkably so when it was loaded under the presence of hydrogen. The increment appeared initially at the low-temperature region in the original peak. As hydrogen entry proceeded, the increment then appeared at the high-temperature region, while that in the low-temperature region was reduced. The alteration occurred earlier in steels tempered at lower temperatures, with a higher embrittlement susceptibility. A defect acting as the trap of the desorption in the high-temperature region was assigned to large vacancy clusters that have higher binding energies with hydrogen. Deformation-induced generation of vacancies and their clustering have been considered to be promoted by hydrogen and to play a primary role on the HE susceptibility of high-strength steel.

2002 —

Y. Shirai, H. Araki, T. Mori, W. Nakamura, and K. Sakaki, J. Alloys Compd. 330, 125 (2002).

Positron annihilation study of lattice defects induced by hydrogen absorption in some hydrogen storage materials

Some AB5 and AB2 hydrogen storage compounds have been characterized by using positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It has been shown that they contain no constitutional vacancies and that deviations from the stoichiometric compositions are all compensated by antistructure atoms. Positron lifetimes in fully-annealed LaNi5−xAlx and MmNi5−xAlx alloys show good correlation with their hydrogen desorption pressures. On the other hand, surprising amounts of vacancies together with dislocations have been found to be generated during the first hydrogen absorption process of LaNi5 and ZrMn2. These lattice defects may play a key role in initial activation processes of hydrogen storage materials.

2002 —

P. Chalermkarnnon, H. Araki, and Y. Shirai, Mater. Trans. JIM 43, 1486 (2002). [copy

Excess Vacancies Induced by Disorder-Order Phase Transformation in Ni3Fe

The order-disorder transformation and lattice defects in Ni3Fe have been studied by positron lifetime measurements. Anomalous vacancy-generation during ordering transformation, which was originally found on the ordering process of super-cooled disordered Cu3Au, has been confirmed on the ordering transformation of Ni3Fe. Disordered fcc solid solution of Ni3Fe was brought to room temperature by quenching the specimen from temperatures above the order-disorder transformation point TC. The ordering process into L12 structure was promoted by heating the sample isochronally or isothermally. It has been found that vacancies are generated in both heating processes, i.e., during the ordering process of super-cooled disordered Ni3Fe. Generated vacancies are not stable up to TC and annealed out at temperatures below TC.

2003 —

Y. Fukai,  J. Alloys and Compounds 356-357, 263-269 (2003).  Britz Fukai2003a

Formation of superabundant vacancies in M–H alloys and some of its consequences: a review

Superabundant vacancies (SAVs) are the vacancies of M atoms formed in M-H alloys, of concentrations as large as 30 at.%. After presenting some results of SAV formation as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures, its mechanism in terms of vacancy-hydrogen (Vac-H) cluster formation is described, including the underlying information of Vac-H interactions. One of the most important conclusions of the theory is that defect structures containing SAVs are in fact the most stable structure of M-H alloys, and therefore SAVs should be formed whenever the kinetics allow. It is shown subsequently that SAVs can be formed in the process of electrodeposition. Some of the consequences of SAV formation including the enhancement of M-atom diffusion and creep are described, and its possible implication for hydrogen embrittlement of steels is mentioned.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, M. Mizutani, S. Yokota, M. Kanazawa, Y. Miura, T. Watanabe, J. Alloys and Compd. 356-357, 270-273 (2003). Britz Fukai2003b

Superabundant vacancy–hydrogen clusters in electrodeposited Ni and Cu

Superabundant vacancies (SAVs) are the vacancies of M atoms formed in M–H alloys, of concentrations as large as ≲30 at.%. After presenting some results of SAV formation as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures, its mechanism in terms of vacancy-hydrogen (Vac-H) cluster formation is described, including the underlying information of Vac-H interactions. One of the most important conclusions of the theory is that defect structures containing SAVs are in fact the most stable structure of M–H alloys, and therefore SAVs should be formed whenever the kinetics allow. It is shown subsequently that SAVs can be formed in the process of electrodeposition. Some of the consequences of SAV formation including the enhancement of M-atom diffusion and creep are described, and its possible implication for hydrogen embrittlement of steels is mentioned.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, K. Mori, and H. Shinomiya, J. Alloys Compd. 348, 105 (2003).

The phase diagram and superabundant vacancy formation in Fe–H alloys under high hydrogen pressures

In situ XRD measurements at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures were performed on Fe–H alloys, and in combination with all available data a p(H2)–T diagram was constructed up to p(H2)=10 GPa and T=1500 °C. A drastic reduction of the melting point with dissolution of hydrogen, down to 800 °C at 3 GPa, was observed. In the f.c.c. phase, a gradual lattice contraction due to superabundant vacancy formation was found to take place over several hours. The lattice parameter at 784 °C, 4.7 GPa decreased by 6%, which implies that a vacancy concentration as high as 19 at.% was attained.

Y. Fukai, Y. Kurokawa, and H. Hiraoka, J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 61, 663 (1997). [reference obscure, no vol 61, paper not at page in 1997. About Mo, see this 2003 paper[working reference to find abstract, or paper needed]

2003 —

Y. Fukai and M. Mizutani, Mater. Trans. 43, 1079 (2002). (copy)

Phase Diagram and Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Cr-H Alloys

X-ray diffraction measurements on the Cr–H system were made using synchrotron radiation at high hydrogen pressures and high temperatures, and the phase diagram was determined up to p(H2)=5.5 GPa and T\\lesssim1400 K. Three solid phases were found to exist; a bcc phase (α) of low hydrogen concentrations, x=[H]⁄[Cr]\\lesssim0.03 existing at low hydrogen pressures (\\lesssim4.4 GPa), and two high-pressure phases, an hcp (ε) phase at lower temperatures and an fcc (γ) phase at higher temperatures, both having high hydrogen concentrations x∼1. A drastic reduction of the melting point is caused by dissolution of hydrogen. A gradual lattice contraction observed in the fcc phase indicates the formation of superabundant Cr-atom vacancies (vacancy-hydrogen clusters). Thermal desorption measurements after recovery from high p(H2), T treatments revealed several desorption stages including those due to the release from vacancy-hydrogen clusters and from hydrogen-gas bubbles, and allowed determination of relevant trapping energies.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, Phys. Scr. T103, 11 (2003)

Superabundant Vacancies Formed in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys

Superabundant vacancies of metal atoms, of concentrations as high as 10 ~ 30 at %, can be formed in the presence of interstitial hydrogen as a consequence of reduction of the formation energy by trapping H atoms. The equilibrium concentration and mobility of Vac-H clusters were determined by in situ XRD and resistivity measurements, and their sources were identified. The binding energies of trapped H atoms were determined by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Some of these experimental results are described, with particular reference to Pd, Ni and Cr.

2003 —

Y. Tateyama and T. Ohno, Phys. Rev., B67 (2003) 174105.

Stability and clusterization of hydrogen–vacancy complexes in α-Fe: An ab initio study

By means of ab initio supercell calculations based on the density-functional theory, we have investigated stability of hydrogen-monovacancy complexes (VHn) and their binding preferences in αFe. We have found that VH2 is the major complex at ambient condition of hydrogen pressure, which corrects the conventional model implying the VH6 predominance. It is also demonstrated that monovacancies are not hindered from binding by the hydrogen trapping in the case of VHpredominance. Besides, the presence of hydrogen is found to facilitate formations of line-shaped and tabular vacancy clusters without the improbable accumulation. These anisotropic clusters can be closely associated with the fracture planes observed in experiments on hydrogen embrittlement in Fe-rich structural materials such as steel. The present results should suggest implications of hydrogen-enhanced vacancy activities to microscopic mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement in those materials.

2003 —

D. S. dos Santos, S. S. M. Tavares, S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, D. R. dos Santos, J. Alloys Compd., 356–357 (2003) 258–262.

Analysis of the nanopores produced in nickel and palladium by high hydrogen pressure

Samples of pure nickel and palladium were submitted to a high hydrogen pressure (HHP) of 3.5 GPa at 800 °C for 5 h. Analysis of the resulting structural modification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the latter specifically for Ni. The formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs) was observed in the structure in both cases. For Pd, the pores, which formed by the coalescence of vacancies, had dimensions of 20–30 nm when present in the interior of the metal and 1–3 μm when condensed at the surface. The pores were seen to be dispersed homogeneously across the surface of Pd. For Ni, however, pores were created preferentially at the grain boundaries, which promoted significant decohesion in the metal. The distribution of pores induced by heat treatment of Ni subjected to HHP was determined by SAXS analysis and two populations of pores, with population mean diameters of 50 and 250 Å, were observed.

2003 —

M. P. Pitt and E. MacA. Gray, Europhys. Lett., 64 (3), pp. 344–350 (2003). Copy on ResearchGate

Tetrahedral occupancy in the Pd-D system observed by in situ neutron powder diffraction

The crystallography of the Pd-Dx system has been studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction at 309 °C, in the supercritical region, and, after quenching in the pure β phase to 50 °C, in the two-phase region at 50 °C. Rietveld profile analysis of the supercritical diffraction patterns showed that 14% of D interstitials were occupying tetrahedral interstices, in sharp contrast to previous studies at lower temperatures. Tetrahedral occupancy was maintained through the two-phase region at 50 °C. These results are discussed in the light of first-principles total-energy calculations of hydrogen states in palladium.

2004 —

H. Koike, Y. Shizuku, A. Yazaki, and Y. Fukai, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 1335 (2004).

Superabundant vacancy formation in Nb–H alloys; resistometric studies

The formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs; vacancy–hydrogen clusters) was studied in Nb–H alloys by means of resistivity measurements as a function of temperature, pressure and H concentration. The formation energy of a vac–H cluster (0.3 ± 0.1 eV), which is 1/10 of the formation energy of a vacancy in Nb, is explained tentatively as being the consequence of six H atoms trapped by a vacancy with the average binding energy of 0.46 eV/H atom. The SAVs were introduced from the external surface, and transported into the interior by direct bulk diffusion and/or by fast diffusion along dislocations. The activation volumes for the formation and migration of vac–H clusters were determined to be 3.7 and 5.3 Å3, respectively.

2004 —

J. Cizek, I. Prochazka, F. Becvar, R. Kuzel, M. Cieslar, G. Brauer, W. Anwand, R. Kirchheim, and A. Pundt, Phys. Rev. B 69, 224106 (2004)

Hydrogen-induced defects in bulk niobium

Our aim in the present work was to investigate changes of the defect structure of bulk niobium induced by hydrogen loading. The evolution of the microstructure with increasing hydrogen concentration was studied by x-ray diffraction and two complementary techniques of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), namely positron lifetime spectroscopy and slow positron implantation spectroscopy with the measurement of Doppler broadening, in defect-free Nb (99.9%) and Nb containing a remarkable number of dislocations. These samples were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen up to XH=0.06[H/Nb], i.e., in the α-phase region, and it was found that the defect density increases with hydrogen concentration in both Nb samples. This means that hydrogen-induced defects are created in the Nb samples. A comparison of PAS results with theoretical calculations revealed that vacancy-hydrogen complexes are introduced into the samples due to hydrogen loading. Most probably these are vacancies surrounded by 4 hydrogen atoms.

2004 —

M. Nagumo, Mater.Sci.Tech., 20 (2004) 940–950.

Hydrogen related failure of steels – a new aspect

Recent studies of the characteristics and mechanism of hydrogen related failure in steels are overviewed. Based on an analysis of the states of hydrogen in steels, the role of hydrogen in reducing ductile crack growth resistance is attributed to the increased creation of vacancies on straining. Cases showing the involvement of strain induced vacancies in susceptibility to fracture are presented. The function of hydrogen is ascribed to an increase in the density of vacancies and their agglomeration, rather than hydrogen itself, through interactions between vacancies and hydrogen. The newly proposed mechanism of hydrogen related failure is supported by a recent finding of amorphisation associated with crack growth.

2004 —

Daisuke Kyoi, Toyoto Sato, Ewa R¨onnebro, Yasufumi Tsuji, Naoyuki Kitamura, Atsushi Ueda, Mikio Ito, Shigeru Katsuyama, Shigeta Hara, Dag Nor´eus, Tetsuo Sakai, J. Alloys  Compd., 375 (2004) 253–258.

A novel  magnesium–vanadium hydride synthesized by a gigapascal-high-pressure technique

A magnesium-based vanadium-doped hydride was prepared in a high-pressure anvil cell by reacting a MgH2–25%V molar mixture at 8 GPa and 873 K. The new magnesium–vanadium hydride has a cubic F-centred substructure (a=4.721(1) Å), with an additional superstructure, which could be described by a doubling of the cubic cell axis and a magnesium atom framework, including an ordered arrangement of both vanadium atoms and vacancies (a=9.437(3) Å, space group (no. 225), Z=4, V=840.55 Å3). The metal atom structure is related to the Ca7Ge type structure but the refined metal atom composition with vacancies on one of the magnesium sites corresponding to Mg6V nearly in line with EDX analysis. The thermal properties of the new compound were also studied by TPD analysis and TG-DTA. The onset of the hydrogen desorption for the new Mg6V hydride occurred at a 160 K lower temperature when compared to magnesium hydride at a heating rate of 10 K/min.

2004 —

S. Tavares, S. Miraglia, D. Frucharta, D.Dos Santos, L. Ortega and A. Lacoste, J. Alloys Compd., 372 (2004) L6–L8.

Evidence for a superstructure in hydrogen-implanted palladium

An alternative route for hydrogenation has been investigated: plasma-based ion implantation. This treatment applied to the Pd–H system induces a re-ordering of the metal lattice and superstructure lines have been observed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. These results are similar to those obtained by very high-pressure hydrogenation of palladium and prompt us to suggest that plasma-based hydrogen implantation is likely to induce superabundant vacancy phase generation.

2004 —

H. Araki, M. Nakamura, S. Harada, T. Obata, N. Mikhin, V. Syvokon, M. Kubota, J. Low Temp. Phys., 134 (2004) 1145–1151.

Phase Diagram of Hydrogen in Palladium

Hydrogen in palladium, Pd-H(D), is an interesting system because of the highly mobile hydrogen and the presence of a phase boundary below 100 K. Experimentally, however, the nature of this transition has not been established. Historically this transition around 55 to 100 K has been thought to be an order-disorder transition. Such a transition would produce a phase boundary with anomalies at specific hydrogen concentrations corresponding to the specific ordered structures. In order to check this phase boundary we have performed a detailed study of the hydrogen concentration dependence of the specific heat of PdH x over the temperature range from below 0.5 K to above 100 K using PdH x specimens with x up to 0.8753. The measured heat capacity has been analyzed as the sum of contributions due to the lattice specific heat of Pd, the electronic specific heat of PdH x , and the excess contribution caused by hydrogenation of the specimen. The excess specific heat result shows a sharp peak which indicates a phase boundary with transition temperature T1=55 K to 85 K depending linearly on the hydrogen concentration from x=0.6572 to 0.8753. We do not observe anomalies at specific x values as would be expected for the specific ordered structures.

2004 —

Paolo Tripodi, Daniele Di Gioacchino, and Jenny Darja Vinko, Brazilian Journal of Physics, vol. 34, no. 3B, September, 2004.

Magnetic and transport properties of PdH: intriguing superconductive observations

Since the discovery of superconductivity in palladium-hydrogen (PdH) and its isotopes (D,T) at low temperature, several efforts have been made to study the properties of this system. Superconductivity of PdH system has been initially claimed by resistance drop versus temperature and then confirmed by dc magnetic susceptibility measurements. These studies have shown that the critical transition temperature is a function of the hydrogen concentration x in the PdHx system. In all these experiments, the highest concentration of hydrogen in palladium was lower than the unit. In the last decade we defined a room temperature and room pressure technique to load hydrogen and its isotopes into palladium at levels higher than unit, using electrochemical set-up, followed by a stabilization process to maintain the hydrogen concentration in palladium lattice stable. In the meanwhile, several measurements of resistance versus temperature have been performed. These measurements have shown several resistive drops in the range of [18K<Tc< 273K] similar to the results presented in literature, when the superconducting phase has been discovered. Moreover, on PdH wires 6cm long the current-voltage characteristic with a current density greater than 6*104 Acm–2 has been measured at liquid nitrogen temperature. These measurements have the same behavior as superconducting I-V characteristic with sample resistivity, at 77K, of two orders of magnitude lower than copper or silver at the same temperature. The measurements of first and third harmonic of ac magnetic susceptibility in PdHx system have been performed. These represent a good tool to understand the vortex dynamics, since the superconducting response is strongly non-linear. Clear ac susceptibility signals confi rming the literature data at low temperature (9K) and new significant signals at high temperature (263K) have been detected. A phenomenological approach to describe the resistance behaviour of PdH versus stoichiometry x at room temperature has been developed. The value x=1.6 to achieve a macroscopic superconducting state in PdHx has been predicted.

2005 —

Y. Fukai, Second, Revised and Updated Edition, Springer, 2005, Britz Fukai2005

The Metal–Hydrogen System: Basic Bulk Properties

Metal hydrides are of inestimable importance for the future of hydrogen energy. This unique monograph presents a clear and comprehensive description of the bulk properties of the metal-hydrogen system. The statistical thermodynamics is treated over a very wide range of pressure, temperature and composition. Another prominent feature of the book is its elucidation of the quantum mechanical behavior of interstitial hydrogen atoms, including their states and motion. The important topic of hydrogen interaction with lattice defects and its materials-science implications are also discussed thoroughly. This second edition has been substantially revised and updated.

2005 —

T. Iida, Y. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Iijima, and Y. Fukai, Acta Mater. 53, 3083 (2005).

Enhanced diffusion of Nb in Nb–H alloys by hydrogen-induced vacancies

The diffusion coefficient of 95Nb in pure Nb and Nb–H alloys whose hydrogen concentration ranges between H/Nb = 0.05 and 0.34 in atomic ratio has been determined in the temperature range 823–1598 K using a serial sputter-microsectioning technique. The diffusion coefficient of Nb in the Nb–H alloys was found to increase significantly with increasing hydrogen concentration. The dependence of the diffusion enhancement on temperature and hydrogen concentration was examined in some detail, and explained tentatively in terms of average occupation number of hydrogen atoms per vacancy, r. The diffusion enhancement comes primarily from the decrease of the activation energy Q, resulting from the increase of r with increase of hydrogen concentration. Some remaining problems with this interpretation are pointed out for future investigations.

2005 —

S. Harada, S. Yokota, Y. Ishii, Y. Shizuku, M. Kanazawa, Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 404–406 (2005) 247–251.

A relation between the vacancy concentration and hydrogen concentration in the Ni–H, Co–H and Pd–H systems

The formation of superabundant vacancies (Vac-H clusters) has been observed in many M–H alloys, but the factors that determine the equilibrium concentration of vacancies have not been identified yet. To identify these factors, the equilibrium concentration of vacancies was estimated from lattice contraction measurements on Ni, Co and Pd having a fcc structure, at high temperatures (930–1350 K) and high hydrogen pressures (2.4–7.4 GPa). The results show that the vacancy concentration is not so much dependent on temperature and hydrogen pressure as the hydrogen concentration. In Ni and Co, the vacancy concentration (xcl) increases linearly with the hydrogen concentration (xH) for the whole concentration range, reaching xcl∼0.3 at xH∼1.0. In Pd, the vacancy concentration is very small up to xH∼0.6 and increases linearly thereafter with nearly the same slope as in Ni and Co. The maximum vacancy concentration reached in Pd is xcl∼0.12. It is noted that the observed difference in the  2005 —

C. Zhang, Ali Alavi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(27) (2005) 9808–9817.

First-Principles Study of Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Metal Hydrides

Recent experiments have established the generality of superabundant vacancies (SAV) formation in metal hydrides. Aiming to elucidate this intriguing phenomenon and to clarify previous interpretations, we employ density-functional theory to investigate atomic mechanisms of SAV formation in fcc hydrides of Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au. We have found that upon H insertion, vacancy formation energies reduce substantially. This is consistent with experimental suggestions. We demonstrate that the entropy effect, which has been proposed to explain SAV formation, is not the main cause. Instead, it is the drastic change of electronic structure induced by the H in the SAV hydrides, which is to a large extent responsible. Interesting trends in systems investigated are also found:  ideal hydrides of 5metals and noble metals are unstable compared to the corresponding pure metals, but the SAV hydrides are more stable than the corresponding ideal hydrides, whereas opposite results exist in the cases of Ni, Rh, and Pd. These trends of stabilities of the SAV hydrides are discussed in detail and a general understanding for SAV formation is provided. Finally, we propose an alternative reaction pathway to generate a SAV hydride from a metal alloy.

2005 —

Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 404–406 (2005) 7–15.

The structure and phase diagram of M–H systems at high chemical potentials—High pressure and electrochemical synthesis

Efforts to provide a unified picture of metal–hydrogen alloys over a wide range of chemical potentials are described. High chemical potentials are produced either by high-pressure molecular hydrogen or high excess potentials in electrolytic charging or electrodeposition. General systematics of the phase diagram of 3d-metal–hydrogen systems are noted; a drastic reduction of the melting point and the stabilization of close-packed structures with dissolution of hydrogen. Supercritical anomalies are observed in the fcc phase of Fe–H, Co–H and Ni–H systems. In the electrodeposition of metals, it is shown that structural changes are caused by dissolution of hydrogen, and superabundant vacancies of concentrations 10−4 are present.

2005 —

D. Tanguy and M. Mareschal, Physical Review B 72, Issue 17 (2005) 174116.

Superabundant vacancies in a metal-hydrogen system:  Monte Carlo simulations

An equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation capable of treating superabundant vacancy formation and ordering in metal-hydrogen systems (MH) is developed. It combines lattice site occupations and continuous degrees of freedom which enables one to perform insertion/removal moves and hydrogen-vacancy cluster moves while the position of the particles are sampled. The bulk phase diagram in (μM,NH,V,T) ensemble is estimated for concentrations lower than 1  at. %. Within the framework of an EAM Al-H potential, ordering of superabundant vacancies in the shape of chains and platelets is reported at room temperature.

2006 —

K. Sakaki, R. Date, M. Mizuno, H. Araki, and Y. Shirai, Acta Mater. 54, 4641 (2006).

The effect of hydrogenated phase transformation on hydrogen-related vacancy formation in Pd1−xAgx alloy

To clarify the hydrogen-related vacancy formation mechanism, positron lifetime measurements were performed for Pd1−xAgx alloys that were hydrogenated at 296 or 373 K. Positron lifetime increased only when the alloys were hydrogenated below the critical temperature for phase transformation of the hydrogenation reaction, while it remained constant when they were hydrogenated above the critical temperature. This strongly suggests that vacancies formed only when phase transformation occurs. Therefore, hydrogen-related vacancy formation must be caused by the strain generated as the result of the phase transformation.

2006 —

K. Sakaki, T. Kawase, M. Hirato, M. Mizuno, H. Araki, Y. Shirai, and M. Nagumo, Scr. Mater. 55, 1031 (2006).

The effect of hydrogen on vacancy generation in iron by plastic deformation

Positron lifetime spectroscopy was applied to examine the synergistic effect of hydrogen and plastic straining on the vacancy generation in iron. Hydrogen enhanced the increase in mean positron lifetime, τm, by plastic straining and elevated the recovery temperature of τmon isochronal annealing. Multi-component analyses of positron lifetime spectra showed that the presence of hydrogen enhances the generation of vacancies, rather than of dislocations. These results are consistent with previous interpretations on thermal desorption analysis of hydrogen in deformed steels.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, T. Hiroi, N. Mukaibo, and Y. Shimizu, J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 71, 388 (2007). (In Japanese. Figure captions are in English.)

Formation of Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Electroplated Nickel-Iron Alloy Films

The structure and formation of superabundant vacancies in electroplated Ni64Fe36 alloy films have been studied by XRD and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The films, as deposited, consist of fine grains of ca. 10 nm in size, which, upon heating, start to undergo a gradual grain growth at ~600 K, and a rapid growth above ~670 K. The desorption of hydrogen occurred in seven stages; P0(385 K), P1(440 K), P2(560 K), P3(670 K), P4(960 K), P5(1170 K), and P6(>1270 K). P0 is attributed to desorption of H atoms on regular interstitial sites, P1~P2 and P4~P5 to H atoms trapped by vacancies, and P6 to hydrogen bubbles precipitated in the matrix. P3 and a desorption peak of CO+ (1100 K) are attributed to the decomposition of occluded C, H compounds. Binding energies of H in these trapped states are estimated, and possible configurations of these vacancy-H clusters are discussed.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, H. Sugimoto, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 19 365 (2007) 436201.

Formation mechanism of defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies

The formation of defect hydrides containing a large number of M-atom vacancies (superabundant vacancies; SAVs) was studied in bcc NbHx and in the fcc phase of FeHx, CoHx, NiHx and PdHx, by resistivity and XRD measurements under different conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature, with/without allowing for exchange of hydrogen with environment (open-/closed-system methods). Two distinctly different behaviors were observed: in metals with small formation energy of Vac–H clusters, both H and vacancies enter abundantly into the M-lattice to form the ultimate defect-ordered structure, whereas in metals with relatively large formation energies, vacancy concentrations remain relatively small. This general trend was examined by Monte Carlo simulations based on a lattice–gas model. The result showed the occurrence of two distinct phases in the vacancy distribution caused by the combined action of the long-range elastic interaction and local Vac–H interactions, in accordance with the observation. Conditions for the occurrence of these ‘vacancy-rich’ and ‘vacancy-poor’ states are examined.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, H. Sugimoto,  J. Alloys Compd., 446–447 (2007) 474–478.

[See the paper below. The list of authors is incomplete, leaving out the first two authors.]

2007 —

S. Harada, D. Ono, H. Sugimoto, Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 446–447 (2007) 474–478

The defect structure with superabundant vacancies to be formed from fcc binary metal hydrides: Experiments and simulations

The process of formation of defect hydrides containing a large number of metal-atom vacancies was studied experimentally in the fcc phase of Fe, Co, Ni and Pd, under different conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature. Two distinctly different behaviors were observed: In metals with small formation energies of Vac–H clusters, both H and vacancies readily enter the metal lattice to attain the ultimate composition M3VacH4, whereas in metals with relatively large formation energies, the formation of this ultimate structure may become appreciable only at H concentrations exceeding some critical value. This general trend was confirmed by a model calculation including a long-range elastic interaction and short-range interatomic interactions between H atoms and vacancies.

2007 —

A.K. Eriksson, A. Liebig, S. Olafsson, B. Hjörvarsson, J. Alloys Compd. 446–447 (2007) 526-529ResearchGate

Resistivity changes in Cr/V(0 0 1) superlattices during hydrogen absorption

The hydrogen induced resistivity changes in Cr/VHx(0 0 1) superlattices where investigated in the concentration range 0<x<0.7. Initially, the resistivity increases with H content, reaching a maximum at H/V≈0.5 atomic ratio. At concentration above 0.5, the resistivity decreases with increasing H concentration. These results are in stark contrast to the H induced resistivity changes in Fe/V(0 0 1) superlattices, in which the resistivity increases monotonically up to H/V≈1. The results unambiguously prove the importance of the interface scattering, which calls for better theoretical description of the H induces changes in the electronic structure in this type of materials.

2008 —

S. Kala and B. R. Mehta, Bull. Mater. Sci., Indian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 3, June 2008, pp. 225–231.

Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers

In this study, modification in the properties of hydrogen-induced switchable mirror based on Pr nanoparticle layers is reported. The reversible changes in hydrogen-induced electrical and optical properties of Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers have been studied as a function of hydrogenation time and compared with the conventional device based on Pd capped Pr thin films. Faster electrical and optical response, higher optical contrast and presence of single absorption edge corresponding to Pr trihydride state in hydrogen loaded state have been observed in the case of nanoparticle layers. The improvement in the electrical and optical properties have been explained in terms of blue shift in the absorption edge due to quantum confinement effect, larger number of interparticle boundaries, presence of defects, loose adhesion to the substrate and enhanced surface to volume atom ratio at nanodimension.

2008 —

Nagatsugu Mukaibo, Yasuo Shimizu, Yuh Fukai and Toshiaki Hiroi, Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 12 (2008) pp. 2815 to 2822. (full copy)

In an effort to realize the long-term stability of the magnetostrictive property of electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy films, heat treatments needed for eliminating the possible effect of hydrogen and hydrogen-induced vacancies have been investigated, mainly by use of thermal desorption spectroscopy. While metal-atom vacancies begin to move only above ~500 K, hydrogen atoms can undergo slow motion and concomitant changes of state at room temperature, and are therefore believed to be a major cause of the long-term drift of the magnetism. Hydrogen atoms dissolved on regular interstitial sites can be completely removed by high-frequency pulse heating to 668 K, and those trapped by vacancies with relatively low binding energies by additional heat treatments to 453 K for over 1 h. This combination of heat treatments was found to reduce substantially the change of state of hydrogen during subsequent aging tests (383 K for 400 h), and proved to be effective for ensuring the long-term stability of magnetostrictive Ni-Fe film sensors.

2009 —

O.Yu. Vekilova, D.I. Bazhanov, S.I. Simak, I.A. Abrikosov, Phys.Rev. B, 80 (2009) 024101.

First-principles study of vacancy–hydrogen interaction in Pd

Hydrogen absorption in face-centered-cubic palladium is studied from first principles, with particular focus on interaction between hydrogen atoms and vacancies, formation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes, and multiple hydrogen occupancy of a Pd vacancy. Vacancy formation energy in the presence of hydrogen, hydrogen trapping energy, and vacancy formation volume have been calculated and compared to existing experimental data. We show that a vacancy and hydrogen atoms form stable complexes. Further we have studied the process of hydrogen diffusion into the Pd vacancy. We find the energetically preferable position for hydrogen to reside in the palladium unit cell in the presence of a vacancy. The possibility of the multiple hydrogen occupancy (up to six hydrogen atoms) of a monovacancy is elucidated. This theoretical finding supports experimental indication of the appearance of superabundant vacancy complexes in palladium in the presence of hydrogen.

2009 —

M. Wen, L. Zhang, B. An, S. Fukuyama, and K. Yokogawa, Phys. Rev. B 80, 094113

Hydrogen-enhanced dislocation activity and vacancy formation during nanoindentation of nickel

The effect of hydrogen on dislocation activities during the nanoindentation of Ni(110) is studied by molecular-dynamics simulation at 300 K. The results reveal that the critical event for the first dislocation nucleation during nanoindentation is due to the thermally activated formation of a small cluster with an atom’s relative displacement larger than half the magnitude of the Burgers vector of partial dislocations. Hydrogen only enhances homogenous dislocation nucleation slightly; however it promotes dislocation emission, induces slip planarity, and localizes dislocation activity significantly, leading to locally enhanced vacancy formation from dislocations. The present results, thus, prove hydrogen-enhanced localized dislocation activity and vacancy formation to be the main reason of hydrogen embrittlement in metals and alloys.

2009 —

H. Sugimoto, Y. Fukai, Diffusion-fundamentals.org 11 (2009) 102, pp 1-2. (full copy)

Migration mechanism in defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies

[Introduction] In the presence of interstitial H atoms, the concentration of M-atom vacancies is
enhanced dramatically, forming a defect structure containing superabundant vacancies
(SAVs). The diffusivity of M atoms is enhanced accordingly. Physically, these
phenomena are the result of the lowering of the formation energy of a vacancy by
trapping H atoms [1, 2].

A Monte Carlo calculation on the SAV formation process revealed that, in hydrides of fcc
metals, two distinct defect phases are formed; a vacancy-ordered phase of high
concentrations of vacancies on the L12 structure, and a vacancy-disordered phase of
relatively low concentrations where vacancies are randomly distributed over the M lattice.
Transitions between these two phases take place, as shown in Fig.1 [2].

Figure 1. Temperature dependence of the vacancy concentration for several different
H concentrations, x=[H]/[M], calculated for eb=0.4 eV.

Note that, in both phases, the vacancy concentration is many orders of magnitude
higher than in pure metals. The present paper addresses, specifically, the migration of H
atoms and M-atom vacancies in the vacancy-disordered phase.
Experimental data available for Pd, Ni and Nb indicate that the migration energy of a
vacancy is increased by amounts comparable to the migration energy of an H atom, and
the pre-exponential factor is reduced by 1 ~ 2 orders of magnitude [3 ~ 5].

2009 —

J. F. Shackelford, 7th ed.,  Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2009, pp. 272-3. Googlebooks There is an 8th edition, the 7th is much less expensive. Publisher description:

Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers

[Publisher description} This book provides balanced, current treatment of the full spectrum of engineering materials, covering all the physical properties, applications and relevant properties associated with engineering materials. The book explores all of major categories of materials while offering detailed examinations of a wide range of new materials with high-tech applications. The reader is treated to state-of-the-art computer generated crystal structure illustrations, offering the most technically precise and visually realistic illustrations available. The book includes over 350 exercises with sample problems to provide guidance. Materials for Engineering, Atomic Bonding, Crystal Structure and Defects, Diffusion, Mechanical Behavior, Thermal Behavior, Failure Analysis & Prevention. Phase Diagrams, Heat Treatment, Metals, Ceramics and Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Electrical Behavior, Optical Behavior, Semiconductor Materials, Magnetic Materials, Environmental Degradation, Materials Science. For mechanical and civil engineers and machine designers.

2009 —

Paolo Tripodi,, Nicolas Armanet, Vincenzo Asarisi, Alessandro Avveduto, Alessandro Marmigi,
Jean-Paul Biberian, Jenny Darja Vinko,  Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(35). Copy available.

The effect of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles on palladium physical properties

A series of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles have been performed on palladium wire samples, stressed by a constant mechanical tension, in order to investigate the changes in electrical and mechanical properties. A large increase of palladium electrical resistivity has been reported due to the combined effects of the production of defects linked to hydrogen insertion into the host lattice and the stress applied to the sample. An increase of the palladium sample strain due to hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles in α → β → α phase transitions is observed compared to the sample subjected to mechanical tension only. The loss of initial metallurgical properties of the sample occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle, i.e. a displacement from the initial metallic behavior (increase of the resistivity and decrease of thermal coefficient of resistivity) to a worse one occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle. A linear correlation between palladium resistivity and strain, according to Matthiessen’s rule, has been found

Paolo Tripodi, Nicolas Armanet, Vincenzo Asarisi, Alessandro Avveduto, Alessandro Marmigi,
Jean-Paul Biberian, Jenny Darja Vinko, Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(47). Copy available.

The effect of hydrogen stoichiometry on palladium strain and resistivity

The strain and the electrical resistivity of a Pd sample stressed by a constant tension have been investigated through a series of hydrogenation cycles in a continuous H stoichiometry [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8] range. The isotropic lattice expansion for both “as drawn” and “annealed” Pd sample reveals a strain of only 1% from pure Pd to PdH0.8 in disagreement with literature data available; the measured effect is minimum at x = 0.13 (α + β phase) and then from x = 0.6 (β phase) it has an exponential increase. The contribution of the mechanical tensile stress on the total relative elongation of the wire is also investigated. An increase of the Pd sample tensile strain after each hydrogenation cycle is reported for “as drawn” samples, while for “annealed” samples the reverse behaviour is observed. Moreover, annealed samples show considerably higher value of tensile strain compared to “as drawn”. The variation of mechanical strain versus H content, for both “annealed” and “as drawn”, has a maximum at x = 0.52. Strain variation and resistivity variation versus H content exhibit similar behaviour.

2009 —

Y. Yagodzinskyy, T. Saukkonen, S. Kilpelinen, F. Tuomisto, and H. Hnninen, Scr. Mater. 62, 155 (2010).

Effect of hydrogen on plastic strain localization in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel

Tensile tests accompanied with on-line in situ field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy observations were performed to study hydrogen effects on plastic strain localization in the form of slip lines in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. It was found that the slip lines on the hydrogen-charged specimens were markedly shorter and more grouped together than the straight slip lines on the hydrogen-free specimens. Hydrogen thermal desorption and positron annihilation spectroscopy were applied to study the combined effect of hydrogen and plastic deformation on excessive generation of vacancies.

2009 —

Degtyareva V.F.,  Conference “Hydrogen Materials Science” (ICHMS) 2009, 25-31 August, Yalta, Ukraine, arXiv.

Electronic origin of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures

Summary: [. . . ] formation of vacancies in the fcc structure of Pd hydride and several other metal hydrides can be accounted for by electronic origin assuming that valence electron energy is minimized due to Hume-Rothery effects.

2010 —

Scott Richmond, Joseph Anderson, and Jeff Abes, Plutonium Futures — The Science Keystone, CO, September 19-23, (2010) 206. This refers to  a CD-ROM, apparently the proceedings. Program schedule. The authors’ affiliation shows as LANL.  ResearchGate  requested and provided. See also The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal, contemporaneous. Copy available.

Evidence for hydrogen induced vacancies in Plutonium metal

1. Thermodynamic data for the solubility of hydrogen in plutonium indicate that Pu-Vac-H1+x (0< x< 1) clusters are the thermodynamically stable state of “solution” hydrogen atoms in plutonium metal <525°C.
2. The thermodynamic hydrogen solubility data together with the low melting point of Pu show that the conditions for “Super-Abundant Vacancy” creation are met. The Super-Abundant Vacancy (SAV ) phenomena was identified by Fukai in 1993 [2] and has significant material consequences.
3. Evaluation of helium release data from Pu metal samples supports the evidence of hydrogen induced vacancies in Pu metal.
4. Hydrogen is present in all Pu metal unless great care is taken to avoid it. An H/Pu value of ~0.01 is common even in “high purity” samples.

2011 —

L.E. Isaeva, D.I. Bazhanov, E.I. Isaev, S.V. Eremeev, S.E. Kulkova, I.A. Abrikosov, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 1254 (2011). (copy)

Dynamic stability of palladium hydride: An ab initio study

We present results of our ab initio studies of electronic and dynamic properties of ideal palladium hydride PdH and its vacancy ordered defect phase Pd3VacH4 (“Vac” – vacancy on palladium site) with L12 crystal structure found experimentally and studied theoretically. Quantum and thermodynamic properties of these hydrides, such as phonon dispersion relations and the vacancy formation enthalpies have been studied. Dynamic stability of the defect phase Pd3VacH4 with respect to different site occupation of hydrogen atoms at the equilibrium state and under pressure was analyzed. It was shown that positions of hydrogen atoms in the defect phase strongly affect its stability and may be a reason for further phase transitions in the defect phase.

2011 —

Y. Z. Chen, G. Csiszar, J. Cizek, C. Borchers, T. Ung ´ ar, S. Goto, and R. Kirchheim, Scr. Mater. 64, 390 (2011).

On the formation of vacancies in α-ferrite of a heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are widely used in numerous engineering fields. Combining X-ray line profile analysis and positron annihilation spectroscopy methods, up to 10−5–10−4vacancies were found in α-ferrite of a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire with a true strain of ε = 3. The formation of deformation-induced vacancies in α-ferrite of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire was quantitatively testified.

2011 —

N. Fukumuro, T. Adachi, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, Y. Fukai, Trans. Inst. Met. Finish., 89 (2011) 198–201.

Influence of hydrogen on room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films: thermal desorption spectroscopy

The mechanism of recrystallisation observed at room temperature in electrodeposited Cu films has been examined in light of the enhancement of metal atom diffusion by hydrogen induced superabundant vacancies. Thermal desorption spectroscopy revealed that Cu films electrodeposited from acid sulphate bath containing some specific additives showed a pronounced peak, which was ascribed to the break-up of vacancy–hydrogen clusters. The amount of desorbed hydrogen was comparable to that of vacancy type clusters estimated in previous positron annihilation experiments. The grain size of Cu films increased as hydrogen desorption proceeded. Such grain growths were not observed in the films deposited from the baths without additives. These results indicate that the room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films is caused by hydrogen induced superabundant vacancies.

2011 —

S.Yu. Zaginaichenko, Z.A. Matysina, D.V. Schur, L.O. Teslenko, A. Veziroglu, , Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36 (2011) 1152–1158.

The structural vacancies in palladium hydride. Phase diagram

The theory development of structural vacancies formation in palladium hydride on the molecular-kinetic presentations is the subject of this paper. The production of vacant-ordered superstructure of Cu3Au type has been considered at the high temperatures. The calculation of free energies of the PdH and Pd3VH phases has been carried out. The constitution diagram defined the temperature and concentration regions of phases formation with the A1 and L12 structures and regions of two A1 + L12 phases realization has been constructed. The results of theoretical calculations are in agreement with experimental data.

2011 —

M. Khalid and P. Esquinazi, Phys. Rev. B 85, 134424 – Published 13 April 2012.

Hydrogen-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO single crystals investigated by magnetotransport

We investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of low-energy H+-implanted ZnO single crystals with hydrogen concentrations up to 3 at% in the first 20-nm surface layer between 10 K and 300 K. All samples show clear ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at 300 K with a saturation magnetization up to 4 emu/g. The measured anomalous Hall effect agrees with the hysteresis loops measured by superconducting quantum interferometer device magnetometry. All the H-treated ZnO crystals exhibit a negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature. The relative magnitude of the anisotropic magnetoresistance reaches 0.4% at 250 K and 2% at 10 K, exhibiting an anomalous, nonmonotonous behavior and a change of sign below 100 K. All the experimental data indicate that hydrogen atoms alone in the few percent range trigger a magnetic order in the ZnO crystalline state. Hydrogen implantation turns out to be a simpler and effective method to generate a magnetic order in ZnO, which provides interesting possibilities for future applications due to the strong reduction of the electrical resistance.

2011 —

Y. Fukai, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vol. 312-315 (2011) pp. 1106-1115.

Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Metals: Implication for Electrodeposition

The equilibrium concentration of vacancies in metals is invariably enhanced in the presence of interstitial hydrogen atoms – a phenomenon called superabundant vacancy (SAV) formation. It has been recognized that the SAV formation occurs in electrodeposition, as M-, H-atoms and M-atom vacancies are deposited by atom-by-atom process. Effects of SAV formation are described for electrodeposited Ni, Ni-Fe alloys, Fe-C alloys and Cu. Possible implication of SAV formation for corrosion in Al and steels is also briefly described.

2012 —

D.L. Knies, V.Violante, K.S. Grabowski, J.Z. Hu, D.D. Dominguez, J.H. He, S.B. Qadri and G.K. Hubler, J. Appl. Phys., 112 (2012) 083510. Copy on Research Gate.

In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1

Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H2O (D2O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

2012 —

D. E. Azofeifa, N. Clark, W. E. Vargas, H. Solís, G. K. Pálsson, and B. Hjörvarsson, Physica Scripta, Volume 86, Number 6, Published 15 November (2012).

Temperature- and hydrogen-induced changes in the optical properties of Pd capped V thin films

Optical properties of V thin films deposited on MgO substrates have been obtained from spectrophotometric measurements. The V films were coated with a thin Pd layer to protect them from oxidation and to favor absorption of atomic hydrogen. Electrical resistance was recorded while hydrogen pressure was increased slowly up to 750 mbar keeping the temperature constant. Simultaneously, visible and near-infrared transmittance spectra of this Pd/V/MgO system were measured. The spectra were numerically inverted to obtain the spectral behavior of the Pd and V dielectric functions at 22 and 140 °C. Hydrogen concentrations were first determined from the combined effect of hydrogen content on the electrical resistance and on the optical direct transmission of the system. Then, determination of these concentrations was improved using retrieved values of the absorption coefficients of the hydrides and taking into account the structural change of V and the volumetric expansion of Pd. Good agreement is established when considering qualitative correlations between spectral features of the optimized PdHy and VHx dielectric functions and band structure calculations and densities of states for these two transition metal hydrides.

2012 —

Ruby Carat, ColdFusionNow, Interview, August 12, 2012. 38:04No abstract or transcript.

An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) by Edmund Storms

2013 —

N. Hisanaga, N. Fukumuro, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, ECS Trans., 50(48) (2013) 77–82.

Hydrogen in Platinum Films Electrodeposited from Dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution

The influence of hydrogen on the microstructure of Pt films electrodeposited from a dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) solution was investigated with thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Two pronounced desorption peaks were observed in the thermal desorption spectrum of hydrogen from the Pt films. The total amount of desorbed hydrogen in the range from 300 to 1100 K in the atomic ratio (H/Pt) was 0.1. The deposited Pt film consisted of fine grains (~10 nm) and many nano-voids. The lattice parameter of the Pt grains was lower than that of bulk Pt. Drastic grain growth and reduction in the lattice contraction occurred from heat treatment at a temperature corresponding to the first hydrogen desorption peak of 500 K.

2013 —

N. Fukumuro, M. Yokota, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, Y.Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 580 (2013) s55–s57.

Hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films

The hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films on Cu substrate has been investigated with thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen content in Pd films (= H/Pd) was 2.2–7.7 × 10−2 and decreased with time at room temperature. For Pd films with lower hydrogen contents (x ≦ 4.0 × 10−2), lattice contraction and grain growth proceeded as hydrogen desorption proceeded. For Pd films with higher hydrogen contents (x ≧ 5.8 × 10−2), fine grains became large columnar grains, and a large-grained Cu–Pd interlayer was formed by interdiffusion between the Cu substrate and the Pd film.

2013 —

Atsushi Yabuuchi, Teruo Kihara, Daichi Kubo, Masataka Mizuno, Hideki Araki, Takashi Onishi and Yasuharu Shirai, Jpn.J.Appl.Phys., 52 (2013) 046501.

Effect of Hydrogen on Vacancy Formation in Sputtered Cu Films Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

As a part of the LSI interconnect fabrication process, a post-deposition high-pressure annealing process is proposed for embedding copper into trench structures. The embedding property of sputtered Cu films has been recognized to be improved by adding hydrogen to the sputtering argon gas. In this study, to elucidate the effect of hydrogen on vacancy formation in sputtered Cu films, normal argon-sputtered and argon–hydrogen-sputtered Cu films were evaluated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. As a result, monovacancies with a concentration of more than 10-4 were observed in the argon–hydrogen-sputtered Cu films, whereas only one positron lifetime component corresponding to the grain boundary was detected in the normal argon-sputtered Cu films. This result means monovacancies are stabilized by adding hydrogen to sputtering gas. In the annealing process, the stabilized monovacancies began clustering at around 300 °C, which indicates the dissociation of monovacancy-hydrogen bonds. The introduced monovacancies may promote creep deformation during high-pressure annealing.

2013 —

David J. Nagel, “Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 10 (2013) 1–1. (Copy available)

Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials

Small craters have been observed frequently in the surfaces of cathodes from electrochemical LENR experiments. They are generally 1–100 µm in size. The craters vary widely in shape and areal distribution. Two methods were used to determine the energies needed to produce such craters. The resulting energies range from nJ to mJ, depending on the crater size. If craters are caused by LENR, then many nearly simultaneous MeV-level energy releases would have to occur in a very small volume. There are numerous open basic questions regarding the formation and characteristics of craters in LENR cathodes. It remains to be seen if craters will be helpful in understanding the origin and nature of LENR. But already, the existence and features of craters seriously challenge theories that seek to understand LENR

2014 —

M. Tsirlin, J. Cond. Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, 1-4 (2014).

Comment on the article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’

Formation of small craters on the surface of Pd cathode during electrolysis in electrolytes based on heavy water is sometimes interpreted as a consequence of low-temperature nuclear reactions. In this note we discuss the validity of these statements.

2014 —

Nazarov, R. and Hickel, T. and Neugebauer, J., Phys. Rev. B 89, 144108 (2014). Britz Naza2014

Ab initio study of H-vacancy interactions in fcc metals: Implications for the formation of superabundant vacancies

Hydrogen solubility and interaction with vacancies and divacancies are investigated in 12 fcc metals by density functional theory. We show that in all studied fcc metals, vacancies trap H very efficiently and multiple H trapping is possible. H is stronger trapped by divacancies and even stronger by surfaces. We derive a condition for the maximum number of trapped H atoms as a function of the H chemical potential. Based on this criterion, the possibility of a dramatic increase of vacancy concentration (superabundant vacancy formation) in the studied metals is discussed.

2014 —

A. Houari, A., S. Matar, V. Eyert,  arXiv (2014).

Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented.
The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal
approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical
bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy
is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer
hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende
and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d
and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group.
Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density
of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise
favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as
realized e.g. in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found
in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations
the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered
defect phase Pd3H4 follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt
structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

2014 —

I.A. Supryadkina, D.I. Bazhanov, and A.S. Ilyushin, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 118 (2014) 80–86.

Ab Initio Study of the Formation of Vacancy and Hydrogen–Vacancy Complexes in Palladium and Its Hydride

We report on the results of ab initio calculations of vacancy and hydrogen-vacancy complexes in palladium and palladium hydride. Comparative analysis of the energies of the formation of defect complexes in palladium and its hydride has revealed that the formation of vacancy clusters is easier in the palladium hydride structure. Investigation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes in bulk crystalline palladium has shown that a hydrogen atom and a vacancy interact to form a stable hydrogen-vacancy (H-Vac) defect complex with a binding energy of E b = −0.21 eV. To investigate the initial stage in the formation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes (H n -Vac m), we consider the clusterization of defects into clusters containing H-Vac and H2-Vac complexes as a structural unit. It is found that hydrogen-vacancy complexes form 2D defect structures in palladium in the (100)-type planes.

2014 —

L. Liu, J. Wang, S. K. Gong & S. X. Mao, Scientific Reports vol. 4, Article number: 4397 (2014) (full copy available at source)

Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries

Coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) in nano-twinned materials could improve crack resistance. However, the role of the CTBs during crack penetration has never been explored at atomic scale. Our in situ observation on nano-twinned Ag under a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) reveals the dynamic processes of a crack penetration across the CTBs, which involve alternated crack tip blunting, crack deflection, twinning/detwinning and slip transmission across the CTBs. The alternated blunting processes are related to the emission of different types of dislocations at the crack tip and vary with the distance of the crack tip from the CTBs.

2015 —

H. Wulff, M. Quaas, H. Deutsch, H. Ahrens, M. Frohlich, C.A. Helm, Thin Solid Films, 596 (2015) 185–189.

Formation of palladium hydrides in low temperature Ar/H2-plasma

20 nm thick Pd coatings deposited on Si substrates with 800 nm SiO2 and 1 nm Cr buffer layers were treated in a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source at 700 W plasma power and 40 Pa working pressure without substrate heating. For obtaining information on the effect of energy influx due to ion energy on the palladium films the substrate potential was varied from Usub = 0 V to − 150 V at constant gas flow corresponding to mean ion energies Ei from 0.22 eV ∙ cm− 2 ∙ s− 1 to 1.28 eV ∙ cm− 2 ∙ s− 1.

In contrast to high pressure reactions with metallic Pd, under plasma exposure we do not observe solid solutions over a wide range of hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen incorporation in Pd films takes place discontinuously. At 0 V substrate voltage palladium hydride is formed in two steps to PdH0.14 and PdH0.57. At − 50 V substrate voltage PdH0.57 is formed directly. However, substrate voltages of − 100 V and − 150 V cause shrinking of the unit cell. We postulate the formation of two fcc vacancy palladium hydride clusters PdHVac(I) and PdHVac(II). Under longtime plasma exposure the fcc PdHVac(II) phase forms cubic PdH1.33.

The fcc PdH0.57 phase decomposes at temperatures > 300 °C to form metallic fcc Pd. The hydrogen removal causes a decrease of lattice defects. In situ high temperature diffractometry measurements also confirm the existence of PdHVac(II) as a palladium hydride phase. Stoichiometric relationship between cubic PdH1.33 and fcc PdHVac(II) becomes evident from XR measurements and structure considerations. We assume both phases have the chemical composition Pd3H4. Up to 700 °C we observe phase transformation between both the fcc PdHVac(II) and cubic PdH1.33 phases. These phase transformations could be explained analog to a Bain distortion by displacive solid state structural changes.

2015 —

Y. Fukada, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, S. Ohshima, J. Alloys Compd., 647 (2015) 221–230.

In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C

Hydrogen isotopes and metal interaction with respect to Pd under high hydrogen isotope potential at moderate temperature region around 300 °C was studied. A dry electrolysis technique using BaZr1−x YxO3 solid state electrolyte was developed to generate high hydrogen isotope potential. Hydrogen or deuterium was loaded into a 200 nm thick Pd cathode. The cathode is deposited on SiO2 substrate and covered with the solid state electrolyte and a Pd anode layer. Time resolved in situ monochromatic x-ray diffraction measurement was performed during the electrolysis. Two phase states of the Pd cathodes with large and small lattice parameters were observed during the electrolysis. Numerous sub-micron scale voids in the Pd cathode and dendrite-like Pd precipitates in the solid state electrolyte were found from the recovered samples. Hydrogen induced super-abundant-vacancy may take role in those phenomena. The observed two phase states may be attributed to phase separation into vacancy-rich and vacancy-poor states. The voids formed in the Pd cathodes seem to be products of vacancy coalescence. Isotope effects were also observed. The deuterium loaded samples showed more rapid phase changes and more formation of voids than the hydrogen doped samples.

2015 —

Ian M. Robertson, P. Sofronis, A. Nagao, M.L. Martin, S. Wang, D.W. Gross, and K.E. Nygren, Edward DeMille Campbell Memorial Lecture”, ASM International, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, (28 March 2015) DOI: 10.1007/s11663-015-0325-y  (copy available.)

Hydrogen Embrittlement Understood

The connection between hydrogen-enhanced plasticity and the hydrogen-induced fracture mechanism and pathway is established through examination of the evolved microstructural state immediately beneath fracture surfaces including voids, “quasi-cleavage,” and intergranular surfaces. This leads to a new understanding of hydrogen embrittlement in which hydrogen-enhanced plasticity processes accelerate the evolution of the microstructure, which establishes not only local high concentrations of hydrogen but also a local stress state. Together, these factors establish the fracture mechanism and pathway.

2016 —

,  Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 688, Part B, 15 December 2016, Pages 404-412. DOI * ResearchGate

Multiple phase separation of super-abundant-vacancies in Pd hydrides by all solid-state electrolysis in moderate temperatures around 300 °C

The dynamics of hydrogen-induced vacancies are the key for understanding various phenomena in metal–hydrogen systems under a high hydrogen chemical potential. In this study, a novel dry-electrolysis experiment was performed in which a hydrogen isotope was injected into a Pd cathode and time-resolved in situ monochromatic X-ray diffraction measurement was carried out at the Pd cathode. It was found that palladium-hydride containing vacancies forms multiple phases depending on the hydrogen chemical potential. Phase separation into vacancy-rich, vacancy-poor, and moderate-vacancy-concentration phases was observed when the input voltage was relatively low, i.e., ∼0.5 V. The moderate-vacancy-concentration phase may be attributed to Ca7Ge or another type of super-lattice Pd7VacH(D)8. Transition from the vacancy-rich to the moderate-vacancy-concentration phase explains the sub-micron void formations without high temperature treatment that were observed at the Pd cathode but have never been reported in previous anvil experiments.

Graphical Abstract|

2017 —

L. Bukonte, T. Ahlgren, and K. Heinola, J. Appl. Phys. 121, (2017) pp. 045102-1 to -11. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4974530. (full copy available) (extensive references with links)

Thermodynamics of impurity-enhanced vacancy formation in metals

Hydrogen induced vacancy formation in metals and metal alloys has been of great interest during the past couple of decades. The main reason for this phenomenon, often referred to as the  superabundant vacancy formation, is the lowering of vacancy formation energy due to the trapping of hydrogen. By means of thermodynamics, we study the equilibrium vacancy formation in fcc metals (Pd, Ni, Co, and Fe) in correlation with the H amounts. The results of this study are compared and found to be in good agreement with experiments. For the accurate description of the total energy of the metal–hydrogen system, we take into account the binding energies of each trapped impurity, the vibrational entropy of defects, and the thermodynamics of divacancy formation. We demonstrate the effect of vacancy formation energy, the hydrogen binding, and the divacancy binding energy on the total equilibrium vacancy concentration. We show that the divacancy fraction gives the major contribution to the total vacancy fraction at high H fractions and cannot be neglected when studying superabundant vacancies. Our results lead to a novel conclusion that at high hydrogen fractions, superabundant vacancy formation takes place regardless of the binding energy between vacancies and hydrogen. We also propose the reason of superabundant vacancy formation mainly in the fcc phase. The equations obtained within this work can be used for any metal–impurity system, if the impurity occupies an interstitial site in the lattice.

2017 —

A. Paolone, S. Tosti, A. Santucci, O. Palumbo and F. Trequattrini, Chem. Engr. 1 (2017), 14; pp.1-9 doi: 10.3390/chemengineering1020014 MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. (copy available)

Hydrogen and deuterium solubility in commercial Pd–Ag alloys for hydrogen purification

Pd–Ag alloys with compositions close to 23–25% Ag are considered as a benchmark for hydrogen permeability. They are used in small scale reactors for hydrogen separation and purification. Permeability and solubility are strictly mathematically correlated, and the temperature dependence of solubility can provide useful information about the physical state of the material, the hydrogenation enthalpy, and the occurrence of different thermodynamic states. While the permeability of Pd–Ag alloys has been largely investigated, solubility measurements are available only in a restricted temperature range. In this paper, we extend solubility measurements up to 7 bar for Pd77Ag23 in the temperature range between 25 °C and 400 °C and for Pd30Ag70for temperatures between 190°C and 300°C. The occurrence of solid solutions or hydride phases is discussed, and the hydrogenation enthalpy is calculated.

2017 —

Hidehiko Sugimoto, Yuh Fukai, Scripta Materialia, June 2017 134:20-23, DOI:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.02.033 ResearchGate

Hydrogen-induced superabundant vacancy formation by electrochemical methods in bcc Fe: Monte Carlo simulation

Process of formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs) by electrochemical methods is examined by Monte Carlo simulation developed in our previous papers, with particular focus on bcc Fe. SAVs are introduced abruptly when the electrode potential is lowered below some critical value, −0.4V vs. SHE, and, once formed, remain as such to another critical potential significantly higher. The effect of varying pH of the electrolyte is also included. Two different configurations of Vac-H clusters are formed; VacH4 and VacH5. A consistent explanation is given of our previous observations of SAV formation in electrodeposited Fe.

2018 —

M.R. Staker, ICCF-21 (2018) (preprint).

Coupled Calorimetry and Resistivity Measurements, in Conjunction with an Emended and More Complete Phase Diagram of the Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen System

Results of a calorimetric study established the energy produced, over and above input energy, from electrolytic loading of deuterium into Pd was 150 MJ/cc of Pd (14000 eV/Pd atom) for a 46 day period. High fugacity of deuterium was developed in unalloyed palladium via electrolysis (0.5 molar electrolyte of lithium deuteroxide, LiOD) with the use of an independent electromigration current. In situ resistivity measurements of Pd were used to assay activity of D in the Pd lattice (ratio of D/Pd) and employed as an indicator of phase changes. During this period, two run-away events were triggered by suddenly increasing current density resulting in 100 percent excess power (2.4 watts output with 1.2 watts input) and necessitating temporary cut back in electrolysis current. The average excess power (excluding run-away) ranged from 4.7 +/- 0.15 to 9.6 +/- 0.30 percent of input power while input power ranged from 2.000 to 3.450 watts, confirming the Fleischmann-Pons effect. The precision was: Power In = +/-.0005 W; ∆T = +/- .05oC; Power Out = +/-.015 W for an overall precision of +/- 0.5%. High fugacity was required for these results, and the triggered run-away events required even higher fugacity. Using thermodynamic energy balance, it was found that the energy release was of such magnitude that the source of the energy is from a nuclear source, however the exact reaction was not determined in this work. X-ray diffraction results from the recent literature, rules for phase diagram construction, and thermodynamic stability requirements necessitate revisions of the phase diagram, with addition of three thermodynamically stable phases of the superabundant vacancy (SAV) type. These phases, each requiring high fugacity, are: γ (Pd7VacD6-8), δ (Pd3VacD4 – octahedral), δ’ (Pd3VacD4 – tetrahedral). The emended Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen phase diagram is presented. The excess heat condition supports portions of the cathode being in the ordered δ phase (Pd3VacD4 – octahedral), while a drop in resistance of the Pd cathode during increasing temperature and excess heat production strongly indicates portions of the cathode also transformed to the ordered δ’ phase (Pd3VacD4 – tetrahedral). A dislocation mechanism is presented for creation of vacancies and mobilizing them by electromigration because of their attraction to D+ ions which aids the formation of SAV phases. Extending SAV unit cells to the periodic lattice epiphanates δ as the nuclear active state. The lattice of the decreased resistance phase, δ’, reveals extensive pathways of low resistance and a potential connection to the superconductivity phase of PdH/PdD.

## ICCF-15

Subpage of Proceedings

Foto Group, October 5, 2009. At the main entrance to Angelicum, the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas.

PROCEEDINGS

15th International Conference on

Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

Rome, Italy
October 5-9, 2009

Edited by Vittorio Violante and Francesca Sarto

 Preface Vittorio Violante i Welcome of the Italian Physical Society (SIF) Enzo De Sanctis xi In Memory of Andrei George H. Miley xiii Forward M.C.H. McKubre xv

## ICCF-14

subpage of Proceedings

Proceedings of the
14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
and the
14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-14)
10-15 August 2008
Washington DC

ISBN: 978-0-578-06694-3. Rights to the papers herein are reserved by their respective authors
Printing was done by the Marriott Library of the University of Utah
Copies of these proceedings can be purchased on a DVD for $20 from: New Energy Foundation, Inc. P.O. Box 2816 Concord, NH 03302-2816 http://www.infinite-energy.com Phone: 603-485-4700 General Editors: David J. Nagel and Michael E. Melich Theory Editors: Rodney W. Johnson and Scott R. Chubb Copy Editor: Jed Rothwell The files hosted here were obtained from a copy of the Proceedings hosted at one time by iscmns.org. At this point, it is no longer there, but copies were found on archive.org for Volume 1 and Volume 2. Front matter and table of contents. All files have been moderately compressed.  VOLUME 1 Preface i Calorimetry 1 Twenty Year Review of Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect M. H. Miles and M. Fleischmann 6 The Method and Results Using Seebeck Calorimetry Edmund Storms 11 Construction of a Seebeck Envelope Calorimeter and Reproducibility of Excess Heat Wu-Shou Zhang, John Dash and Zhong-Liang Zhang 26 Mass Flow Calorimetry Michael C. H. McKubre and Francis Tanzella 32 MOAC – A High Accuracy Calorimeter for Cold Fusion Studies Scott R. Little, George A. Luce, Marissa E. Little 47 Constant Heat Flow Calorimeter T. V. Lautzenhiser, D. W. Phelps and M. Eisner 53 A Simple Calorimetric Method to Avoid Artifacts in a Controversial Field: The Ice Calorimeter Jacques Dufour, Xavier Dufour, Denis Murat and Jacques Foos 60 Heat Measurements 67 The Enabling Criteria of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt Dennis Cravens and Dennis Letts 71 Ultrasonically-Excited Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies I. Dardik, T. Zilov, H. Branover, A. El-Boher, E. Greenspan, B. Khachaturov, V. Krakov, S. Lesin, A. Shapiro and M. Tsirlin 106 Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR Devices Monitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling Engines Mitchell Swartz 123 Anomalous Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Carbon (Phenanthrene) Tadahiko Mizuno and Shigemi Sawada 147 Electric and Heat Measurements in High Voltage Electrolysis Cell Experiments A. B. Karabut and E. A. Karabut 169 Nuclear Reaction Products 176 Trace Analysis of Elements in a Palladium Matrix David A. Kidwell 180 Investigation of Nuclear Transmutation Using Multilayered CaO/X/Pd Samples Under Deuterium Permeation T. Yamaguchi, Y. Sasaki, T. Nohmi, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, A. Kitamura and A. Takahashi 195 Influence of Deuterium Gas Permeation on Surface Elemental Change of 88SrIon- Implanted Pd and Pd/CaO Multi-layer System T. Hioki, J. Gao, N. Takahashi, S. Hibi, A. Murase, T. Motohiro and J. Kasagi 203 Summary of the Transmutation Workshop Held in Association with ICCF-14 George H. Miley 212 Energetic Particle Measurements 217 Charged Particle Emission during Electron Beam Excitation of Deuterium Subsystem in Pd and Ti- Deuteride Targets Andrei Lipson, Ivan Chernov, Alexei Roussetski, Yuri Chardantsev, Boris Lyakhov, Eugeny Saunin and Michael Melich 220 Reproducible Evidence for the Generation of a Nuclear Reaction During Electrolysis R. A. Oriani 250 Detection of Radiation Emitted from LENR Edmund Storms and Brian Scanlan 263 Partial Replication of Storms/Scanlan Glow Discharge Radiation Rick Cantwell and Matt McConnell 288 New Results of Charged Particles Released From Deuterium-Loaded Metal at Low Temperature Songsheng Jiang, Jinghuai Li, Ming He, Shaoyong Wu, Jianqing Wang, Hongtao Zhang, Shunhe Yao, Yonggang Zhao and Chen Wang 299 Development of New Detector System for Charged Particle Emission Yu Toriyabe and Jirohta Kasagi 310 Ion Beam Experiments 316 Screening Potential for Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter J. Kasagi 318 Photon Measurements 326 Excess Heat Triggering by 532 nm Laser in a D/Pd Gas-Loading System J. Tian, L. H. Jin, B. J. Shen, Z. K. Weng and X. Lu 328 Stimulation of Optical Phonons in Deuterated Palladium Dennis Letts and Peter Hagelstein 333 Observation of Optical Phonon in Palladium Hydrides Using Raman Spectroscopy Ken-ichi Tsuchiya, Aya Watanabe, Masao Ozaki and Shigeru Sasabe 338 Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR Devices Mitchell Swartz, Gayle Verner and Alan Weinberg 343 Research into Spectra of X-ray Emission from Solid Cathode Medium During and After High Current Glow Discharge Operation A. B. Karabut and E. A. Karabut 362 Gas Loading 368 Cold Fusion by Gas Loading: A Review Jean-Paul Biberian 370 Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated With Nano-Particles: Evidence for Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects Francesco Celani, P. Marini, V. Di Stefano, A. Spallone, M. Nakamura, E. Purchi, O. M. Calamai , V. Andreassi, E. Righi, G. Trenta, A. Marmigi, G. Cappuccio, D. Hampai, F. Todarello, U. Mastromatteo, A. Mancini, F. Falcioni, M. Marchesini, P. Di Biagio, U. Martini, P. G. Sona, F. Fontana, L. Gamberale and D. Garbelli 385 Basic Research on Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Using Pd Powders Charged With High Density Deuterium T. Nohmi, Y. Sasaki, T. Yamaguchi, A. Taniike, A. Kitamura, A. Takahashi, R. Seto and Y. Fujita 400 VOLUME 2 Cavitation Experiments 409 Bubble Driven Fusion Roger Stringham 411 Investigation of Radiation Effects at Bubble Cavitation in Running Liquid Alla A. Kornilova, Vladimir I. Vysotskii, Nickolai N. Sysoev and Andrey V. Desyatov 418 Materials 425 Material Science on Pd-D System to Study the Occurrence of Excess Power V. Violante, F. Sarto, E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler 429 Electrode Surface Morphology Characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy. F. Sarto, E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, V. Violante, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler 437 Metallurgical Characterization of Pd Electrodes Employed in Calorimetric Experiments Under Electrochemical Deuterium Loading E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, A. Rufoloni, F. Sarto, V. Violante, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler, M. McKubre and F. Tanzella 444 Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs George H. Miley, Heinz Hora and Xiaoling Yang 451 The Phusor®-type LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial Creating Deuteron Flux for Excess Power Gain Mitchell Swartz and Gayle Verner 458 Theory Papers 475 The Possible Mechanism of Creation of Light Magnetic Monopoles in Strong Magnetic Field of a Laboratory System V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotskii 484 Heavy Electrons in Nano-Structure Clusters of Disordered Solids Dimiter Alexandrov 490 Empirical System Identification (ESID) and Optimal Control of Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactors Robert W. Bass and Mitchell Swartz 497 Can Established Physical Principles Explain Solid-State Fusion? Ben R. Breed 503 Resonant Electromagnetic-Dynamics Explains the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Scott R. Chubb 521 Interface Model of Cold Fusion Talbot A. Chubb 534 Toward an Explanation of Transmutation Products on Palladium Cathodes Norman D. Cook 540 An Experimental Device to Test the YPCP (“Yukawa Pico Chemistry And Physics”) Model: Implications for the CF-LENR Field Jacques Dufour, Xavier Dufour, Denis Murat and Jacques Foos 546 Investigation of Deuteron-Deuteron Cold Fusion in a Cavity Cheng-ming Fou 553 “The Coulomb Barrier not Static in QED” A correction to the Theory by Preparata on the Phenomenon of Cold Fusion and Theoretical Hypothesis Fulvio Frisone 556 Quantum Fusion Hypothesis Robert E. Godes 573 Excitation Transfer and Energy Exchange Processes for Modeling The Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect Peter L Hagelstein and Irfan U Chaudhary 579 Input to Theory from Experiment in the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Peter L. Hagelstein, Michael Melich and Rodney Johnson 586 A Theoretical Formulation for Problems in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Peter Hagelstein, Irfan Chaudhary, Michael Melich and Rodney Johnson 596 Theory of Low-Energy Deuterium Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles Yeong E. Kim 604 Complexity in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon Hideo Kozima 613 Nuclear Transmutations in Polyethylene (XLPE) Films and Water Tree Generation in Them Hideo Kozima and Hiroshi Date 618 Exploring a Self-Sustaining Heater without Strong Nuclear Radiation Xing Z. Li, Bin Liu, Qing M. Wei, Shu X. Zheng and Dong X. Cao 623 A Model for Enhanced Fusion Reaction in a Solid Matrix of Metal Deuterides K. P. Sinha and A. Meulenberg 633 Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical Regions Mitchell Swartz 639 Analysis and Confirmation of the “Superwave-as-Transitory–OOP-Peak” Hypothesis Mitchell R. Swartz and Lawrence P.G. Forsley 653 Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion Akito Takahashi 663 Challenges and Summary 670 The Importance of Replication Michael C. H. McKubre 673 Electrical Breakeven from LANR Phusor Device Systems: Relative Limitations of Thermal Loss in Feedback Loop Mitchell Swartz 689 Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: From Excess Energy to Energy Fabrice David and John Giles 696 Weight of Evidence for the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Rodney Johnson and Michael Melich 704 Nuclear or Not Nuclear: How to Decide? Ludwik Kowalski 723 Open Source Science Applied to CMNS Research: A Paradigm for Enhancing Cold Fusion Prospects and the Public Interest Thomas W. Grimshaw 729 ICCF-14 Summary Thomas O. Passell 737 Honoring Pioneers 742 In Honor of Yoshiaki Arata Talbot A. Chubb 743 Establishment of the “Solid Fusion” Reactor Yoshiaki Arata and Y-C Zhang 752 LENR Research using Co-Deposition S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, F. Gordon, J. Dea, M. Miles, J. Khim and L. Forsley 766 SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publications S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, F. Gordon, J. Dea, J. Khim and L. Forsley 772 Preparata Prize Acceptance Speech I. Dardik 778 Cold Fusion Country History Project Xing Z. Li, Jean-Paul Biberian, Jacques Dufour, M. Srinivasan, F. Scaramuzzi, J. Kasagi, Y. Iwamura, Andrei Lipson, Ivan Chernov and Yu. N. Bazhutov 780 Acknowledgements 789 Author Index 792 ## ICCF-2 Subpage of Proceedings Jed Rothwell had his copy of the ICCF-2 Proceedings scanned, and provided the files to us. The pages linked here, by page number are from the scans, so they are as-published. Preprints are available for some of these on lenr-canr.org. Generally, the quality of the lenr-canr files is much higher and the searchable and copiable text more reliable. But these files are readily readable. Please comment if higher resolution images are needed, these files were compressed. “L” indicates that a document is available on lenr-canr.org and is linked (as well as the copy here). “R”, the paper was found on ResearchGate and is linked. “+” indicates another source, linked. “A” links to abstracts on a subpage. In some cases the “abstract” is taken from an “Introduction” or “Conclusion” section. In one case (*)it was apparently supplied by Hal Fox. In some cases, documents that may be similar were published in refereed journals. B as a link is to a search of the Library for the Britz filename. (The Library is available to researchers, contact us.) (The Britz bibliography is hosted here, see Britz.) To find the entry for a paper, if you don’t have access to the Library, google the Britz filename, found in the search URL, or search the bibliography, perhaps the Bibtex version.  Foreword T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice and G. Preparata xiii CONTRIBUTED PAPERS Analysis of tritium and heat excess in electrochemical cells with Pd cathodes L. Bertalot, L. Bettinali, F. De Marco, V. Violante, P. De Logu, T. Dikonimos Makris and A. La Barbera 3•A L Product analysis from D2O electrolysis with palladium and titanium cathodes E. Brillas, G.Sardin, J. Casado, X. Doménech and J. Sánchez 9•A B Solid state and electrochemical phenomena related to cold fusion in titanium B. Escarpizo, F. Fernández, J. Sevilla, F. Cuevas and C. Sánchez 15 •A Multicell experiments for searching time-related events in cold fusion D. Gozzi, P.L.Cignini, M. Tomellini, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice and G.M. Urciuoli 21 •A Some results on cold fusion research Z. Hongyu, W. Chenlin, R. Yanin, F. Guoying, Y. Hua, Z. Weidong, W. Dachun, H. Ming, L. Shuzhen, H. Zhuen, W. Zhongda, Y. Runhu, L. Zhenghao and R. Guoxiao 49 •A Recent progress on cold fusion research using molten salt techniques B. Y. Liaw, P.-L. Tao and B.E. Liebert 55 •A Tritium and neutron emission in conventional and contact glow discharge electrolyses of D2O at Pd and Ti cathodes G. Mengoli, M. Fabrizio, C.Manduchi, G. Zannoni, L. Riccardi and A. Buffa 65 •A Neutron emission and surface observation during a long-term evolution of deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD H. Numata, R. Takagi, I. Ohno, K. Kawamura and S. Haruyama 71 •A Anomalous neutron burst in heavy water electrolysis Y. Fujii, M. Takahashi, M. Nakada, T. Kusunoki and M. Okamoto 81 •A Reliable procedure for the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss and J. J. Smith 87•A Neutron spectra and controllability by PdD/electrolysis cell with low-high current pulse operation A. Takahashi, T. Iida, T. Takeuchi, A. Mega, S. Yoshida and M. Watanabe 93•A,R Characterization of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin titanium foils D. H. Beddingfield, F.E. Cecil, C.S. Galovich, H. Liu and S. Asher 99 •A A study of the neutron emission from Ti loaded with D in gas. phase by means of a time-of-flight spectrometer T. Bressani, D. Calvo, A. Feliciello, C. Lamberti, F. Iazzi, B. Minetti, R. Cherubini, A.M.I. Haque and R. A. Ricci 105 •A Search for neutron emission from deuterided high temperature superconductors in a very low background environment F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori, F. Croce, L. Storelli, S. Fortunati, M. Tului and N. Sparvieri 113•A +,+ B Search for precursor and charged particles in “cold fusion” D. W. Mo, Y. S. Liu, L. Y. Zhou, S. Y. Dong, K. L. Wang, S. C. Wang and X. Z. Li 123 •A The production of neutrons and tritium in the deuterium gas-titanium interaction A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi, A. Frattolillo, S. Migliori, F. Lanza, S. Scaglione, P. Zeppa and C. Pontorieri 129 •A Fusion neutron emission induced by injection of deuterium into titanium target in a mirror plasma S. Y. Duan, W. S. Guan, S.Q. Cheng, J. Zhang, S. L. Hao, B. Gu, J.Q. Li, W.X. Liang, G. Y. Zhang, S.X. Pei, J. C. Huang, K. W. Chen, R. Liu, X. R. Liu and Ying Li 139 •A Anomalous nuclear effects in deuterium palladium systems S. Jin, F. Zhang, D. Yao and B. Wu 145 •A Tritium production resulting from deuteration of different metals and alloys F. Lanza, G. Bertolini, V. Vocino, E. Parnisari and C. Ronsecco 151•A L Time-correlated neutron detection from deuterium loaded palladium T. Tazima, K. Isii and H. Ikegami 157 •A Search for better material for cold fusion experiment using CR-39 detector K. L. Wang, X. Z. Li, S. Y. Dong, S. C. Wang, D.’ W. Mo, C M . Luo, Q. R. Lin, X. D. Wu, W.Z. Li, Y. F. Zhu, P. L. Zhou and L. Chang 163•A .B Identification of the energetic charged particles in gas-loading experiment of “cold fusion” using CR-39 plastic track detector S. C. Wang, T.S. Rang, K.L. Wang, S. Y. Dong, Y.Y. Feng, D. W. Mo and X. Z. Li 169•A .B Evidence of neutron emission from a titanium deuterium system D. Seeliger, M. Bittner, A. Meister, R. Schwierz and T. Streil 175 •A Observation of D-D fusion neutrons during degassing of deuterium loaded palladium M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Seeliger, R. Schwierz and P. Wtjstner 181 •A Enhancement of fusion rate induced by the collective electron excitations M. Baldo 187 •A Binuclear atoms as fusion precursors in a hot cloud G. F.Cerofolini, R. Dierckx, A. Foglio Para and G. Ottaviani 193 •A An explanation of cold fusion and cold fusion by-products, based on lattice induced nuclear chemistry S. R. Chubb and T. A. Chubb 199 •A Coherent and semi-coherent neutron transfer reactions P. L. Hagelstein 205•A + Summary of progress in hydron physics F. J. Mayer and J. R. Reitz 211 •A B Relativistic hyperfine interaction and the Spence-Vary resonance J. A. McNeil 217 •A Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in Oklo samples and the possibility of deuteron disintegration M. Shaheen, M. Ragheb, G.H. Miley, H. Hora and J. Kelly Shah 221•A B The cross section factor for the reactions 2H(d,p) → 3H + 2H(d,n) → 3He at very low temperature A. Scalia and P. Figuera [many papers on sub-barrier fusion, even before 1989] 235 •A An improved zero gradient calorimeter for the investigation of cold fusion phenomena T. F. Droege and L. J. Droege 243 •A Improvement of the TOFUS apparatus M. Agnello, F. Iazzi, B. Minetti, E. Botta, T. Bressani, 0. Brunasso, D. Calvo, D. Dattola, P. Gianotti, C. Lamberti and A. Zecchina 249 •A A large solid angle multiparameter neutron detector G. Ricco, M.Anghinolfi, P.Corvisiero, P. Prati, M. Taiuti, C. Boragno, R. Eggenhoffner and U. Valbusa 255 •A Liquid scintillator detection and multiparameter data acquisition for neutron detection in cold fusion experiments. K. A. Sjoland, P. Kristiansson and K. G. J. Westergard 261 •A Crack-fusion: a plausible explanation of “cold fusion” L. H. Bagnulo 267 •A* Measurement of D-D and D-6Li nuclear reactions at very low energies F. E. Cecil and G. M. Hale 271•A L Mossbauer spectroscopic characterization of samples for cold fusion experiment E. Kuzmann, M. Gal, G.K. Solymos and Cs. Szeles 277 •A Recent modifications to the Manitoba deuterium implantation accelerator and a study of the properties of the online neutron monitor detector M. S. Mathur, H.L. Johnston, A. Mirzai, J. S. C. McKee, G.R. Smith, J. J. G. Durocher, K. Furutani, J. K. Mayer, Y. H. Yeo, H. Hnatiuk, S. King, A. Hempel, K. S. Sharma and G. Williams 283 •A High deuterium concentration in palladium for application to cold fusion H. S. Uhm and W. M. Lee 289 A•B INVITED PAPERS Cold fusion researches in Japan H. Ikegami 297 •A Chinese effort in understanding the “cold fusion” phenomena X. Z. Li 309 •A Cold fusion studies in the USSR V. A. Tsarev 319•A B The mechanism of deuterium evolution on palladium: relation to heat bursts provoked by fluxing deuterium across the interface J. O’M. Bockris, D. Hodko and Z. Minewski 337 •A The calorimetry of electrode reactions and measurements of excess enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of D2 O using Pd-based cathodes S. Pons and M. Fleischmann 349 •A Heat and helium production in cold fusion experiments M. H. Miles, B. F. Bush, G. S. Ostrom and J. J. Lagowski 363 A•B Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of palladium with deuterium F. G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M-C Yang, J. R. Peterson, H. E. Bergeson, S. C. Barrowes, W. J. West and D. C. Linton 373 •A Low-background measurements of neutron emission from Ti metal in pressurized deuterium gas H. O. Menlove, M. A. Paciotti, T. N. Claytor and D. G. Tuggle 385 A•L Tritium generation and neutron measurements in Pd-Si under high deuterium gas pressure T. N. Claytor, D.G. Tuggle and H.O. Menlove 395 A•L Hydrogen and its isotopes in and on metals L. Schlapbach 409 •A Isothermal flow calorimetric investigations of the D/Pd system M. C. H. Mckubre, R. Rocha-Filho, S. I. Smedley, F. L. Tanzella, S. Crouch-Baker, T. O. Passell and J. Santucci 419 •A L Survey of gas loading experiments F. Scaramuzzi 445 •A Cold fusion: what do the laws of nature allow and forbid? G. Preparata 453 A•+ SUMMARIES Is cold fusion a reality? The impressions of a critical observer H. Gerischer 465 L•A The present status of research in cold fusion M. Fleischmann 475 L•A APPENDIX Report to the Utah State Fusion/Energy Council on the analysis of selected Pons Fleischmann calorimetric data W. N. Hansen 491 L Librarian’s Notes The name of “J. S. C. McCKEE,” in the table of contents, is an error, and has been corrected. The name is J. S. C. McKee, as would be normal in English. There is a page anomaly in the paper beginning on p. 395. The copy of this article from lenr-canr.org has 11 pages, so it would end, with page number restoration, on p. 405. Then the practice in this publication was to begin papers on an odd-numbered page, so 406 would have been blank, and the next paper would have begun on p. 407. However, the TOC shows the next paper as beginning on p. 409. The abstract for the p. 395 paper shows it as running to p. 408. There may be two missing pages, though the count of figures and tables and refs agrees with the abstract and I see no obviously missing text. (Note added after obtaining the scan: The lenr-canr copy is not exact as to page layout, it is more condensed. Generally, for reference purposes, the as-published pagination — i.e., what we show here — should be used. Looking over the two versions, I see no differences in text. In general, if anyone notices version issues with any document hosted here, please point to it. We can annotate copies here. Because these are historical documents, I would not change them, per se, but notes may be added, errata, corrigenda and addenda.) ## Abstracts Subpage of Proceedings/ICCF-2 See the Proceedings page supra for links to copies of articles, where we have them. From http://newenergytimes.com/v2/archives/fic/F/F199204.pdf (Fusion Facts, April 1992). B. LISTING & ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS IN THE SCIENCE OF COLD FUSION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE II ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON COLD FUSION June 29-July 4, 1991 in Como, Italy; Edited by T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, & G. Preparata. Order from Societa Italiana di Fisica, Redazione, Via L. Degli Andalo, 2 , 40124 Bologna, BO, Italy ($110 by air mail.)
Note: The following authors, titles, abstracts are listed in the order they appear in the book:

The generic Bibliographic information is only shown for the first paper, for subsequent papers only the additional specific information for that paper is shown.

ITALY – 17% EXCESS HEAT

L. Bertalot, L. Bettanali, F. De Marco, V. Violante (ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione, CentroRicerche Energia Frascati, Rome, Italy), P.DeLogu, T. DikominosMakris,A. La Barbera (ENEA, Dipartimento Inn-PCM Rome, Italy), “Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells with Pd Cathodes,” The Science of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, Como, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991, pp 3-7, 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
A series of electrochemical cells was set up mainly with the objective of tritium detection. In the frame work of a collaboration with the Texas A&M University also some calorimetric measurement were carried out. In the experiments aimed to tritium analysis particular care was given to a clear assembling of the cells and to avoid possible tritium contamination. Nine cells were installed with different materials and
geometry. No tritium in excess of the isotopic enrichment was detected. Post mortem surface analysis shows contamination of the Pd surface. In the calorimetric experiments, one cell out of three gave about 17% of excess heat for ten days, corresponding to 55 kJ.

SPAIN – CATHODE SURFACE ANALYSIS

J. Brillas, G. Sardin (Universitat de Barcelona), J. Casado, X.
Domenech, & J.A. Sanchez-Cabeza (Universitat Autonoma Barcelona),
“Product Analysis from D2O Electrolysis with Palladium and Titanium
Cathodes,”  pp 9-13, 4 refs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
The possible generation of tritium in the electrolyte and the incorporation of species such as tritium, lithium and platinum to cathodes during the electrolysis of 0.1M LiOD solutions with Pd and Ti cathodes and Pt anodes at low and high current densities have been studied by means of different techniques.

SPAIN – PHASE TRANSITION IN Ti

B.Escarpizo, F. Fernandez,J. Sevilla, F. Cuevas and C. Sanchez (Dept of Applied Physics, U. Autonoma de Madrid), “Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium,” pp 15-20, 2 refs,5 figs.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS
We therefore can conclude from the content of this communication that: Deuteration of Ti cathodes in electrolytic cold fusion experiments seems to take place in only the first grain layer. Grain boundaries seem to be barriers for the propagation of Deuterium in the next grain layer.Differences in behavior are found between the hydrides formed in acid and basic electrolytes. In basic media, used by most of the authors, the deuterated grains release from the cathode and a new and clean surface of Ti appears periodically.

ITALY – MULTI-CELL EXPERIMENTS

D. Gozzi, P.L. Cignini and M. Tomellini (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy), S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice and G.M. Urciuoli (Lab. di Fisica, Istit. Superiore di Sanita and Sezione INFN, Roma, Italy, “Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-related Events in Cold Fusion,” pp 21-47, 15 refs, 12 figs, 4 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
A new ten-electrochemical cell experiment is running in order to confirm previous results and to understand the key role of some experimental parameter sin triggering cold fusion events. The experiment is designatedt odetect: a) heatexcess; b) loading factor by in situ measurement of the cathode displacement; c) nuclear products: neutrons, tritium in the electrolytic solution and in the recombined heavy water, gamma-rays; d) effect of the palladium electrode preparation. To measure th eheat excess, a calibration curve of the input power vs. the temperature of the solution was obtained for cells equal in the shape, materials and in the same experimental condition in which the experiment is now running. The unique difference lays in the cathode. The cathode used in the calibration measurements was made of palladium rod gold-plated by electrochemicald eposition. The growth of the gold layer was carefully controlled by microprobe analysis to be sure that all of the palladium cathode surface was covered by gold. After that a further deposition of gold was done. In the multicell experiment one of the ten cells is a calibration cell previously utilized. This allows to have both a blank and to control the stability of the calibration curve. Two cells out of the ten are equipped by micro-displacement transducers which allow to measure the palladium swelling,caused by the deuterium loading, with at least 0.1 micrometer resolution. Neutron detector is a He proportional counter, the same used in the previous experiments, but
the data acquisition is now implemented by a fast pulse-shape storage and off-line discrimination for very accurate counting. The gamma-ray detection has also been improved by using a more efficient high purityGe detector and a large NaI(Ti) monocrystal detector. Each of the cathodes is different from the others in shape, dimension, and preparation.

CHINA – RESEARCH SUMMARY

Zhou Hongyu, Wen Chenlin, Rong Yanin, Fan Guoying, Yan Hua, Zhou Weidong, Wang Dachun,Hua Ming, Liu Shuzhen and Han Zhuen (Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University). Wu Zhongda, Yu Runhu and Liu Zhanghao (Chemical Department, Beijing Normal University), Ren Guoxiao (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), “Some Results on Cold Fusion Research,”  pp 49-54, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Anomalous nuclear effects in Pd+Ti+D2 system were investigated by means of a double liquid scintillator system. A recoil proton spectrum of 2.45MeV neutrons was obtained from heavy water electrolysis
experiment using Pd as cathode. Burst neutrons and random neutron emissions were observed in discharge experiments and temperature cycle experiments for Pd+Ti+D2 system.

HAWAII – MOLTEN SALT UPDATE

Bor Yann Liaw, Peng-Long Tao, and Bruce E.Liebert* (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, and *Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii), “Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques,” pp 55-64, 17 refs, 11 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We have demonstrated a novel elevated-temperature molten salt technique for generating high-level excess heat. More than 4MJ/mole D2 of excess heat, at least 600% over the input power, was measured in two incidents using a torched Pd anode and an aluminum alloy cathode merged in a eutectic LiCl-KCl mixture saturated with excessive LiD at about 370 C. No thermochemical explanation can account for this excess heat. Measurements on the hydrogen based system showed normal endothermal behaviors. The Pd samples were later examined for their morphological behaviors and for He analysis. A very porous microstructure of the samples was found. Electrolysis and deuteriding processes changed the morphology substantially. Enhancement of alpha-particles in the deuterated sample was detected while the hydrated sample showed an opposite effect. The amount of the alpha-particles in the sample, however, were not commensurate with the measured excess heat. On-line neutron (using BYU facility) and particle measurements (using ETEC/Rockwell facility) were planned and at work. Reproducibility of the experiments is poor to date.

ITALY – GOOD TRITIUM DATA

G.Mengoli, M. Fabrizio (IPELP-CNR, Padova, Italy), C. Manduchi, G. Zannoni, L. Riccardi, (Dip. Fisica “G. Galelei”, Padova, Italy), A. Buffa (IGI-CNR, Padova, Italy) “Tritium and neutron emission in conventional and contact glow discharge electrolyses of D2O at Pd and Ti Cathodes” (work performed in collaboration with ENEA-Frascati), pp 65-70, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We recently found that the level of3H in D2O / 0.1 M LiOD solutions electrolyzed at Pd sheet cathodes increased, although sporadically (<20%), till an order of magnitude over background, we indeed used D2O with very low background. The surface of a Pd sheet cathode (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm3) which gave apparent generation of 3H had developed localized swelling with deep pitting underneath; if this phenomenon was relating with 3H, the latter was likely formed by means of a near- surface process, which might be easier to reproduce if electrodes of relatively larger dimensions are utilized. The experimental design adopted for the four conventional electrolytic runs hereafter described was mostly in agreement with the above consideration. We are also reporting on contact glow discharge electrolyses (CGDE) aimed at inducing critical conditions at/in the metal deuteride cathode.

JAPAN – LARGE Pd CATHODE RESULTS

H. Numata, I. Ohno (Tokyo Institute of Technology), R, Takagi (Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo), K. Kawamura (Inst. of R&D, Takai Univ., Kanagawa), S. Haruyama (Tokyo National Col. Of Tech., Tokyo, JAPAN), “Neutron Emission and Surface Observation during a Long-term Evolution of Deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD,” pp 71-80, 16 refs, 13 figs. 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Long-term electrolysis for well annealed thick Pd rods (9.0 and 21.2 mm phi) in 0.1M LiOD have been performed to examine anomalous phenomena;neutron emission and heat bursts. The count rate of neutron (CRN) bunched for 3 h showed no significant increase at low current densities. High CRN appeared a few days later after the current increased to 102.4 mA/cm2 and the temperature was raised to 50°C. In two experiments CRN and neutron energy spectrum of 2.45 MeV was reproduced. Metallographic observation showed two faults, blisters, cross slips and holes on Pd surface and a raw [row] of defects in a recrystallized grain. Microstructural changes of Pd electrode during long-term electrolysis is discussed.

JAPAN – NEUTRON BURSTS

Y. Fujii, N. Takahashi, M. Nakada, T. Kusunoki, M. Okamoto, “Anomalous Neutron Burst in Heavy Water Electrolysis,” pp 81-85, 1 ref, 4 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Anomalous neutron burst has been detected in heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode. The burst events occurred five times periodically for ca. 140 hours. The numbers of the burst neutrons increased gradually from 5.3–(the 1st event/10 min.) to 135–(the 5th event/10min.) and the last event continued for 50 min. and gave 1779 neutrons to the five 3He neutron counters of 1% detection efficiency. The reproducibility has been examined three times, but any further event did not occur.

CALIFORNIA – NAVY – Pd ELECTRODEPOSITION

S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss (NOSC, San Diego, CA) & J.J. Smith (DoE, Washington, D.C.), “Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect,” pp 87-91, 5 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only about 1 out of 10 attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reaction(s). Recently, [S. Szpak et al., J. Electroanal Chem, 302, 255 (1991)] we have shown that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing Pd electrodes prepared by the electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production. Effects of deposit morphology, electrolyte composition and temperature on the rate of tritium production are discussed.

JAPAN – SUCCESS WITH PULSING

A. Takahashi, I. Iida, T. Takeuchi, A. Mega, S. Yoshida and M. Watanabe (Osaka University, Japan) “Neutron spectra and controllability by PdD/electrolysis cell with low-high current pulse operation,” pp 93-98, 5 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Neutron spectra with two components (2.45 and 3-7 MeV) have been repeatedly observed by pulse electrolysis of D2O-Pd cell. Tritium production with (T/n) ratio 105 w as also confirmed with low-high current operation. These results are consistently explained with the products and byproducts in competing process of d-d and d-d-d fusions in PdD lattice.

D.H. Beddingfield, F.E. Cecil, C.S. Galovich, H. Liu (Colorado School of Mines, USA) Sally Asher (Solar Energy Research Institute, USA), “Characterization of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin Titanium foils,” pp 99-103, 2 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION

Following our recently reported observation of intense bursts of charged particles from deuterium gas load thin Titanium foils, we conducted a relatively exhaustive analysis of the samples involved in this study in order to better understand the has loading process, to characterize the elemental and structural properties of the samples, and to ascertain, if possible, any differences between those samples which evinced particle bursts and those which did not.

In conclusion, the studies which we have carried out on the hydrogen and deuterium gas loaded Titanium foils indicate that we employed a reliable and reproducible gas loading technique, capable of achieving gas-metal ratios of order unity to depths of at least several microns and probably more. No differences, however, were noted between those sample from which charged particle bursts were observed versus those which did not.

ITALY – D-Ti NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS

T. Bressani, D. Calvo, F. Iazzi, C. Lamberti and B. Minetti (INFI Sez di Torino, Italy) R. Cherubini, A.M.I. Haque and R.A. Ricci (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy), “A Study of the Neutron Emission from Ti Loaded with D in Gas Phase by Means of a Time-of-Flight Spectrometer,” pp 105-111, 9 refs, 7 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The final results of an experiment carried out in order to detect and measure the energy of the neutrons emitted from Ti metal loaded with D in gas phase are reported. A neutron spectrometer based on the time-of-flight and double scattering technique was used. We observed a 2.5 sigma signal for the emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, corresponding to 1.3 +/- 0.5 neutrons s-1 g-1.

ITALY – FUSION IN SUPERCONDUCTORS

F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori (INFN, Lab. Naz. Frascati, Roma Italy), F. Croce, L. Storelli (Univ. di Roma, Italy), S. Fortunati, M. Tului (CSM ILVA-IRI, Italy), N. Sparvieri (ALENIA-IRI, Italy), “Search for neutron emission from deuterided high temperature superconductors in a very low background environment,” pp 113-121, 16 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Following the experiments performed with deuterided High Temperature SuperConductors (HTSC) at underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, we have learnt the capacity to absorb Deuterium (D) by these materials and the role played by non-equilibrium conditions to get neutron burst emissions in the framework of Cold Fusion. So far, some Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) pellets and high pressure D2 gas were enclosed in stainless steal vessel and a charging-up procedure was performed. The vessel was put in a thermal neutrons field and some thermal cycles (300-> 77-> 300 K) were performed; moreover, for comparison, background and blank runs were performed. A specific acquisition system, able to detect multiple neutron signals in defined time-windows (“time-correlated events”), was set up. One thermal cycle run showed a large increase of time-correlated events in respect to the blanks; one other urn [run], although with no relevant mean-value increase of events detected, showed, on the other hand, one interesting multiple neutron signal (triple); other similar runs produced no relevant values. One-other kind of experiment, at constant temperature (300 K), characterized by a heavy D2 gas refill, showed both some increase of time-correlated events and few ‘triple’ neutron signals.

CHINA – SEARCH FOR CHARGED PARTICLES

Da-Wei Mo, Yi S. Liu, Li Y. Zhou, Shi Y. Dong, Ke L. Wang, Shi C. Wang, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, China), “Search for Precursor and Charged Particles in Cold Fusion,”pp 123-127, 6 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ DISCUSSION

It is clear that the energy of charged particle has a peak above the 5 MeV. It does not fit with any conventional binary D-D-> 4He+23.8 MeV, might give more energy, we had to assume an anomalous branching [ratio]. It is suggestive to use dE /dx detector for identification of the charged particles. If we assume that the low energy signals were  caused by electromagnetic radiation, this was a good manifestation of precursor. We planned to use  photo-electric diode for confirmation of this observation. Was there any mistake which might cause the  fault signals? We were worried about this also. A good verification was that we did not detect any signals as before when the vessel sealing failed in one of the experiments.

ITALY – NEUTRONS AND TRITIUM

A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi (ENEA, Areea Energia e Innovazione), A. Frattolillo, S. Migliori (ENEA, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione), F. Lanza (JRC Euratom), S. Scaglione (ENEA, Aea Energia e Innovazione), P. Zeppa (ENEA, Frascati, Italy), C. Pontorieri (ENEA student), “The Production of Neutrons and Tritium in Deuterium Gas- Titanium Interaction,” pp 129-137, 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium gas system has been detected in experiments performedin the Springof 1989 [DeNinno et al. Europhysics Letters, 9, 221 (1989)]. One of the most striking features was the structure in bursts (duration of about 100 microsec) of the neutron emission. Using a detection system proposed by a Los Alamos Group [Menlove,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990, pg 250], suitable to analyze the structure in bursts of the emission, a preliminary set of measurements has been performed with satisfactory results [F. D’Amato et al.,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990,pg 170]. A better tailored detector is now in use in a low neutron background setup (INFN, Lab Nazionale del Gran Sasso). The first results of this experiment will be presented. Furthermore, the search for tritium excess in the samples used for neutron detection has been continued, with the technique described in above reference. Also these results will be reported.

CHINA – RESULTS FROM ION-IMPLANTATION

Shu Yun Duan, Wei Shu Guan, Shi Qing Cheng, Jun Zhang, Shu Li Hao, Biao Gu, Jia Quan Li, Wen Xue Liang, Guang Yang Zhang, Si Xiu Pei, Jun Cheng Huang, Kang Wei Cheng, Rong Liu, Xi Rong Liu, Ying Li (Southwestern Inst of Physics, Sichuan, China), “Fusion Neutron Emission Induced by Injection of Deuterium into Titanium Target in a Mirror Plasma,” pp 139-143, 2 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A target, titanium sheet laden with deuterium, is immersed in the deuterium plasma confined in MM-2U magnetic mirror and the target is biased to a high negative voltage about 10 kv. The deuterium nuclei- deuterons are infused into the crystal structure of titanium target. After about three and a half hours’ implantation, random neutron emissions are observed and neutron bursts are measured by using two identical BF neutron detectors No. 1 and No. 2 located at different positions and a neutron dosimeter. The neutron count rates are 102 higher than the background rates of 0.8 counts/sec. It is corresponding to neutron flux of (2-5) x 105 neutron/sec. No gamma- ray counts above background are detected in our experiments. It is suggested that random neutron bursts may be from cold nuclear fusion reactions related to the propagation of microcracks of the metal lattice.

CHINA – NEUTRON BURSTS USING CR-39

Shangxian Jin, Fuxiang Zhang, Decheng Yao, & Bailu Wu (Dept. of Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China), “Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium Palladium Systems,”pp 145-149, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Intense bursts of charged particles far larger than background have been reproducibly detected for the first time by using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector during either a high voltage discharge between deuterated palladium electrodes or a non-equilibrium out-diffusion of deuterons in palladium. Not any anomalous effects were found in the control experiments of Pd-H system under the same experimental conditions. This indicates that some anomalous nuclear effects were definitely produced in the Pd-D system under certain conditions.

ITALY – TRITIUM FROM TANTALUM

F. Lanza, G. Bertolini, V. Vocino, E. Parnisari, C. Ronsecco (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Res. Center, Ispra, Italy), “Tritium Production Resulting from Deuteration of Different Metals and Alloys,”  pp 151-155, 9 refs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Previous experiments have shown that tritium is produced in deuterated titanium. To define better the phenomenon a series of tests have been performed using various metals and alloys and different deuterating conditions. Sheets and shaving of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr 50% alloy have been tested. A statistical analysis of the tritium production shows that significant differences are obtained varying the type of metal used. Using pure metals the tritium production increases with the increase of the atomic number of the metal. Moreover higher productions of tritium have been obtained using materials of technical purity as tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr alloy.

JAPAN – D2 GAS DISCHARGE & NEUTRONS

T. Tazima, K. Isii, & H. Ikegami (Nat’l Inst for Fusion Science,Nagoya, Japan), “Time-Correlated Neutron Detection from Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 157-
162, 5 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Significant neutron bursts and good time-correlation between two independent neutron detection systems were observed in two kinds of experiments on cold fusion. One employed two palladium rods of 2 mm diameter and 5 cm length, deuterated under 1 atm for 30 days, and plasma discharge was applied as a trigger. The other was palladium shavings of 10 g deuterated under 11 atm for 40 days. The averaged background level was 5-6 counts/dwell time (100 s). In both cases, significant neutron emission of successive bursts of 13-60 counts/100 s were observed for several hours and repeated several times during 2-11 days in [some] cases.

CHINA – 2 PAPERS ON USING CR-39

Ke L. Wang, Xing Z. Li, Shi Y. Dong, Shi C. Wang, Da W. Mo, Cheng M. Luo, Qin R. Lin, Xiao D. Wu, Wei Z. Li, Yong F. Zhu, Ping L. Zhou, & Lee Chang (Tsinghua U, Beijing except Shi C. Wang – Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China), “Search for the Better Material for Cold Fusion Experiment Using CR-39 Detector,” pp 163-168, 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

CR-39 (plastic track detector) has been proven to be a good detector in the research on cold fusion phenomena. It has high sensitivity and high efficiency in detection of energetic charged products of anomalous nuclear reactions. It does not need a high voltage power supply; hence, it is easy to use in the high pressure vessel of gas-loading experiments (Frascati type), and to eliminate the electronic noises. It has low background because the spurious signals due to cosmic ray can be discriminated by re-etching procedures. It can be run in batch and it is relatively cheap as well. Therefore, CR-39 technique is selected for wide-searching the better material for cold fusion. Different materials such as palladium from USA, Russia, and from different sources in China; pure titanium (in porous state), titanium alloys (e.g. V6-A16- Sn2); zirconium; nickel; lanthanum; and hydrogen-storage materials (such as LaNi5) are tested using CR-39. Preliminary results show that: (1) Russian palladium imported in 1950’s gives the highest yield of charged particles ( > 100 per sq cm per day). The Ti alloy (Ti-662) is not as good as Russian palladium (about 100 per sq cm per day), but it still has high repetition rate. Other materials give no evident signal distinct from background, which is less than 10 per sq cm per day. The yield becomes less and less after the first usage in the gas-loading experiment. (2) It is important to eliminate the contamination of the surface of the materials due to the radioactive impurities (e.g. uranium 238, radon’s daughter[s], et al.). However, it is possible to distinguish the real signal from the spurious by the shape of track in the microscopy
[of CR-39.] (3) Using vapor deposit technique to plate the Russian palladium on another surface did not give positive results. (4) Auger electron scanning probe reveals the complicated surface composition at various points on the palladium foil, although it is pure palladium inside the materials. This may explain the difficulty in reproducing the cold fusion phenomena. [May have some errors – copy quality of abstract was poor.]

SECOND CHINESE PAPER

Shi C. Wang & Tie S. Kang (Inst. of High Energy Physics), Ke L. Wang, Shi Y. Dong, Yu Y. Feng, Da W. Mo, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), “Identification of the Energetic Charged Particles in Gas-Loading Experiment of “Cold Fusion” Using CR-39 Plastic Track Detector,” pp 169-173, 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

CR-39 plastic track detectors have been used for searching for charged particles from deuterized palladium and titanium foils. Alpha particles, slowed to various energies from a Cf source were used for the calibration. Since high-pressure deuterium gas (up to 58 atm.) and low temperature (down to 77 K) may affect response of CR-39, the calibration was done in the condition which mimics experimental condition as closely as possible. Our results show that pre- and post-irradiation high-pressure deuterium gas and low temperature do not make significant difference of response of CR-39. A calibration curve was obtained, using a ‘restricted energy loss model’ of track formation, the etching behaviors of 3.22 MeV proton, 1.01 MeV triton, and 0.82 MeV helium-3 were predicted.

GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM TITANIUM

D. Seeliger, M. Bittner, A. Meister, R. Schwierz and T. Streil, “Evidence of Neutron Emission from a Titanium Deuterium System,”  pp 175-179, 5 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In both experimental runs we have observed definite signs for a weak neutron production with a PRE spectrum, which corresponds to the assumption, that dd-neutrons have been detected. Following the paper of Jones et al., the reaction rates should be expressed in terms of the fusion rate lambdaDD per dd-pair per second. If we assume a full loading of the Tritanium, corresponding to TiDx with x = 2, the number of dd-pairs in the Titanium probe is equal to the number of Titanium atoms in it, which is equal to 7.28 x 1023. The fusion rate obtained is 6.6 x 10-25s-1, for the average and maximum effect, respectively. However, we have seen, that there is no correlation between the reaction rate NDD and the pressure p. This means that there is also no simple proportionality between NDD and the number of deuterons absorbed in the sample! In opposite, the present experiment gives some indication, that the dd-reaction rate is governed by dp, that means by the particle flow into the metal per second. [Maybe] even more pronounced is the dependence on p x dp, that means to the product of already absorbed deuterons and the additional flow of particles through the surface. This would be qualitatively in accordance with a simple [plasma] model of dd-fusion processes in condensed matter, published recently. However, direct quantitative application of this model in the present case is difficult, due to the complicated surface-to-volume geometry of the titanium turnings.

GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM LARGE Pd

M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Seeliger, R. Schwierz & P. Wüstner, “Observation of D-D Fusion Neutrons during Degassing of Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 181-185, 6 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSION

The present experiment with a 0.5 kg palladium sample shows a definite excess neutron counting rate for [a] period of about 1 h. This period is just the time interval during which the deuterium is expulsed from the massive palladium sample. The energy of detected neutrons is near to 2.5 MeV, as expected for d-d fusion neutrons. Therefore the conclusion is obvious, that these neutrons are caused by the d-d fusion reaction. The neutron excess counting rate, which is time dependent, corresponds in its maximum to a d-d reaction rate of (3+/-) x 10-25 per second and deuteron pair.

ITALY – OVERSCREENING THEORY

Marcello Baldo (INFN, Catania, Italy), “Enhancement of Fusion Rate Induced by the Collective Electron Excitations,” pp 187-192, 10 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

The anomalously large fusion rate of deuterium absorbed in transition metals, which has been claimed by some authors, has produced a large amount of theoretical work. Legget and Baym have demonstrated that a rigorous upper bound to the fusion rate of deuterium, in equilibrium with the crystal, can be obtained in the framework of conventional solid state theory and using the phenomenological helium and deuterium chemical potentials. This bound is too small to be compatible with the claimed fusion rate. We explore the possibility that the interaction energy between helium atoms and the metal crystal possesses a second deeper minimum, which is separated by a potential barrier from the one accessible by the usual absorption experiments, but which can be more easily reached through the path followed by the deuteron-deuteron fusion process inside the crystal. The interaction of a bare positive charge with the electrons of the crystal is modeled in terms of its coupling with a set of harmonic oscillators, which describe the collective excitation of the electron gas. The energies of the latter can be obtained experimentally. Making use of the f-sum rule, evidences are presented which indicate the possibility of an ‘overscreening’ of the charge, a phenomenon that could render a configuration with delocalized electrons around the charge energetically favorable with respect to a helium-like configuration inside the crystal. Speculations about the possible connection with cold fusion are presented.

ITALY – IMPACT FUSION MODEL

G.F. Cerofolini, R. Dierckx, A. Foglio Para and G. Ottaviani, “Binuclear Atoms as Fusion Precursors in a Hot Cloud,” pp 193-197, 19 refs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

Deuteron-deuteron fusions were claimed by a Brookhaven group to result from the impact on deuterated surfaces of clusters of 25 – 1350 D2O molecules with energy up to 300 keV. The collective motion in the impact region is tentatively assumed to be responsible for these fusion events. The number of involved atoms is of the order of 104, with a mean energy of some electronvolts. The model is able to reproduce qualitatively the Brookhaven data according to an Arrhenius plot, with an activation energy approx. equal to 2E0, where E0 is the hydrogen ionization energy. At this energy an activated precursor is postulated
to be synthesized; it can tentatively by identified as the binuclear atom (D+ — D+)2e.

VIRGINIA – LATTICE NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Scott R. Chubb & Talbot A. Chubb (Research Systems, Arlington, VA), “An Explanation of Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion By-Products, Based on Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry,” pp 199-204, 9 refs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

At room temperature, solid state effects may alter the framework from which nuclear processes proceed in a manner that is completely difference from the one responsible for nuclear interaction between free space deuterons. Quantum mechanical effects enter during the overcharging of a fully-loaded PdD lattice a sa result of periodic order, the requirement that energy be minimized, and the fact that deuterons which share a common potential are indistinguishable and must be described by a single, many-particle wave function. When a macroscopically small number of deuterons are added to stoichiometric PdD, a compound can be created of the form PdD1+DELTA, in which solid state physics effects provide a channel for reducing lattice strain by distributing the excess charge (delta) with equal weight to all periodically equivalent locations within the crystallite. Then, the fundamental free space idea that a huge Coulomb barrier must be overcome in order for D+D nuclear interaction to occur is replaced by a new picture in which small portions of each of the excess deuterons, on the average, are distributed throughout the solid, thereby avoiding the stress that results when two deuterons are forced into a common unit cell. Because only a small fraction of each excess deuteron is present at any site and each excess deuteron is indistinguishable from the others, it becomes possible for microscopically large numbers of pairs of excess deuterons to interact. This new form of nuclear interaction is not inhibited by proton-proton repulsion because when the excess charge (delta) is sufficiently small, the lattice provides the dominant electrostatic interaction. Lattice interaction further greatly reduces proton repulsion by inducing a broadening of proton charge. The lattice interaction is responsible for new selection rules in which the energy release is distributed among all unit cells. Release of high alpha energy particles at isolated sites is also allowed. We have previously named this new form of nuclear reaction, Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC). In LINC, the new selection rules allow deuterons to fuse to form 4He throughout the crystal while maintaining periodic order. Energy release occurs by coupling to phonons or coherent motion (in which the lattice moves as a whole), accompanied by the expulsion of “untrapped,” low-energy 4He into the surface and outgassing regions. In this paper, the underlying assumptions responsible for LINC and the resulting selection rules will be summarized and explained. Comparisons will be made between predictions provided by LINC with recent experiments.

MASS – MIT & HAGELSTEIN’S THEORY

Peter L. Hagelstein (MIT), “Coherent and Semi-coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions,” pp 205-209, 1 ref, 1 fig.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

The novel process of coherent neutron transfer in the presence of a lattice is proposed to be the basis of a number of anomalous phenomena which have recently been reported in investigations of the Pons-Fleischmann effect.

ANN ARBOR, MI – THEORY

F.J. Mayer and J.R. Reitz, “Summary of Progress in Hydron Physics,” pp 211-216, 13 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic scattering resonances in the ep+, ed+,e-t+ systems produce short-lived, charge-neutral, particles called hydrons. These particles provide the screening of repulsive Coulomb forces so that nuclear reactions between a hydron nucleus and a reaction partner are possible. Hydron formation, reactions, and applications to anomalous nuclear observations in the laboratory and geophysics are summarized.

J.A. McNeil, “Relativistic Hyperfine Interaction and the Spence-Vary Resonance,”  pp 217-
219, 8 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

…In an attempt to address this question in a qualitative yet gauge-invariant way, we have studied the two fermion system using the Breit equation. The wavefunctions explicitly obey current conservation so the Coulomb gauge terms can have no effect on the results. For the purposes of obtaining qualitative features of the affect of the hyperfine interaction at short distances we approximate the relative coordinate Breit equation by the equivalent Schrodinger-form equation for hydrogen (m2>>m2 [sic] , for applications to positronium we use the reduced mass). We examine the hyperfine interaction in the axion channel and solve the equation in the energy range of interest (0-> 2MeV). We find the hyperfine interaction introduces an effective attractive interaction at very short distances (approx. 10 fm for positronium), but find no evidence for a resonance in the energy range of interest.

ILLINOIS – EXOTIC PLASMA MODEL

M. Shaheen, M. Ragheb, G.H. Miley, & H. Hora, J.C. Kelly (U of New So. Wales, Kensington, Australia), (Fusion Studies Lab, U. of Illinois except Hora & Kelly), “Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and the Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration,” pp 221-234, 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A hypothesis is presented to explain the anomalous D/H ratio observed in samples from the site of the naturally occurring fission reaction at Oklo. The experimentally observed D/H ratio of 127 ppm exceeds the naturally occurring value of 150 ppm [sic]. Further, using a multicomponent system consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and helium nuclei to model the Oklo reaction phenomenon and assuming a thermal fission process term, we calculate a D/H ratio of 445 ppm in the presence of the thermal neutron fluence attributed to Oklo. However, solving the same rate equations with a deuterium sink term to represent the hypothesis of deuteron disintegration, we find a deuteron disintegration constant of 7.47 x 10-14 s-1 yields the observed D/H ration. Indeed, deuteron disintegration would provide a neutron source (in addition to the fission neutrons) that could have driven the Oklo system as a subcritical (vs. a critical) reactor overt the extended period attributed to it.

ITALY – CROSS SECTION FACTORS

A. Scalia (Dipart. di Fisica, Univ di Catania, Corso, Italy) & P. Figuera (Lab Nazionaledel Sud, Doria, Italy), “The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p) → 3H and 2H(d,n) → 3He at Very Low Temperature,”  pp 235-242, 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The fusion cross section is obtained in terms of the Rutherford scattering by assuming that the fusion process is the “shadow” of elastic scattering. [A. Scalia, “The sub-barrier fusion as the shadow of the elastic scattering” to be publ. in Il Nuovo Cimento. See also Nuovo Cimento, 103, 85, 213, 255, 927, 1177 (1990).] The parameters which appear in the analytical expression of fusion cross section are determined by fitting the experimental values of fusion cross section. The cross section factor, <sigma nu> is obtained by using this fusion cross section and by assuming that the distribution of relative velocity between two different sets of particles will be described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The values of <sigma nu> at different temperatures are determined by performing numerical integrations. At energies at which the experimental data are available the values of cross section factor obtained coincide with those reported in the literature, at very low energies experimental data are not available and our approach is able to give the values of cross section factor. At T = 300 K, we obtain: NA <sigma nu> = 3.5286 x 10-27 (cu cm per mole per sec).

ILLINOIS – IMPROVED CALORIMETER

Thomas F. Droege & Lee John Droege (Batavia, IL), “An Improved Zero Gradient Calorimeter for the Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena,”  pp 243-248, 2 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A second generation null balance calorimeter has been constructed for measuring anomalous heat in electrolytic cells. This calorimeter is similar in concept to an isothermal calorimeter except that it is operated with zero temperature differential. The calorimeter accuracy is 4 milliwatts when operated at a total power of 12 watts. Calibration is performed in situ by operating the cells under test reversed or at zero current.

ITALY – DOUBLE-SCATTERING N DETECTOR

M. Agnello, F. Iazzi, & B. Minetti (INFN Sezione di Torino, Italy), E. Botta, T. Bressani, O. Brunasso, D. Calvo, D. Dattola, P. Gianotti, C. Lamberti & A. Zecchina, “Improvement of the TOFUS Apparatus,”  pp 249-254, 5 refs, 6 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The TOFUS experiment was started in order to detect 2.45 MeV neutrons emitted from a Ti/D system in the gas phase. Improvements in the electronics of the neutron detector, based on the double scattering technique, and in the performances of a new cell are described.

ITALY – SOLID ANGLE NEUTRON DETECTOR

G. Ricco, M. Anghinolfi, P. Corvisiero, P. Prati, M. Taiuti, C. Boragno, R. Eggenhoffner, U. Valbusa (Dept. of Physics, Sezione di Genova, Italy), “A Large Solid Angle Multiparameter Neutron Detector,” pp 255-260, 5 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We present the results of recent measurements, performed in Genoa with a novel neutron detector, on some titanium-deuterium systems. In spite of the good detector sensitivity, better of [than] the one claimed by Jones and co-workers, no neutron emission was found.

SWEDEN – NEUTRON DETECTOR

K.A. Sjoland, P.Kristiansson & K.G.J. Westergard, “Liquid Scintillator Detection and Multiparameter Data Acquisition for Neutron Detection in Cold Fusion Experiments,” pp 261-265, 6 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

We have designed a low level neutron detector for cold fusion experiments with titanium and deuterium gas. The basic principle of the system is to monitor as many relevant parameters as possible and store them event-by-event and analyze the data afterwards. The result of the experiment was that no significant excess of neutrons was observed. We also discuss the cosmic radiation that may influence low level measurement of neutrons.

ITALY – CRACK FUSION

L.H. Bagnulo, “Crack-fusion: a Plausible Explanation of Cold Fusion,” pp 267-270, 3 refs,
7 figs. [editor’s note: the abstract below is not from the paper, it is apparently a summary written by Hal Fox or whoever put together that issue of Fusion Facts (linked above).]

AUTHOR’S CONCLUSIONS

A hypothesis is postulated that crack growth results in charge separation on the newly formed crack surfaces, which act like a miniature “linear accelerator”; i.e. D+ ions are accelerated in the electric field across the crack tip to kinetic energies of 104 eV or more, sufficient to raise the D+D fusion probability. We assume that also in the case of deuterated Ti or Pd there is an occurrence of D+D fusion in accordance with the dynamics as described in this article. Here too, it is a case of a fusion process resulting from the liberation of deuterium atoms within the tip of an external crack.

COLORADO – MEASURING VERY LOW ENERGY

F.E. Cecil (Colo School of Mines), & G.M. Hale (Los Alamos Nat’l Lab), “Measurement of D-D and D-6Li Nuclear Reactions at Very Low Energies,” pp 271-275, 11 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The nuclear reactions of very low energy deuterons (down to center-of- mass energies of 2 keV) with deuterons and 6Li have been measured. The measured D-D reactions are in good with agreement recent R- matrix calculations. The reaction ratios D(d,p) → T / D(d,n) → 3He and 6Li(d,p) → 7Li / 6Li(d,alpha) → 4He in particular were examined for possible evidence of an Oppenheimer-Phillips type enhancement. No significant enhancement was found in either ratio or in the absolute yields of the reactions. The radiative capture reactions D(d,lambda) → 4He and 6Li(d,lambda) → 8Be were likewise measured. The branching ratios of these radiative capture reactions to the nucleonic branches of the reactions appear roughly independent of energy. The role of these reactions in the production of heat in  cold-fusion experiments is evaluated.

HUNGARY – MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

E. Kuzmann, M. Gal, G.K. Solymos, & CS. Szeles (Eotvos Univ., Budapest, Hungary), “Mossbauer Spectroscopic Characterization of Samples for Cold Fusion Experiment,” pp 277-281, 7 refs, 12 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

In our previous works Mossbauer spectroscopy (as well as neutron and gamma-spectroscopy) was used to study the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe-Zr amorphous alloys deuterized electrolytically both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrical monopole and quadrupole as well as magnetic dipole interactions measured by Mossbauer spectroscopy can provide information about the surrounding of Mossbauer atoms in deuterized samples. Consequently, the localization of deuterium can be sensitively studied. Mossbauer spectroscopy can be especially advantageously applied to the study of the effect of electrolytical hydrogenation of Fe-Zr amorphous alloys because the considerable changes appearing in the spectra(due to the change in the deuterium concentration or due to small heat effects) allow us to detect any structural changes caused by deuterization. Because Celani et al. have shown neutron burst activity in deuterized high Tsuperconductor, we have prepared EuBa2(Cu1-x57Fex)3O7DELTA high TC
superconductors for cold fusion experiments to be performed in an international collaboration. Both the Cu(1) and Cu(2) as well as the rare earth sites can be sensitively monitored by the Mossbauer measurements. The preliminary results of 151Eu and 57Fe Mossbauer investigation of these samples will be discussed.

M.S. Mathur, H.L. Johnston, A. Mirzai, J.S.C. [McKee], G.R. Smith, J.J.G. Durocher, K. Furutani, J.K. Mayer, Y.H. Yeo, H. Hnatiuk, S. King, A. Hempel, K.S. Sharma & G. Williams, “Recent Modifications to the Manitoba Deuterium Implantation Accelerator and a Study of the Properties of the Online Neutron Monitor Detector,” pp 283-288, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Deuterium molecules have been implanted into Palladium, Titanium and Indium targets in recent experiments at Manitoba by means of the 60 keV, 100 microA D2+ ‘Narodny’ ion accelerator. Neutrons from D- D interactions involving beam particles with previously stopped D atoms were detected by a large plastic scintillator viewed by two Photomultiplier tubes. We describe recent modifications to the accelerator made to improve the quality of the implanting beam, and some of the properties of the neutron detector used.

MARYLAND – NAVY THEORY ON Pd DENSITY

Hans S. Uhm & W.M. Lee (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD), “High Deuterium Concentration in Palladium for Application to Cold Fusion,” pp 289-293, 9 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. High deuterium concentration in palladium is needed for application to the solid-state fusion. The first deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the [plasma] ion implantation, which consists of a cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with diffusion-barrier material and immersed in a deuterium [plasma]. The second deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the temperature gradient effects on the deuterium solubility in palladium. A heat source at temperature T2 and a heat sink at temperature T2 (where T2 >T2) [sic] are in contact with two different
parts of a palladium sample, which has been presoaked with deuterium atoms and has been coated with diffusion-barrier material or securely locked in a metal case.

JAPAN – COLD FUSION RESEARCH

H. Ikegami, “Cold Fusion Researches in Japan,” pp 297-307, 16 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Positive results as well as some negative results from cold fusion research in Japan are reviewed with some comments. Out of 11 research groups taken up in the present review, three groups are mainly working on excess heat calorimetry, and the rest of the eight groups are involved in the detection of nuclear fusion products.

CHINA – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION RESEARCH

Xing Zhong Li (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) “Chinese Effort in Understanding the Cold Fusion Phenomena,” pp 309-317, 16 refs, 1 fig.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

Review on cold fusion research in China in the past two years is presented with the emphasis on the experiments after the first national symposium on cold fusion (May 10, 1990. Beijing). There were three phases: hot, quiet, and deep-going phases. Hot phase is characterized by failures in experiments in repetition and is restrained in thinking by the conventional ideas. Quiet phase started with different approaches and newly-designed experiments. Deep-going phase encourages the scientist to be respectful to the facts and creative in mind. Three anomalies in deuterium / solid system may exist.

RUSSIA – REVIEW OF SOVIET WORK

V.A. Tsarev, “Cold Fusion Studies in the USSR,” pp 319-336, 71 refs, 4 figs, 5 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

This special report is dedicated to the soviet scientists whose work seems not to be well known to the western scientific community. It is possible that some of the early soviet work has been “precursors” to the “cold fusion” era. The first Soviet National Conference on CF took place only recently in March of this year (March 22-26, 1991, Dubna- Moscow). This paper illustrates by a map, the centers of work that was presented at the Dubna conference. This work was carried out by about 45 Institutes. However, others stopped or “froze” their activities after the first unsuccessful attempts and under the pressure of wide- spread skepticism. The CF reputation in our country has suffered greatly from rush and inexact experiments of the initial period, widely boosted with a mass media. The total number of soviet publications on CF certainly exceeds one hundred (more than 80 papers were submitted at the Dubna Conference). About half of them are devoted to CF experiments, about a quarter are connected with methodical and structural studies, and the rest with theoretical models. This paper categorizes and summarizes the soviet CF work and provides suitable references.

TEXAS – FUGACITY & EXCESS HEAT

J.O’M. Bockris, D. Hodko, & Z. Minevski (Texas A&M Univ.), “The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked by Fluxing Deuterium across the Interface,”  pp 337-362, 8 refs, 7 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

In recent times much attention has been given to interpretations of the so-called fusion reactions which were related to the concept of high fugacity within the metal depending on the overpotential applied. In the present paper some preliminary electrochemical investigations of mechanisms of D2 evolution on Pd are outlined together with a report on some recent research upon the effect of electrical pulsing upon the initiation of excess heat generation. Cathodic overpotentials and overpotential decay transients for PdD2 electrode were measured in KOD and LiOD solutions. The mechanism of the deuterium electrode reaction is investigated and two Tafel slopes are obtained. In order to characterize the Pd surface and to find out the influence of different species, present on/in Pd, on the mechanism of D.E.R. surface techniques XPS and EDS were employed. Surface spectra and depth profiling up to 200 A are analyzed for samples exposed to different pretreatment such as annealing/abrading or exposed/not exposed to electrolyzing conditions. The atomic concentration of ad/absorbed species (Zn, Pt, Au, Cu, Fe, etc.) changes with the pretreatment and electrolysis. In respect to above impurities, the presence of Si is much less pronounced. Neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the presence of different species in solutions before and after the electrolysis. Following species are found at detectable levels: Pt, Au, and Na. Light water concentration measured by NMR technique is found to be less than 1%. Enthalpy generation during long term electrolysis of Pd in O.1 M LiOD is measured by a calorimetric method. Four-probe resistivity measurements were used to optimize a current-charging regime and to monitor changes in D/Pd ratio. Increase in current occasionally caused enhancement of D/Pd ratio (up to 0.8). After charging, the electrodes were pulsed in a potentiostatic mode. A typical pulsing regime consisted of cathodic (up to 1 A per sq cm) and anodic pulses of equal duration. The cell pulsed with 5 ms regime for more than 30 days showed no measurable excess heats. Applying 5s pulsing regime excess heats of up to 23% were observed, Fig. 2. The application of 5s pulsing regimes caused electrode to slowly discharge. An interesting observation was that excess heat bursts appeared to be correlated with the process of charging of electrode and enhanced with repetitive pulsing. The total energy production in excess enthalpy bursts shown in Fig. 1 is approx. 39 MJ per mole, the amount exceeding known chemical origin.

UTAH – F&P NOW WORKING IN FRANCE

Martin Fleischmann (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Southampton, UK) and Stanley Pons (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Utah, USA), “The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-Based Cathodes,”  pp 349-362, 8 refs, 11 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The major measurement technique which we have used in our investigations of the anomalous behavior of palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water has been the calorimetry of these systems. Three types of signatures were detected in our experiments up to October 1989:

1. Low to medium levels in the rates of excess enthalpy generation (0.1-100 watts per cu. cm., 5-40 % excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells);
2. Increases of the rates of excess enthalpy generation with decreases of the rates of enthalpy input; and
3. Bursts in the rates of excess enthalpy generation lasting for periods of a few hours to 16 days (typically 10 watts per cu. cm., 1000% excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells).
It is the magnitudes of the excess enthalpies (typically 50 MJ per cu. cm. in the base line values and up to 16 MJ per cu. cm. in the bursts) which demand explanations of the phenomena in terms of anomalous nuclear processes in these solid state systems. We have continued to use calorimetry as a major method of investigation in the period since October 1989. In this paper we describe the various types of signature which are readily observed using such measurements. We report on the observation of a pattern of behavior intermediate to that of the base line generation of excess enthalpy and the enthalpy bursts which can be observed with some types of cathode materials.

U. S. NAVY – FINDS 4He IN EFFLUENT GASES

M.H. Miles, B.F. Bush, G.S. Ostrom (Chem Div, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA), & J.J. Lagowski (Dept. of Chem, U. of Texas, Austin), “Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments,” pp 363-372, 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A critical issue in determining whether or not the cold fusion process exists is the quality of the evidence concerning the composition of the gaseous products. The lack of neutrons, gamma-rays, and other forms of radiation in these experiments has prompted theoretical proposals of fusion processes in the Pd-D lattice that yield only heat and helium as products. Calorimetric evidence of excess heat production during the electrolysis of heavy water using a palladium cathode will be presented. Effluent gas samples collected during episodes of excess heat production and sent to the University of Texas for analysis by mass spectrometry showed the presence of helium-4. Furthermore, the amount of helium detected was within experimental error of the theoretical estimate of helium production. Various control samples gave no evidence for helium. Attempts to measure the neutron activation of metal foils in cold fusion will also be discussed.

Comments from Fusion Facts Editor: The U.S. Navy can take great pride in the cold fusion work done by Miles et al., by Szpak (NOSC) and by Chubb (NRL) in making large experimental and theoretical strides in cold fusion. By contrast, the DoE hasn’t found out that cold fusion is real.

UTAH NCFI – TRITIUM EVERY TIME

F.G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M-C Yang, J.R. Peterson, H.E. Bergeson, S.C. Barrowes, W.J. West and D.C. Linton (National Cold Fusion Inst., University of Utah, USA), “Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading ofpalladium with deuterium,” pp 373-383, 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

NEW MEXICO – LANL & NEUTRONS

H.O. Menlove, M.A.Paciotti, T.N. Claytor & D.G. Tuggle (Los Alamos Nat’l Lab), “Low-Background Measurement of Neutron Emission from Ti Metal in Pressurized Deuterium Gas,” pp 385-394, 7 refs, 5 figs, 4 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A wide variety of neutron detector systems have been used at various research facilities to search for anomalous neutron emission from deuterated metals. Some of these detector systems are summarized here together with possible sources ofspurious signals from electronic noise. During the past two years, we have performed experiments to measure neutron emission from pressurized D2 gas mixed with various forms of titanium metal chips and sponge. Details concerning the neutron detectors, experimental procedures, and results have been reported previously. Our recent experiments have focused on increasing the low-level neutron emission and finding a way to trigger the emission. To improve our detection sensitivity, we have increased the shielding in our counting laboratory, changed to low-background 3Hetubes, and set up additional detector systems in deep underground counting stations. This report is an update on this experimental work.

NEW MEXICO – T & NEUTRONS IN Pd-Si

T.N. Claytor, D.G. Tuggle & H.O. Menlove, “Tritium Generation and Neutron Measurements in Pd-Si under High Deuterium Gas Pressure,” pp 395-408, 16 refs,
8 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS

A reproducible method of tritium generation has been demonstrated. The tritium output scales with the current applied to various configurations of the cells. The tritium yield is found to depend strongly on the type of palladium metal used (powder or foil) and it may be expected that other parameters that have not been investigated thoroughly will have similar effects Various tests for tritium contamination confirm that there is little chance of initial tritium contamination in the powder, foil or other materials used in this study. The tritium and neutron results are self consistent, and consistent with other reports. However, more sensitive neutron measurements are required to give a definitive neutron emission result.

SWITZERLAND – ABSORPTION OF H

Louis Schlapbach (Solid State Physics Group, Univ. of Fribourg), “Hydrogen and its Isotopes in and on Metals,” pp 409-418, 14 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

A summary description is given of phenomena related to the surface adsorption and bulk absorption of hydrogen and of its isotopes by a metallic host. Thermodynamic and surface properties, electronic and crystal structure and diffusion are illustrated for the examples of the hydride formation of Pd and of LaNi5 as typical examples of hydride forming elemental metals and intermetallic compounds.

CALIFORNIA – EPRI RESULTS

M.C.H. McKubre, R. Rocha-Filho, S.I. Smedley, F.L. Tanzella, S. Crouch-Baker, T.O. Passell & J. Santucci, “Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System,” pp 419-443, 6 refs, 14 figs.

AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION

F. Scaramuzzi, “Survey of Gas Loading Experiments,”pp 445-452, 5 refs, 2 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

In March 1989 the results of two experiments claiming for nuclear reactions taking place, at room temperature, in metal lattices (Pd and Ti) charged with deuterium, were presented. In both cases the technique chosen for charging the metals with deuterium consisted in using an electrolytic cell, containing heavy water, in which the cathodes were made out of Pd or Ti. Soon later, in April, the Group led by the writer addressed a very straight forward question: if nuclear reactions take place in a metal lattice because of the interaction between the deuterium nuclei and the lattice, is electrolysis the only route to be followed, in order to produce them? Wouldn’t it be possible to perform experiments, having the same purpose, by letting the lattice to interact with deuterium in the gaseous phase? The question seemed quite appealing, mostly for one reason: the physical system consisting in an electrolytic cell is a very complicated one, and has to take into account a great number of parameters, while the system consisting in a metal and a gas looks much simpler. The latter would permit much cleaner experimental conditions, and thus it would be possible to analyze more clearly the experiments; it would also favor a higher reproducibility, and would enable testing the proposed theories. Experiments were performed at the Frascati Laboratory of ENEA following this alternative route, using titanium: furthermore, it was decided that, in order to favor nuclear reactions, temperature cycles should be performed on the system (from 77K to room temperature). Positive results were obtained, consisting in the detection of neutron bursts, and were soon published.

ITALY – PHYSICS OF FUSION

Giuliano Preparata (Dep di Fisica, Univ di Milano), “Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid?”, pp 453-461, 29 refs, 1 fig, 2 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

I shall try to examine first the strange facts of hydrogen incorporation into Palladium, and then I shall discuss the phenomena of cold fusion in relation to those facts. In the light of the known experimental data I will then discuss the general features of what we might call “possible” and “impossible” theories of cold fusion, somehow drawing a demarcation line between which theoretical ideas can and cannot explain those observations, given the well established and accepted general laws of condensed matter (Quantum Electro Dynamics, QED) and nuclear physics (Quantum Chromo Dynamics, QCD). My discussion will follow quite closely a paper recently completed in collaboration with M. Fleischmann and S. Pons [Possible and
impossible theories of Cold Fusion, preprint MITH 91/23 (1991)]

Fleischmann, M., Pons, S. & Preparata, G. Nuov Cim A (1994) 107: 143. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02813078, Britz Flei1994a, lenr-canr.org.

GERMANY – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION

H. Gerischer (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin), “Is Cold Fusion a Reality? The Impressions of a Critical Observer,” pp 465-474, 14 refs.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

Having received, at short notice, the invitation to attend the second international conference on cold fusion as a skeptical observer, I began to study some of the papers which have appeared since the fall of 1989 after which I had stopped following the publications in this area. Being skeptical from the beginning, the many negative reports from renowned laboratories seemed to confirm that the disputed claims of cold fusion occurring in a solid were, unfortunately, based on the erroneous interpretation of ill-defined experiments. I now realize that in the meantime many new positive results have been published which cannot be pushed aside quite so easily. Two reviews, currently in the course of publications, were very helpful and yielded much information on the present situation. These are the reviews of M. Srinivasan and E. Storms. Together with my reading and the lectures given on the first days of the conference, I eventually felt able to present my impressions in a lecture on the last day of the conference, as the organizers had requested. I am aware that all the arguments pro and contra the reality of cold fusion have been pointed out by others before. The first part of my contribution to the report of this conference is therefore mainly a reminder of the problems. In the second part I raise some questions seen with the eyes of a physical chemist being specially experienced in electrochemistry.

ENGLAND – FLEISCHMANN REPORTS

M. Fleischmann, “The Present Status of Research in Cold Fusion,” pp 475-527, 1 fig.

EDITORIAL NOTE: Martin Fleischmann was asked by the Royal Society of Chemistry to give an account of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion for the Newsletter of the Electrochemistry Group of the Society. This is a reprint of that article. This article was reviewed and quoted extensively in the December 1991 issue of Fusion Facts.

## Being right is not enough

or How “fusion” created confusion.

We now have strong evidence that the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, sometimes known as the Anomalous Heat Effect, is nuclear in nature and accomplishes the transmutation of deuterium into helium, as the main reaction generating heat, but this evidence was not available in the early days of the field. Skeptics and “believers” conspired (albeit not realizing what they were doing) to call what was actually observed — or claimed, and the two were heavily confused — by Pons and Fleischmann, “cold fusion.” Even when a little careful thought would have exposed the distinction.\

What Pons and Fleischmann observed, in experiments with extreme loading of palladium with deuterium, was anomalous heat, with an apparent energy density or net energy production higher than they could explain with chemistry. They also saw weak signals associated with fusion, specifically, they believed they had seen evidence of neutrons, they detected tritium, and also helium. They did not have quantitative correlations, and  the quantities found of tritum and neutrons and the ratio of heat to tritium and neutrons, and tritium to neutrons, was far different from that expected if they had succeeded in creating normal fusion.

So what they had found, if it was nuclear in nature, was not “d-d fusion,” almost certainly, which is very well known, and which is believed to necessarily produce those products.

I just came across some remarkable language from 1990 that shows the issue. This is in a report to ICCF-1, by Iyangar and Srinivasan, from BARC, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, India. These were nuclear experts, and there was, for a time, a massive effort to investigate cold fusion.

Wait, to investigate “cold fusion”? What’s that? Getting little details like exactly what one is investigating and why can be, ah, let’s call it useful.

From the abstract, and, remember, I have the benefit of an intervening three decades of history, a huge dollop of hindsight. What I’m seeing here as a misunderstanding that fostered confusion and conflict was something that many, many thought, it was language in common use. From the abstract:

A wide variety of experiments have been carried out by twelve independent teams employing both electrolytic and gas phase loading of deuterium in Pd and Ti metals to investigate the phenomenon of cold fusion first reported by Fleischmann and Pons in March 1989. The experiments were primarily devoted to the study of the emission of nuclear particles such as neutrons and tritium with a view to verify the“nuclear origin”of cold fusion.

Did Fleischmann and Pons report “cold fusion”? It was quite unfortunate that they mentioned the classical fusion reactions in their first paper, because it was totally obvious that what they were seeing, whatever it was, was not those reactions. The evidence that a nuclear reaction was happening was circumstantial, not enough to overcome strong expectation that such reactions would be impossible in the conditions of their experiments

That is, there was heat that they could not explain. If the heat were regular and predictable and reproducible, that could have been enough. But it wasn’t. The heat effect was elusive. “I can’t explain these results with chemistry” is not evidence with which one could convince a physicist. One would first need to convince the physicist that the evidence is clear and not artifact, because if one has telegraphed that you think this is something the physicist will think is impossible, they will examine all the evidence with a jaundiced eye. It’s just human nature.

So “cold fusion” started off with a handicap. It really didn’t help that the neutron evidence that Pons and Fleischmann adduced was artifact. What we know now is that very few neutrons, if any, are generated with their experiment.

(We need to realize that many difference kinds of experiments get lumped together as “cold fusion,” but different experiments may actually show different results, different reactions might be happening under conditions that are sometimes not adequately controlled. By conceptualizing the object of study as “cold fusion,” an assumption is created of a single phenomenon, and then when results differ, the reality of the alleged phenomenon comes into question.l)

What was reasonably being investigated was the possibility of nuclear phenomena in certain metals loaded with deuterium. The first issue to investigate was, for most groups, heat. But groups with a particular interest in nuclear physics often investigated neutrons, and when it was found that many replication attempts produced very few neutrons, this strengthened skepticism. There was also a common assumption that if nuclear reactions were happening, there must be neutrons. That is simply false, but the absence of neutrons from what was being assumed to be deuterium-deuterium fusion, that’s actually a very dificult puzzle.

The first order of business was to detect, measure, and correlate phenomena, not to interpret the results, but this was all pre-interpreted. They were investigating “cold fusion.” Not, say, “the Fleischman and Pons reports of anomalous heat.”

Ask a physicist, could there be deuterium fusion in palladium deuteride at room temperature, and he or she is likely to tell you, straight out, “No.” But ask this scientist if there could be a heat effect of unknown origin, and if they are worth their salt, they would tell you, well, we don’t know everything and sometimes it can take time to figure out what is happening.

Tbe report desperately needing confirmation was what Pons and Fleischmann had actually observed, once the confusion over their neutron reports was cleared up. “Cold fusion” was an interpretation, not an experimental fact, or certainly not yet.

Tritium was widely observed, it wasn’t just BARC. But was the tritium connected with the prime Fleischmann=Pons effect, the heat? And then things really got crazy when reports started to show up of a heat effect with light hydrogen. Again, the concept of a single phenomenon caused confusion. It is not that we know there is more than one reaction, we don’t know that yet. But it is quite possible, the “law of conservation of miracles” is not a law, and cold fusion is not a miracle. It’s something that doesn’t happen very often, and while I use the tern “cold fusion,” often, I would not use it academically without clear definition. At least I hope not!

By “cold fusion” i mean the FP Heat Effect and other possible affects commonly associated with it or believed or claimed to be related. I justify the use of the term because the known product from the FP Heat Effect is helium, which is, Ockham’s Razor with the evidence we have, coming from the conversion oi deuterium to helium. That is fusion in effect, which must be distinguished from “deuterium fusion,” i.e., two deuterium nuclei fusing. Why? That reaction is very well known and the products are well known, and there are reasons to consider that even if this happens somehow at low energy, the products will be the same.

(When a physicist claims that “cold fusion” is impossible, because of the Coulomb barrier making the fusion rate be so low as to be indetectable, they are being sloppy, because muon-catalyzed fusion takes place at extremely low temperatures. Muons act as catalysts, so the immediate question arises, could something else catalyze fusion. An inability to imagine it is, again, not evidence. The universe is vast and possibilities endless, we cannot know all of them, only what is common.)

In 22 different electrolytic experiments whose cathode surface areas ranged from 0.1 to 300 cm2 , large bursts of neutrons and/or tritium were measured. Some of these gave clear evidence that these two nuclear particles were being generated simultaneously. The neutron-to-tritium yield ratios in the majority of these experiments was in the range of 10-6 to 10-9.

“Large bursts” is suspicious. Large compared to what? I have not read the report in detail yet. (I will). But tritium is a minor effect associated with the FP Heat Effect. It may be the case that tritium is enhanced if there is substantial light hydrogen in the heavy water, but even a little light water tends to suppress the FP Heat Effect. Even if there is some single mechanism, it behaves differently when presented with different fuels. The norm with cold fusion experiments, though, is that high-energy radiation and radioactive products are found only at very low levels. The rule of thumb, I state as tritium being a million times down from helium, and neutrons a million times down from helium. Helium production, with deuterium fuel (helium is not reported with light hydrogen as fuel, and we don’t know the product of light hydrogen “cold fusion.”

Those ratios are strong evidence that “cold fusion” is not d-d fusion, because the operation of d-d fusion, how and why the nucleus normally fragments, is well understood. I.e, the fused nucleus, the product of that fusion, is highly energized, it’s hot. That is true even if the reaction is not hot fusion (and the kinetic energy involved with fusion from the velocity of impact is dwarfed by the energy of collapse, as the nucleons collapse under the influence of the strong force. (Very strong force!)  There is so much energy that normally the nucleus breaks into two pieces and there are only two ways it can do that. It can eject a proton or it can eject a neutron, to carry away that energy and leave the nucleus in the ground state, cool. That’s the two branches, and it is mostly equal which nucleon ends up being odd man out. Hence the two common branches,

1H2 (deuterium)+ 1H2 -> 1H3 (Helium-3)+ 1H(light hydrogen, a proton) + energy

1H2 + 1H2 -> 2He3 (Helium-4) + 0N 1 (a neutron) + energy

And then the third branch is very rare. If the nucleus happens to be exactly balanced (I think, maybe balance is not an issue, just the odds), and manages to live intact long enough to generate a photon, the nucleons can stay together and almost all the energy is dumped into the photon, which is very high energy, 23.8 MeV. (The rest of the energy is in the recoil of the helium nucleus.) I think the branching ratio for that is one in 10^-7 reactions. One in ten million.

So that becomes another miracle that exercised Huizenga. If somehow the fusion happens (spectacularly unlikely!), and somehow it manages to produce helium (very unlikely), there must be a gamma ray, a very energetic one. This would be, at the heat levels reported, very dangerous. It’s not observed. That’s strong evidence that d+d fusion is no happening.

Something else is happening. In that context and with that understanding, and given the mishegas about “cold fusion” it was important to be investigating phenomena, not explanations. Tritium was actually contradictory to the FP Heat Effect, in general. It was lumped together with it because if tritium was being produced, “something nuclear” was happening. But what is the evidence that the heat was nuclear. Maybe if we look carefully, we will see nuclear reactions happening at low levels in unexpected places.

A unique feature of the BARC electrolysis results is that the first bursts of neutrons and tritium occurred (in 8 out of 11 cells) on the very first day of commencement of electrolysis, when hardly a few amp-hrs of charge had been passed.

This is evidence that the effects they are seeing are not the FP Heat Effect! It doesn’t happen that early, in FP type electrolysis experiments. There are rapid effects reported with codeposition, a different approach.

But the occasion for this post was the linguistic anomaly here. I’ll repeat it:

The experiments were primarily devoted to the study of the emission of nuclear particles such as neutrons and tritium with a view to verify the“nuclear origin”of cold fusion.

“Fusion” is a nuclear reaction. So they are looking to verify the nuclear origin of a nuclear reaction. It’s a tautology. As to looking for nuclear particles associated with what was called “cold fusion,” the FP Heat Effect, they are missing, mostly. What BARC found was at very low levels. Helium was suspected early on, but (because of no gammas) was not given a great deal of credence, and there was an additional reason to doubt helium evidence: helium is present in the atmosphere at levels normally greater than those expected if the FP Heat Effect were producing helium. So in many experiments (not all), leakage can be a possible artifact. It took careful work (beginning with Miles as to what I know so far) to actually show that helium is the main product of the FP Heat Effect.

That has been done, and confirmed many times. Tritium, however, is interesting, scientifically, and there is much work still to be done with tritium, and in particular, investigating tritium correlations with other products and conditions.

## ICCF-1

subpage of Proceedings

The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion
Conference Proceedings

March 28-31, 1990
University Park Hotel
Salt Lake City, Utah

National Cold Fusion Institute

“Reprint Permissions: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. For copying, reprint or
republication permission, write to Director, National Cold Fusion Institute, 390 Wakara Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84106 (801) 581-5571″

This information and the files associated were obtained from a copy of the Proceedings hosted by lenr-canr.org.

The front matter includes a transmittal note from Fritz Will, his Opening Address, the Conference Program (from which the TOC here was prepared, a list of papers in the Proceedings (duplicated here, but the way the author names are presented is different), an index of authors, and a word index.

*Indicates another source, noted and linked with the asterisk. There may be small differences. Pages 70 and 71 were replaced with full pages from the alernate source.

## V26

Subpage of JCMNS
JOURNAL OF CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017

source page: http://www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol26.pdf  pp.,    MB. All pages hosted here have been compressed, see the source for full resolution if needed.  stripped_JCMNS-Vol26, pp.,  1.8 MB, has front matter removed so that pdf page number and as-published page match. All files may have undiscovered errors. Please note any problems or desired creation of a discussion page in comments.

Videos of presentations are available. See IWAHLM-12. * after a name indicates a video.

J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 26 (2018) 1–98

 VOLUME 26, October 2018 PREFACE William Collis* pref RESEARCH ARTICLES LENR – What We must Do to Complete Martin Fleischmann’s Undertaking Michael C.H. McKubre* 1 Expectations of LENR Theories David J. Nagel* 15 Isotopic and Elemental Composition of Substance in Nickel–Hydrogen Heat Generators K.A. Alabin*, S.N. Andreev, A.G. Sobolev, S.N. Zabavin, A.G. Parkhomov and T.R. Timerbulatov 32 Cold Nuclear Transmutations. Distribution of Binding Energy within Nuclei Philippe Hatt 45 Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom Jean-Luc Paillet* and Andrew Meulenberg 54 On the Heat Transfer in LENR Experiments T. Toimela* 69 Reanalysis of an Explosion in a LENR Experiment Jacques Ruer* and Jean-Paul Biberian 76 Key Principles for Patenting in the Land of LENR* David J. French 98

## Bibliography P-S

Subpage of Bibliography

3092. Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 451.

First Author: Packham, N. J. C.
All Authors: Packham, N. J. C., Wolf, K. L., Wass, J. C., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, tritium, D2O

INTRODUCTIONIn the present communication, we report data that may be relevant to the phenomenon of room temperature fusion. It is the contention of the authors that the alleged phenomenon is better characterized by the production of nuclear particles than by the measurement of bursts of heat. Here, we describe the observation of tritium produced in eleven D2O electrolysis cells at levels 10^2-10^5 times above that expected from the normal isotopic enrichment of electrolysis. Particular attention has been paid to possible sources of contamination.

3093. Page, W.S. Two-dimensional Proton Conductors. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Page, W. S.
All Authors: Page, W. S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

An enormous literature has developed on the subject of the abnormal mobility of protons in aqueous solutions. Eigen and De Maeyer in 1958 [1] may have been among the first to observe that ” The proton transport in hydrogen-bonded media is completely different from normal ionic migration and corresponds more to electronic transport processes in semi-conductors . . . . Phenomenologically, the ice crystal may be considered as a ‘protonic semi-conductor’ with an intrinsic (thermal) distribution of the charge carriers (protons) between a ‘valence’ band (H-bonded H20) and a ‘conduction’ band (excess protons fluctuating in H-bonds). . . .

3094. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Arguments for the Anomalous Solutions of the Dirac Equations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, Dirac equation, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels in the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs). The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin1 /2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. We next analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant. As a prerequisite to a deep comprehension of the resolution methods, we recall in the appendices some essential elements of the Dirac theory.

3095. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Basis for Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels (EDLs) in the hydrogen atom. Acceptance of these levels and, in particular, experimental evidence of their existence would have major implications for the basis for cold fusion and would open up new fields of femto-physics and -chemistry. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In a second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs), as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations. The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin 1/2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. Next, we analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant.

3096. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 40-58.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. In particular, a solution to fix all problems is to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. For this reason, we deeply analyzed the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, with such a modified Coulomb potential without singular point. Then, by using a more complete ansatz, we made numerous computations on the wavefunctions of these EDOs, allowing to confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of orbits and to find further properties. Moreover, we observed that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity. At a first glance, this fact results from an obvious algebraic property of the expression of energy levels obtained by the relativistic equations. Now, a comparative analysis of the relativistic and of the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation allows us to affirm that Special Relativity leads to the existence of EDOs because of the non-linear form of the relativistic expression for the total energy, which implies a relativistic non-linear correction to the Coulomb potential.

3097. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 62-84.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works, on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDO) and on other works about deep orbits. A first part recalls the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. At this occasion we highlight the difference of resolution of these problems between the relativistic Schrodinger equation and the Dirac equation, which leads for this latter, to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, the so-called Deep Dirac Levels (DDLs). As a result of some criticism about the matching conditions at the boundary, we verified their computation, but by using a more complete ansatz for the “inside” solution. We can confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of DDL orbits and that ⟨r⟩ decreases when the Dirac angular quantum number k increases. This latter finding is a self-consistent result since (as distinct from the atomic-electron orbitals) the binding energy of the DDL electron increases (in absolute value) with k. We observe that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity.

3098. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Advance on Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 258-277.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Magnetic interactions, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In the previous works, we discussed arguments for and against the deep orbits, as exemplified in published solutions. So we considered the works of Maly and Va’vra on the topic, the most complete solution available and one showing an infinite family of EDO solutions. In particular, we deeply analyzed their second of these papers, where they consider a finite nucleus and look for solutions with a Coulomb potential modified inside the nucleus. In the present paper, we quickly recall our analysis, verification, and extension of their results. Moreover, we answer to a recent criticism that the EDOs would represent negative energy states and therefore would not qualify as an answer to the questions posed by Cold Fusion results. We can prove, by means of a simple algebraic argument based on the solution process, that, while at the transition region, the energy of the EDOs are positive. Next, we deepen the essential role of Special Relativity as source of the EDOs, which we discussed in previous papers. But the central topic of our present study is an initial analysis of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, with the aim of solving important physical questions: do the EDOs satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty relation (HUR)? Are the orbits stable? So, we examine some works related to the Vigie-“Barut Model, with potentials including magnetic coupling. We also carried out approximate computations to evaluate the strength of these interactions and the possibilities of their answering some of our questions. As a first result, we can expect the HUR to be respected by EDOs, due to the high energies of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus. Present computations for stability do not yet give a plain result; we need further studies and tools based on QED to face the complexity of the near-nuclear region. For the creation of EDOs, we outline a possibility based on magnetic coupling.

3099. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 54-68.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Confinement, Deep electron levels, Heisenberg uncertainty relation, Highly relativistic electrons, LENR, Magnetic interaction, Relativistic quantum physics

In previous works, we analyzed and countered arguments against the deep orbits, as discussed in published solutions. Moreover, we revealed the essential role of Special Relativity as source of electron deep orbits (EDOs). We also showed, from a well-known analytic method of solution of the Dirac equation, that the obtained EDOs have a positive energy. When including the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, we observed a breakthrough in how to satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR) for electrons confined near the nucleus, in a radial zone of only a few fm. Here we chose a different method, by directly facing the HUR for such confined electrons, from which we deduce the coefficient γ of these highly relativistic electrons. Then we show the effective Coulomb potential due to a relativistic correction, can maintain the electrons in containment. Next we resume and deepen our study of the effects of EM interactions near the nucleus. We first obtain computation results: though approximate, we can effectively expect high-energy resonances near the nucleus. These results should be confirmed by using QFT-based methods.

3100. Palamalai, A., et al., Preliminary experimental studies on electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium. Trans. SAEST, 1990. 25: p. 73.

First Author: Palamalai, A.
All Authors: Palamalai, A., Ahmed, A., Sampath, M., Chinnusamy, A., Prasad, G. N., Krishna Rao, K. S., Sreedharan, O. M., Raman, V. R., Balasubramanian, G. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium, Pd, D2O, neutron

3101. Paleschi, V., et al., A plasma model of the process of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 148: p. 345.

First Author: Paleschi, V.
All Authors: Paleschi, V., Harith, M. A., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P., Vaselli, M.
Keywords: theory

3102. Palibroda, E. and P. Gluck, Cold nuclear fusion in thin foils of palladium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 154: p. 153.

First Author: Palibroda, E.
All Authors: Palibroda, E., Gluck, P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3103. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen to helium. Naturwiss., 1926. 43: p. 956 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium, H2, Pd

3104. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1926. 59: p. 2039 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium H2, Pd, history

3105. Paneth, F., K. Peters, and P. Guenther, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1927. 60: p. 808 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K., Guenther, P.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3106. Paneth, F., The transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Nature (London), 1927. 119: p. 706.

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3107. Paolo, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Paolo, P.
All Authors: Paolo, P.
Keywords: theory

3108. Pappas, P.T. The Electrically Induced Nuclear Fusion in a living Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Pappas, P. T.
All Authors: Pappas, P. T.
Keywords: theory, biology, transmutation, ICCF-7

3109. Para, A.F., et al., Neutron Monitoring and Related Measurements During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium and Titanium Cathodes: Activity Report. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 131.

First Author: Para, A. F.
All Authors: Para, A. F., Ducati, U., Sangiust, V., Cavallotti, P. L., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, Mass Spectrometry

3110. Parish, T.A., R.T. Perry, and W.B. Wilson, Neutron sources and spectra from cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 479.

First Author: Parish, T. A.
All Authors: Parish, T. A., Perry, R. T., Wilson, W. B.
Keywords: neutron, method spectra, gamma emission, theory

3111. Park, R.L., The Cold Fusion Story Has Been an Object Lesson on Why Science Flourishes Only in the Open. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989: p. A44.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history, critique, Fleischmann

3112. Park, Y.W., et al., The observation of 2.2 MeV gamma-rays in an electrochemical cell. Sae Mulli, 1989. 29: p. 231.

First Author: Park, Y. W.
All Authors: Park, Y. W., Yoon, C. O., Yoon, M. Y., Kim, J. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, Titanium, neutron, gamma emission

3113. Park, R.L., BOOK WORLD The Fizzle in the Fusion, in Washington Post. 1991.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: Critique

3114. Park, A.E., Some thoughts on a simple mechanism for the 2H + 2H –> 4He cold fusion reaction. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 319.

First Author: Park, A. E.
All Authors: Park, A. E.
Keywords: theory, He

3115. Park, R.L., Voodoo Science. 2000, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 211 pages.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history,

3116. Park, S. and F. Gordon, Cold Fusion – from the Laboratory to the World Setting the Stage for ICCF-17. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Park, S.
All Authors: Park, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Cold Fusion, ICCF-17

The objective of ICCF-17 is to allow international groups of scientists to present their data to further the collective understanding of scientists working in the field and so that skeptical members of the mainstream scientific community, the media, and the public will see the evidence that “Cold Fusion” is real. Indeed several groups are currently developing commercial products that produce energy using the “Cold Fusion” phenomena. Ultimately, the reality of cold fusion will be determined by the public acceptance of commercial devices. People and companies who continue to deny the existence of cold fusion will become irrelevant as the applications are placed into service.

3117. Parkhomov, A. and E. Belousova, Research into Heat Generators Similar to High-temperature Rossi Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Parkhomov, A.
All Authors: Parkhomov, A., Belousova, E.
Keywords: Element composition, High temperature, Hydrogen, Isotope composition, Nickel powder, Nuclear radiation, Power consumption, Power production, Reactor

Devices similar to a high-temperature Rossi reactor were made. Excess heat at the temperature of about 1100 deg C and higher was demonstrated. No nuclear radiation above the background level was observed during the excess heat production.

3118. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in metals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1989. 86: p. 8614.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, jellium

3119. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in palladium: a more realistic calculation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 8652.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, Thomas-Fermi-Mott

3120. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, More cold fusion in metals: corrected calculations and other considerations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 3177.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory

3121. Parmenter, R.H., A possible scenario for the onset of cold fusion in deuterated metals. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 41.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: Theory tunneling screening, resonance

It is suggested that a pair of deuterons in a deuterated metal may resonant-tunnel through the Coulomb barrier separating them and form a helium isomer characterized by L = 1, S = 1 and odd parity. . . .

3122. Parmenter, R.H., Enhancement of Cold Fusion Processes in Palladium by Catalytic Agents. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(43): p. 66.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: theory

The process of fusion of a pair of deuterons into an α parti­cle in palladium metal can be enhanced by the presence of free protons. The process of fusion of lithium 6 and a deuteron into a pair of α particles can be enhanced by the presence of free neutrons. . . .

3123. Parmigiani, F. and P.G. Sona, Theoretical considerations on the cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 913.

First Author: Parmigiani, F.
All Authors: Parmigiani, F., Sona, P. G.
Keywords: theory, heavy electron

3124. Paseka, I. and J. Vondrak, Cold nuclear fusion. Chem. Listy, 1990. 84: p. 897 (in Czech).

First Author: Paseka, I.
All Authors: Paseka, I., Vondrak, J.
Keywords: review

3125. Passell, T.O. Overview and Status of the EPRI Program on Deuterated Metals. in ASME Joint International Power Generation Conference. 1994. Phoenix, AZ.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, D/Pd

3126. Passell, T.O., Radiation data reported by Wolf at Texas A&M as transmitted by T. Passell. 1995, EPRI.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission

ABSTRACTThree cells were electrolyzed in series at constant low current 42 days near a neutron detector of low background (40 counts/hr) using a protocol of adding boron and aluminum at 0.001 molar to the 0.1 molar LiOD electrolyte at ~18th day. Cathodes were loaded with deuterium at a few 10’s of milliamps/cm^2, with a 12-hour cryogenic treatment at day 17. Cathodes were sanded and replaced in the cell every 7 days. On the ~21st & 22nd days two successive fast neutron episodes were observed at about 2 times background. The neutron detector is minimally sensitive to gamma rays but gammas were observed near the end of the 20-hour neutron episode. When the cells were dismantled in late Sept 1992, all three cathodes (6 mm diameter x 60 mm long) were observed to be mildly radioactive. Analysis by germanium gamma detectors revealed presence of 100 billion atoms of Ag, Pd, Rh, and (one) Ru isotopes having ratios unlike those from bombardment by high-energy deuteron or proton beams.

3127. Passell, T.O. Charting the Way Forward in the EPRI Research Program on Deuterated Metals. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review, EPRI, Wolf, gamma emission, radioactivity, D2O, Pd ICCF-5, effect of H2O

Over six years have elapsed since the first announcement by Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins ( l ) of the observation of excess heat from palladium heavily loaded with deuterium. The EPRI program began in April, 1 989, and has continued to the present time attempting to replicate the claimed excess heat and determine its source. Under conditions difficult to achieve, some 16 separate experiments have successfully reached that goal out of some 35 major attempts. The conditions found necessary for an observation of excess heat were found to be at least three in number: 1) atomic loading ratio (DlPd) > -0.9; 2) Initiation time of 8 to 23 days; 3) current density >0. 1 amperes per cm^2 of cathode area. A fourth condition suggested by the results of a recent experiment is that the FLUX of deuterium across the palladium metal surface must be above some threshold value. No definitive source for the excess heat has been yet robustly determined, but measurable helium-4 has been observed in the cell vapor space in a few cases. The major evidence that the heat may be from nuclear reactions is its magnitude – some 10 to 100 times larger than any known chemical reaction. The objective of the continuing effort is focussed upon identifying the source of the excess heat. Sonic cavitation at a Pd-D2O interface has apparently produced both He-4 in the vapor phase as well as apparent excess heat. This research has identified a huge matrix of possible experiments to confirm or refute various hypotheses on the source of the heat. To acquire sufficient resources to explore this matrix requires, in my opinion, a definitive signature of a nuclear reaction connected with the production of heat. Then and only then, with the promise of a potential energy source of almost unlimited size, will the necessary research funds be forthcoming.

3128. Passell, T.O. Search for nuclear reaction products in heat-producing palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, boron, theory, ICCF-6

3129. Passell, T.O., Overview of EPRI Program in Deuterated Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 3(4): p. 1.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,, EPRI

3130. Passell, T.O. Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Heat-Producing Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, electrolysis, boron. ICCF-7

3131. Passell, T.O. and R. George. Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Exposure to Gaseous Deuterium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., George, R.
Keywords: Pd, transmutation, D2O, D2, ICCF-8

This is an experimental program to investigate possible trace element changes brought about in palladium (Pd) after extensive electrolysis in heavy water electrolytes as well as long time contact of particulate Pd with gaseous deuterium. Of particular interest are cathodes and particulate Pd which had experienced episodes of excess heat production beyond all electrical and other inputs. This paper details the careful analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) of a set of three samples of finely powdered Pd exposed to high deuterium pressures (hundreds of atmospheres) near room temperature at the core of hollow cylindrical Pd cathodes. A fourth sample of unused Pd powder from the same batch used in the cathodes was analyzed as a control. The most prominent change observed in the three active samples versus the virgin Pd was the Zn-64 content. The active samples showed an increase in the Zn-64 isotope of 6 to 14 times that in the virgin Pd. Speculation regarding the source of this increased zinc varies from contamination during electron beam welding (used to seal off the hollow core) to nuclear reactions generated by high pressure deuterium gas on the large surface area Pd particles in the core.

3132. Passell, T.O. Evidence for Lithium-6 Depletion in Pd Exposed to Gaseous Deuterium and Hydrogen. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

3133. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

Changes in Pd-110/Pd-108 ratios as well as the concentration of silver, gold, zinc, cobalt, iridium and lithium-7/6 ratios have been measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) on a set of four samples of particulate palladium exposed to high-pressure deuterium gas in the hollow core of Arata-Zhang cathodes.  Three samples were from cathodes producing excess heat (10’s of megajoules) over a period of  several-months electrolysis, while the fourth was virgin powder from the same batch as that of the active samples.  If a nuclear process is the source of these changes, then multi-isotope elements such as silver, zinc, and iridium should show significant deviations in their isotopic ratios from the natural terrestrial values.  Surface trace lithium did indeed show such differences from that of the virgin material.  The Ag-109/107 ratio is currently under study by accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for the one sample showing the greatest difference in Ag-109 content from that of the virgin material.  Since these variations may have explanations unrelated to nuclear reactions, these results are not yet definitive.  The 8% increase in the Pd-110/108 ratio for one of the four samples relative to the virgin material is one of the most difficult for which to find a conventional explanation.

3134. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

3135. Passell, T.O. and T. Benson. Glow Discharge Calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., Benson, T.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry, heat,

3136. Passell, T.O. ICCF-14 Summary. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,

3137. Passell, T.O., The Case for Deuteron Stripping with Metal Nuclei as the Source of the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Deuterium, Energy, Metals, Nuclear, Oppenheimer–Phillips

Evidence is cited from the research literature on metals containing absorbed deuterium supporting the hypothesis that the excess heat episodes observed over the past 25 years are the result of exothermic deuteron stripping reactions with atomic nuclei of the absorbing metal. The deuteron stripping reaction is one in which the neutron half of the mass 2 deuteron is captured by an atomic nucleus while the proton half of the deuteron is ejected, repelled by the coulomb field of the positively charged metal nucleus. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation why so little external radiation accompanies the episodes of excess heat first observed by Fleischmann and Pons [1]. The reaction products from stable isotopes of the host metal are a proton with energies up to 9.2 MeV energy and a recoiling nucleus with energies of 100-to 600 keV. These two reaction products are retained near their birthplace because their range in solids is less than 100 m. The emitted proton is energetic enough to produce by (p,n), (p, ), (p,T), and (p,X-ray), reactions with host metal nuclei and their light-element impurities, the small number of neutrons, alpha particles, tritium atoms (T), and X-rays, occasionally observed associated with deuterated Ti and Pd. The PIXE process (proton induced X-ray emission) is expected in which numerous K, L, and M X-rays of the absorbing metal are produced. For metals with thicknesses of >1 mm the vast majority of such X-rays do not escape the metal. In experiments with foils of the host metal sufficiently thin, low levels of charged particles (mostly protons) have been observed. Some of the observed protons were at energies larger than 3.0 MeV, the largest possible energy of protons from the fusion of two deuterons. Widely observed He4 and tritium are known products of the deuteron stripping reaction with Li6, which is a major constituent of electrolytes and a minor impurity in most metals. In any case, researchers have observed small but definite indicators of nuclear reactions other than d+d fusion in deuterated metals at temperatures not significantly above ambient.

3138. Patterson, J.A., Method for Electrolysis of Water to Form Metal Hydride. 1994: US Patent # 5,318,675.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: heat+, water, electrolysis, beads CETI patent,

3139. Patterson, J.A., System for Electrolysis. 1996: US Patent #5,494,559.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis CETI patent,

3140. Pauling, L., Explanations of cold fusion” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 105.

First Author: Pauling, L.
All Authors: Pauling, L.
Keywords: PdD2, phase diagram, theory, structure

3141. Pease, D., et al., Search for Low-energy X-ray and Particle Emissions from an Electrochemical Cell. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Pease, D.
All Authors: Pease, D., Azizi, O., He, J., El-Boher, A., Hubler, G. K., Bok, S., Mathai, C., Gangopadhyay, S., Lecci, S., Violante, V.
Keywords: Anomalous heat effect, Electrolytic cell, Low energy, PdD cathode, X-rays

Several theories to explain anomalous heat production predict the emission of low-energy X-rays and/or MeV alpha particles from PdD cathodes in electrochemical cells. Such radiation, however, is not detectable from outside of a standard electrochemical cell due to absorption in the electrolyte and cell walls. A custom cell was therefore assembled which permits X-rays of energy > 1 keV to pass through a thin cathodic membrane and enter into an X-ray detector with minimal attenuation. This test cell geometry also potentially allows any emitted MeV alpha particles to be detected when they impact a Pd cathode and cause fluorescent emission of Pd-K (21.2, 23.8 keV) X-rays. The detection of X-ray emissions from a membrane electrolytic cell potentially permits the mechanism(s) for anomalous heat production to be investigated with great sensitivity. As an example, a typical X-ray detector allows 1 keV X-rays to be detected at emission rates of less than one per second and this level of sensitivity corresponds to a thermal resolution of < 0.2 fW. Time resolved X-ray spectral data ranging from 1 to 30 keV was collected for over a year using various types of membranes and different electrolytic solutions. None of these test cells, however, yielded any X-rays which were above ambient background levels.

3142. Peat, F.D., Cold fusion: The making of a scientific controversy. 1989: Contempory Books.

First Author: Peat, F. D.
All Authors: Peat, F. D.
Keywords: history, book,

3143. Pell, E., Agreements and Disagreements with Storms. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Pell, E.
All Authors: Pell, E.
Keywords: theory, critique

Storms points out that cold fusion (LENR) does not produce a high energy particle as part of the final product. There is ample experimental proof of this and I agree.Storms includes all lattice defects as being lattice and not potential reaction sites. I disagree. I still see lattice defects as potential sites, particularly single atom vacancies. I do agree that regular undisturbed lattice material is not where reactions occur, even when loaded greater than 0.9 with deuterium.

3144. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechancial Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords: Theory

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect [1] (FPE) was swiftly rejected when published in 1989, yet a significant number of researchers have since reported energy gains in similar experiments; for a review see ref. [2]. These gains have been associated with “cold fusion” or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where energy is released from a deuterium-deuterium (d-d) fusion. Clearly, this raises fundamental questions because the probability of a d-d fusion, under the conditions of the FPE cell, is extremely small. As stated in ref. [1], “it is necessary to reconsider the quantum mechanics of electrons and deuterons in such host lattices.”The goal of this paper is to predict possible changes in the probability of d-d fusion, caused by perturbations to the energy barriers or positive interference caused by the effects of adjacent atoms in a lattice. We report preliminary work on formulating quantum-mechanical models of the behavior of deuterium atoms trapped in a lattice.

3145. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechanical Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords:

Resonances in deuterium-deuterium fusion were examined by calculating the transmission behavior of a single deuteron through a deuterium atom, or through a system comprising two or three deuterium atoms, using transfer matrix methodology. Many unittransmission resonance peaks were observed in the results of the calculations, even at incoming deuteron energies of a few electron volts, but resonance peak widths were found to be very narrow at low energies, so that the probabilities of fusion would be small.

3146. Pennisi, E., Helium find thaws the cold fusion trail. Sci. News (Washington, DC), 1991. 139(12): p. 177.

First Author: Pennisi, E.
All Authors: Pennisi, E.
Keywords: history

3147. Perez-Pariente, J. Evidence For The Ocurrence Of Lenr-Type Processes In Alchemical Transmutations. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Perez-Pariente, J.
All Authors: Perez-Pariente, J.
Keywords: transmutation

3148. Perfetti, P., et al., Neutron emission under particular nonequilibrium conditions from palladium and titanium electrolytically charged with deuterium. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 921.

First Author: Perfetti, P.
All Authors: Perfetti, P., Cilloco, F., Felici, R., Capozi, M., Ippoliti, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron, PdD, heat+, fractofusion

3149. Peroni, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (Letters to the Editor). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Peroni, P.
All Authors: Peroni, P.
Keywords: critique, theory

3150. Petelenz, P., Hypothetical D-D bound states in solid palladium. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 1989. 75: p. 929.

First Author: Petelenz, P.
All Authors: Petelenz, P.
Keywords: theory, distance

3151. Peterson, C., The Guardian Poplar, A Memoir of Deep Roots, Journey and Rediscovery. 2012, Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.

First Author: Peterson, C.
All Authors: Peterson, C.
Keywords: History

Selected portions of chapter 12 from Chase Peterson’s autobiography. Peterson was president of the University of Utah when cold fusion was announced. This chapter is titled, “THEY WILL ONLY LAUGH AT YOU”: Cold Fusion.

3152. Petit, C., Fusion Fever in Utah –State Aches With Pride, in Salt Lake City Chronicle. 1989: Salt Lake CityEditor.

First Author: Petit, C.
All Authors: Petit, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3153. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Problems with the gamma-ray spectrum in the Fleischmann et al experiments. Nature (London), 1989. 339(6221): p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: critique Fleischmann, gamma emission

3154. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Measurement of g-Rays from Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: gamma emission, Pd, D2O, history, Fleischmann

3155. Petrii, O.A., et al., Attempts to detect electrochemical cold nuclear fusion by determining the excess tritium. Sov. Electrochem., 1991. 27: p. 1240.

First Author: Petrii, O. A.
All Authors: Petrii, O. A., Tsirlina, G. A., Simonov, E. F., Safonov, V. A., Lapshina, E. V.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3156. Petrillo, C. and F. Sacchetti, A possible mechanism for bulk cold fusion in transition metal hydrides. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10: p. 15.

First Author: Petrillo, C.
All Authors: Petrillo, C., Sacchetti, F.
Keywords: theory, phase change

3157. Petrucci, A., R. Mignani, and F. Cardone. Comparison Between Piezonuclear Reactions and CMNS Phenomenology. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Petrucci, A.
All Authors: Petrucci, A., Mignani, R., Cardone, F.
Keywords:

The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonuclear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefly report the results of our campaign of experiments on piezonuclear reactions where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reaction experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum interval of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. Here, among the various evidences collected in LENR experiments, we will search for hints about the overcome of the energy threshold and about the mechanism that releases the loaded energy in a suitable interval of time.

3158. Phillips, S.M., Extra-Sensory Preception of Quarks. 1980, India: The Theosophical Publishing House.

First Author: Phillips, S. M.
All Authors: Phillips, S. M.
Keywords: theory,

3159. Phipps, T.E., Neutron formation by electron penetration of the nucleus. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 58.

First Author: Phipps, T. E.
All Authors: Phipps, T. E.
Keywords: Theory neutron formation

3160. Piantelli, F., Energy Generation and Generator by Means of Anharmonic Stimulated Fusion WO 1995/020816. 1995: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, F.
All Authors: Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat,

3161. Piantelli, S. and F. Piantelli, Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor WO 2010/058288. 2010: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, S.
All Authors: Piantelli, S., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat

Abstract: A method and a generator to produce energy from nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a metal, comprising the steps of a) production of a determined quantity of micro/nanometric clusters of a transition metal, b) bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters and controlling its pressure and speed, preferably after applying vacuum cycles of at least 10^-9 bar between 35Рand 500у for degassing the clusters . . .

3162. Picard, C., O.J. Kleppa, and G. Boureau, Thermodynamic Study of the Palladium-Hydrogen System at 245-352 C and at Pressures Up To 34 atm. J. Chem. Phys., 1978. 69: p. 5549.

First Author: Picard, C.
All Authors: Picard, C., Kleppa, O. J., Boureau, G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, thermodynamic, pressure, Phase Diagram, enthalpy

3163. Picasso, L.E., Fusione: Fredda o calda?” (Fusion; cold or hot?). Accaio Inossid., 1989. 56(2): p. 5 (in Italian).

First Author: Picasso, L. E.
All Authors: Picasso, L. E.
Keywords: review

3164. Pike, R. Chemical Aspects of LENR. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Pike, R.
All Authors: Pike, R.
Keywords: electrochemistry

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The chemistry connected with low energy nuclear reactions is considered, starting with the Fleischmann and Pons work. Further innovations in electrochemical experiments following upon Fleischmann and Pons are examined. The chemical and structural nature of metal hydrides is discussed. Attention is paid to the variety of mixed metal hydrides that might potentially be exploited in LENR. Finally, the issues connected with LENR reactor design are touched upon.

3165. Pinch, T.J., Opening black boxes: Science, technology and society. Social Studies of Science, 1992. 22: p. 487.

First Author: Pinch, T. J.
All Authors: Pinch, T. J.
Keywords: history

3166. Pippard, B., Footnote to History. Nature (London), 1991. 350: p. 29.

First Author: Pippard, B.
All Authors: Pippard, B.
Keywords: history

3167. Platt, C., What If Cold Fusion Is Real?, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/coldfusion.html It was the most notorious scientific experiment in recent memory – in 1989, the two men who claimed to have discovered the energy of the future were condemned as imposters and exiled by their peers. Can it possibly make sense to reopen the cold fusion investigation? A surprising number of researchers already have.

3168. Platt, C., The Wired 25, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/wired25.html Life is short. Especially when you’re determined to break all the rules.In any age, there are a few people who give the rest of us something we can truly aspire to – and never more so than today. Meet the Wired 25, class of 1998. They are actively, even hyperactively, inventing tomorrow. From a wide range of professions, they have one thing in common: devotion to a singular ambition. They are attempting the impossible, and whether they succeed or fail, they will have a lasting impact on your life (and the lives of your kids).

3169. Plotkin, H., The war against cold fusion. What’s realy behind it?, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/05/17/coldfusion2.dtlTwo months ago, I reported that Dr. Michael McKubre, an electrochemist at Menlo Park-based SRI, was, like other researchers, generating unaccounted-for heat in a carefully-controlled cold fusion experiment. . . .

3170. Plotkin, H., Power To The People. The return of cold fusion, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/03/15/coldfusion.dtlOn Friday, March 26, 1999, the director of Menlo Park-based SRI International’s Energy Research Center, Dr. Michael McKubre, will present the results of SRI’s 10-year, $6 million-dollar effort to replicate the cold-fusion experiments of chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann. McKubre’s startling conclusion: Pons and Fleischmann were on to something. DOWNLOAD 3171. Plotkin, H., Cold Fusion Rides Again. Science magazine publishes more evidence of tabletop nuclear reactions, in SF Gate. 2002. First Author: Plotkin, H. All Authors: Plotkin, H. Keywords: sonofusion This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/03/25/tbltpfusion.DTLScience magazine dropped a bombshell earlier this month: The prestigious journal published a paper by a team of researchers at Tennessee’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory who say they have discovered evidence of what looks like nuclear fusion taking place in a relatively inexpensive tabletop device. The findings bear striking similarities to the controversial cold-fusion claims made by chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in 1989, although the particular experiment is different. DOWNLOAD 3172. Pokropivnii, V.V. and V.V. Ogorodnikov, The bineutron model of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Pisma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(21): p. 31 (in Russian). First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V. All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V., Ogorodnikov, V. V. Keywords: theory, dineutron 3173. Pokropivnii, V.V., Bineutron theory of cold nuclear fusion. Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ukr., 1993(4): p. 86 (in Russian). First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V. All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V. Keywords: theory, dineutron 3174. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Some Comments on the History of the Field. 1989. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: history 3175. Pons, S., et al., Method and Apparatus for Power Generation. 1990: WO 90/10935,1990. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M., Walling, C., Simons, J. P. Keywords: patent, apparatus, 3176. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Calorimetry of the Palladium-Deuterium System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method., electrolysis, ICCF-1 3177. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric measurements of the palladium/deuterium system: fact and fiction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 669. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: heat+, method, critique 3178. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-based Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-2 3179. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Concerning the detection of neutron and gamma-rays from cells containing palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105A: p. 763. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron gamma emission 3180. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Heat After Death. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, ICCF-4, electrolysis Abstract We have described elsewhere . . . that Pd and Pd-alloy electrodes cathodically polarised in D2O solutions under extreme conditions can drive the calorimetric cells to the boiling point. We have then adopted the procedure of allowing the cells to boil to dryness. For these conditions the galvanostats are driven to the rail voltage (100 V) but the cell current is reduced to zero. We have then found that cells which contained D2O frequently remain at high temperatures (in the vicinity of 100у) before cooling rapidly to the bath temperature. Cells containing H2O can also be driven to the boiling point but such cells cool immediately on terminating the experiments. This phenomenon has become known as “Heat after Death” (the death referring to cessation of polarisation). Calibrations of the cells for such conditions show the generation of high levels of enthalpy at zero enthalpy input. Methods of investigating such systems will be outlined. DOWNLOAD 3181. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 1). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S. Keywords: This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 1, cover page to page 200.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large. DOWNLOAD 3182. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 2). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640. First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S. Keywords: This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 2, page 201 to page 640.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large. DOWNLOAD 3183. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Etalonnage du systeme Pd-D2O: effets de protocole et feed-back positif. [“Calibration of the Pd-D2O system: protocol and positive feed-back effects”]. J. Chim. Phys., 1996. 93: p. 711 (in French). First Author: Pons, S. All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M. Keywords: Theory, enthalpy of formation, PdD 3184. Pool, R., Teller, Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3185. Pool, R., Fusion Breakthrough? Science, 1989. 244: p. 1661. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3186. Pool, R., Fusion Followup : Confusion Abounds. Science, 1989. 244: p. 27. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3187. Pool, R., Skepticism Grows Over Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 244: p. 285. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3188. Pool, R. and M. Crawford, How Cold Fusion Happened- Twice ! Science, 1989. 244: p. 423. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R., Crawford, M. Keywords: history, newspaper 3189. Pool, R., Brookhaven Chemists Find New Fusion Method. Science, 1989. 245: p. 1448. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: cluster, D2O, ion bombardment 3190. Pool, R., Will New Evidence Support Cold Fusion ? AND Teller,Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 246: p. 206, 449. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history, conference 3191. Pool, R., Wolf: My Tritium Was Impurity. Science, 1990. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3192. Pool, R., Cold Fusion: End of Act 1. Science, 1990. 244: p. 1039. First Author: Pool, R. All Authors: Pool, R. Keywords: history 3193. Popa-Simil, L. Roadmap to Fusion Battery A Novel Type of Nuclear Battery and Potential Outcomes and Applications. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185. First Author: Popa-Simil, L. All Authors: Popa-Simil, L. Keywords: fusion, direct energy conversion This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The Fusion battery was the object of many science fiction novels and movies; the most recent one being “Star Trek,” but now it is poised to come to life. These batteries rely on a process that converts the fusion energy into electricity. They are more compact and state-of-the-art and resemble an aluminum air battery, but up to about 10 million times more powerful. . . . DOWNLOAD 3194. Popa-Simil, L. The Fusion-Transmutation Battery. in Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2013. 2013. Albuquerque, NM. First Author: Popa-Simil, L. All Authors: Popa-Simil, L. Keywords: fusion battery Nuclear reactions such as transmutation, fusion or fission may occur in special nano-structures arrangements with a specific excitation that creates a nuclear active environment.All the parameters of mass distribution, quantum states and field excitation contribute to the process that involves more than two bodies that are not smashed together through their Coulombian barrier, as is the normal nuclear practice. New concepts in physics such as quantum nonlocality and potential formation of nuclear molecules come into play when considering high quantum energy reactions triggered by low energy excitation of special quantum states. Several nuclear or sub-nuclear entities in various positions may entangle putting the nuclear mass in special communion that may react and end in totally different structures than for normally encountered combinations.In the past 20 years of experiments, some observations of reactions producing heat only, reactions exhibiting strong bursts of neutrons, gammas and X-rays, some explosions, and over 40 accidents give strong support for new physics ideas in the world. DOWNLOAD 3195. Porter, J.D., et al., Limits on electromagnetic and particle emission from palladium-D2O electrolytic cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 319. First Author: Porter, J. D. All Authors: Porter, J. D., Shihab-Eldin, A. A., Bossy, H., Echegaray, F. J., Nitschke, J. M., Prussin, S. G., Rasmussen, J. O., Stoyer, M. A. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, H2O, particle emission 3196. Postnikov, V.S., V.V. Postnikov, and V.M. Fedorov, Instability and Superconductivity in Pd-Ag-D and Pd-H Systems. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1978. 85: p. K115. First Author: Postnikov, V. S. All Authors: Postnikov, V. S., Postnikov, V. V., Fedorov, V. M. Keywords: superconductivity, PdH, Pd-Ag 3197. Powell, G.L., et al., The preparation of palladium for cold fusion experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 355. First Author: Powell, G. L. All Authors: Powell, G. L., Bullock, IV J. S., Hallman, R. L., Horton, P. J., Hutchinson, D. P. Keywords: Pd, loading, D2, pressure, method, preparation 3198. Powell, G.L., The Reaction Probability for Exchange of Hydrogen Isotopes on Pd. 1991. First Author: Powell, G. L. All Authors: Powell, G. L. Keywords: exhange, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Tritium, Pd, 3199. Powell, G.L., et al., Surface and Bulk Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd. 1991. First Author: Powell, G. L. All Authors: Powell, G. L., Lasser, R., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W. Keywords: Pd, PdD, diffusion, loading, 3200. Powell, G.L. and J.R. Kirkpatrick, Surface Conductance and Diffusion of H and D in Pd. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43(9): p. 6968. First Author: Powell, G. L. All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R. Keywords: Pd, D, H, diffusion 3201. Powell, G.L., J.R. Kirkpatrick, and J.W. Conant, Surface Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd-Macroscopic Manifestations. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 867. First Author: Powell, G. L. All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W. Keywords: pressure, Pd, D, H, PdD, PdH, phase Diagram, diffusion 3202. Poyser, P.A., M. Kemali, and D.K. Ross, Deuterium absorption in Pd0.9Y0.1 alloy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 175. First Author: Poyser, P. A. All Authors: Poyser, P. A., Kemali, M., Ross, D. K. Keywords: Pd-Y-D, PdD, loading, Pd, lattice parameter 3203. Pozwolski, A.E., Comments on composite electrolytes and cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 120. First Author: Pozwolski, A. E. All Authors: Pozwolski, A. E. Keywords: theory 3204. Prati, P., et al., Search for neutron emission from titanium-deuterium systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105: p. 293. First Author: Prati, P. All Authors: Prati, P., Ricco, G., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U. Keywords: neutron method, titanium, D2 3205. Pratt, L.R. and J. Eckert, Molecular Dynamics of a Dilute Solution of Hydrogen in Palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 39(18): p. 13170. First Author: Pratt, L. R. All Authors: Pratt, L. R., Eckert, J. Keywords: Pd, H, theory, vibration 3206. Prelas, M.A., Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 240. First Author: Prelas, M. A. All Authors: Prelas, M. A. Keywords: discussion 3207. Prelas, M.A., et al., Cold fusion experiments using Maxwellian plasmas and sub-atmospheric deuterium gas. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 309. First Author: Prelas, M. A. All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Boody, F., Gallaher, W., Leal-Quiros, E., Mencin, D., Taylor, S. Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, neutron, gamma emission 3208. Prelas, M.A. and E. Lukosi, Neutron Emission from Cryogenically Cooled Metals Under Thermal Shock. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13. First Author: Prelas, M. A. All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Lukosi, E. Keywords: Deuterium, Neutrons, Phase Change, Surface preparation, Thermal shock, Titanium During the summer of 1991, intense neutron bursts were observed after temperature shocking titanium chips which had been saturated with deuterium gas. The titanium chips were cooled and loaded with deuterium at 77 K and then rapidly heated to 323 K. The rapid heating produces a large pressure increase inside the crystalline lattice of the host metal. An Event Timer/Counter (ETC) card was designed and developed which counted and kept a time distribution of the neutron pulses as they occurred from a helium-3 neutron counter embedded in a paraffin moderator [1]. The experiment produced copious neutron counts. During one cooling and heating cycle, over 2 million neutrons were counted over a 5 min time period. In subsequent cooling and heating cycles using the same titanium chips, significant neutron bursts were observed with diminishing counts after each subsequent cycle. This paper will discuss the 1991 experiments and the status of ongoing experiments. DOWNLOAD 3209. Prelazzi, G., M. Cerboni, and G. Leofanti, Comparison of H2 adsorption, O2 adsorption, H2 titration, and O2 titration on supported palladium catalysts. J. Catal., 1999. 181: p. 73. First Author: Prelazzi, G. All Authors: Prelazzi, G., Cerboni, M., Leofanti, G. Keywords: Pd, catalyst, PdH, composition, loading 3210. Premuda, F., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 712. First Author: Premuda, F. All Authors: Premuda, F. Keywords: theory 3211. Premuda, F., Coulomb barrier total screening by Bose-Einstein-condensed deuterium in palladium blisters and reaction chains in high-density hysteresis. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 350. First Author: Premuda, F. All Authors: Premuda, F. Keywords: Theory, screening, Bose-Einstein 3212. Preparata, G. Fractofusion Revisted. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory fractofusion 3213. Preparata, G. Theoretical Ideas on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, ICCF-1 3214. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid? in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, review, ICCF-2 3215. Preparata, G., Some theories of ‘cold’ nuclear fusion: a review. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 82. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: review, theory 3216. Preparata, G., A new look at solid-state fractures, particle emission and ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 104: p. 1259. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, fractofusion 3217. Preparata, G. Towards a Theory of Cold Fusion Phenomena. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory 3218. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, ICCF-4 3219. Preparata, G. Comments on the Criticisms of M. Rabinowitz. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, critique, Rabinowitz, ICCF-4 3220. Preparata, G., Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 397. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory screening 3221. Preparata, G. Setting Cold Fusion in Context: A Reply. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: theory, ICCF-5 This talk consists of three parts: the first on the “pathological” nature of Cold Fusion ( CF ) phenomena, the second on a wide theoretical effort based on the new i deas of Q ED coherence in matter, and the third replying to explicit criticisms to my work. 3222. Preparata, G. Everything Thing You Always Wanted to Know About Cold Fusion Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G. Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, critique, method, ICCF-6 3223. Preparata, G., M. Scorletti, and M. Verpelli, Isoperibolic calorimetry on modified Fleischmann-Pons cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 411: p. 9. First Author: Preparata, G. All Authors: Preparata, G., Scorletti, M., Verpelli, M. Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, replication, Fleischmann 3224. Press, A., LANL Confirms Cold Fusion Tritium -and- Lab Hasn’t Confirmed Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1989. First Author: Press, A. All Authors: Press, A. Keywords: history, newspaper 3225. Press, A., Cold Fusion Experiments Produce Excess Tritium, in The Oak Ridger. 1990. p. 7. First Author: Press, A. All Authors: Press, A. Keywords: history 3226. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoliminescence Induced Deuterium Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 530. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: acoustic, fusion, deuterium 3227. Prevenslik, T.V. Biological Effects of Ultasonic Cavitation. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: ultrasound, biology, cavitation, radiation, ICCF-5 Cavitation energy in a nearly evacuated bubble is shown to not likely reside in the thermal state of the water molecule. In a spherical bubble compression and until the bubble assumes a pancake collapse shape, a temperature increase does not occur in the bubble gas because the mean free path likely exceeds the bubble diameter. The subsequent collapse of the pancake shape to liquid density occurs with only a negligible volume change so that the temperature increase for compression heating of bubble gases is insignificant. Even near liquid density, a temperature increase does not occur as the energy transfer by molecular collisions is in the adiabatic limit for both vibrational and rotational modes. Instead, the IR radiation energy density present within the bubble is increased as required to satisfy standing wave boundary conditions with the bubble walls in the direction of collapse. For biological tissue in an opaque environment, bubble collapse is found to increase the 5- 10 micron I R thermal radiation at ambient temperature to about 3-5 e V that is capable of dissociating the water molecule and forming the chemically reactive hydroxyl radical. Hence, the biological effects of ultrasonic cavitation are proposed to be caused by the chemical reaction of the organisms with the excited electronic states of dissolved oxygen and water molecules. 3228. Prevenslik, T.V., Ultrasound induced and laser enhanced cold fusion chemistry. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1995. 6: p. 198. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: Theory, ultrasound 3229. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: an IRaser creating cold fusion neutrons? Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1996. 7: p. 157. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence 3230. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: microwaves and cold fusion. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1997. 8: p. 94. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: Theory, sonofusion, microwaves 3231. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: fusion at ambient temperature? Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 128. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: Theory, D2O, liquid fusion 3232. Prevenslik, T.V., On the Possibility of a Cavity QED Cold Fusion Cell. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 2000. 38: p. 155. First Author: Prevenslik, T. V. All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V. Keywords: Theory, bubbles 3233. Price, P.B., et al., Search for energetic-charged-particle emission from deuterated Ti and Pd foils. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(18): p. 1926. First Author: Price, P. B. All Authors: Price, P. B., Barwick, S. W., Williams, W. T., Porter, J. D. Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2, particle emission, CR-39 3234. Price, P.B., Search for high-energy ions from fracture of LiD crystals. Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 542 (Feb 1990). First Author: Price, P. B. All Authors: Price, P. B. Keywords: LiD, fractofusoin, neutron 3235. Price, P.B., Advances in solid state nuclear track detectors. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1993. 22(1-4): p. 9. First Author: Price, P. B. All Authors: Price, P. B. Keywords: particle emission, method 3236. Pryakhin, E., et al. Assessment Of The Biological Effects Of “Strange” Radiation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France. First Author: Pryakhin, E. All Authors: Pryakhin, E., Urutshoev, L., Tryapitsina, G., Akleyev, A. Keywords: transmutation 3237. Putterman, S.J., Sonoluminescence: Sound into light. Scientific American, 1995. 272: p. 46. First Author: Putterman, S. J. All Authors: Putterman, S. J. Keywords: Sonoluminescence, acoustic 3238. Pyun, S.I., C. Lim, and K.B. Kim, An investigation of the electrochemical kinetics of deuterium insertion into a Pd membrane electrode in 0.1M LiOD solution by the a.c. impedance technique. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1994. 203: p. 149. First Author: Pyun, S. I. All Authors: Pyun, S. I., Lim, C., Kim, K. B. Keywords: Pd, diffusion, electrolysis, PdD 3239. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada. First Author: Qiao, G. S. All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z. Keywords: helium transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2,, H2 ICCF-7 3240. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada. First Author: Qiao, G. S. All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z. Keywords: 4He, transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2 , H2? 3241. Qin, G., et al., Evolution of hydrogen (deuterium) in palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) system and the distribution of hydrogen near the surface. Wuli Xuebao, 1991. 40(6): p. 943 (in Chinese). First Author: Qin, G. All Authors: Qin, G., Peng, Q., Fu, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, B. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter, H2O 3242. Qiu, W., Q. Dong, and F. Gan, Positron lifetime studies on systems of palladium filled galvanostatically with hydrogen or deuterium. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1991. 2(3): p. 157. First Author: Qiu, W. All Authors: Qiu, W., Dong, Q., Gan, F. Keywords: theory, position annihilation 3243. Qiu, W.C., et al., PAS studies on the new topic: Cold nuclear fusion. Mat. Sci. Forum, 1992. 105-110: p. 1961. First Author: Qiu, W. C. All Authors: Qiu, W. C., Dong, Q. H., Gan, F. X., Wang, S. J. Keywords: positron annihilation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis 3244. Quan, L.J. Physical basis of cold fusion excited in TiD2 lattice. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press. First Author: Quan, L. J. All Authors: Quan, L. J. Keywords: Theory, TiD2, fusion, D2, shielding, 3245. Quick, J.E., et al., Tritium concentrations in the active Pu’u O’o crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: implications for cold fusion in the Earth’s interior. Phys. Earth Planet. Interior, 1991. 69: p. 132. First Author: Quick, J. E. All Authors: Quick, J. E., Hinkley, T. K., Reimer, G. M., Hedge, C. E. Keywords: tritium, volcano 3246. Quickenden, T.I. and T.A. Green, A calorimetric study of the electrolysis of D2O and H2O at palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 344: p. 167. First Author: Quickenden, T. I. All Authors: Quickenden, T. I., Green, T. A. Keywords: heat-, electrolysis, D2O, H2O 3247. Rabinowitz, M., A theoretical framework for cold fusion mechanisms. IEEE Power Eng. Rev., 1989(November): p. 9. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: theory 3248. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Cluster-Impact Fusion: Bridge Between Hot and Cold Fusion? in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S. Keywords: theory, cluster 3249. Rabinowitz, M., High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(4): p. 233. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: theory, superconductivity 3250. Rabinowitz, M., Cluster-impact fusion: new physics or experimental error. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4: p. 665. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: theory, critique 3251. Rabinowitz, M. and D.H. Worledge, An analysis of cold and lukewarm fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 344. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Worledge, D. H. Keywords: theory, review 3252. Rabinowitz, M. Response to G. Preparata. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: theory, critique, Preparata, ICCF-4 3253. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Opposition and Support for Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A. Keywords: theory, critique, ICCF-4 3254. Rabinowitz, M., Phenomenological Theory for Short Coherence Length Superconductivity. Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993. 216: p. 571. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: superconductivity, theory 3255. Rabinowitz, M., Do the Laws of Nature and Physics Agree On What is Allowed and Forbidden? 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1993. Spring. First Author: Rabinowitz, M. All Authors: Rabinowitz, M. Keywords: review, theory 3256. Rabzi, G.S., Natural cold fusion-natural new energy- natural new physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184. First Author: Rabzi, G. S. All Authors: Rabzi, G. S. Keywords: Theory, transmutation 3257. Rabzi, G.S., Mechanism of Low Temperature Transmutation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 55. First Author: Rabzi, G. S. All Authors: Rabzi, G. S. Keywords: transmutation,, theory 3258. Rabzi, G.S., Natural Cold Fission-Natural New Energy-Natural New Physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184. First Author: Rabzi, G. S. All Authors: Rabzi, G. S. Keywords: transmutation,, theory 3259. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Search for Electrochemically Catalysed Fusion of Deuterons in Metal Lattice, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 5. First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P. All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Arunachalam, J., SitaramaRaju, V., Kalyanaraman, R., Gangadharan, S., Iyengar, P. K. Keywords: Excess heat, 3260. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Tritium Generation during Electrolysis Experiment, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 6. First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P. All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Gangadharan, S., Sen, B. K., Murthy, T. S. Keywords: tritium In continuation of the earlier R&D work carried out in connection with the investigations for electrochemically induced fusion of deuterons using palladium cathode and platinum anode, a series of experiments was carried out. DOWNLOAD 3261. Rafelski, J. and S.E. Jones, Cold Nuclear Fusion. Scientific American, 1987. July: p. 84. First Author: Rafelski, J. All Authors: Rafelski, J., Jones, S. E. Keywords: muon 3262. Rafelski, J., et al., Limits on Cold Fusion in Condensed Matter: A Parametric Study. 1989. First Author: Rafelski, J. All Authors: Rafelski, J., Gajda, M., Harley, D., Jones, S. E. Keywords: Pd, D2O, theory, 3263. Rafelski, J., et al., How cold fusion can be catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136. First Author: Rafelski, J. All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D. Keywords: theory 3264. Rafelski, J., et al., Nuclear reactions catalyzed by a massive negatively charged particle. How Cold Fusion Can Be Catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136. First Author: Rafelski, J. All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D. Keywords: theory, New Particle 3265. Rafelski, H.E., et al., Cold fusion: muon-catalyzed fusion. J. Phys. B, 1991. 24: p. 1469. First Author: Rafelski, H. E. All Authors: Rafelski, H. E., Harley, D., Shin, G. R., Rafelski, J. Keywords: review, muon 3266. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, On the possibility of deuteron disintegration in electrochemically compressed deuterium ion (D+) in a palladium cathode. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 243. First Author: Ragheb, M. All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H. Keywords: theory, Oppenheimer-Phillips 3267. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, Deuteron disintegration in condensed media. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 429. First Author: Ragheb, M. All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H. Keywords: theory, D, Pd, tritium, Oppenheimer Phillips 3268. Ragland, E., Triode cell experiments for controlled Fleischmann/Pons effect. 1990. First Author: Ragland, E. All Authors: Ragland, E. Keywords: heat, method 3269. Ragland, E. A Physical Description of Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Ragland, E. All Authors: Ragland, E. Keywords: theory, ICCF-3 Cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in an electrolysis cell with palladium electrodes is described as a comprehensive sequence of physical phenomena.1 . Electrolysis generates many more cations than are necessary to sustain ionization in the cell. The excess cations are adsorbed on the cathode surface where they create an electrical charge Qo of “overvoltage” Eo.2 A small fraction (0.01 to 0.1%) of the adsorbed cations, which are thousands of times smaller than typical electrolysis cations and driven by meV adsorption kinetics, penetrate several hundred lattice layers into the cathode metal. These nuclei absorb into the metal until its capacity C (nt) saturates. . . . 3270. Ragland, E., A cold fusion technology assessment. Part I – Preliminary Report. 1994. First Author: Ragland, E. All Authors: Ragland, E. Keywords: review 3271. Raj, P., et al., Search for Nuclear Fusion in Gas Phase Deuteriding of Titanium Metal, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 1. First Author: Raj, P. All Authors: Raj, P., Suryanarayana, P., Sathyamoorthy, A., Datta, T. Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2 The possibility of D-D nuclear fusion in some deuterium-metal systems, under ambient conditions, has aroused feverish worldwide interest. Most of the work reported, so far, concerns deuterium charging of Pd metal through electrolysis of D2O. In the Chemistry Division, we have carried out some experiments on the deuteriding behaviour of Ti metal, through gaseous route, in the absorption as well as desorption modes, with the view to look for the fusion products, neutrons in the present case. These kinds of experiments have been reported by Frascatti Group in Italy. These authors detected neutron emission lasting over a period of several hours. DOWNLOAD 3272. Rajagopalan, S.R., Cold fusion produces more tritium than neutrons. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1059. First Author: Rajagopalan, S. R. All Authors: Rajagopalan, S. R. Keywords: theory, review 3273. Rajan, K.G., et al., Electromigration approach to verify cold fusion effects. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 100. First Author: Rajan, K. G. All Authors: Rajan, K. G., Mudali, U. K., Dayal, R. K., Rodriguez, P. Keywords: electromigration, titanium, neutron, tritium, film 3274. Rajeev, K.P. and D. Gaur, Evidence for Nuclear Transmutations in Ni-H Electrolysis. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 278-283. First Author: Rajeev, K. P. All Authors: Rajeev, K. P., Gaur, D. Keywords: Electrolysis, LENR, Ni–H systems, Transmutation We report an easily reproducible Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) electrolysis experiment on an Ni-H system. An electrolytic cell with a Ni cathode and a Pt anode with an aqueous (H2O not D2O) solution of K2CO3 as electrolyte was used for the experiment. A dc-power supply capable of supplying up to 5 A current was used to drive the electrolysis with the typical current being around 4 A and the applied voltage about 100 V. After running the electrolysis for about two weeks with a daily run time of 8 h on an average, a part of the nickel electrode, which by this time had become black, was taken for elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed that a whole host of new elements had appeared on the cathode such as: K, Fe, Cu, O, Rh, Zr and Pb. The apparent concentration of the elements varied from just over a percent for K and Pb to about 10% for Rh and 20% for Cu. The sample was then taken to a Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) for isotopic analysis. This analysis also showed that a set of new elements had appeared on the nickel wire which were: K, Si, Mg, Mn, Zn, O & Rh. The Ni itself was found to have the following isotopes: 58Ni, 60Ni and 62Ni with isotope concentration ratios differing significantly from the ratio found in naturally occurring Ni. It was clear that in the electrolyzed Ni the concentrations of 60Ni and 62Ni had gone down compared to the concentration of 58Ni. This is a clear indication that nuclear reactions had taken place during electrolysis. 3275. Ramamurthy, H., et al. Further Studies on Excess Heat Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Ramamurthy, H. All Authors: Ramamurthy, H., Srinivasan, M., Mukherjee, U. K., Adi Babu, P. Keywords: H2O, heat+, tritium+, Ni, K2CO3, Na2CO3, Li2CO3, ICCF-4, electrolysis 3276. Rambaut, M. Lawson Criterion Made Obsolete by Cold Fusion through the Double Screening Process. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Rambaut, M. All Authors: Rambaut, M. Keywords: theory, screening, ICCF-3 It is shown that the same phenomenon has been observed in cold fusion and also in other rather different experiments. The necessity to take into account the electron participation in nuclear fusion process in dense media is ensuing from this result. It implies that the fusion reaction rate, necessary for obtaining the Lawson criterion in the thermonuclear case, is not any valid for those experiments: so a new formula is proposed. 3277. Rambaut, M., Double screened Coulomb barrier accounts for neutrons productions in cluster and other fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 164: p. 155. First Author: Rambaut, M. All Authors: Rambaut, M. Keywords: theory 3278. Rambaut, M., Account of Cold Fusion by Screening and Harmonic Oscillator Resonance. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 486. First Author: Rambaut, M. All Authors: Rambaut, M. Keywords: theory 3279. Rambaut, M. Experimental Evidences for the Harmonic Oscillator Resonance and Electron Accumulation Model of Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monac: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. First Author: Rambaut, M. All Authors: Rambaut, M. Keywords: Theory, resonance, ICCF-5 Cold Fusion outside any substratum is again considered from the Harmonic oscillator resonance and electron accumulation (HOREA) model point of view. If one adds Fractal theory, one gets a more straigthforward agreement with the experimental growth of fusion burst after the apex I of a fast current, and varying approximately like the tenth power I^10. Then it is shown that the model could account for the solar neutrino discrepancy. The paper ends up by a short reminder of two experimental data, in agreement with the HOREA point of view: experimentally noticed Electron accumulations, and Top-Table soft X-ray Laser operation. 3280. Rambaut, M. Electrons clusters and magnetic monopoles. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France. First Author: Rambaut, M. All Authors: Rambaut, M. Keywords: theory 3281. Rangarajan, S.K., Electrochemically induced cold fusion? A commentary. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 598. First Author: Rangarajan, S. K. All Authors: Rangarajan, S. K. Keywords: discussion 3282. Ransford, H.E. and S.J. Pike. Apparatus for Safely ExtendingCold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Ransford, H. E. All Authors: Ransford, H. E., Pike, S. J. Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4 3283. Ransford, H.E., Apparatus for Safely Extending Cold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 78. First Author: Ransford, H. E. All Authors: Ransford, H. E. Keywords: heat, method 3284. Ransford, H.E., Non-Stellar nucleosynthesis: Transition metal production by DC plasma-discharge electrolysis using carbon electrodes in a non-metallic cell. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 16. First Author: Ransford, H. E. All Authors: Ransford, H. E. Keywords: transmutation, plasma discharge, H2O 3285. Rant, J., et al., Methods for in-situ detection of cold fusion in condensed matter. Kerntechnik, 1990. 55: p. 165. First Author: Rant, J. All Authors: Rant, J., Ilic, R., Skvarc, J., Sutej, T., Budnar, M., Miklavzic, U. Keywords: particle emission, method 3286. Rao, K.A., Technique for Concentration of Helium in Electrolytic Gases for Cold Fusion Studies, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 11. First Author: Rao, K. A. All Authors: Rao, K. A. Keywords: Helium, 3287. Rao, K.R. and S.L. Chaplot, Computer experiments concerning palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices – implications to phenomenon of low-energy nuclear reaction. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 355. First Author: Rao, K. R. All Authors: Rao, K. R., Chaplot, S. L. Keywords: Theory, lattice fluctuations 3288. Ratkje, S.K. and B. Hafskjold, Local heat effects by electrolysis of heavy water. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 273: p. 269. First Author: Ratkje, S. K. All Authors: Ratkje, S. K., Hafskjold, B. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, critique 3289. Ray, M.K.S., et al., The Fleischmann-Pons phenomenon – a different perspective. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 395. First Author: Ray, M. K. S. All Authors: Ray, M. K. S., Saini, R. D., Das, D., Chattopadhyay, G., Parthasarathy, R., Garg, S. P., Venkataramani, R., Sen, B. K., Iyengar, T. S., Kutty, K. K., Wagh, D. N., Bajpai, H. N., Iyer, C. S. P. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron, heat 3290. Redey, L., et al., Calorimetric measurements on electrochemical cells with Pd-D cathodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 249. First Author: Redey, L. All Authors: Redey, L., Myles, K. M., Dees, D., Krumpelt, M., Vissers, D. R. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, tritium, H/D 3291. Rees, L.B., Cold Fusion: What Do We Know? What Do We Think? J. Fusion Energy, 1991. 10(1): p. 111. First Author: Rees, L. B. All Authors: Rees, L. B. Keywords: muon, tritium, history, theory, critique 3292. Rehm, K.E., W. Kutschera, and G.J. Perlow, Search for protons from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction in an electrolytic cell with palladium-platinum electrodes. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(1): p. 45. First Author: Rehm, K. E. All Authors: Rehm, K. E., Kutschera, W., Perlow, G. J. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission 3293. Reifenschweiler, O., Reduced radioactivity of tritium in small titanium particles. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 184: p. 149. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: titanium tritium, reduced radioactivity By heating a TiT0.0035 preparation consisting of extremely small monocrystalline particles (diameter ≈ 15 nm) a decrease of the radioactivity by 40% was observed. In further experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied (TiTx experiments) showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. Careful analysis of the experiments seems to rule out the possibility of trivial errors. A provisional hypothetical explanation is formulated. Our experiments may point to a connection with cold DD-fusion. DOWNLOAD 3294. Reifenschweiler, O. Some Experiments on the Decrease of Radioactivity of Tritium Sorbed by Titanium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: titanium, Tritium, half-life, reduced radioactivity A sharp decrease of the radioactivity of tritium was observed when the hydrogen isotope is sorbed by small monocrystalline particles of titanium and the preparation is heated to several hundred degrees centigrade. In other experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied, showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. A first attempt is presented to explain these remarkable effects in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis”. DOWNLOAD 3295. Reifenschweiler, O., Some experiments on the decrease of tritium radioactivity. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 261. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity, Ti Experiments claiming a sharp decrease in the radioactivity of tritium incorporated in small monocrystalline particles of titanium have been reported and are described here in more detail. Additional evaluation provides a high degree of evidence for the decrease in the radioactivity of tritium. A first attempt is made to explain this remarkable effect in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis.” DOWNLOAD 3296. Reifenschweiler, O., About the possibility of decreased radioactivity of heavy nuclei. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 291. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: theory, radioactivity, reduced 3297. Reifenschweiler, O., Cold Fusion and Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity, in LENR-CANR.org. 2003. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity In recent papers (1, 2, 3, 4) the author has deduced from experiments with tritium (5) that during heating of a TiT0.0035 -preparation and of a TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity of the tritium decreased strongly. This strange effect was distinctly confirmed by the observation that with the TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity decreased 12.5 times stronger than the release of tritium (2,3,4). A quite independent proof of the strong decrease of λ of tritium could be obtained by a thermodynamic evaluation of the heating experiment with the TiT0.0035-preparation: Assuming that λ of tritium decreases to zero or nearly zero in a part of the tritons enables the determination of the number of tritons with normal λ, nT and the number of tritons with λ ≈ 0 nTo, both as a function of temperature. Then quite surprising nT and nTo follow the laws of chemical equilibria in distinct parts of the experimental A = f(T)-function. From this unexpected result the decrease of tritium radioactivity is definitely proved once again (6). DOWNLOAD 3298. Reifenschweiler, O., Further Evidence of the Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity by a Thermodynamic Evaluation of a Heat Experiment. Infinite Energy, 2004. 9(54): p. 14. First Author: Reifenschweiler, O. All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O. Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity 3299. Ren, X.Z. and X.Z. Li. Factors affecting hydrogen (deuterium) flux through a thin palladium film. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press. First Author: Ren, X. Z. All Authors: Ren, X. Z., Li, X. Z. Keywords: diffusion, flux, deuterium, D, H, Pd, Ni, electrolysis 3300. Ricco, G., et al. A Large Solid Angle MultiParameter Neutron Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy. First Author: Ricco, G. All Authors: Ricco, G., Anghinolfi, M., Corvisiero, P., Prati, P., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U. Keywords: neutron, apparatus, method, ICCF-2 3301. Rice, R.A., et al., The Effect of Velocity Distribution on Cold Deuterium-Deuterium Fusion. 1989. First Author: Rice, R. A. All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. Keywords: theory 3302. Rice, R.A., G.S. Chulick, and Y.E. Kim. The Effect of Velocity Distribution and Electron Screening on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. First Author: Rice, R. A. All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E. Keywords: theory, ICCF-1 3303. Rice, R.A., et al., The role of velocity distribution in cold deuterium-deuterium fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 147. First Author: Rice, R. A. All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulik, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. H. Keywords: theory 3304. Rice, R.A., et al. Comments on exotic chemistry models and deep Dirac states for cold fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Rice, R. A. All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Zubarev, A. L. Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow Several models are examined in which it is claimed that cold fusion is the result either of tight binding of the electrons in H isotope atoms or molecules, or of an electron-H isotope resonance which allows a higher probability of Coulomb barrier penetration. In the case of models in which the electron is tightly bound to the H isotope atom, we show that states below the most deeply bound (-16.39 eV) are impossible in principle. We also present evidence against the possibility of the existence of electron-H isotope resonances. Finally, a lower bound is found for the binding energy of H isotope molecules which is above that calculated in the tightly bound electron-H isotope models. DOWNLOAD 3305. Rice, R.A. and Y.E. Kim, Comments on ‘Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I’. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 111. First Author: Rice, R. A. All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E. Keywords: theory, critique, Maly, 3306. Rice-Evans, P. and H. Evans, Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. Eur. J. Phys., 1990. 11: p. 251. First Author: Rice-Evans, P. All Authors: Rice-Evans, P., Evans, H. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron 3307. Richards, P.M., Molecular-Dynamics Investigation of Deuterium Separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(11): p. 7966. First Author: Richards, P. M. All Authors: Richards, P. M. Keywords: theory, D/Pd, distance, lattice parameter 3308. Richards, P.M., Molecular-dynamics investigation of deuteron separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 7966. First Author: Richards, P. M. All Authors: Richards, P. M. Keywords: theory, distance 3309. Rieker, A., et al., Potential error sources in combined electrochemistry/neutron detection experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1991. 46B: p. 1125. First Author: Rieker, A. All Authors: Rieker, A., Speiser, B., Mangold, K. M., Hanack, M. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd D2O neutron, gamma emission 3310. Riesterer, T., On the Hydrogen Site Occupation in Hydrides of Intermetallics. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 103: p. 219. First Author: Riesterer, T. All Authors: Riesterer, T. Keywords: Zr-V, enthalpy, thermodynamic, H2 3311. Riesterer, T., J. Osterwalder, and L. Schlapbach, Inverse Photoemission from PdH0.65. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1985. 32: p. 8405. First Author: Riesterer, T. All Authors: Riesterer, T., Osterwalder, J., Schlapbach, L. Keywords: PdH, density Of States, photoemission 3312. Riley, A.M., J.D. Seader, and D.W. Pershing, An in-situ volumetric method for dynamically measuring the absorption of deuterium in palladium during electrolysis. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139: p. 1342. First Author: Riley, A. M. All Authors: Riley, A. M., Seader, J. D., Pershing, D. W. Keywords: loading, Pd, method, review, diffusion 3313. Riley, D. and M. McLaughlin, Turning thre corner: Energy solutions for the 21st century. 2001, Tahoe City, CA: Alternative Energy Institute, Inc. First Author: Riley, D. All Authors: Riley, D., McLaughlin, M. Keywords: review energy, 3314. Ritchie, B., Compatibility of Hydrino States and Quantum Mechanics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 101-122. First Author: Ritchie, B. All Authors: Ritchie, B. Keywords: Dirac equation, Hydrino states, Klein-Gordon equation Rathke’s assertion [New J. Phys. 7 (2005) 127] that states with binding energy and size below those of known literature values are incompatible with quantum mechanics is corrected by reviewing the analytically known Coulomb solution of the Klein-Gordon equation with binding energy of order mc2 and size of order of the Compton wavelength. This is an example of a quantum state, which is mathematically acceptable in the sense of being square integrable and having a finite binding energy but yet is rejected as unphysical due in part to the point-nucleus nature of the model. Then the Dirac equation is studied for the existence of states which are similarly mathematically acceptable but whose physical acceptability requires physical judgment. States of Landau symmetry are found which meet these criteria. The existence of states of ambiguous physical interpretation for both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations depends on using a point-nucleus versus a finite-nucleus potential model. On using a realistic model for the charge distribution of the proton, a Klein-Gordon state is found in the binding range of 5 keV, but no state is found for the Dirac equation. 3315. Ritchie, B., Neutrino Equation of Motion and Neutrino-electron Bound Pairs in LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 41-53. First Author: Ritchie, B. All Authors: Ritchie, B. Keywords: Electron, Neutrino, Nucleon, Positron, W-boson The long-established electron-capture reaction e− +p+ = n +ν may be considered to be a prototype reaction in the nascent ﬁeld of physics known as low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) since it involves an interface between electron and atomic physics (EAP) on the left-hand side and nuclear physics on the right-hand side of the reaction. It is a form of inverse beta decay n = p+ +e− +ν, which is understood using a conceptual and mathematical methodology (forces mediated by the exchange of bosons known as force carriers and speciﬁcally for beta decay the W− boson as the force carrier for the electroweak force) which is totally foreign to EAP but well-supported by copious nuclear experimental data. Since no such established experimental database exists in LENR, an equation of motion (EOM) is proposed for the neutrino in analogy to Dirac’s equation, which is the EOM for the electron. The combined electron and neutrino EOM’s support temporary neutrino-electron binding and discover the mass and length scales of a nucleon on an ab initio basis. It is believed that the bound pair is a form of W boson, symbolized here by WѠs for binding of a neutrino to a positron or electron (ѩ and for spin (s) equal to 0 or 1. It is also believed that Wҳ bosons may be useful as building blocks in constructing models in the LENR regime which may be physically equivalent to quarks and the known WѠboson in the high-energy regime. 3316. Ritley, K.A., et al. A Search for Cold Fusion Signatures in Cathodically Charged Palladium. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822. First Author: Ritley, K. A. All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Wiesmann, H., Dull, P. M., Lynn, K. G., Weber, M. Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, ICCF-8 3317. Ritley, K.A., et al., The behavior of electrochemical cell resistance: a possible application to cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 699. First Author: Ritley, K. A. All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J., Lynn, K. G. Keywords: critique, resistance 3318. Ritley, K.A., et al., A search for tritium production in electrolytically deuterided palladium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19(1): p. 192. First Author: Ritley, K. A. All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Lynn, K. G., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, tritium, Helium 3319. Ritter, S.K., Cold fusion died 25 years ago, but the research lives on, in C&EN. 2016. p. 34-39. First Author: Ritter, S. K. All Authors: Ritter, S. K. Keywords: 3320. Rittner, E.S. and A. Meulenberg, A chemical interpretation of heat generated in ‘cold fusion’. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 377. First Author: Rittner, E. S. All Authors: Rittner, E. S., Meulenberg, A. Keywords: critique, heat, recombination 3321. Roarty, B. and C. Walker, Protocol for a Silicate-based LENR Using Electrodes of Various Metals. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 30-39. First Author: Roarty, B. All Authors: Roarty, B., Walker, C. Keywords: Gold, Heat transients, LENR, Lithium silicate, Palladium This paper reports a protocol that consists of applying concurrent electronic and photonic stimuli in a cell with two or more electrodes at or near the boiling point of the liquid. The liquid in the cell is a solution including a silicate, a lithium salt, and a surfactant. The electrical stimuli are RF signals and, optionally, a direct current. The protocol generates an exothermic reaction characterized by sharp temperature transients. We have successfully used three different silicates and four different metals for electrodes. We believe the exothermic reaction is nuclear in nature. The evidence supporting that statement includes:• Data logs show brief, intense temperature transients.• Electron diffraction scattering (EDS) analyses show elements to be present after the reaction that could be transmutation products of several elements in the ingredients of the protocol, specifically including silver, a possible transmutation product of palladium.• Auger analysis of one experiment also shows evidence of transmutation of the elements in the reaction cell.• SEM photos show “volcanic sites” and other evidence of metal migration.• Other SEM photos show large areas where electrodes have spalled during experiments. 3322. Roberts, D.A., et al., Energy and flux limits of cold fusion neutrons using a deuterated liquid scintillator. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 42: p. R1809. First Author: Roberts, D. A. All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ben-Jacob, E., Garik, P., Musser, J., Orr, B., Tarle, G., Tomasch, A., Holder, J.S., Redina, D., Heuser, B., Wicker, G. Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd 3323. Roberts, D.A., et al., Deuterated liquid scintillator (NE230) as a fast neutron detector for cold- fusion and other research. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1992. 39(4): p. 532. First Author: Roberts, D. A. All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ashktorab, K., Stewart, D., Jaenecke, J., Gustafson, H. R., Dueweke, M. J. Keywords: neutron, method, titanium, electrolysis, Pd, D2 3324. Robinson, G.W., Could cold fusion be caused by non-maxwell distributions? 1998. First Author: Robinson, G. W. All Authors: Robinson, G. W. Keywords: theory 3325. Rock, P.A., et al., Energy balance in the electrolysis of water with a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 293: p. 261. First Author: Rock, P. A. All Authors: Rock, P. A., Fink, W. H., McQuarrie, D. A., Volman, D. H., Hung, Y. F. Keywords: review, loading, phase diagram, enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic 3326. Rodionov, B. and I. Savvatimova. Unusual Structures On The Material Surfaces Irradiated By Low Energy Ions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan. First Author: Rodionov, B All Authors: Rodionov, B, Savvatimova, I. Keywords: glow discharge Some unusual structures on the surface of metals and films (various x-ray films and nuclear emulsions) caused by exposure to bombardment by low-energy ions in glow discharge plasma, in electrolysis and other low-energy processes (when energy of particles doesn’t exceed several keV) have been found. The mechanism and model of the strange tracks formations and explanation of their structure change are suggested.Neutrino-Dineutron Reactions (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. Y. Iwamura Effect) DOWNLOAD 3327. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi gas like hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1989. 44: p. 329. First Author: Roessler, O. E. All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W. Keywords: theory, Pauli 3328. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329. First Author: Roessler, O. E. All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W. Keywords: theory 3329. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329. First Author: Roessler, O. E. All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W. Keywords: theory 3330. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic hydrogen fusion in metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 254. First Author: Rogers, V. C. All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M. Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, theory 3331. Rogers, V.C., G.M. Sandquist, and K.K. Nielson, Deuterium concentration and cold fusion rate distributions in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 523. First Author: Rogers, V. C. All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M., Nielson, K. K. Keywords: critique, theory, method 3332. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Cold fusion reaction products and their measurement. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 483. First Author: Rogers, V. C. All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M. Keywords: gamma emission, tritium, method, critique 3333. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic Hydrogen Fusion in Metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 483. First Author: Rogers, V. C. All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M. Keywords: gamma emission neutron method 3334. Rolison, D.R., et al. Anomalies in the Surface Analysis of Deuterated Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute. First Author: Rolison, D. R. All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E., Doyle, Jr., R. J., Trzaskoma, P. P. Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, micrographs, PdD, ICCF-1 The surface and near-surface analytical characterization of thin palladium foils after the electrolysis of H2O or D2O was performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These surface characterizations revealed a number of anomalous results, as summarized below. DOWNLOAD 3335. Rolison, D.R. and P.P. Trzaskoma, Morphological differences between hydrogen-loaded and deuterium-loaded palladium as observed by scanning electron microscopy. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 375. First Author: Rolison, D. R. All Authors: Rolison, D. R., Trzaskoma, P. P. Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, surface analysis, lattice parameter 3336. Rolison, D.R. and W.E. O’Grady, Observation of elemental anomalies at the surface of palladium after electrochemical loading of deuterium or hydrogen. Anal. Chem., 1991. 63: p. 1697. First Author: Rolison, D. R. All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E. Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, transmutation, electrolysis 3337. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Timofeev, Yu. Keywords: theory, ICCF-3 On the basis of the analysis of the energy lost by a fast particle and a solid it is supposed that the most probable energy range for the reactions of nuclear fusion in the condensed media is in the range of the reduced energy of the interacting particles from E0 to E2 (~(10-400 * 16 * 10^-19 J for D-D reactions) . . . 3338. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Reproducibility of Tritium Generation From Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Elksnin, V., Skuratnik, Ya. B. Keywords: W, Nb, Gas Discharge, tritium, D2, theory, ICCF-4 3339. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Concept of Target Material Choice for Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Korneev, S., Skuratni, Y. Keywords: Gas Discharge, theory, method, ICCF-4 3340. Romodanov, V.A., et al. The nuclear reactions in condensed media for interaction of charge particles in energy region is forming by maximum elastic losses. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Majorov, V. N. Keywords: gas discharge, heat, tritium, transmutation, He, ICCF-6 3341. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Tritium Generations in Metals at Thermal Activation. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Majorov, V. N. Keywords: tritium, hydrogen, gas, H2, ICCF-7 3342. Romodanov, V.A., et al. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M. Keywords: tritium, ion bombardment H2, Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti ICCF-7 3343. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media and X-ray. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M. Keywords: x-ray, tritium, ion bombardment, H2, ICCF-7 3344. Romodanov, V.A., N.I. Khokhlov, and A.K. Pokrovsky. Registration of Superfluous Heat at Sorbtion-Desorbtion of Hydrogen in Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Khokhlov, N. I., Pokrovsky, A. K. Keywords: Ni, Nb, H2, heat+, ICCF-8 3345. Romodanov, V.A., Y.B. Skuratnik , and A.K. Pokrovsky. Generation of Tritium for Deuterium Interaction with Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Skuratnik , Ya. B., Pokrovsky, A. K. Keywords: Zr, H2, tritium, Ta, D2, ICCF-8 3346. Romodanov, V.A. Tritium Generation From The Interaction Of A Glow Discharge Plasma With Metals And With A Magnetic Field. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Romodanov, V. A. All Authors: Romodanov, V. A. Keywords: glow discharge, magnetic field, tritium We present results of our research on tritium generation through the bombardment of the surface of various metals by accelerated ions of hydrogen isotopes from a glow discharge plasma, with and without a magnetic field. The introduction of a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface results in an increase in the tritium activity, and in the tritium generation rate, of almost two orders of magnitude as compared to similar experiments run with no magnetic field. The largest tritium generation rates observed were obtained with the glow discharge operating in a magnetic field, and were in the range 109-1010 atom/s. This is higher than our background by three to four orders of magnitude. The use of a magnetic field has resulted in good reproducibility, and the development of a reliable tritium generation rate of about 1010 atom/s for tantalum, tungsten, and platinum. DOWNLOAD 3347. Rosamilia, J.M., J.A. Abys, and B. Miller, Electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium and palladium-nickel thin films. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36: p. 1203. First Author: Rosamilia, J. M. All Authors: Rosamilia, J. M., Abys, J. A., Miller, B. Keywords: loading, Pd, Pd-Ni 3348. Rosen, G., Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1989. 91(7): p. 4415. First Author: Rosen, G. All Authors: Rosen, G. Keywords: theory 3349. Rosen, G., Groundstate thermalization of hydrogen isotopes in certain metals: enhancement of p+d and d+d nuclear fusion rates by Bethe-Bloch polarization. Hadronic J., 1990. 13: p. 255. First Author: Rosen, G. All Authors: Rosen, G. Keywords: theory 3350. Ross, K. and S.M. Bennington, Solid state fusion (?). Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 15. First Author: Ross, K. All Authors: Ross, K., Bennington, S. M. Keywords: review 3351. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions WO 2009/125444. 2009: World Intellectual Property Organization. First Author: Rossi, A. All Authors: Rossi, A. Keywords: Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars. DOWNLOAD 3352. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions US 2011/0005506. 2011: United States Patent Application Publication. First Author: Rossi, A. All Authors: Rossi, A. Keywords: Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars. DOWNLOAD 3353. Rotegard, D., Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy. Space Power, 1991. 10: p. 205. First Author: Rotegard, D. All Authors: Rotegard, D. Keywords: history 3354. Roth, J., et al., Fusion reactions during low energy deuterium implantation into titanium. Nucl. Fusion, 1990. 30: p. 441. First Author: Roth, J. All Authors: Roth, J., Behrisch, R., Moeller, W., Ottenberger, W. Keywords: ion implantation, titanium, particle emission 3355. Roth, J.R., Ball Lightning: What Nature is Trying to Tell the Plasma Research Community. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 255. First Author: Roth, J. R. All Authors: Roth, J. R. Keywords: Ball Lightning, plasma 3356. Rothwell, J., Highlights of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(2): p. 8. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: review, He, heat 3357. Rothwell, J., Very hot cold fusion: Dr. Mizuno’s ceramic proton conductors. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 14. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: proton conductor, heat 3358. Rothwell, J., Review of McKubre, M. C. H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, EPRI TR-104195. Infinite Energy, 1996(11). First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: review A review of McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals. 1994. Selected pages from this report are available here: xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/McKubreMCHdevelopmen.pdfComprehensive, Meticulous and Definitive This is one of the most comprehensive descriptions of a set of cold fusion experiments ever published. The only reports I know of that rival it are from F.G. Will et al., and M. H. Miles et al. This EPRI book describes the research paid for by EPRI and performed at SRI International between 1989 and 1994 by M. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, F. Tanzella and eight other principal investigators. These are among the most careful cold fusion experiments ever done. The results are unequivocal. DOWNLOAD 3359. Rothwell, J., CETI’s 1 kilowatt cold fusion device denonstrated. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5&6): p. 18. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: review, heat, H2O, beads, Ni, CETI 3360. Rothwell, J., Introduction to the Cold Fusion Experiments of Dr. Melvin Miles. Infinite Energy, 1997. 3(15/16): p. 27. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history From 1989 until his funding was terminated in 1995, Melvin Miles performed some of the best cold fusion experiments on record. His goal was to answer two critical questions: Does cold fusion produce helium along with excess heat, like a plasma fusion reaction? And if so, does it produce roughly as much helium per joule of energy as a plasma fusion reaction does? He answers both questions affirmatively. When a cold fusion palladium cathode becomes active, it releases helium into the electrolyte. The helium leaves the cell in the effluent deuterium and oxygen gas. Cathodes that produced more excess heat produced greater amounts of helium. The ratio of helium to energy is roughly comparable to that of hot fusion, within an order of magnitude. This is strong evidence that cold fusion really is some form of nuclear fusion, and not fission, zero point energy, or something else. DOWNLOAD 3361. Rothwell, J., Dieter Britz: A Knowledgeable Skeptic. Infinite Energy, 1998. 3(18). First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: review 3362. Rothwell, J. and E. Mallove, Review of Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible, By Arthur C. Clarke. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(22). First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mallove, E. Keywords: history How did Arthur C. Clarke come to believe that cold fusion is real, and why should anyone care? The answer can be found in an unforgettable nonfiction book he wrote in 1963. It is Profiles of the Future, one of the best books about the future ever written, and one of the finest short overviews of science and technology. . . . DOWNLOAD 3363. Rothwell, J., The Wright Brothers and Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 2(9): p. 37. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history History is not inevitable. If the Wrights had not built the airplane, man would not have flown for another ten or twenty years, most experts agree. History is a product of free will. People make decisions, take actions, and shape events. Things do not get invented just because they are needed. We learn to live with awkward machines like the automobile transmission. If Bell Labs had not come up with the transistor, by now we would have computers with a million “vacuum tubes on a chip.” (This kind of chip was fabricated for a special application years ago. Technology is flexible; transistors are not the only things you can miniaturize.) DOWNLOAD 3364. Rothwell, J., Comparisons from the History of Technology. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 39. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history This paper was delivered at the Cold Fusion and New Energies Symposium held in Manchester, New Hampshire October 11, 1998. This version was modified and expanded in May 2003.Earlier at this conference Ed Storms said, “cold fusion is on life-support.” Will it survive? Can an unpopular scientific discovery be forgotten? Ed thinks that cold fusion is endangered. In a lecture titled “Cold Fusion – Does It Have a Future?” Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger said that science itself is at risk . . . DOWNLOAD 3365. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part I. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(25): p. 32. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history, materials The history of transistors teaches many lessons about how cold fusion might develop and what should be done to help it along.Transistors are physically similar to cold fusion devices. In fact, some of the earliest experimental transistors were immersed in electrolyte with a counter electrode to neutralize the surface barrier. . . . DOWNLOAD 3366. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part II. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 46. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history, materials Part 1 closed with the questions: Was the transistor truly inevitable? Where would we be without it? Is any innovation inevitable and unstoppable? I conclude that fundamental breakthroughs, like the transistor, are not inevitable, but once they are made, contingent, derivative or follow‑up breakthroughs like integrated circuits become inevitable. The discovery of cold fusion was not inevitable by any means, and cold fusion technology may never be developed because of technical difficulties or political opposition, but if it is developed and it becomes established, many contingent breakthroughs, like home power generators, will become inevitable. DOWNLOAD 3367. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion, the Titanic Disaster Aftermath, and the Internet. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(36). First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history “News is the first rough draft of history.” -Newspaper publisher Philip L. Graham (1915-1963) Newspapers are indeed the first draft of history and, in many cases, the last draft as well. This has been one of the reasons behind cold fusion’s bad press over the years. Researchers made initial assessments of the phenomenon back in April 1989 and offered up their gut-reaction opinions to the media. Many of these erroneous, off-the-cuff ramblings are still widely quoted today. The three famous “negative” experiments at Caltech, MIT, and Harwell are often cited as proof that cold fusion does not exist, although careful reexaminations have subsequently shown that the tests conducted at all three establishments did, in fact, yield positive results. Reporters, commentators, and historians seldom look beyond immediate impressions formed in the earliest days of a major event, when confusion is rampant and detailed investigations have not yet begun. . . . DOWNLOAD 3368. Rothwell, J., Butter Side Down: How Cold Fusion Researchers Battle the Innate Perversity of Inanimate Objects and Exploding Parameter Space. Infinite Energy, 2001. 7(37). First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: history A brief introduction to some calorimeter types, and to some of the difficulties in cold fusion experiments. DOWNLOAD 3369. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms. The LENR-CANR.Org Website, Its Past And Future. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E. Keywords: The LENR-CANR-org website has proven to be a popular source of information about cold fusion. This site has distributed more full text papers about LENR than any other source. In addition, it contains many features that allow easy search and insertion of the discovered references into a document. DOWNLOAD 3370. Rothwell, J., et al., Appeal to Readers and Correspondence with the Scientific American. 2003, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E., Rennie, J., Piel, J. Keywords: Review An appeal to LENR-CANR readers to help spread the word and help bring about a rebirth of interest in cold fusion. This document also contains correspondence with the past and present editors of the Scientific American. DOWNLOAD 3371. Rothwell, J. Introducing The Book “Cold Fusion and the Future”. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: Review, 3372. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion And The Future. 2004: LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: The purpose of this book is to show that with cold fusion we can accomplish marvelous things. This is not a review or history of the field. It is not meant to convince the reader that cold fusion exists. If you doubt that, please read original sources. The book describes how many nightmare problems that seem beyond any present solution, such as global warming, elimination of invasive species, and providing clean drinking water and sanitation to billions of poor people might be eliminated. The future might be better than you think.This book is not copyright. It is distributed for free at LENR-CANR.org. DOWNLOAD 3373. Rothwell, J., A Fusao a Frio e o Futuro. 2006: LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Sergio Bacchi.O livro “Fusão a Frio e o Futuro” traduzido ao português brasileiro por Sergio Bacchi. Uma visão das aplicações possíveis da fusão a frio do hidrogênio pesado. Um livro com muita imaginação e humanidade. DOWNLOAD 3374. Rothwell, J., Mirai o kizuku jyouonkakuyuugou. 2007: LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Japanese. DOWNLOAD 3375. Rothwell, J. and P. Mobberly, eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007, The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Sicily, Italy. 362. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mobberly, P. Keywords: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals, 13-18 October 2007, Sheraton Catania Sicily, Italy DOWNLOAD 3376. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms, Report on Arata’s Paper and Lecture about his “Solid Fusion” Reactor. 2008, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E. Keywords: review, heat This paper describes the recent demonstration (May 2008) of anomalous heat and helium production, presented by Prof. Yoshiaki Arata, when two different materials are exposed to D2 near room temperature. DOWNLOAD 3377. Rothwell, J., Tally of Cold Fusion Papers. 2009, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented. DOWNLOAD 3378. Rothwell, J., Brief Technical Description of the Leonardo Corporation, University of Bologna, and INFN Scientific Demonstration of the Andrea Rossi ECat (Energy Catalyzer) Boiler. 2011, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: Heat Dr. Andrea Rossi, President of Leonardo Corporation, prepared in cooperation with scientists from the University of Bologna and INFN-Bologna an experimental demonstration of his ECat boiler for about 50 people, mostly scientists the afternoon of 14 January 2011. DOWNLOAD 3379. Rothwell, J., How Nature refused to re-examine the 1989 CalTech experiment. 2012, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: History In 1989 Nature published a paper by Lewis showing no excess heat in a cold fusion experiment. Several researchers including Noninski, Miles and Fleischmann discovered errors in this paper. Noninski wrote a critique of the paper describing one of these errors, and submitted it for publication. David Lindley, an editor at Nature, rejected the critique. This paper examines some of the errors in the paper, and Lindley’s reasons for refusing to re-examine the experiment. DOWNLOAD 3380. Rothwell, J., Report on Mizuno’s adiabatic calorimetry. 2014, LENR-CANR.org. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: calorimetry heat A report on the method of calorimetry employed by T. Mizuno starting in August 2014. Five sample runs are described. DOWNLOAD 3381. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: Commercialization Cold fusion researchers are prone to be unduly pessimistic about the potential for cold fusion. They know too much; they are too close to the problem. They may also have unexamined assumptions. Researchers feel put-upon because of political opposition. The LENR-CANR.org website log file proves there is a great deal of interest in this field. There is broad, untapped, latent support for it. The log shows that every week scientists and engineers download thousands of papers on cold fusion. DOWNLOAD 3382. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: Commercialization Japanese version. DOWNLOAD 3383. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: History The field is somewhat chaotic. Results are inconsistent and seem contradictory. There is no widely-accepted theoretical explanation. History shows that this kind of chaos is healthy in emergent science. In fields such as plasma fusion there is broad agreement and a solid theoretical basis, but not much progress. We should embrace chaos and celebrate intellectual ferment.Despite the confusion, the literature does prove the effect is real, and it teaches how to replicate. DOWNLOAD 3384. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: History Japanese version DOWNLOAD 3385. Rothwell, J. Cold Fusion Will Lower the Cost of both Energy and Equipment. in ICCF20 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2016. Sendai, Japan. First Author: Rothwell, J. All Authors: Rothwell, J. Keywords: History Cold fusion will lower the cost of energy because the fuel costs nothing. It will also greatly reduce the cost of many machines, especially electric generators. The cost of generators is likely to fall by a factor of 200, from$2,000/kW to \$10/kW, which is the cost difference between a power company central generator and a portable gasoline generator.A radical reduction in the cost of one device does not always reduce the cost of others. Since 1900, the cost of illumination has fallen by a factor of 80, but this has not directly reduced the cost of other goods and services by a similar factor. Since 1970, the cost of computer memory has fallen by a factor of 108. Microprocessors and cheap memory enhanced many products. They brought us the Internet and ubiquitous cheap computing. But so far they have not drastically lowered costs outside of computer applications. Cold fusion is different. All machines use energy, so cold fusion will lower the cost of everything, but it will have the biggest impact replacing large, expensive machines with small mass-produced versions. Other new sources of energy such as solar panels also have zero cost fuel, but they will not reduce the cost of other machines. Only cold fusion can do this.It follows that the most profitable use of cold fusion in the first decades after it is introduced will be to replace existing technology, rather than to make radical new technology. Microprocessors brought us machines we did not have, such as cell phones and the Internet. Cold fusion will – at first – dramatically lower the cost of machines we already have.

3386. Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roulette, T.
All Authors: Roulette, T., Roulette, J., Pons, S.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter

INTRODUCTION We describe herein the construction, testing, calibration and use of a high power dissipation calorimeter suitable for the measurements of excess enthalpy generation in Pd / Pd alloy cathodes during the electrolysis of heavy water electrolytes at temperatures up to and including the boiling point of the electrolyte. With the present design, power dissipation up to about 400W is possible. Excess power levels of up to ~250% of the input power have been observed with these calorimeters in some experiments. Extensions of the design to include recombination catalysts on open and pressurized cells will be the subject of a future report.

3387. Rousseau, D.L., Case studies in pathological science. Am. Sci., 1992. 80: p. 54.

First Author: Rousseau, D. L.
All Authors: Rousseau, D. L.
Keywords: history

3388. Roussetski, A.S. Investigation of Nuclear Emissions in the Process of D(H) Escaping from Deuterized (Hydrogenized) PdO-Pd-PdO and PdO-Ag Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, neutron, alpha, protron, CR-39, irradiation, ICCF-6, Helium

3389. Roussetski, A.S. Observation of (DD)-Fusion Reaction Products in Electrolyticaly Deuterized PdO/Pd Structures. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: neutron, PdO, layer particle emission, ICCF-7

3390. Roussetski, A.S. Application of CR-39 Plastic Track Detector for Detection of DD and DT-Reaction Products in Cold Fusion Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: CR-39, particle emission, layer, Au-Pd-PdO, method, ICCF-8

Abstract The results of application of CR-39 plastic track detector in Cold Fusion experiments are presented. According to the calibration, this detector registered not only dd-fusion reaction products, but also dT ones. The procedures for identifying different particles of dd and dT-reaction are recommended. According to these procedures the possible levels of dd and dT-reactions in different experiments have been estimated.

3391. Roussetski, A.S. and E.I. Saunnin. Long-range a-particle emission from PuNi2 structure. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Saunnin, E. I.
Keywords: alpha, emission, Pu, Pd, Ni, fractofusion, strain

3392. Roussetski, A.S., A.G. Lipson, and V.P. Andreanov. Nuclear Emissions from Titanium Hydride/Deuteride, Induced by Powerful Picosecond Laser Beam. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Andreanov, V. P.
Keywords: charged particle, laser stimulation

The emission of nuclear particles (protons, deuterons, neutrons and alphas) was detected during irradiation of different targets, including 30 mm thick Ti-metal and Ti-deuteride foils as well as CH2- film, by picosecond laser beam (I= 2.0 x 10^18 W/cm^2, l=1.053 mm). The nominally pure Ti-metal target contained some amount of adsorbed hydrogen (TiHx).

3393. Roussetski, A.S. Cr-39 Track Detectors In Cold Fusion Experiments: Review And Perspectives. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Introduction            Earlier experiments [1,2] have showed emissions of DD-reaction products (3-MeV protons) and energetic charged particle emission (a-particles) during exothermic D(H) desorption from the Pd/PdO:D(H) heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors [3, 4].

3394. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission,

3395. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Earlier experiments have showed emissions of energetic charged particles (α-particles and protons) during exothermic H desorption from the Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Earlier we already showed that purified CR-39 plastic track detectors can be considered as an adequate scientific instrument, which suitable for detection of individual uniformly distributed charged particles and also for the groups of these particles being emitted from the active spots (“hot zones”) attributed to the maximum internal strain area at the surface of PdDx and TiDx samples. The analysis of CR-39 data showed that in some cases energetic charged particle tracks (α-particles and protons) concentrated inside the small spots of detector. The typical “hot zone” with ~200 tracks within the area with the size of 0.2 × 0.5 mm2 were found to be appeared during the hydrogen desorption experiments with Pd/PdO:Hx samples.

3396. Roussetski, A.S., M.N. Negodaev, and A. Lipson. Multifunctional Ion Beam Installation “HELIS” as a new instrument for advanced LENR research. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Negodaev, M. N., Lipson, A.
Keywords:

The ion beam installation HELIS (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia) represents an ion accelerator of light elements with atomic number in the range Z=1-54 with ion energies ranging from 0.5 to 50 keV operating at deuteron current densities up to 2 A/cm2 and intended to perform a wide spectrum of physical experiments related to LENR.

3397. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Evidence for Fast Neutron Emission During SRI’s SPARWAR/GALILEO Type Electrolysis Experiments #7 and #5, Based on CR39 Track Detector Record. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

We have reported [1] the detailed analysis of the CR-39 detector (Landauer) from SRI’s #BE013-7 (#7) Pd deposition experiment where the detector was separated from the cathode wire by a 6 μm Mylar® film. The Mylar® protected the CR-39 surface from chemical, mechanical, and electrostatic (spark discharge) damage during electrolysis. In this report we compared those results with that of the CR-39 detector, installed as in #7, in an identically operated cell using light water and with the background detector placed 2 m from the electrolytic cell.

3398. Rout, R.K., M. Srinivasan, and A. Shyam, Autoradiography of Deuterated Ti and Pd Targets for Spatially Resolved Detection of Tritium Produced by Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 3.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A.

Introduction For the last few months, hectic activity has been underway in various laboratories to study the Cold Fusion phenomenon. De Ninno et al. reported emission of neutrons from titanium metal loaded with deuterium gas under pressure. Similar experiments have been conducted at Trombay. We report here evidence of cold fusion in D2 gas loaded Ti and Pd targets through the use of autoradiography for spatially resolved detection of tritium. Our study employed three different techniques to observe tritium:(i) Autoradiography using X-ray films.(ii) Characteristic X-ray measurement of titanium, excited by the tritium β.(iii) Liquid scintillation method for tritium β counting.

3399. Rout, R.K., et al., Detection of high tritium activity on the central titanium electrode of a plasma focus device. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 391.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Chitra, V.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, ion bombardment, D2

A 2-kJ Mather plasma focus device is used to deuterate the top end surface (or tip) of its central titanium electrode to investigate the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in the context of the “cold fusion” phenomenon. The tip of the central titanium electrode is found to develop at least a few tens of microcuries of tritium after several plasma focus discharges. Neither the tritium impurity level in the deuterium gas used in the experiment nor the tritium branch of the d-d reactions that are known to occur in plasma focus devices can account for such activity in the electrode. Anomalous nuclear reactions in the deuterated titanium lattice appear to be the most probable source of this high activity.

3400. Rout, R.K., et al., Copious low energy emissions from palladium loaded with hydrogen or deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1991. 29: p. 571.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Bansal, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, film, x-ray, electrolysis, autoradiograph, Zr, Hf, Ni-Ti

3401. Rout, R.K., et al. Phenomenon of Low Energy Emission from Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B.

Palladium loaded with either hydrogen or deuterium is found to give a clear autoradiograph on exposure to X-ray film. The phenomena is found to be 100% reproducible and is independent of the technique of loading, be it electrolytic, gas loading, plasma discharge or ion implantation. It appears only if the exposure to X-ray film is done in atmosphere of hydrogen, oxygen or air. These emissions are also detected by TLD measurements. Investigations seeking to identify the nature/energy of the radiation through transmission measurements using various filters tentatively indicate that the radiations could be low energy electrons having an energy of around 300 to 400 eV.

3402. Rout, R.K., et al., Update on observation of low-energy emissions from deuterated and hydrated palladium. Indian J. Technol., 1993. 31: p. 551.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, M. S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, CR-39, film

3403. Rout, R.K., et al., Reproducible, anomalous emissions from palladium deuteride/hydride. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 273.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B., Shrikhande, V. K.

Each and every palladium sample loaded/reloaded either with hydrogen or deuterium was observed to fog radiographic films kept in its close proximity in air. Strangely, even with ten layers of black paper (thickness ≈63 mg/cm^2) as a filter between film and sample, fogging was observed. On the other hand, no fogging could be observed even when thin beryllium foil (≈1.4 mg/cm^2), three layers of transparent polyester foils (≈10 mg/cm^2), or thin aluminized polycarbonate (0.3 mg/cm^2) were employed as filters. Several experiments have been performed to identify the phenomenon responsible for fogging. These experiments appear to rule out any of the known mechanisms, suggesting a new, strange, and unknown phenomena.

3404. Rudesill, J., An Interview with Dr. Edmund Storms. Infinite Energy, 2007(75).

First Author: Rudesill, J.
All Authors: Rudesill, J.
Keywords:

An interview with Edmund Storms and a discussion of the book “The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations About Cold Fusion.”

3405. Ruer, J., Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 54-68.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters , Explosion, LENR, Melting

Many authors reported the presence of small-size craters on the surface of cathodes after Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) electrolysis experiments. It is conjectured the craters result from violent reactions, perhaps of nuclear origin. Nagel proposed acorrelation between the crater diameter and the energy involved in its formation. Starting from this assumption, it can be estimated that the enthalpy released can raise the temperature of the crater content to about 2000 K. A simple model is used to calculate the crater cooling by conduction and radiation. It gives the order of magnitude of the maximum event duration in order to achieve some melting of the cathode material. The duration of the eruption is estimated from the gas pressure developed within the crater. A value of 6 ns is obtained for a 2µm diameter, and 600 ns for a 20µm crater. In large craters, a part of inner material can be molten. Small craters are strongly cooled by the surrounding metal and do not show signs of fusion.

3406. Ruer, J., Response to Comment on the Article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters, Expansion, Hydride dissociation, LENR, Melting

In Ref. [1] the kinetics of heat transfer during the heat bursts at the origin of the formation of the micro-craters on Pd cathodes during electrolysis are discussed. It is assumed that LENR is the source of energy. In Ref. [2], M. Tsirlin made several comments. The present paper answers these comments. Tsirlin thinks it is premature to accept the fact that craters result from LENR events. Other less exotic phenomena should be considered first to explain the crater formation, before nuclear reactions. Tsirlin proposes three potential heat sources:(A) Recombination (molarization) of atomic hydrogen.(B) Oxidation of the hydrogen at the cathode surface by oxygen evolved at the anode.(C) Sudden emissions of the absorbed gas.. . .

3407. Ruer, J., Characterization of Energy Fluxes in LENR Reactors -Excess Heat, Coefficient of Performance and Conditions for Self-sustained Operation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 13-25.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Carnot, COP, Ericsson, Excess heat, Gain, Insulation, ORC, Self-sustained, Stirling, Thermal engine

LENR reactors are considered as units that operate at a temperature above ambient and need an excitation provided by a supply powered by electricity. Different modes of operation are described following the characteristics of the heat and energy balance. LENR reactors may be characterized by different parameters, Coefficient of Performance (COP) or Energy Amplification factor (A). The thermal insulation plays an important role. LENR reactors that require external heating in small units may become self-sustained for large sizes. The production of electricity involves the coupling with a thermal machine. The system is able to export power if the COP and the temperature are high enough.

3408. Ruer, J., Basic Design Considerations for Industrial LENR Reactors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 7-26.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Gas leakage, Heat engines, Power control, Runaway, Self-sustaining, Stability, Thermal insulation

LENR reactors able to deliver heat at a high temperature can be coupled with heat engines to generate electric power. The conditions of temperature and COP to achieve self-sustaining operation are given. According to the literature, the heat generation rate of some LENR processes increases rapidly with the temperature. This phenomenon dictates the cooling criteria to maintain a stable reactor operation. Power control can be obtained through appropriate temperature regulation. Several types of heat engines can be coupled to LENR reactors with appropriate power control. Heat losses must be minimized with sufficient thermal insulation. The insulation enclosure is also useful to recover the leaks of light gas, if any are present in the system.

3409. Ruer, J., Simulation of the Behavior of Exotic Neutral Particles by a Monte-Carlo Modelisation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 27-44.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Brownian motion, Exotic neutral particles, Hot spots, Monte-Carlo, Particle lifetime, Simulation

Hot spots are small features that some authors suppose are created by a sudden local release of thermal energy. For example, the estimation of the energy involved in the formation of a 2 μm crater is 3 × 10−8 J or 2 × 105 MeV. Some theories attempting to explain these phenomena, and excess heat in general, involve the role of Exotic Neutral Particles (ENP), like Polyneutrons or Erzions. According to such theories, these ENPs are relatively rare. The problem investigated in this paper is whether a single particle may trigger a series of many reactions within a short time in solids that are properly loaded. A Monte-Carlo simulation has been written to study the potential behavior of ENPs. It is shown that the ENPs follow a developed and Brownian type movement. The number of reactions occurring at a given depth below the surface is calculated, as well as the probability for a series to exceed a given value. From a pure mathematical viewpoint, a parallel can be made between the diffusion laws and Brownian motion. It is shown that a small fraction of the ENP flux can trigger large series of reaction, to the point that the energy that can be produced is not limited if the ENP is stable as long as it is present in the lattice. It is necessary to introduce a limited lifetime with a decay to reconcile the model with the experimental observations. The discussion of the simulation results in the light of experimental data leads me to propose a mean free path on the order of 100 Å, and a lifetime in the nanosecond range.

3410. Ruer, J. and J.P. Biberian, Reanalysis of an Explosion in a LENR Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 76-97.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Deflagration, Detonation, Electrolytic cell, Explosion, Pd cathode, SWACER

An electrolytic cell operated with a hollow Pd cathode exploded in 2004. The violence of the explosion was surprising. We decided to re-analyze this event. The examination of the cell remnants indicate that the explosion occurred in the gas phase, and the electrodes seem unaffected. The stoichiometric H2-O2 mix can explode following different mechanisms that are briefly reviewed. A particular phenomenon called Shock Wave Amplification by Coherent Energy Release (SWACER) is able to produce strong detonations. A gas quantity similar to the original cell ignited by a hot spot or a spark produces only weak explosions that do not break the glass tube. Strong detonations are reproducibly obtained with a setup designed to induce the SWACER. The re-analysis of the event shows that the explosion was probably triggered by the SWACER resulting from a reaction in the hollow Pd cathode. In order to avoid accidents in the future during the operation of closed electrolytic cells, it is advised in addition to the conventional safety measures to avoid the presence of hollow, gas-filled metallic pieces in the reactor gas space, like a tube or a folded sheet.

3411. Rugari, S.L., et al., Upper limits on emission of neutrons from Ti in pressurized D2 gas cells: A test of evidence for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 1298.

First Author: Rugari, S. L.
All Authors: Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Smolen, S. D., Zhao, Z., Gai, M., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: D2, titanium, Ti-Pd, neutron

3412. Rusetskiy, A.S., et al., Investigation of Enhancement and Stimulation of DD-reaction Yields in Crystalline Deuterated Heterostructures at Low Energies using the HELIS Ion Accelerator. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Rusetskiy, A. S.
All Authors: Rusetskiy, A. S., Bagulya, A. V., Kalkarov, O. D., Negodaev, M. A., Chubenko, A. P., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Ralchenko, V. G.
Keywords: Enhancement of reaction yield, DD-reaction, Ion accelerator, Neutron detector, Plastic track detector

In this study, we present the results of studies of DD reactions in crystalline heterostructures at low energies using the ion accelerator HELIS. The results of measurements of the DD-reaction yields from the Pd/PdO:Dx and the Ti/TiO2:Dx heterostructures in the energy range of 10-25 keV are presented. The neutron and proton fluxes are measured using a neutron detector based on 3Hecounters and a CR-39 plastic track detector. Comparisons with calculations show significant DD-reaction yield enhancement. It was first shown that the impact of the H+ and Ne+ ion beams in the energy range of 10-25 keV at currents of 0.01-0.1 mA on the deuterated heterostructure results in an appreciable DD-reaction yield stimulation. We also studied the neutron yield in DD reactions within a polycrystalline deuterium-saturated CVD diamond, during irradiation of its surface by a deuterium ion beam with energy of less than 30 keV. The measurements of the neutron flux in the beam direction are performed in dependence on the target angle, Beta, with respect to the beam axis. A significant anisotropy in neutron yield is observed, it was higher by a factor of 3 at Beta = 0 compared to that at Beta = +/- 45 deg.

3413. Rusov, V.D., et al., Fast neutron recording by dielectric track detectors in a palladium-deuterated-tritated water system in an electrolytic cell. Pisma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1989. 15(19): p. 9 (In Russian).

First Author: Rusov, V. D.
All Authors: Rusov, V. D., Zelentsova, T. N., Semenov, M. Yu., Radin, I. V., Babikova, Yu. F., Kruglyak, Yu. A.
Keywords: D2O, T2O, Pd-Ag, electrolysis, CR-39, neutron

3414. Russell, J.L., Plausibility argument for a suggested mechanism for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1990. 17(10): p. 545.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3415. Russell, J.L., Virtual electron capture in deuterium. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 75.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3416. Russell, J.L., Proposed heat producing nuclear reaction for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 305.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory

3417. Russell, J.L., On the nature of the cold fusion process. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1993. 20: p. 227.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3418. Ruzic, D.N., K. Schatz, and P.L. Nguyen, A novel apparatus to investigate the possibility of plasma-assisted cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 251.

First Author: Ruzic, D. N.
All Authors: Ruzic, D. N., Schatz, K., Nguyen, P. L.
Keywords: gas discharge, method, Pd, D2

3419. Ryan, R.R., et al., Exploration of the Possibility of Fracturing Processes of Metal Deuterides (or Tritides) as a Mechanism for Nuclear Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Ryan, R. R.
All Authors: Ryan, R. R., Garcia, E., Dickinson, J. T., Schmidt, S., Fowler, M., Wilhelmy, J., Voter, A., Agnew, S., Swanson, B.
Keywords: fractofusion, proposal

3420. Sada, H., Theory of nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 107.

Keywords: Theory, Bloch

3421. Sahni, V.C., Comment on ‘Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible?’. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(7): p. 497.

First Author: Sahni, V. C.
All Authors: Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: theory, critique, Schommers

3422. Saito, N., et al., Search for cold-fusion neutrons from palladium breathing deuterons. Denshi Gijutsu Sogo Kenkyusho Iho, 1990. 54(9): p. 986 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2, electrolysis, neutron, D2

3423. Saito, N., et al., Measurement of neutrons from cold fusion. Hoshasen, 1991. 17(1): p. 31 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2, electrolysis

3424. Saito, T., et al. Studies on Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetry with ICARUS 1. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Saito, T.
All Authors: Saito, T., Sumi, M., Asami, N., Ikegami, H.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat, electrolysis, critique, Fleischmann, ICCF-5

The Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry (FPC) is examined with the ICARUS 1 system, which is identical to the original cells which they designed for their calorimetry. In the present experimental studies, a critical evaluation is made of their original method (FPC) and a modified version of FPC is proposed. Its usefulness and validity is experimentally examined by detecting and regenerating artificial heat pulses regarded as heat excess.

3425. Sakaguchi, H., G. Adachi, and K. Nagao. Helium Isotopes from Deuterium Absorbed in LaNi5. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakaguchi, H.
All Authors: Sakaguchi, H., Adachi, G., Nagao, K.
Keywords: Helium, D2, LaNi5 ICCF-3

Helium isotopes (3He and 4He) from D2 and H2 gases absorbed in LaNi4 were analyzed with a noble gas mass spectrometer. The reproducible increase in 3He, corresponding to a fusion probability of > 8.0×10^-24 d-d*s^-1, was observed on the D2-experiment, whereas 3He was not formed by the reaction of H2 and LaNi5. 4He production was unreliable, because the reproducibility of the result has not been obtained.

3426. Sakamoto, S. Observations of Cold Fusion Neutrons from Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sakamoto, S.
All Authors: Sakamoto, S.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2O, NaOH, ICCF-4, electrolysis

3427. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solution of hydrogen in palladium-based binary alloys. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1995. 99(6): p. 807.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Chen, F. L., Ura, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, thermodynamic, H2

3428. Sakamoto, Y., et al. Calorimetric Enthalpies in the b-phase Regions of Pd Black-H(D) Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T.
Keywords: Pd-H, Pd-D, enthalpy of formation thermodynamic, pressure ICCF-6 PdD PdH

3429. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Calorimetric enthalpies for palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) systems at H(D) contents up to about [H]([D])/[Pd] = 0.86. J. Phys.: Condens. Mater., 1996. 8: p. 3229.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T., Ohshima, K.
Keywords: enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic, pressure

3430. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solutions of hydrogen in Pd-Pt-Rh alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 212.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Ohira, K., Kokubu, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: thermodynamic, Pd-Pt-Rh, H2, phase diagram, pressure

3431. Sakoh, H., et al., Hydrogen isotope absorption and heat release characteristics of a Ni-based sample. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 471-484.

First Author: Sakoh, H.
All Authors: Sakoh, H., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Murota, T., Tahara, T.
Keywords: Catalyst, Cu–Ni alloy nano-powder, Protium absorption

Recently, several researchers claimed excess heat from Ni-based alloy samples under application to gas-phase protium absorption experiments instead of expensive Pd-based nanocompounds. We have performed hydrogen isotope absorption runs using the Cu-Ni-ZrO2(CNZ) and Ni-ZrO2(NZ) nano-powders. We observed long-lasting temperature change corresponding to astonishingly large output energy of several hundred eV/atom-Ni.

3432. Salamon, M.H., et al., Limits on the emission of neutrons, gamma-rays, electrons and protons from Pons/Fleischmann electrolytic cells. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 401.

First Author: Salamon, M. H.
All Authors: Salamon, M. H., Wrenn, M. E., Bergeson, H. E., Crawford, K. C., Delaney, W. H., Henderson, C. L., Li, Y. Q., Rusho, J. A., Sandquist, G. M., Seltzer, S. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission

3433. Salomons, E.M., et al., Pressure-Composition Isotherms of Thin Pd-H Films. J. Less-Common Met., 1987. 130: p. 415.

First Author: Salomons, E. M.
All Authors: Salomons, E. M., Feenstra, R., de Groot, D. G., Rector, J. H., Griessen, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, layer

3434. Salvarezza, R.C., et al., Electrochemical study of hydrogen absorption in polycrystalline palladium. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1991. 313: p. 291.

First Author: Salvarezza, R. C.
All Authors: Salvarezza, R. C., Montemayor, M. C., Fatas, E., Arvia, A. J.

3435. Samgin, A.L., et al. The Influence of Conductivity on Neutron Generation Process in Proton Conducting Solid Electrolytes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Baraboshkin, A. N., Murigin, I., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: neutron proton conductor SrCeO, ICCF-4

3436. Samgin, A.L., et al. Cold Fusion and Anomalous Effects in Deuteron Conductors During Non-Stationary High-Temperature Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Finodeyev, O., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Khokhlov, V. A., Filatov, E. S., Murygin, I. V., Gorelov, V. P., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: Solid electrolyte, perovskite, heat+ neutron proton conductor, ICCF-5

The studies were conducted with the perovslcite-type solid electrolytes based on the strontium and barium ccrates under hydrogen and deuterium atmosphere. Anomalous effects were found manifesting themselves in the overbackground neutron bursts, excess heat release, phase composition and crystal lattice parameter changes. At 200-750РC the regions of the temperature were identified which accompained by significant heat evolution that was greater in the deuteron conductors than in the proton conductors.

3437. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 220: p. 297.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: Theory, Bohr orbit

3438. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, Reply to the comment on ‘On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom’ by Samsonenko et al. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 229: p. 133.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: theory, critique, Drazic

3439. Sanchez, C., et al. Cold Fusion During Electrolysis of Heavy Water With Ti and Pt Electrodes. in Understanding Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Varenna.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Canizares, J.
Keywords: titanium, D2O, neutron, gamma emission tritium

3440. Sanchez, C., et al., Nuclear products detection during electrolysis of heavy water with titanium and platinum electrodes. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 1039.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F. J., Canizares, J.
Keywords: gamma emission neutron, tritium, electrolysis, titanium, Pt, D2O, electrolysis

3441. Sandquist, G.M. and V.C. Rogers, Enhancement of cold fusion reaction rates. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 351.

First Author: Sandquist, G. M.
All Authors: Sandquist, G. M., Rogers, V. C.
Keywords: discussion

3442. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium, ICCF-4 electrolysis

3443. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in ICCF4, Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium

3444. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al. Evidence for Tritium Generation in Self-Heated Nickel Wires Subjected to Hydrogen Gas Absorption/Desorption Cycles. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, tritium, heat-, ICCF-5

The loading characteristics of hydrogen gas in electrically self-heated nickel wires was investigated with a view to maximise hydrogen absorption and thereafter “trigger” it to generate anomalous excess heat as reported by Focardi et. al in early 1994. The nickel wires were found to absorb substantial quantity of hydrogen following several alternate cycles of absorption/desorption. But calorimetric studies conducted with the system so far indicate that we have not succeeded in triggering excess heat generation. However on dissolution and counting using standard liquid scintillation techniques, a number of hydrogen loaded nickel wires were found to contain tritium in the range of 3 Bq to 2333 Bq. This finding corroborates the detection of tritium in light water solutions electrolysed by nickel cathodes reported by the authors first at ICCF – 3 (Nagoya, 1992) and again at ICCF – 4 (Hawaii, 1993), confirming the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in nickel-hydrogen systems.

3445. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al., Investigation of low-level tritium generation in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 349.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, tritium

The generation of tritium during the electrolysis of aqueous light water alkali carbonate (K2CO3 and Li2CO3) solutions by nickel cathodes, first reported by us at the International Conference on Cold Fusion-3 (Nagoya, Japan, October 1992) has once again been verified and confirmed. During 1993, 10 out of 23 cells, whose electrolytes were analyzed using a newly set up dedicated liquid scintillation counting unit, indicated low tritium levels in the electrolyte, in the range of 0.5 to 4.8 Bq/ml. Except one cell, which contained 25% D2O, the remaining nine cells, which produced tritium, were charged with natural light water solutions only. Two of these cells, which were monitored for tritium every few days, and excluding cell OM-3, which was set up in 1992, indicated tritium level variations in a sawtooth fashion, suggesting the possible presence of an as yet unidentified mechanism responsible for periodically removing tritium from the electrolyte.

3446. Sannikov, V.I., et al., Emission of neutrons and gamma-quanta from a titanium electrode polarised by a current in the gas phase over LiD. Rasplavy, 1991(4): p. 86 (in Russian).

First Author: Sannikov, V.I .
All Authors: Sannikov, V.I ., Gorodetskii, V. G., Sulimov, E. M., Polosukhin, B. G., Kudyakov, V. Ya.
Keywords: titanium, D2, LiD, gas discharge, gamma emission, neutron

3447. Sano, T., et al. Preparation of Pd Electrodes and Their Hydrogen Loading Rates. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sano, T.
All Authors: Sano, T., Terasuwa, T., Ohi, T., Nezu, S.

We prepared a series of palladium-based rods with various compositions and processing histories as cathode for water electrolysis. These rods were evaluated in terms of hydrogen loading ratio (H/Pd). The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd-Ag and Pd-Ce alloys were compared with that of a pure Pd rod. The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd rods were subjected to a kneeling and/or cold-working (swaging) are also compared with that of a cast Pd rod. The results show that the alloying markedly reduces the loading ratio, and neither a kneeling (350 – 650у) your swaging (up to the processing ratio of 98%) produces a distinct effect.

3448. Santandrea, R.P. and R.G. Behrens, A review of the thermodynamics and phase relationships in the palladium- hydrogen, palladium-deuterium and palladium-tritium systems. High Temperature Materials and Processes, 1986. 7: p. 149.

First Author: Santandrea, R. P.
All Authors: Santandrea, R. P., Behrens, R. G.
Keywords: review, Phase Diagram, thermodynamic, Pd, H, D, T, diffusion, structure

3449. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Electrochemically initiated cold fusion of deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 175.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Ragarajan, J., Braganza, O’N., Haram, S. K., Limaye, N. M., Mandal, K. C.
Keywords: titanium electrolysis, heat+, D2O, neutron NaCl Pd

3450. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Excess enthalpy during electrolysis of D2O. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1139.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Rangarajan, J., Mandal, K. C., Haram, S. K.
Keywords: heat+, titanium, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

3451. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords: materials

* Pd-25% wt. Ag alloy is considered for manufacturing hydrogen separators * The linear expansion and resisitivity of Pg-Ag membranes have been measured under operating conditions typical of hydrogen separation processes * Membrane module design (finger-like tube assembly, ohmic heating) has been based on the results of the experimental tests

3452. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-delta protonic conductor (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords: materials

In recent years, doped perovskite such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZr03) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.

3453. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords:

The Pd-Ag-H system is of particular importance with respect to the separation and purification of thehydrogen gas. Pd-Ag alloys have high selectivity for hydrogen gas permeation and thus are suitable for manufacturing hydrogen selective membranes. Accordingly, among the technological properties many authors have studied the electrical resistivity and linear expansion of the Pd-Ag-H system, but no data are available in a wide range of temperature and hydrogen pressure. During this activity, the solubility, the linear expansion, the resistivity and the permeability of a Pd/Ag (with Ag 25% wt) permeator tube has been measured in both hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated conditions. The experiments have been carried out in a temperature and in a lumen hydrogen partial pressure range of 50-400 у and 0-400 kPa, respectively.

3454. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-δ protonic conductor. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords:

In recent years, doped perovskites such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZrO3) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.In this activity, doped BCY oxide powders was synthesized via novel soft chemical route. The method is based on the formation of a metallorganic xero-gel at room temperature. The structural phase of powders and dense pellets were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measures were performed on dense pellet under synthetic air flux and hydrogen atmosphere in a temperature range between 200-750 у with a frequency range of 10mHz-10MHz.

3455. Sapogin, L.G. I. Deuterium Interaction in Unitary Quantum Theory. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3456. Sapogin, L.G. II. On the Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3457. Sapogin, L.G. On One of Energy Generation Mechanism in Initary Quantum Theory. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

It is now a well established fact that in Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF) only a small portion of heat results from nuclear reactions, the rest being of a mysterious origin. In this connection Prof. Peter Hagelstain writes in [ 1 ] : “Some say that this heat can be explained easily by elementary chemical reactions, phase changes, or battery-like storage effects. I have trouble with these explanations” . For instance, nickel electrolysis in light water produces the same amount of energy as that of palladium in heavy water. Besides, we have to consider a no less mysterious phenomenon of sonoluminescence, that was discovered in Russia in 1 933 by S.N.Rzhevkin. At first sight these phenomena seem to bear no correlation. But Julian Schwinger, the Nobel Laureate and profound research worker, has drawn parallels between cold fusion and sonoluminescence in his continuous technical publication on both topics. He notes in [2] : “Like Cold Fusion, sonoluminescence “should not exist”, but it does. This now wellestablished phenomenon occurs when ultrasonic sound, beamed into liquid, causes bubbles to oscillate stably – to expand and contract regularly – and also to emit regular pulses of light”.

3458. Sapogin, L.G. and I.V. Kulikov, Cold nuclear fusion in the unitary quantum theory. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1995. 17: p. 360.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G., Kulikov, I. V.
Keywords: theory

3459. Sapogin, L.G., Energy generation processes and cold nuclear fusion in terms of Schroedinger equation. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1997. 19(2): p. 115.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: Theory

3460. Sapogin, L.G. The Theory of Excess Energy in PAGD Reactor (Correa Reactor). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: gas discharge, theory, ICCF-7

3461. Sarto, F., E. Castagna, and V. Violante. Microscopic characterization of palladium electrodes for cold fusion experiments. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Violante, V.
Keywords: cathode material,

3462. Sarto, F., et al. Electrode Surface Morphology Characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Violante, V., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

The introduction of hydrogen into a metal during electrolysis of water involves primarily the metallic surface. The effect of surface morphology on electrochemical reaction kinetics is well described in the literature 1 therefore it seems to be reasonable to assume that the surface morphology of the cathodes could play a role in the electrochemical metal-hydride formation. Actually, a wide variety of surface features and profiles have been observed in the Pd cathodes typically employed in excess heat production experiments. These features are noted in both the as-prepared samples and the electrolyzed ones. In order to establish a correlation between the occurrence of a particular surface morphology and calorimetric results, it is necessary to identify a useful metric with which to describe and compare the different surface morphologies. In this work an approach based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been investigated. The method is oriented toward the identification of parameters suitable for a pre-screening of the materials.

3463. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology.

3464. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords:

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology. A further point to be considered is the dynamic character of the metal/electrolyte interface during electrochemical deuterium loading, that derives from the coupling between the different interface characteristics. Surface reconstruction of the metallic cathode is expected to happen, due to corrosion-deposition mechanisms, D/H transport, stress relaxation and defect production, and so on. All these mechanisms both affect and are affected by the surface properties, such as the morphology of the metal/electrolyte interface, the metallurgical and crystal structure of the cathode and the presence of contaminants.

3465. Sasaki, A., An approach to cold fusion. Kenkyu Kiyo – Miyagi Kogyo Koto Senmom Gakko, 1990. 26: p. 47.

First Author: Sasaki, A.
All Authors: Sasaki, A.
Keywords: gas discharge, titanium, ion bombardment, D2

3466. Sasaki, K., Report of my transmutation experiment. 1998.

First Author: Sasaki, K.
All Authors: Sasaki, K.
Keywords: transmutation

3467. Sasaki, Y., et al. Deuterium Gas Charging Experiments with Pd Powders for Excess Heat Evolution (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in The 9th Meeting of Japan CF-Research Society. 2009. Shizuoka, Japan.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Pd-black nanoparticle heat

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation during D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For PdZr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratios of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed during deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after deuteride formation. Results for 0.1-μm diameter Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown, for comparison.

3468. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

Aim It has been reported that charging of highly pure D2 gas into Pd nano-powders in the form of Pd/ZrO2 nano-composite contained in a stainless-steel vacuum vessel has induced significant excess heat. We have constructed an experimental system to confirm the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by calorimetry and investigate the underlying physics.

3469. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes, (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Nohmi, T., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords:

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For Pd×Zr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratio of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed in the phase of deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after the deuteride formation. For comparison , results for 0.1-μmf Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown.

3470. Sastry, K.S.R., Fusion reaction. Science, 1989. 244: p. 904 (Letters).

First Author: Sastry, K. S. R.
All Authors: Sastry, K. S. R.
Keywords: energy, nuclear reaction

3471. Sato, T., et al., Detection of neutrons in electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 357.

First Author: Sato, T.
All Authors: Sato, T., Okamoto, M., Kim, P., Fujii, Y., Aizawa, O.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3472. Savinell, R.F. and H.S. Burney Jr., Report of the electrolytic industries for the year 1989. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1990. 137: p. 485C.

First Author: Savinell, R. F.
All Authors: Savinell, R. F., Burney Jr., H. S.
Keywords: history

3473. Savrasov, A., V. Prokopenko, and E. Andreev, CR-39 Detector Track Characterization in Experiments with Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 1-6.

First Author: Savrasov, A.
All Authors: Savrasov, A., Prokopenko, V., Andreev, E.
Keywords: alpha-Particle, Co-deposition, CR-39 Detector, Electrolysis

Four experiments replicating the GALILEO Project were performed. In two of them, excess ↵-particle track density was observed in the CR-39 detectors in comparison with background CR-39 detectors.

3474. Savvatimova, I., Y. Kucherov, and A.B. Karabut. Cathode Material Change after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Kucherov, Y., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, gas discharge, D2, fission, transmutation, Helium, radioactivity, gamma emission ICCF-4

The results of impurity concentration measurements in a palladium cathode by different methods before and after deuterium glow discharge experiments are presented. The concentration of some impurities increases up to 104 times. Elements appear which cannot be found in the discharge environment. Autoradiography of cathode samples shows that isotopes with different radiation energy (less than 20 keV and more 100 keV) exist in the cathode after experiment. The obtained results cannot be explained by the existence of a conventional fusion reaction, but may be explained by a more complex fusion-fission reaction.

3475. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Nuclear Reaction Products Registration on the Cathode after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, transmutation, radioactivity, ICCF-5

We watched the changing of some impurity elements on tft7; Pd cathode ( 99,9% p u r i t y ) a fter proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron ion’s irradiation under the equal glow discharge conditions.

3476. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Radioactivity of the Cathode Samples after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, deuterium radioactivity, ion bombardment, Ag, Nb, titanium, D2, H2, Ar, Xe ICCF-5 x-ray

We registered the residual radioactivity of the cathode foils (Pd, Ag, Nb and other mateirals) after irradiation at the glow discharge. The samples were irradiated by proton, deuteron and argon, xenon ions with low energy. We consider that the main activity is beta emission from samples after experiments. . . .

3477. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Nuclear reaction products detected at the cathode after a glow discharge in deuterium. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 63 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, fusion-fission, surface analysis, transmutation

3478. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Radioactivity of palladium cathodes after irradiation in a glow discharge. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 76 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, Nb, As, titanium, gas discharge, autoradiograph transmutation

3479. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation Effects in the Cathode Exposed Glow Discharge, Nuclear Phenomena or Ion Irradiation Results? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: transmutation, ion bombardment, surface analysis, Pd, D2, H2, ICCF-7

3480. Savvatimova, I. and V.U. Korolev. Comparative Analysis of Heat Effect in Various Cathode Materials Exposed to Glow Discharge. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Korolev, V. UI.
Keywords: ion bombardment, heat+, gas discharge, D2 Pd-Pt-W, ICCF-7

3481. Savvatimova, I. Reproducibility of Experiments in Glow Discharge and Processes Accompanying Deuterium ions Bombardment. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, autoradiograph, film particle emission, titanium, Pd, radioactivity, gas discharge ICCF-8

The problems of reproducibility of experiments in glow discharge (GD) and electrolysis are considered. The difficulty in estimation of nuclear and non-nuclear processes contribution in isotopic and elemental composition change in material irradiated by ions is noted.The post-experimental charged particles flow from samples in Deuterium GD was measured. The current ranging ~ 10^-6A·cm^-2 – ~10^-13A·cm^-2 was registered in the first 1 – 3 post-experimental minutes for different materials (Pd, Pd alloys, Ag and Mo) and experimental parameters. The emissions duration lasted 30-100 minutes and depended upon experimental parameters.Analysis of tracks on X-ray films placed inside and outside of a metal GD chamber has shown existence of tracks varying from several to tens of millimeters. The tracks were of various shapes: round and curvilinear, and also rotating including double spirals.

3482. Savvatimova, I. and J. Dash. Emission registration on films during glow discharge experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Dash, J.
Keywords: glow discharge, ion bombardment, U, W, Zr, Pd, D2, D+, X-ray

Deuterium and protium experiments in the glow discharge apparatus were conducted with U, W, Zr, Pd foils placed on the cathode. The glow discharge apparatus contains two concentric quartz tubes, each with about five mm wall thickness. Kodak BioMax MR-2 films (13×18 cm) contained in individual packets are intended to detect gamma and x-ray emission in the energy range from 150 to 260 keV. The films were placed against the outer quartz tube about 70 mm from the electrodes during glow discharge operation time ranging from 1-25 hours. The applied glow discharge voltage during was 200-700 V, the current was 5-25 mA/cm^2, and the gas pressure was 2-5 torr.

3483. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Results Of Analysis Of Ti Foil After Glow Discharge With Deuterium. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge, transmutation

In this study we report on the surface structure, distribution and isotopic composition of elements found on Ti cathodes before and after glow discharge in plasma, during which excess heat was produced. Irradiation was carried out with deuterium ions with a discharge voltage below 1000 volts, with a current of 10 to 20 mA.The analysis of the surface structure and of elemental composition of the Ti sample was carried out with a scanning electronic microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), which can detect impurities at concentrations as low as 0.2 atomic %. New metallic phase formation and newly present elements were revealed by the EDS method in several different, separate active spots on the cathode surface, with concentrations ranging from 0.3% up to 10 or 20% or more . . .

3484. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Influence Of Parameters Of The Glow Discharge On Change Of Structure And The Isotope Composition Of The Cathode Materials. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge

Results of examinations of changes in structure, element, and isotope composition of cathodes after the glow discharge exposure in hydrogen, deuterium, argon, and xenon are submitted. The voltage of the discharge was less than 1000 V and the current was 5-150 mA. Samples before and after ions bombardment in the glow discharge were explored by the methods of mass spectrometry: the secondary ions (SIMS), the secondary ions with additional ionization of neutral sprayed particles (SNMS), spark (SMS), and thermo-ionization (TIMS), and also methods of energy dispersion X-ray spectral analysis (EDX). The alpha-, beta-, gamma- emission, and gamma- spectrometry for radioactive uranium specimens were also carried out before and after experiments in the glow discharge. Changes in structure, isotope, and element composition of the cathode samples depend on current density, integrated ions flow (fluence of ions), kind of irradiating ions and other experimental conditions. Attempts are made to estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the role of each of the parameters on intensity of the observed changes in cathode composition. It is shown that the maximum changes in structure, chemical and isotope composition of the cathode material occur in “hot points,” such as craters from microexplosions, phase segregations, blisters and other new formations. . . .

3485. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation in Tungsten Irradiated by Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3486. Savvatimova, I., G. Savvatimova, and A.A. Kornilova. Gamma Emission Evaluation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Savvatimova, G., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3487. Savvatimova, I.B., Transmutation of Elements in Low-energy Glow Discharge and the Associated Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 181-198.

First Author: Savvatimova, I. B.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Isotopic ratio change, Low-energy gas glow discharge, Mass-spectrometry, Palladium, Transmutation, Tungsten

The review of the main transmutation results in palladium and tungsten after the exposure to deuterium Glow Discharge (GD) measured by different Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Gamma-Spectrometry (GS) methods is given. The registered structure and isotopic ratio change alongside with formation of additional elements were accompanied by gamma and X-ray emission. The registered isotopic ratio change ranged within 2-1000 times, the quantity of additional elements undetected before varying within one tenth to dozens percents in Pd and Pd alloys. The isotopes with masses less than and exceeding those of the cathode material were measured in most of the experiments. The MS revealed that the tungsten isotopes transmutated into elements lighter than tungsten, higher post-experimental intensity of mass numbers 169, 170, 171, 178 and 180 being observed. The mass spectra peaks magnituded for isotopes lighter than W isotopes increased by factors ranging from 5 to 400. The registered increase varied from 5-50 cps in the original foils to 100-20 000 cps after the exposure to deuterium GD. Lighter isotopes in tungsten and tantalum foils placed on the GD cathode after deuterium GD exposure were identified using high resolution gamma/X-ray spectrometry. The comparison of thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (TIMS) data and data of gamma-spectra energy peaks allowed to assume that the peaks series observed in gamma spectra belong to the following isotopes: 169 70 Yb, 170 72 Hf , 171m 70 Yb, 172 72 Hf and 178 70 Yb. Correlation of TIMS and Gamma spectrometry data leads to the assumption that the appearance of light isotopes in tungsten resulted from the low-energy decay process initiation caused by deuterium GD.

3488. Sawada, T., A Particle Physicist’s View on the Nuclear Cold Fusion Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 6-10.

Keywords: Change of penetration factor, Charge quantization condition, Magnetic monopole, Nuclear cold fusion, Origin of nonreproducibility

There are two different types of scientists who believe in the reality of the nuclear cold fusion. The researchers, who observed the excess energy by experiments, belong to the first type. On the other hand, a small number of theoreticians, who are working on the physics of the magnetic monopole, know that the nuclear reaction of the zero incident energy proceeds when the system involves a magnetic monopole. Since the former group still lacks a theory of the nuclear cold fusion based on the first principle of the natural law, I believe it is fruitful to explain to the former group how the theoretician of the particle physics comes to arrive at the conclusion that the nuclear cold fusion must occur if a magnetic monopole exists, in the framework of the quantum theory.

3489. Sawada, T., Underlying Mechanism of the Nuclear of Implied by the Energy-momentum Conservation [ I ]. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 118-134.

Keywords: Charge-monopole system, Coulombic field, d-d Reaction, Momentum conservation, Momentum transfer

By studying the conservation of energy and momentum, it is found that in the nuclear cold fusion, existence of the localized external potential is necessary to absorb the large momentum transfer. We can narrow down the candidate of the required external field to the magnetic field produced by the magnetic monopole. The roll of the magnetic monopole in lowering the repulsive Coulomb barrier when two deuterons come close and fuse is considered.

3490. Scalia, A., The Nuclear Fusion for the Reactions 2H (d,n) 3He, 2H (d,p) 3H, 3H (d,n) 4 He. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101(5): p. 795.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A.
Keywords: theory, fusion Rate

3491. Scalia, A. and P. Figuera. The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p)3H + 2H(d,n) 3He at Very Low Temperature. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A., Figuera, P.
Keywords: cross section, fusion, energy, low energy, ICCF-2, tritium, neutron, d-p

3492. Scaramuzzi, F. Survey of Gas Loading Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.

3493. Scaramuzzi, F. Cold Fusion Research in Italy. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review, Italy, ICCF-3

In the past 3 ½ years many experiments have been performed in the field known with the conventional name of “cold fusion” (CF), and a number of theories have attempted to interpret them and to assess them in a coherent picture. Differently from other fields in science, this area has grown in a quite strange atmosphere: the most striking aspect of it is the anomalous “geography” of the activities, meaning by this term the different kind of development that research activities in this field have had in different countries.

3494. Scaramuzzi, F., La fusione fredda quattro anni dopo (Cold fusion four years later). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1993. 75(5): p. 425 (in Italian).

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review

3495. Scaramuzzi, F., Ten Years of Cold Fusion: An Eye-witness Account. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 77.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

INTRODUCTIONThe name of Cold Fusion (CF) comes from the interpretation given to certain phenomena taking place in a metal lattice roughly at room temperature, in terms of nuclear fusion, say between two deuterium nuclei: cold in comparison with the high temperatures of thermonuclear fusion (10^8 K). The first time this was suggested was in the Spring of 1989, ten years ago, by Fleischmann and Pons (1): their experiment gave rise to much turmoil all over the world, ending within a few months with the scientific community rejecting the experiment and thus this interpretation. Research in CF continued nevertheless in a few laboratories, mostly in the USA, Japan, Italy, Russia and China; International Conferences were held regularly, roughly every 1.5 years. However, after ten years, in spite of undeniable (although not overwhelming) progress in the field, there is hardly any communication between this small CF community and the scientific world at large.

3496. Scaramuzzi, F., Gas loading of deuterium in palladium at low temperature. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2004. 385: p. 19.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.

The experimental technique presented in this article is aimed at measuring the absorption of hydrogen or deuterium gas in a thin palladium sample while the system is at low temperature. A result for deuterium is described, consisting in the measurement of the equilibrium loading ratio X (called also D/Pd ratio, atomic), as a function of pressure, on a palladium film 3.6 μm-thick at 150 K. Values of X up to 1 have been measured at pressures lower than 1 bar. The electric resistance of the palladium sample also has been measured as a function of temperature and of X, and the results are reported.

3497. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading Of Deuterium In Palladium (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.

Objectives of the experiment The idea is to realize a conceptually simple experiment, reproducible, and with a straightforward answer: * To start with, measuring the D/Pd ratio, aiming to high values. * Possibly detecting excess heat. * Analyze the gas, looking for 4He. * Studying the loading dynamics.

3498. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading of Deuterium in Palladium. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice). In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made.The present experiment is aimed at obtaining high loading ratios of deuterium in palladiumwithout using electrolysis. The idea is to have deuterium gas in contact with palladium. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.A first test experiment, performed at ENEA Frascati in 2002, showed that it was possible to have D/Pd ratios as high as 1 at 150 K with a pressure lower than 1 bar [1]. The experiment has been rebuilt at LNF/INFN and the first results are reported here.An anomaly in the loading dynamics will be also reported.

3499. Scaramuzzi, F. Proposal of an Experiment Aimed at Charging Deuterium in Palladium at the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice).In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made. An alternative line that has been followed by the Author [1] consists of trying to obtain high values of X by the direct interaction of Pd with D2 gas. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.The proposal of an experiment which requires little attention is presented here.

3500. Scarborough, T., et al., The Center to Study Anomalous Heat Effects [AHE] at Texas Tech University. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scarborough, T.
All Authors: Scarborough, T., Duncan, R., McKubre, M. C. H., Violante, V.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cryogenic, Electrochemistry, Heat-helium, Spectroscopy

The Center for Emerging Energy Sciences at Texas Tech University (CEES) has been established to explore critical parameters in the observation of the anomalous heat effects (AHE). A large number of experiments report the production of heat from metal samples loaded with hydrogen or deuterium in amounts that are often thousands of times greater than the enthalpies of possible chemical reactions. The effect is anomalous because there is no agreed-to mechanism, and particle radiation rates are not reported at levels that are consistent with any known nuclear process.

3501. Schaffer, M., What is the current scientific thinking on cold fusion? Scientific American, 1997. on line.

First Author: Schaffer, M.
All Authors: Schaffer, M.
Keywords: review

3502. Schaller, C., Fusion Lecturer Cold To Press, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3503. Schaller, C., Scientist Convinced Process is Nuclear, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3504. Schaller, C., Scientists Careful in Fusion Finds, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3505. Schaller, C., Scientists Seeing Results in Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 183.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3506. Schilling, K.D., et al., Search for charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium foils. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1990. 336: p. 1.

First Author: Schilling, K. D.
All Authors: Schilling, K. D., Gippner, P., Seidel, W., Stary, F., Wohlfarth, D.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2

3507. Schirber, J.E. and C.J.M. Northrup, Concentration Dependence of the Superconducting Transition Temperature In Pd-H and Pd-D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1974. 10: p. 3818.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Northrup, C. J. M.
Keywords: superconductivity, Pd, H,

3508. Schirber, J.E. and B. Morosin, Lattice Constants of Beta-Pd-Hx and Beta-PdDx with x Near 1.0. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1975. 12: p. 117.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Morosin, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, Lattice Parameter

3509. Schirber, J.E., et al., Search for cold fusion in high-pressure deuterium-loaded titanium and palladium metal and deuteride. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 397.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, D2, neutron

3510. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Effects and the Formation of Metal Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 73: p. 145.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Seiler, A., Stucki, F., Siegmann, H. C.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, LaNi5, review

3511. Schlapbach, L. and J.P. Burger, A New XPS/UPS Study of the Electronic Structure of PdH0.6. J. Phys., Lett., 1982. 43: p. L-273.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: PdH, H2, structure, Density Of States

3512. Schlapbach, L. and T. Riesterer, The Composition of the Surface Properties of FeTi and Fe2Ti4Ox in View of the Different Hydrogen Sorption Behaviours. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 101: p. 453.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Riesterer, T.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, Fe-Ti, Fe-Ti-O

3513. Schlapbach, L., et al., Low Temperature Electronic Properties of Cerium Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1986(130): p. 239.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Ott, H. R., Felder, E., Rudigier, H., Thiry, P., Bonnet, J. E., Petroff, Y., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: bonding, density Of States, CeH

3514. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Semiconductor-Metal Transition in Rare Earth Hydrides at Low Temperatures. Surf. Sci., 1987. 189-190: p. 747.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P., Bonnet, J. E., Thiry, P., Petroff, Y.
Keywords: photoelectron, bonding, CeH, LaH, GdH, TbH

3515. Schlapbach, L. Hydrogen and Its Isotopes in and on Metals. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: Pd, LaNi5, density of states, diffusion, H, surface analysis, ICCF-2

3516. Schmidt, S., Cold Fusion Conundrum. Analog Science Fiction and Fact, 1995. Jan: p. 5.

First Author: Schmidt, S.
All Authors: Schmidt, S.
Keywords: history

3517. Schneider, J.H., How a rectangular potential in Schroedinger’s equation could explain some experimental results on cold nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 377.

First Author: Schneider, J. H.
All Authors: Schneider, J. H.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling

3518. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., JÃƒÂ¢ger, W.

3519. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., JÃ¢â‚¬Â°ger, W.

3520. Scholkmann, F., T. Mizuno, and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Unexpected Daily Variations in an Electrochemical Transmutation Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Mizuno, T., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Daily oscillations, Diurnal oscillations, Electrochemical transmutation, Ensemble empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode functions, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Phase synchronization, Signal correlating

In two electrochemical transmutation experiments, unexpected oscillations in the recorded signals with a daily period were observed for deuterium/palladium loading ratio (D/Pd), temperature (T ) and pressure (P). The aim of the present study was to analyze the time courses of the signals of one of the experiments using an advanced signal-processing framework. The experiment was a high temperature (375 K), high pressure (750 kPa) and long-term (866 h . 35 days) electrochemical transmutation exploration done in 2008. The analysis was performed by (i) selecting the intervals of the D/Pd, T and P signals where the daily oscillations occurred, (ii) filtering the signals to remove low-frequency noise, (iii) analyzing the waveforms of the daily oscillations, (iv) applying Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to decompose the signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), (v) performing a statistical test on the obtained IMFs in order to identify the physically most meaningful oscillation mode, (vi) performing an power spectral analysis, (vii) calculating the correlations between the signals, and (viii) determining the time-dependent phase synchronization between the signals. We found that (i) in all three signals (D/Pd, T and P) a clear daily oscillation was present while the current density J did not show such an oscillation, (ii) the daily oscillation in T and P had similar waveforms and where anti-correlated to the oscillation in D/Pd, (iii) D/Pd and T had the highest correlation (r = 0.7693), (iv) all three signals exhibited phase synchronization over the whole signal length while the strongest phase synchronization took place between D/Pd and T . Possible origins of the daily oscillation were discussed and implications for further investigations and experiments were outlined.

3521. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Transmutation Data from Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Experiments and Comparison with a Model-based Prediction ofWidom and Larsen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation,Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations were reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. In the present study, we analyzed (i) whether three available nuclear transmutation data sets show a consistent pattern and (ii) whether this pattern correlates with a model-based prediction ofWidom and Larsen. Our analysis revealed that the data sets (i) exhibit a similar pattern and (ii) correlate with the predicted function. The last three peaks as a function of atomic mass A (intervals: 64-70, 116-129, 191-208 A) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the averaged data despite great differences in the experiments.

3522. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Is the Abundance of Elements in Earth’s Crust Correlated with LENR Transmutation Rates? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Elements in Earth’s crust, Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation, Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations are reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. We showed in a previous study (Scholkmann and Nagel, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 485-494) that (i) the transmutation data of three independent experiments have a similar pattern and (ii) this pattern correlates with a model-based on the prediction of Widom and Larsen (WL). In the present study, we extended our analysis and investigated whether the abundance of elements in Earth’s crust is correlated with either (i) the WL-prediction, or (ii) the three LENR transmutation data sets. The first analysis revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between these variables. The second analysis showed a significant correlation, but the correlation only reflects the trend of the data and not the peak-like pattern. This result strengthens the interpretation that the observed peak-like pattern in the transmutation data sets does not originate from contamination. Further implications of our study are discussed and a recommendation is given for future transmutation experiments.

3523. Scholkmann, F., D.J. Nagel, and L. DeChiaro, Electromagnetic Emission in the kHz to GHz Range Associated with Heat Production During Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium into Palladium: A Summary and Analysis of Results Obtained by Different Research Groups. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords: Electromagnetic emissions, Electromagnetic radiation, Excess power, LENR, Heat production

There is a small literature on the combination of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) experiments and radiofrequencies (RF). The papers are worth attention in case they can teach anything about the mechanisms behind LENR. Application of RF to LENR electrochemical cells in the mid-1990s clearly showed increases in the production of excess power. More recently, RF have been measured in LENR cells. However, it is still possible that those data are artifacts of the operation of the system, and not indicative of LENR. It has been suggested that the appearance of RF in LENR experiments is the cause of LENR, and not merely a manifestation of such reactions. That possibility has significant implications. In the present paper, we summarize and analyze the results obtained by different research groups concerning the application and emission of RF in the kHz to GHz range associated with heat production during electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium.

3524. Schommers, W. and C. Politis, Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible? Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3(8): p. 597.

First Author: Schommers, W.
All Authors: Schommers, W., Politis, C.
Keywords: theory

3525. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Experimental Results on the Thermal Behavior of Electrochemical Cells in the Hydrogen-Palladium and Deuterium-Palladium Systems. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, method

3526. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Measurements of Excess Energy Production in Electrochemical Cells Containing Heavy Water and Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

This paper reports calorimetric experiments related to the energy breakeven issue during heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode in thermodynamically closed cells. A comparison with light water electrolysis under the same conditions is also given. Excess power has been observed in a number of cases in which the overall energy balance becomes positive after a short period, leading to the generation of significant amounts of excess energy. In one case, excess power was maintained over a period of ten days, and produced over 23 MJ of excess energy per mole of palladium.

3527. Schrieder, G., H. Wipf, and A. Richter, Search for cold nuclear fusion in palladium-deuterium. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1989. 76: p. 141.

First Author: Schrieder, G.
All Authors: Schrieder, G., Wipf, H., Richter, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

3528. Schuldiner, S., G.W. Castellan, and J.P. Hoare, Electrochemical Behavior of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. I. Potential-Determining Mechanisms. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 16.

First Author: Schuldiner, S.
All Authors: Schuldiner, S., Castellan, G. W., Hoare, J. P.

3529. Schulte, U., Die ‘Kalte Kernfusion’ – ein wissenschaftlicher Artifakt [in German] (‘Cold fusion’ – a scientific artifact). Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 2002. 142(14): p. 77.

First Author: Schulte, U.
All Authors: Schulte, U.
Keywords: Discussion

3530. Schultz, R. and J.P. Kenny, Electronuclear catalysts and initiators: The di-neutron model for cold fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(29): p. 58.

First Author: Schultz, R.
All Authors: Schultz, R., Kenny, J. P.
Keywords: theory dineutron

3531. Schultze, J.W., et al., Prospects and problems of electrochemically induced cold nuclear fusion. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1289.

First Author: Schultze, J. W.
All Authors: Schultze, J. W., Koenig, U., Hochfeld, A., Van Calker, C., Kies, W.
Keywords: review, critique, history

3532. Schwinger, J. Nuclear Energy in an Atomic Lattice. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, d-p fusion, ICCF-1

The distinct nature of the cold fusion regime is emphasized: electromagnetic selection rules suppress radiation, permitting excess energy transference to the lattice; the coherent nature of the wave-function is at variance with the standard separation between barrier penetration and nuclear reactivity. The discussion is restricted to tritium production, based on the dd reaction that populates the first excited state of 4He, which decays into t+p, whereas the formation of 3He+n is energetically forbidden. Production rates compatible with the broad range of experimental results are realized within a narrow parametric interval. The great sensitivity to the physical circumstances is reminiscent of the reproducibility problems that have plagued this field.

3533. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. 1. Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters, 1990. 15: p. 221.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3534. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: a hypothesis. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45A: p. 756.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3535. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: Does it have a future? Evol. Trends Phys. Sci., Proc. Yoshio Nishina Centen. Symp., Tokyo 1990, 1991. 57: p. 171.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: history, review

Abstract. The case against the reality of cold fusion is outlined. It is based on preconceptions inherited from experience with hot fusion. That cold fusion refers to a different regime is emphasized. The new regime is characterized by intermittency in the production of excess heat, tritium and neutrons. A scenario is sketched, based upon the hypothesis that small segments of the lattice can absorb released nuclear energy.

3536. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1991. 85: p. 711.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, critique

3537. Schwinger, J. Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

As Polonius might have said: “Neither a true-believer nor a disbeliever be.” From the very beginning in a radio broadcast on the evening of March 23, 1989, I have asked myself-not whether Pons and Fleischmann are right-but whether a mechanism can be identified that will produce nuclear energy by manipulations at the atomic-the chemical-level. Of course, the acceptance of that interpretation of their data is needed as a working hypothesis, in order to have quantitative tests of proposed mechanisms.

3538. Schwinger, J., Energy Transfer In Cold Fusion and Sonoluminescence. 1994.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory,

3539. Schwinger, J., Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. xiii.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory

3540. Scott, C.D., et al., A preliminary investigation of cold fusion by electrolysis of heavy water. 1989: Oak Ridge.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma, heat, tritium+, electrolysis

3541. Scott, C.D., et al. The Initiation of Excess Power and Possible Products of Nuclear Interactions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, ICCF-1, electrolysis

The electrolysis of heavy water is being investigated with an insulated flow calorimetric system. In each of a series of tests, the electrolyte was 0.1 to 1.0 LiOD in D2O and cylindrical palladium cathodes surrounded by wire-wound platinum anodes were used at cathode current densities of 100 to 800 mA/cm^2. The most recent test was made with a “closed system” without off-gas in which the electrolysis gases were internally recombined. Fast neutrons and gamma rays were measured continuously during each test. It was shown that certain system perturbations could initiate and extend the generation of excess power. In one test, an apparent increase in the neutron count rate was also coincident with system perturbations.

3542. Scott, C.D., et al., Preliminary Investigation of Possible Low-Temperature Fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 115.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Greenbaum, E., Michaels, G. E., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Petek, M., Scott, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, gamma emission, heat+, neutron+

3543. Scott, C.D., et al., Measurement of excess heat and apparent coincident increases in the neutron and gamma-ray count rates during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 103.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, neutron, Pd gamma emission, tritium D2O, H2O

3544. Searson, P.C., Hydrogen evolution and entry in palladium at high current density. Acta metall. Mater., 1991. 39: p. 2519.

First Author: Searson, P. C.
All Authors: Searson, P. C.

3545. Seeliger, D., et al., Search for DD-fusion neutrons during heavy water electrolysis. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34(7): p. 991.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Meister, A., Marten, H., Ohms, D., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, heat-, energy

3546. Seeliger, D., Physical problems of the investigations into nuclear fusion in condensed media. Isotopenpraxis, 1990. 26: p. 384 (in German).

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: review, theory

3547. Seeliger, D., et al. Evidence of Neutron Emission From a Titanium Deuterium System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Bittner, M., Meister, A., Schwierz, R., Streil, T.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, D2 ICCF-2

3548. Seeliger, D. and A. Meister, A simple plasma model for the description of d-d fusion in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2114.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Meister, A.
Keywords: theory

3549. Seeliger, D., Theoretical limits of nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Acta Phys. Hung., 1991. 69: p. 257.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: theory

3550. Segre, S.E., et al., A Search for Neutron Emission from Deuterated Palladium. 1989.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Batistoni, P., Bertalot, L., Bettinali, L., Martone, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd,

3551. Segre, S.E., et al., A mechanism for neutron emission from deuterium trapped in metals. Europhys. Lett., 1990. 11: p. 201.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Atzeni, S., Briguglio, S., Romanelli, F.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

3552. Seifritz, W., No end to cold fusion (Kalte Fusion und kein Ende). GIT Fachz. Lab., 1991. 35: p. 114 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: theory

3553. Seifritz, W., Ein neuer Weg zur Nutzbarmachung der Kernfusion?[“A new way of using nuclear fusion?”]. Atomwirtsch. Atomtech., 1996. 41: p. 729 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence

3554. Seifritz, W., Letter to the Editor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 357.

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Polemic

3555. Seitchie, J.A., A.C. Gossard, and V.J. Accarino, Knight shifts and susceptibilities of transition metals: Palladium. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1964. 136: p. 1119.

First Author: Seitchie, J. A.
All Authors: Seitchie, J. A., Gossard, A. C., Accarino, V. J
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd

3556. Seitz, R., Fusion in from the cold?” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 185.

First Author: Seitz, R.
All Authors: Seitz, R.
Keywords: theory

3557. Semiletov, S.A., et al., Electron-Diffraction Investigation of Tetragonal PdH. Kristallografiya, 1980. 25: p. 665.

First Author: Semiletov, S. A.
All Authors: Semiletov, S. A., Baranov, R. V., Khodryev, Y. P., Imamov, R. M.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen Electron Diffraction, structure, Gamma Phase, PdH

3558. Senjuh, T., et al. Study of Material Processing and Treatment for High Deuterium-Loading. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Asami, N., Mori, K., Sigemitsu, T.

3559. Senjuh, T., et al., Experimental study of electrochemical deuterium loading of Pd cathodes in the LiOD/D2O system. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 617.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Miyashita, S., Sigemitsu, T., Asami, N.

3560. Seo, M. and M. Aomi, Piezelectric response to surface stress change of a palladium electrode in sulfate aqueous solutions. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139(4): p. 1087.

First Author: Seo, M.
All Authors: Seo, M., Aomi, M.

3561. Service, A.W., New Tomorrow Dawns As LANL Confirms Cold Fusion, in The New Mexican. 1989: Santa FeEditor.

First Author: Service, A. W.
All Authors: Service, A. W.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3562. Sevilla, J., et al., Some characteristics of titanium and palladium samples used in cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 188.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Fernandez, F., Escarpizo, B., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: surface analysis, titanium, electrolysis, D2, pressure, Pd, T/n

3563. Sevilla, J., et al. Time-Evolution of Tritium Concentration in the Electrolyte of Prolonged Cold Fusion Experiments and its Relation to Ti Cathode Surface Treatment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, D2O, separation method ICCF-3 separation factor electrolysis

Tritium concentration in the electrolyte has been carefully monitored in more than twenty electrolytic cold fusion experiments accomplished in open cells. In order to distinguish between T-natural enrichment (isotopic enrichment) and any other T source inside the cell a macroscopic theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. It is concluded that T-concentration variations in the electrolyte above the level due to natural enrichment can be detected with confidence and therefore that open-cell experiments are convenient to investigate T -production. In addition, some empirical correlations between model parameters (measured separation factors) and cathode surface treatments prior to experiment have been found.

3564. Shackelford, J.F., CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook Diffusion of metals into metalsShackelford, J.F. 1964.

First Author: Shackelford, J. F.
All Authors: Shackelford, J. F.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd,

3565. Shaheen, M., et al. Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: H/D, Oklo, ICCF-2, natural reactor

3566. Shaheen, M. and M. Ragheb, Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in naturally occurring fission reactions and the possibility of deuteron disintegration. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1992. 158: p. 323.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M.
Keywords: geology, theory

3567. Shamoo, A.E., Editorial. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Shamoo, A. E.
All Authors: Shamoo, A. E.
Keywords: history critique

Before 1996, when I gave lectures on responsible conduct of research or research ethics, I used to emphasize the importance of ensuring in biomedical research the quality and integrity of research data. My reason for emphasizing this point was that, as opposed to situations associated with maintaining comparable standards in clinical trials, in which existing funding levels allow for the possibility that particular experiments will be repeated, in biomedical research, one cannot obtain funding to repeat research experiments that are large and expensive. For this reason, it was (and has remained) imperative that instances of possible fraud, misconduct and sloppy work be reduced from the outset. Because of limited funding, as a consequence, the self-correcting process of science may not be operative in these areas. I then used to end this part of my discussion by citing how in cold fusion research, and because of the potential significance and impact of the particular claims associated with this area, the self-correcting nature of science worked. The cold fusion experiments have been repeated dozens of times without success. The conclusion was that they were proven to be wrong. However, I was basing my conclusion on the numerous reports in newspapers and scientific magazines but not on any readings of the original literature.

3568. Shanahan, K., A Possible Calorimetric Error in Heavy Water Electrolysis on Platinum. Thermochim. Acta, 2002. 387(2): p. 95-101.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: error, heat critique

Abstract A systematic error in mass flow calorimetry calibration procedures potentially capable of explaining most positive excess power measurements is described. Data recently interpreted as providing evidence of the Pons-Fleischmann effect with a platinum cathode are reinterpreted with the opposite conclusion. This indicates it is premature to conclude platinum displays a Pons and Fleischmann effect, and places the requirement to evaluate the erro-ڳ magnitude on all mass flow calorimetric experiments.

3569. Shanahan, K., A Critique of the Student’s Guide To Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Critique

Dr. Edmund Storms has just released a new paper on cold fusion (CF, aka LENR, or CANR) that contains a section (in Chapter 8) that purports to address the issues I raise with cold fusion calorimetry in my paper and spf comments. I would like to address those comments dealing with my “calibration constant shift” (CCS) proposal to illustrate why they are incorrect.

3570. Shanahan, K., Comments on Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 428: p. 207.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3571. Shanahan, K., Reply to ‘Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion,’ E. Storms. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 441: p. 210.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3572. Shani, G., et al., Evidence for a background neutron enhanced fusion in deuterium absorbed palladium. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72(1): p. 53.

First Author: Shani, G.
All Authors: Shani, G., Cohen, C., Grayevsky, A., Brokman, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, application, enhanced fusion

3573. Shankland, S., Storms: Interest in cold fusion resurging, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1994: Los AlamosEditor. p. 31.

First Author: Shankland, S.
All Authors: Shankland, S.
Keywords: newspaper, history

3574. Shanley, E.S., The simplest explanation. Chem. Health & Saf., 1995. 2(2): p. 4.

First Author: Shanley, E. S.
All Authors: Shanley, E. S.
Keywords: Polemic, SRI explosion, critique

3575. Shapira, D. and M. Saltmarsh, Nuclear Fusion in Collapsing Bubbles — Is It There? An Attempt to Repeat the Observation of Nuclear Emissions from Sonoluminescence. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002. 89(10): p. 104302-1.

First Author: Shapira, D.
All Authors: Shapira, D., Saltmarsh, M.
Keywords: Sonofusion

3576. Shapovalov, V.L., Test for additional heat evolution in electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode. JETP, 1989. 50: p. 117.

First Author: Shapovalov, V. L.
All Authors: Shapovalov, V. L.
Keywords: heat-, D2O, H2O, electrolysis, Pd

3577. Shaw, G.L., et al., Scenario for cold fusion by free quark catalysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102: p. 1441.

First Author: Shaw, G. L.
All Authors: Shaw, G. L., Shin, M., Bland, R. W., Fonda, L., Matis, H. S., Pugh, H. G., Slansky, R.
Keywords: theory, quark

3578. Sheldon, E., An overview of almost 20 years’ research on cold fusion. Contemporary Physics, 2008. 49(5).

First Author: Sheldon, E.
All Authors: Sheldon, E.
Keywords: review

3579. Shelton, D.S., et al., An assessment of claims of ‘excess heat’ in ‘cold fusion’ calorimetry. Thermochim. Acta, 1997. 297: p. 7.

First Author: Shelton, D. S.
All Authors: Shelton, D. S., Hansen, L. D., Thorne, J. M., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: critique, heat

3580. Shen, G., et al., The efficiency calculation of a low background neutron detection system. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1991. 25: p. 93 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shen, G.
All Authors: Shen, G., Li, S., Jing, W., Sui, Q., Li, Z., Yang, Z.
Keywords: neutron, method

3581. Sherfey, J.M. and A. Brenne, Electrochemical Calorimetry. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1958. 105(11): p. 665.

First Author: Sherfey, J. M.
All Authors: Sherfey, J. M., Brenne, A.
Keywords: method, heat

3582. Shibab-Eldin, A.A., et al., Cold fusion: effects of possible narrow nuclear resonance. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 965.

First Author: Shibab-Eldin, A. A.
All Authors: Shibab-Eldin, A. A., Rasmussen, J. O., Justice, M., Stoyer, M. A.
Keywords: theory

3583. Shibata, T., et al., A low background neutron measuring system and its application to the detection of neutrons produced by the D2O electrolysis. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1992. 316: p. 337.

First Author: Shibata, T.
All Authors: Shibata, T., Imamura, M., Shibata, S., Uwamino, Y., Ohkubo, T., Satoh, S., Yamakoshi, K., Oyama, N., Ohsaka, T., Yamamoto, N., Hatozaki, O., Niimura, N.
Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O

3584. Shikano, K., H. Shinojima, and H. Kanbe. D2 Release Process From Deuterated Palladium in a Vacuum. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shikano, K.
All Authors: Shikano, K., Shinojima, H., Kanbe, H.

To enhance reproducibility of the phenomena taking place in deuterated palladium, we studied in detail the change in surface temperature, electrical resistance, and D2 pressure during the release of D2 from deuterated palladium in a vacuum. As a result, we categorized the temperature changes into three different types that were independent of coating materials. In almost all experiments, the resistance decreased and the D2 pressure initially increased briefly and then gradually decreased in the D2 release process. We also tried to simulate the temperature changes by calculating the balance between Joule heat and heat dispersion.

3585. Shimamura, I., Intramolecular nuclear fusion in hydrogen-isotope molecules. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1989. 82: p. 304.

First Author: Shimamura, I.
All Authors: Shimamura, I.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, p-d fusion

3586. Shinojima, H., et al. Studies of d-d Reactions in Deuterated Palladium by Using Low-Energy Deuterium Ion Bombardment. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Hishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, PdD, branching ratio, energy, ICCF-5

The cross sections and branching ratios of d+d reactions were measured as a function of deuteron energy by using low-energy deuterium ion bombardment. The branching ratio of d(d,3He)n to d(d,p)t were found to be one to one at energies from 2.5 keV to 20 keV in the CM frame. The reaction rate of d(d,p)t at 2.5 keV was four orders of magnitude less than that at 20 keV. These energy dependences were good agreement with those extrapolated from measurements of the d+d reaction which was derived by the high-energy (mega-electron-volts) deuterium ion bombardments.

3587. Shinojima, H., et al. Detection for Nuclear Products in Transport Experiments of Deuterium through Palladium Metals. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Nishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, ICCF-6

3588. Shioe, Y., et al., Measurement of neutron production rate regarding the quantity of LiNbO3 in the fracturing process under D2 atmosphere. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 1059.

First Author: Shioe, Y.
All Authors: Shioe, Y., Mondal, N. N., Chiba, M., Hirose, T., Fujii, M., Nakahara, H., Sueki, K., Shirakawa, T., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, D2, LiNbO3, ball mill, neutron

3589. Shirai, O., et al., Some experimental results relating to cold nuclear fusion. Bull. Inst. Chem. Res., Kyoto Univ., 1991. 69: p. 550.

First Author: Shirai, O.
All Authors: Shirai, O., Kihara, S., Sohrin, Y., Matsui, M.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, gamma emission

3590. Shirakawa, T., et al. Neutron Emission from Crushing Process of High Piezoelectric Matter in Deuterium Gas. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T.
Keywords: LiNbO3, D2, fractofusion, neutron, ball mill, ICCF-3

We studied neutron emission from a crushing process of a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal in deuterium gas atmosphere. We observed excess neutrons 3 counts / h with a confidence level of 99.95% that correspond 120 neutrons / h emission from process.

3591. Shirakawa, T., et al., A neutron emission from lithium niobate fracture. Chem. Lett., 1993: p. 897.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T., Seimiya, T., Nakahara, H.
Keywords: fractofusion, ball mill LiNbO, neutron, titanium Pd

3592. Shirakawa, T., et al. Particle Acceleration and Neutron Emission in a Fracture Process of a Piezoelectric Material. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Sueki, K., Ikebe, T., Yamaoka, S., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Hirose, T., Nakahara, H., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiNbO3, D2, ICCF-4, H2

3593. Shkedi, Z., et al., Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1720.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z., McDonald, R. C., Breen, J. J., Maguire, S. J., Veranth, J.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, recombination, heat, electrolysis, critique

3594. Shkedi, Z., Response to “Comments on ‘Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells'”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 133.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z.
Keywords: critique, Good

3595. Shohoji, N., Unique features of hydrogen in palladium metal lattice: hints for discussing the possible occurrence of cold nuclear fusion. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1990. 9: p. 231.

First Author: Shohoji, N.
All Authors: Shohoji, N.
Keywords: discussion, Ce, Au, Ni

3596. Shoulders, K.R., Patents. 1991: US Patent 5,018,180 (1991); 5,054,046 (1991); 5,054,047 (1991); 5,123,039 (1992) and 5,148,461 (1992).

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: charge cluster patent,

3597. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders, Observations on the role of charge clusters in nuclear cluster reactions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 111.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: charge cluster, EV transmutation, Pd, Dash, critique, theory

3598. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders. Charge clusters in action. in Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Bethesda, MD: Integrity Research Institute.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: transmutation, charge cluster electron cluster EV

3599. Shoulders, K.R., Permittivity Transitions. J. New Energy, 2001. 5(2): p. 121.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: electron cluster, EV

3600. Shrikhande, V.K. and K.C. Mittal, Deuteration of Machined Titanium Targets for Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 2.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Mittal, K. C.

Cold fusion experiments were initiated with solid targets made from titanium loaded with deuterium gas on receipt of reports of the successful Frascati experiments1. The absorption of deuterium by Ti is a reversible process and when titanium is heated in a deuterium atmosphere, the reaction will continue until the concentration of deuterium in the metal attains an equilibrium value. This equilibrium value depends on the specimen temperature and the pressure of the surrounding deuterium atmosphere. Any imposed temperature or pressure change causes rejection or absorption of deuterium until a new equilibrium state is achieved. If the surface of titanium is clean, the rate of absorption increases rapidly with temperature. At temperatures above 500у, the equilibrium is achieved in a matter of a few seconds. However deuterium absorption is considerably reduced if the surface of Ti is contaminated with oxygen. Keeping in view these facts, a procedure was evolved for titanium target preparation and subsequent deuteration. The following sections describe the details of preparation of the targets, their chemical cleaning and degassing followed by deuteration process.

3601. Shrikhande, V.K., et al. Preliminary Results on the Variation of Electrical Resistance of TiDx Wire With Deuterium Concentration. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Kaushik, T. C., Auluck, S. K. H., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: TiD, resistance, resistivity, ICCF-5

Experiments have been carried out to study the variation and reproducibility of electrical resistance as a functiol1 of the deuterium concentration (D/Ti) in titanium wires. Deuterium loading is carried out in a series of steps by passing a D.C. current to ohmically heat the sample for some time in D2 gas until a measurable quantity is absorbed. After every loading, the wire resistance and decrease in the gas pressure are measured at room temperature using a four probe resistance meter (Ѱ.2% accuracy) and an oil manometer respectively.Significantly, it is observed that an apparently simple property like electrical resistance is not easily reproducible. The pre loading heat treatment and residual gases in high vacuum appear to play an important role on the behaviour of the resistance in TiDx. The preliminary results also suggest that this property may not be useful in estimating the deuterium content in titanium.

3602. Shunjin, W., Effect of Coulomb screening on deuterium-deuterium fusion cross section. Gaoneng Wuli Yu Hewuli, 1991. 15(8): p. 761 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shunjin, W.
All Authors: Shunjin, W.
Keywords: theory, Gamow

3603. Shyam, A., et al., Multiplicity Distribution of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 4.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, D,

3604. Shyam, A., et al. Observation of High Multiplicity Bursts of Neutrons During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium Cathode Using the Dead-Time Filtering Technique. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Kaushik, T. C., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, ICCF-5

A series of experiments were carried out to detect production of neutrons from a commercial (Milton Roy) palladium-nickel electrolytic cell operated with 0.1 M LiOH or LiOD as the electrolyte at a current density of ~ 80 mA/cm^2. Neutron emission was monitored using a bank of 16 BF3 detectors embedded in a cylindrical moderator assembly. A dead-time filtering technique was employed to detect the presence of neutron “bursts” if any and characterize the multiplicity distribution of such neutron bursts. It was found that with an operating Pd-D2O cell located in the centre of the neutron detection set-up, the daily average neutron count rate increased by about 9% throughout a one month period, over the background value of ~ 2386 counts/day indicating an average daily neutron production of ~ 2220 neutrons/day by the cell. In addition analysis of the dead-time filtered counts data indicated that about 6.5% of these neutrons were emitted in the form of bursts of 20 to 100 neutrons each. On an average there were an additional 6 burst events per day during electrolysis with LiOD over the daily average background burst rate of 1.7 bursts/day. The frequency of occurrence of burst events as well as their multiplicity was significantly higher with D20 + LiOD in the cell when compared with background runs as also light water “control” runs.

3605. Shyam, A. and T.C. Kaushik, Absence of neutron emission during interaction of deuterium with metal at low energies. Pramana, 1998. 50: p. 75.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3606. Shyam, A., Strange behavior of tritiated natural water. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 264.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A.
Keywords: critique tritium

3607. Siegmann, H.C., L. Schlapbach, and C.R. Brundle, Self-restoring of the active surface in the hydrogen sponge LaNi5. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1978. 40: p. 972.

First Author: Siegmann, H. C.
All Authors: Siegmann, H. C., Schlapbach, L., Brundle, C. R.

3608. Silver, D.S., J. Dash, and P.S. Keefe, Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 423.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J., Keefe, P. S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, tritium, neutron, gamma emission, transmutation

3609. Silver, D.S. and J. Dash. Surface Studies of Palladium After Interaction with Hydrogen Isotopes. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, transmutation, ICCF-7

3610. Silvera, I.F. and E. Moshary, Deuterated palladium at temperatures from 4.3 to 400K and pressures to 105 kbar: search for cold fusion. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 42(14): p. 9143.

First Author: Silvera, I. F.
All Authors: Silvera, I. F., Moshary, E.

3611. Simanek, E., Quantum tunnelling through a fluctuating barrier. Enhancement of cold-fusion rate. Physica A, 1990. 164: p. 147.

First Author: Simanek, E.
All Authors: Simanek, E.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

3612. Simons, J.W. and T.B. Flanagan, Effects of the Electronic Band Shape of Palladium Metal on the Proton Model for Hydrogen Absorption. Canadian J. Chem., 1965. 43: p. 1665.

First Author: Simons, J. W.
All Authors: Simons, J. W., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, Density Of States, theory

3613. Simons, J.K. and T.B. Flanagan, Absorption Isotherms of H in the Alpha-Phase of the H-Pd System. J. Phys. Chem., 1965. 69: p. 3773.

First Author: Simons, J. K.
All Authors: Simons, J. K., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: PdH, pressure, thermodynamic, resistivity

3614. Singh, M., et al., Verification of the George Oshawa Experiment for Anomalous Production of Iron From Carbon Arc in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 266.

First Author: Singh, M.
All Authors: Singh, M., Saksena, M. D., Dixit, V. S., Kartha, V. B.
Keywords: Fe, transmutation, nonradioactive, carbon, plasma

A direct current arc was run between ultrapure graphite electrodes dipped in ultrapure water for 1 to 20 h, The graphite residue collected at the bottom of the water trough was analyzed for iron content by a conventional spectrographic method, It was found, in the first few experiments, that the iron content in the graphite residue was fairly high, depending on the duration of the arcing, The experiment was repeated initially six times, and the results showed large variations in iron content (50 to 2000 parts per million (ppm)) in the carbon residue, In the second series of experiments, which were done with the water trough fully covered, the amount of iron in the carbon residue decreased significantly (20 to 100 ppm), Here also there were large variations in the iron concentration in the residue, although the experiments were performed under identical conditions, Whether iron is really being synthesized through transmutation from carbon and oxygen as suggested by George Oshawa or is getting concentrated to different degrees through some other phenomenon is not currently clear, The iron in the carbon residue was also analyzed mass spectrometrically for the abundance of its various isotopes, and the results were more or less the same as that of natural iron, Besides iron, the presence of other elements like silicon, nickel, aluminum, and chromium was also determined in the carbon residue, and it was found that the variation of their concentrations followed the same pattern as that of iron.

3615. Sinha, B., et al., Observations of neutron bursts in electrolysis of heavy water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 275.

First Author: Sinha, B.
All Authors: Sinha, B., Viyogi, Y. P., Chattopadhyaya, S., Mazumdar, M. R. D., Murthy, G. S. N., Muthukrishnan, G., Bandyopadhyaya, T., Trivedi, M. D., Ghosh, D., Srivastava, D. K., Sen, P.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron gamma emission, heat- NaCl

3616. Sinha, K.P. and D.C. Albright, The role of local electron pairing in facilitating fusion, fission and other mechanisms in reproducible experiments. 1999.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Albright, D. C.
Keywords: theory, electron pairing,

3617. Sinha, K.P. and P.L. Hagelstein. Electron Screening in Metal Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3618. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg. A model for enhanced fusion reaction in a solid matrix of metal deuterides. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Theory

Our study shows that the cross-section for fusion improves considerably if d-d pairs are located in linear (one-dimensional) chainlets or line defects. Such non-equilibrium defects can exist only in a solid matrix.  Further, solids harbor lattice vibrational modes (quanta, phonons) whose longitudinal-optical modes interact strongly with electrons and ions.  One such interaction, resulting in potential inversion, causes localization of electron pairs on deuterons. Thus, we have attraction of D+ – D- pairs and strong screening of the nuclear repulsion due to these local electron pairs (local charged bosons: acronym, lochons).  This attraction and strong coupling permits low-energy deuterons to approach close enough to alter the standard equations used to define nuclear-interaction cross-sections. These altered equations not only predict that low-energy-nuclear reactions (LENR) of D+ – D- (and H+ – H-) pairs are possible, they predict that they are probable.

3619. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg, Lochon-mediated Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 55-63.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep orbital, Fragmentation, LENR, Lochon, Strong screening

In heavily hydrogenated (deuterated) palladium crystals, the crystallinity is degraded. This non-uniformity results in phonon modes that are localized and of higher frequency than for unloaded lattices. These modes create dynamic electrostatic fields that couple strongly with both bound and free electrons and the hydrogen (H and D) sub-lattice. A consequent potential inversion leads to the formation of “lochons” (local-charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state) and results in H− or D− ions in the sub-lattice. The nuclear-Coulomb repulsion between colliding D+ D− ion pairs in the sub-lattice is considerably reduced by the resultant “strong screening” and “lochon-drag” effects. Furthermore, work is done, by the bound lochon in a D− ion attracting an adjacent D+ ion. This results in reductions: of the deuteron’s electron-orbital radii, as the ion pair approaches; of the mass deficit between the deuteron pair and a 4He atom (or a proton pair and a 2He/2H atom); and finally of the Coulomb repulsion between nuclear protons in a helium nucleus. Thus, the end product of such a deuteron-pair fusion is an excited-helium nucleus (4He*) with lower energy relative to that resulting from energetic deuteron collisions. This reduced energy of the excited nucleus may be lower than its new fragmentation levels. The effect of lochon mediation, to alter the nuclear potential-well and fragmentation energies, allows decay to the 4He ground states to be free of particulate radiation. This decay process, of “neutral” 2He (from p+p) or 4He excited nuclei, is also a basis for observed transmutation.

3620. Sinha, A. and A. Meulenberg, Quantum-correlated Fluctuations, Phonon-induced Bond Polarization, Enhanced Tunneling, and Low-energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Bond polarization, Correlated fluctuations, Lattice-assisted tunneling, LENR, Phonons

In heavily (deuterated or hydrogenated) palladium, some of the crystallinity is lost. As a consequence, the localized phonon modes of the crystal/damaged-region interface have a much higher frequency than the host. These high-frequency modes create electrostatic fields that interact strongly with electrons of the local atoms. A resulting instantaneous potential inversion, from polarization, leads to the formation of lochons (local charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state, perhaps isolated from the Pd d-orbital energy levels) and of an associated H+ or D+ ion (with its two shared electrons instantaneously isolated into the adjacent Pd d-levels). The Coulomb repulsion between the nuclei of these pairs is greatly reduced by strong screening from the lochons that can even generate an attractive polarization potential. Furthermore, the mutual tunneling penetration probability of the Coulomb barrier is enhanced by correlated fluctuations. This arises from the generalized uncertainty relations, x px,E t ≥ (n + 1/2)h/(1 − ρ2)0.5, where n may be on the order of 10-100 and where results from two models are combined. The integer n values represent excitations in the phonon modes of the H or D sub-lattice and ρ is the correlation coefficient with 0 < ρ < 1. Higher values of nand ρ, for a particle in a potential well, imply less localization and greater uncertainties in location (i.e., extending its probability distribution further into the barrier). These periodic fluctuations into the barrier are an interference effect similar to that of beat frequencies.

3621. Sinha, A., Model of low energy nuclear reactions in a solid matrix with defects. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A.
Keywords:

3622. Sioda, R.E., Heat effects during room-temperature electrolysis of deuterium oxide. Bull. Electrochem., 1989. 5(12): p. 902.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pt, D2O, heat, method

3623. Sioda, R.E. and T.Z. Fahidy, A simplified approach to the thermal behaviour of electrolytic Dewar cell calorimeters. J. Appl. Electrochem., 1992. 22: p. 347.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E., Fahidy, T. Z.
Keywords: heat, method

3624. Sioda, R., Cavity in Metal (Hohlraum) Limited-Radiation Effect Law. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1994. 3: p. 349.

First Author: Sioda, R.
All Authors: Sioda, R.
Keywords: theory, hot spot

3625. Sjland, K.A., P. Kristiansson, and K.G.J. Westergard. Liquid Scintillator Detection and Multiparameter Data Acquisition for Neutron Detection in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sjland, K. A.
All Authors: Sjland, K. A., Kristiansson, P., Westergard, K. G. J.
Keywords: neutron, method, ICCF-2

3626. Skelton, E.F., et al., In situ Monitoring of Crystallographic Changes in Pd Induced by Diffusion of D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1998. 58(22).

First Author: Skelton, E. F.
All Authors: Skelton, E. F., Hagans, P. L., Qadri, S. B., Dominguez, D. D., Ehrlich, A. C., Hu, J. Z.

3627. Skerrett, P.J., Cold Fusion at Texas A&M: Problems, but No Fraud. Science, 1990. 250: p. 1507.

First Author: Skerrett, P. J.
All Authors: Skerrett, P. J.
Keywords: history

3628. Skibbe, U. and G. Neue, A 2D-NMR method to study near-surface regions of conductors. Colloids Surf., 1990. 45: p. 235.

First Author: Skibbe, U.
All Authors: Skibbe, U., Neue, G.

3629. Slanina, Z., Towards molecular-thermodynamic aspects of postulated Pd/D low-temperature nuclear fusion: a useful example of a failure of the conventional translation partition function. Thermochim. Acta, 1989. 156: p. 285.

First Author: Slanina, Z.
All Authors: Slanina, Z.
Keywords: theory

3630. Smedley, S.I., et al. The January 2, 1992, Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System at SRI International. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Smedley, S. I.
All Authors: Smedley, S. I., Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: explosion, SRI, accident, ICCF-3

This paper reviews the accident that occurred at SRI International on January 2, 1992. A plausible explanation for the cause of the accident is proposed, and recommendat ions are made pertaining to the safety of future experiments. These recommendations relate to the design of electrolysis experiments, and to the behavior of recombination catalysts, and may provide useful guidelines for other workers in the field.

3631. Smilga, A.V. and V.P. Smilga, A small physical effect. Ross. Khim. Zh., 1996. 40(3): p. 122 (in Russian).

First Author: Smilga, A. V.
All Authors: Smilga, A. V., Smilga, V. P.
Keywords: theory

3632. Smith, D.P. and G.J. Derge, The Occlusion and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals. A. Metallographic Study of Palladium-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1935. LXVI: p. 253.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Derge, G. J.
Keywords: Pd H, diffusion, Excess Volume, Chemical Etch

3633. Smith, D.P. and C.S. Barret, Note on the Arrangement of Phases in Pd-H. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940. 62: p. 2565.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Barret, C. S.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, structure

3634. Smith, T.F. and G.K. White, Gruneisen Parameters , Electron-Phonon Enhancement and Superconductivity for Pd-H Alloys. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1977. 7: p. 1029.

First Author: Smith, T. F.
All Authors: Smith, T. F., White, G. K.
Keywords: Thermal Expansion, Pd, H, superconductivity

3635. Sobkowski, J., Cold fusion – facts and opinions. Wiad. Chem., 1990. 44: p. 587 (in Polish).

First Author: Sobkowski, J.
All Authors: Sobkowski, J.
Keywords: review

3636. Sobotka, L.G. and P. Winter, Fracture without fusion (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 601.

First Author: Sobotka, L. G.
All Authors: Sobotka, L. G., Winter, P.
Keywords: fractofusion, neutron, D2O

3637. Sof’ina, V.V., Activation of Hydrogen Adsorption by Palladium. Pribory i Teckh. Eksp., 1963(4): p. 174.

First Author: Sof’ina, V. V.
All Authors: Sof’ina, V. V.

3638. Sohlberg, K. and K. Szalewicz, Fusion rates for deuterium in titanium clusters. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 144(6,7): p. 365.

First Author: Sohlberg, K.
All Authors: Sohlberg, K., Szalewicz, K.
Keywords: theory, distance

3639. Soifer, V.N., et al., Neutron yield in heavy-water electrolysis. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1990. 35(6): p. 546.

First Author: Soifer, V. N.
All Authors: Soifer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeev, F.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron, titanium, Pt, Ti-V

3640. Sona, P.G., et al., Preliminary tests on tritium and neutrons in cold nuclear fusion within palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 713.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Parmigiani, F., Barberis, F., Battaglia, A., Berti, R., Buzzanca, G., Capelli, A., Capra, D., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron

3641. Sona, P.G. and M. Ferrari, The possible negative influence of dissolved O2 in cold nuclear fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 678.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: Li, Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis

3642. Song, X. and J. Liu, Cold fusion and its lessons. Juaxue Tongbao, 1997(1): p. 54 (in Chinese).

First Author: Song, X.
All Authors: Song, X., Liu, J.
Keywords: review

3643. Soriaga, M.P., Surface Electrochemical Studies of Pd in Alkaline D2O Solutions. 1990.

First Author: Soriaga, M. P.
All Authors: Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: Pd, surface, D, AES, XPS, TDMS, analysis

3644. Southon, J.R., et al., Upper limit for neutron emission from cold deuteron-triton fusion. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(5): p. R1899.

First Author: Southon, J. R.
All Authors: Southon, J. R., Stark, J. W., Vogel, J. S., Waddington, J. C.
Keywords: titanium D2, electrolysis, neutron

3645. Soyfer, V.N., et al., Neutron emission during heavy water electrolysis. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 1992. 43: p. 1041.

First Author: Soyfer, V. N.
All Authors: Soyfer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeyev, A. F.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium D2O, neutron, Ti-V, Pt, Vanadium

3646. Spallone, A., et al. New Electrolytic Procedure for the Obtainment of Very High H/Pd Loading Ratios. Preliminary Attempts for its Application to the D/Pd System. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.

A new electrolytic protocol is proposed, capable of insuring a very high Hydrogen loading of thin Palladium wires. The main characteristic of the procedure consists in the use of a particular electrolyte containing very small amounts of alkaline-earth metals dissolved in a diluted acid solution (H2O+HCl).The addition of alkaline-earth metals to the electrolyte appears to be decisive for the achievement of HlPd loading ratios close to 1. Two independent Research Groups have tested the protocol with similar results.Probably because of the presence of contaminants in the heavy water, less satisfactory results have been obtained for the DlPd loading ratios (best result: R/Ro = 1.52; DlPd ~ 0.97)

3647. Spallone, A., et al. Experimental studies to achieve H/Pd loading ratio close to 1 in thin wires, using different electrolytic solutions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.

Systematic studies have been performed in order to achieve very high concentration of Hydrogen (or Deuterium) into a Palladium lattice.In a very diluted acid electrolytic cell a thin Pd cathode wire (100 mm) and tick anode Pt wires (0.5 mm) has been used as electrodes in a coaxial geometry. Normalised resistance (R/Ro) of Pd-H wire system has been measured on-line and used as reference of H/Pd values.Alcoholic solution (95%) and electrolytic solution (5%) has been used with addition of a very low amount of Sr and Hg ions; high loading results have been achieved with a satisfactory grade of reproducibility.

3648. Spallone, A., et al. An Overview Of Experimental Studies On H/Pd Over-Loading With Thin Pd Wires And Different Electrolytic Solutions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords:

3649. Spallone, A., et al. Measurements Of The Temperature Coefficient Of Electric Resistivity Of Hydrogen Overloaded Pd. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.

3650. Spallone, A., et al. A Review of Experimental studies about Hydrogen over-loading within Palladium wires (H/Pd > 1). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Marmigi, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Stefano, V.
Keywords: excess heat, thin wires,

3651. Speiser, B. and A. Rieker, Energy from electrochemically induced nuclear fusion? Nachr. Chem. Tech. Lab., 1989. 37: p. 616 (in German).

First Author: Speiser, B.
All Authors: Speiser, B., Rieker, A.
Keywords: critique, heat, Fleischmann

3652. Spinrad, B.I., On cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 343.

Keywords: theory

3653. Srinivasan, M., et al. Statistical Analysis of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, critique, method, ICCF-1

The paper discusses two techniques for studying the multiplicity spectrum of neutron emission in cold fusion experiments. In the first method the multiplicity distribution of counts in 20 ms time intervals is analysed to give information about the statistics of neutron emission in cold fusion. The results of six such experiments indicate that about 10 to 25% of the neutrons produced in cold fusion are emitted in the form of bunches 400 to 600 neutrons each. The other method discussed is an adaptation of the Artificial Dead Time method developed originally for reactor noise analysis as well as for the passive neutron assay of plutonium. An expression for the fractional loss of counts in the presence of dead time is derived. It is shown that a neutron detection efficiency of ~ 1% is adequate to estimate the average multiplicity as well as the fraction of bunched neutron emission in the presence of a Poisson background.

3654. Srinivasan, M., et al. Observation of Tritium in Gas/Plasma Loaded Titanium Samples. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C., Rout, R. K., Kulkarni, L. V., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Nagvenkar, V. G., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: titanium, D2, tritium, ion implantation

The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then atleast six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non-equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focus device for deuteriding its central titanium electrode.

3655. Srinivasan, M., Nuclear fusion in an atomic lattice: An update on the international status of cold fusion research. Curr. Sci., 1991. 60: p. 417.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: review

It is now two years since the first reports of the occurrence of nuclear reactions at ambient temperatures in deuterated metals such as Pd or Ti were published. ‘Cold fusion’, as this phenomenon has now come to be known, has, however, become embroiled in intense controversy with the scientific community becoming sharply polarized into ‘believers’ and ‘non-believers’ of this novel phenomenon. This ambivalence is primarily because of the non-reproducibility of the claimed results by many reputed research groups that have often used sophisticated experimental equipment. However, as the present review clearly shows, a large number of laboratories in many different countries have now obtained very reliable experimental evidence confirming the generation of 2.45-MeV neutrons, tritium, charged particles, X-rays, etc., both in electrolysis experiments and in a variety of other D2 -/plasma-/ion-beam-loading experiments, thereby confirming the nuclear origin of the phenomenon. . . .

3656. Srinivasan, M., et al. Tritium and Excess Heat Generation During Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Alkali Salts With Nickel Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Bajpai, M. B., Ramamurthy, H., Mukherjee, U. K., Krishnan, M. S., Nayar, M. G., Naik, Y. P.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, Ni, H2O, ICCF-3

A number of open cell electrolysis experiments of the Mills and Kneizys type using Nickel as cathode, Pt wire as anode and aqueous solutions of carbonates of Potassium, Sodium and Lithium (natural and enriched) as electrolyte have been carried out in three different laboratories at Trombay. The cells were fabricated out of commercial dewar vacuum flasks. The difference in temperature at equilibrium between the operating cells and that of an identical dummy reference flask was measured to deduce excess heat. The cells were calibrated using resistance heaters. In all, studies have been carried out so far in 29 electrolytic cells with various electrolytes. In some cases a mixture of H20 and D20 was used. The cells were operated for a few weeks at a time and excess heat up to a maximum of 70% appears to be present in most cells when the input joule power is upto a watt or two. The current density was less than 40 mA/cm^2.Electrolyte samples before and after electrolysis were analysed for tritium content after microdistillation to eliminate chemiluminiscence effects. Samples from 18 out of 29 experiments analysed have indicated tritium levels varying in the region of 46 Bq/ml to 3390 Bq/ml. One cell with enriched Li2C03 solution in H20 which was monitored continuously for over a month indicated that tritium generation is continuous. Although the highest amount of tritium produced so far was with a K2C03 in 25% D20 cell, the generation of tritium in cells containing only H20 is a new finding.

3657. Srinivasan, M., Meeting Report — Energy Concepts for the 21st Century. Curr. Sci., 2008. 94(7): p. 842.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Review

A one-day discussion meeting on the emerging new energy concepts for the 21st century was held at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bangalore. B. V. Sreekantan and S. Ranganathan (NIAS) and M. Srinivasan (formerly of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai) served as co-conveners for this meeting. There were about 40 participants at the meeting, majority of whom had a scientific background. Two of the participants represented an Indian venture capitalist firm.

3658. Srinivasan, M., Wide-Ranging Studies on the Emission of Neutrons and Tritium by LENR Configurations: An Historical Review of the Early BARC Results, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 35-57.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3659. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micronuclear Explosions (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Theory

Speculations on Characteristics of NAE * Two decades into the CF/LENR/CMNSera, the mechanism behind these reactions still eludes us! * General agreement that phenomenon occurs on surface, in “special” regions -NAEs by Storms. * One could speculate that spatial extant of the NAE could possibly be a single nano particle or a grain. * Reasonable to expect that all NAEs wont be created simultaneously all over cathode surface. * Similarly, once formed, NAEs cant be expected to continue catalyzing reactions for “ever & ever”. * The NAEs must have a finite “active” lifetime ! * Could this be ns, microseconds, seconds, hours, days?

3660. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micro-nuclear Explosions. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

In 1990 the BARC group presented results at several fora, based on our neutron multiplicity studies as well as tritium measurements, that suggested micro-nuclear explosions seem to occur at localized hot spots in which both Tritium and neutrons are generated, subject to the n/T branching ratio anomaly. It was estimated that about 108 to 1010 tritium generating lenr reactions take place in these hot spots accompanied by a very small fraction of neutrons. During the last few years several researchers have reported detecting a variety of transmutation reaction products in localized sites, often associated with some type of crater formation. Other experimenters have reported online detection of flashes of “thermal hot spots” in their cathodes. It is therefore tempting to speculate that perhaps the concept of micro-nuclear explosions can be extended to heat generating helium producing reactions too, as well as nuclear reactions responsible for transmutation products. Many theoretical models such as those that depend on the catalyzing role of some exotic intermediate agent (such as Bose-Einstein condensates, deuteron clusters, Erzions, poly neutrons, trapped neutrons etc) seem to point to the possibility of occurrence of chain events. Two decades into the CMNS era, it is therefore worthwhile reexamining the merits of the micro-nuclear explosion hypothesis and seek independent experimental evidence to either corroborate or refute such a hypothesis.

3661. Srinivasan, M. and L.V. Krishnan, eds. ICCF16, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Abstracts. 2011, ISCMNS.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, L. V.
Keywords:

Book of Abstracts for ICCF-16 conference, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, February 6 – 11, 2011, Chennai, India

3662. Srinivasan, M., G.H. Miley, and E. Storms, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Transmutations, in Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia: Science, Technology and Applications. 2011, Wiley. p. 503-540.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Miley, G. H., Storms, E.
Keywords: transmutation

Preprint of review article distributed to participants of ICCF 16 Conference held in Chennai during Feb 2011This article describes different aspects of the phenomenon called “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR) which investigate the occurrence of various types of nuclear reactions in certain “host” metals such as Palladium, Titanium, Nickel, etc.  when they are “loaded” or “charged” with deuterium (or hydrogen) to form the corresponding metallic deuterides (or hydrides).

3663. Srinivasan, M., Neutron Emission in Bursts and Hot Spots: Signature of Micro-Nuclear Explosions? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 161-172.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Hot spots, Micro-nuclear explosion, Neutron bursts, Statistics, Tritium

Within a few months of the Fleischmann Pons announcement of 1989 several independent groups at BARC had confirmed the production of neutrons and tritium in a variety of electrolytic cells. Among the many findings of the BARC groups were the first hint of the neutron to tritium branching ratio anomaly, namely that tritium production is several orders of magnitude higher than that of neutrons, that neutrons and tritium are probably being emitted simultaneously and that at least in the case of titanium targets, the generated tritium is found to be entrenched in highly localized “hot spots”. But the most intriguing observation of all was that neutrons appeared to be emitted in sharp bursts of up to 10^3 neutrons per event. An integrated view of all these findings taken together led to the speculation that perhaps up to 10^10-10^12 tritons each were being generated in the form of micro-nuclear explosions, with neutron emission being only a minor side reaction in the process. Whatever the nature of the phenomenon, it seemed to be occurring in a highly localized fashion, both in space and time. Since those early days however the aspect of spatially localized occurrence of nuclear reactions has gained further acceptance through the concept of “Nuclear Active Environment”. The observation of thermal hot spots, micro-craters and isolated regions wherein transmutation products are concentrated on the cathode surface has reinforced the suspicion that the phenomenon is spatially localized. But how reliable is the evidence for localization in time? This review revisits our early neutron multiplicity measurements since it appears that confirmation of multiple neutron production is possibly the only handle we have to establish the temporal localization feature and thereby give some insight into the possible occurrence of micro-nuclear explosions which in turn would have a tremendous bearing on the nature of the theoretical mechanism governing these LENR reactions.

3664. Srinivasan, M., Transmutations and Isotopic shifts in LENR Experiments: An Overview. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Isotopic anomalies, Multi-deuteron capture, Transmutation reactions

This overview presents a brief summary of observations of products of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the “host metal” nuclei react with loaded deuterium or hydrogen, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present prior to an experimental run.

3665. Srinivasan, M., Revisiting the Early BARC Tritium Results. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.

Within days of the F&P announcement of 1989, several groups at BARCembarked on a program to look for the generation of neutrons and tritium when deuterium (or hydrogen) is loaded into metals such as Pd, Ti and Ni. Electrolytic, gas and plasma loading techniques were deployed. Post run electrolyte samples were analyzed for tritium content using standard liquid scintillation techniques. In the case of gas and plasma loaded “dry” samples, surface tritium content was measured directly using windowless beta counters. Autoradiography was deployed as a very effective tool to monitor the spatial distribution of tritium in the near surface layers of test samples. The first confirmation of copious tritium generation was obtained on 21 April 1989 in a commercial “Milton Roy” Pd-D2O electrolytic cell. The results obtained during the first year of the BARC Cold Fusion campaign were presented at ICCF 1 in March 1990 where we reported observing tritium generation in 22 different electrolytic cells, which were set up totally independently by diverse research groups. The present paper revisits the early BARCtritium results obtained in a variety of experimental configurations during the period 1989-1996.

3666. Srinivasan, M. and A. Meulenberg, Preface. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: introduction, history

3667. Srinivasan, M., Observation of neutrons and tritium in the early BARC cold fusion experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3668. Srinivasan, M., Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3669. Srivastava, O.N., et al. On the Formation of Palladium Deuteride and its Relationship to Suspected Cold Fusion. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Srivastava, O. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, O. N., Babu, K. S. C., Lalla, N. P., Tiwari, R. S.
Keywords: theory

3670. Srivastava, Y.N., A. Widom, and L. Larsen, A Primer for Electro-Weak Induced Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 253-270.

First Author: Srivastava, Y. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, Y. N., Widom, A., Larsen, L.
Keywords:

In a series of papers, cited in the main body of the paper below, detailed calculations have been presented which show that electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can, under appropriate circumstances, be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons through weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge on various examples analyzed previously, present simplified order-of-magnitude estimates for each and illuminate a common unifying theme among them. PACS numbers: 12.15.Ji, 23.20.Nx, 23.40.Bw, 24.10.Jv, 25.30.-c

3671. Stacey Jr., W.M., Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 268.

First Author: Stacey Jr., W. M.
All Authors: Stacey Jr., W. M.
Keywords: theory, muon

3672. Stachurski, J. and A. Frackiewicz, A New Phase in the Pd-C System Formed During the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetylene. J. Less-Common Met., 1985. 108: p. 249.

First Author: Stachurski, J.
All Authors: Stachurski, J., Frackiewicz, A.
Keywords: PdC, Lattice Parameter, Pd, H2, structure

3673. Steinert, C., Laser-induced ‘semicold’ fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 206.

First Author: Steinert, C.
All Authors: Steinert, C.
Keywords: laser, method, PdD

3674. Stella, B., et al. The FERMI Apparatus and a Measurement of Tritium Production in an Electrolytic Experiment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Alessio, M., Carradi, M., Croce, F., Ferrarotto, F., Improta, S., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Villoresi, G., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, expansion, ICCF-3

FERMI is a 7 BF3, 2 3He apparatus with high detection efficiency for moderated neutrons, pulse shape acquisition and good sensitivity to neutron bursts; it also performs a good statistical reconstruction of the average neutron energy. Gamma rays are detected by a complementary low background NaI detector. The total neutron background measured by the apparatus in the Gran Sasso INFN underground laboratory amounts to 0.09 Hz. A few different experiments have been performed with the same detector (see also the following contribution).A D2O-LiOD electrolysis with Pd cathode have been realized with emphasis on the cleanliness of all components. D2 and O2 produce gases were recombined using a room temperature catalyzer and the resulting water was monitored twice a day for tritium content; the same was done for samples of the electrolytic solution.Loading the Pd with variable currents, and a long patient of 130 μm (with much larger radial broadening) was observed in the first few days accompanied by a 60 – 100% tritium excess detected in the recombined water. The measured neutron rate in the same period was consistent with the background.

3675. Stella, B., et al. Evidence for Stimulated Emission of Neutrons in Deuterated Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Milone, V., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: PdD, D, neutron, irradiation, Pd, ICCF-3

In order to study the effect of palladium in cold fusion, metallic deuterated Pd samples have been irradiated with partly moderated Am/Be neutrons and the resulting neutron intensity has been measured by the Fermi apparatus, an efficient and sophisticated detector for motivated neutrons.Once subtracted from the vessel + (empty) Pd effect measured in “blank” runs, and excess of 13.0 Ѡ0.6 neutrons per second (~4% of the total measured rate close percent has been detected. Assuming 2.45 MeV energy for the electrons emitted by the radiated sample, the resulting rate corresponds to several outgoing neutrons for every neutron impinging on the Pd-D sample. Similar measurements with cadmium absorber gave lower effects. We don’t observe any effect with gaseous deuterium.The underlying process can be interpreted as d-d fusion in a Pd-D lattice perturbed by neutrons. The excess, predominantly due to thermal incident neutrons, demonstrates that the palladium lattice strongly increases the probability for d-d fusion even almost at rest.

3676. Stella, B., et al., A high efficiency, low background neutron and gamma detector for cold fusion experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1995. 355: p. 609.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Celani, F., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Spallone, A., Villoresi, G.
Keywords: neutron, method

3677. Stiff, D., Theories on Cold Fusion Abound, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Stiff, D.
All Authors: Stiff, D.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3678. Stilwell, D.E., K.H. Park, and M. Miles, Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies on the Electrolysis of Water and Heavy Water (D2O). J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 333.

First Author: Stilwell, D. E.
All Authors: Stilwell, D. E., Park, K. H., Miles, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat-, electrolysis

3679. Stoljarov, P., L. Urutskoev, and H. Lehn. Interaction Of Magnetic Monopoles On Polar Molecules. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stoljarov, P.
All Authors: Stoljarov, P., Urutskoev, L., Lehn, H.
Keywords: theory,

3680. Stoppini, G., Coulomb screening in superconducting PdH. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 13D: p. 1181.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

3681. Stoppini, G., Nuclear processes in hydrogen-loaded metals. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 81.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: Theory, neutron, transmutation

3682. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott. A Study of Electrolytic Tritium Production. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

Tritium production is being investigated using cathodes made from palladium and its alloys (with Li, C, S, B, and Be) to which are applied various surface treatments. Three anode materials (Pt, Ni and stainless steel), and various impurities in the electrolyte have also been used. Tritium has been produced in about 10% of the cells studied, but there is, as yet, no pattern of behavior that would make the effect predictable.

3683. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott, Electrolytic tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 680.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium

Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in eleven cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made.

3684. Storms, E., Review of experimental observations about the cold fusion effect. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 433.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

The experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann and independently by Jones.

3685. Storms, E. and C. Talcott-Storms, The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 246.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott-Storms, C.

The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated, palladium cathode has been determined and compared to the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction.Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen adsorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can be lost from the cathode, thereby reducing the hydrogen concentration. This effect is influenced, in part, by impurities, the shape of the electrode, the charging rate, the achieved concentration of hydrogen and the length of time the maximum concentration is present.

3686. Storms, E. Measurement of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann Type Electrolytic Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd D2O heat electrolysis, ICCF-3

Two samples of Pd were obtained from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K. K. (Japan). One sample gave 20% excess heat before the run was prematurely terminated and the other sample gave no excess heat. The sample giving excess energy contained only 0.8% excess volume while the nonproductive sample had 13.5 % excess volume. The calorimeter is dosed in an energy sense, pressured with D2, and stirred. Calibration was done before, during and after heat measurement. Four different calibration procedures were used including a blank using a platinum cathode. Temperature gradients were monitored and found to change when excess heat was produced. This change strongly suggests that normal electrolysis releases energy mainly at the anode while excess heat is released mainly at the cathode. The bulk D/Pd ratio was measured during initial charging and was found to reach 0.82. Voltage difference between cathode and reference electrode was measured and indicates that the deuterium concentration gradient is small during initial charging at 0.02A/cm^2. Excess volume in each palladium cathode was measured after each study. Heat production is proposed to be prevented if excess volume is too large.

3687. Storms, E. The Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 28th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 1993. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3688. Storms, E. Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleischmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.

3689. Storms, E., Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell using palladium sheet. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 230.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, excess volume, crack

Two pieces of palladium sheet similar to that used by Takahashi were loaded with deuterium in a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell, and heat production was measured. One sheet produced a steady increase in excess power that reached 7.5 W (20% of input power) before the study was interrupted. A second similar sheet from a different batch of palladium did not produce any measurable excess power. There were differences in the loading behavior, the maximum stoichiometry, and the presence of excess volume in the deuteride made from these materials. The first sheet contained 0.8% excess volume after having been deloaded from its maximum deuterium/palladium (D/Pd) ratio of 0.82 to 0.73, and the second sheet contained 13.5% excess volume while at its maximum ratio of 0.75. The high excess volume in the latter case is an indication of internal escape paths that reduce the required high D/Pd ratio.

3690. Storms, E. Methods Required for the Production of Excess Energy Using the Electrolysis of Palladium in D2O-Based Electrolyte. in International Symposium, ÃƒÂCold Fusion and Advanced Energy SourcesÃƒâ€Ţ. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method

3691. Storms, E., Chemically-Assisted Nuclear Reactions. Cold Fusion, 1994. 1(3): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3692. Storms, E., Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 96.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+ Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density electrolysis

3693. Storms, E. The Nature of the Energy-Active State in Pd-D. in II Workshop on the Loading of Hydrogen/Deuterium in Metals. 1995. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.

Evidence is presented to show that the energy-active state is located within the surface of electrolyzed palladium.  Although a high average D/Pd ratio is required to form this state, this is not the only condition. Several additional conditions must exist to cause a very high surface composition to form and to cause a conversion of the resulting material from beta-PdD to another phase.  The required high surface composition depends only in part on a high average composition.  Absence of microcracks in the surface region, presence of surface and near surface impurities, and external energy application influence the eventual nucleation and growth of the required phase.

3694. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: From reasons to doubt to reasons to believe. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 23.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3695. Storms, E. Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

A selection of experimental evidence supporting the “cold fusion” effect is evaluated. In addition, an effort is made to show why these observations can be considered real and correct. The total evidence set strongly demonstrates a new phenomenon worthy of potential technological development.

3696. Storms, E., Cold fusion, a challenge to modern science. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 585.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3697. Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.

A large collection of palladium samples, supplied by IMRA Materials (Japan), were studied to determine the relationship between energy production and various properties including the amount of excess volume, the open-circuit-voltage, and the maximum D/Pd ratio. The following conclusions result from the work:1. Palladium, no matter how well prepared, is very inhomogeneous with respect to the properties relevant to cold fusion. Therefore, most general conclusions can not be based on the behavior of one or a few samples.2. The bulk properties do not represent the properties of the nuclear-active-regions. Theoreticians need to take special note of this observation.3. Energy active palladium will continue to produce excess energy even after being subjected to acid treatment or physical removal of the surface. Therefore, “good” palladium is difficult to ruin.4. A pretest method has been developed to identify “good” palladium.

3698. Storms, E., A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effect. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(8): p. 50.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, D2O, method, excess volume, OCV, electrolysis

A large collection of palladium plates having different treatments were examined to determine the composition limit produced after electrolysis in LiOD-D2O electrolyte, the amount of excess volume produced by the contained deuterium, the open circuit voltage generated by the material referenced to a platinum electrode, and the deloading rate in air. The influence of these properties on the ability to produce excess power from the “Pons-Fleischmann” effect was explored.The palladium was found to be very nonuniform with respect to the measured properties. Excess power production was associated with a minimum amount of excess volume and an open circuit voltage above 1.0 V. Samples capable of producing excess energy can be reactivated even after deloading or removal of the surface.

3699. Storms, E., A Review of the Cold Fusion Effect. J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10(2): p. 185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3700. Storms, E., How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effect. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 261.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: method, heat, Fleischmann

ABSTRACT Conditions required for producing excess energy in PdD created in an electrolytic cell are described and reasons for their importance are discussed. This difficult to accept effect can now be produced with a high probability for success using the described procedures.

3701. Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.

INTRODUCTION Lack of reproducibility is still the major reason CANR is not generally accepted and has not advanced into commercial use. The ability to reproduce any phenomenon depends on knowing the major variables and conditions required for the events to operate. In the case of cold fusion, even fundamental factors such as the D/Pd ratio and the crystal structure of the nuclear-active regions are not known. It is the intent of this paper to demonstrate several techniques for obtaining such information and the results obtained from their application to the Pons-Fleischmann Effect.

3702. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3703. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited (translation into Chinese). Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

Translated by W.-S. Zhang.

3704. Storms, E., Formation of b-PdD Containing High Deuterium Concentration Using Electrolysis of Heavy-Water. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1998. 268: p. 89.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.

ABSTRACT The limiting composition of beta-PdD obtained during electrolytic loading results from a complex competition between diffusion of D atoms through any surface barrier, diffusion within the bulk sample, and loss of deuterium gas from surface-penetrating cracks. Reductions in surface crack concentration and surface-barriers are essential steps to achieve high compositions. The highest compositions within any sample are located within the surface region as a complex patch-work of values. The open circuit voltage (OCV), referenced to platinum, is useful in understanding changes in the surface composition and structure. Values as high as -1.35 V have been observed for highly loaded beta-PdD. Evidence for several new, possibly impurity stabilized structures is given.

3705. Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Generated by Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode and Heavy Water. in American Physical Society Meeting. 1999. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O heat, electrolysis

ABSTRACT Samples of palladium sheet supplied by IMRA Japan were tested for anomalous energy production using electrolysis in heavy water and a sensitive calorimeter. Several samples were found to produce significant power above that being applied to produce electrolysis. This behavior was found to correlate with certain properties of the palladium metal. In addition, the anomalous heat was shown to originate at the cathode.

3706. Storms, E. A New Method for Initiating Nuclear Reactions. in First International Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Washington, DC: Unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review, heat, cavitation, sonotfusion, plasma discharge, fractofusion, biology

ABSTRACT Energy from present sources has proven to have serious limitations. Fortunately for the future of mankind, several new but controversial sources of energy have been discovered. This talk will describe a method to initiate nuclear reactions within solid materials, so-called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) when the environment is the focus or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) if the process is to be emphasized. Proposed is a new field of study which combines the electron environment (chemistry) with the nuclear environment (nuclear physics), two environments which are thought not to interact. The method generates energy without producing serious amounts of radiation or radioactive waste. In addition, the method is suggested as a means to reduce the radioactivity associated with previously generated nuclear waste. A wide range of experience obtained world-wide over the last ten years will be described and the controversial nature of the method will be discussed.

3707. Storms, E., My life with cold fusion as a reluctant mistress. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, method, history, D/Pd, OCV

Over 9 years have passed since many of us were lured into believing that the Pons-Fleischmann effect would solve the world’s energy problems and make us all rich. Things have not yet worked out as we had hoped. Each of us have followed a different path through the labyrinth of this expectation. I would like to share with you my particular path and show you how I came to believe that problems of reproducibility are caused solely by the properties of the materials in which the nuclear reactions are proposed to occur.

3708. Storms, E. Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann Effect. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pt, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Excess power was produced using a platinum cathode. Efforts to produce active cathodes by plating palladium onto various metals were largely unsuccessful.

3709. Storms, E., The present status of chemically-assisted nuclear reactions. Infinite Energy, 2000. 5(29): p. 26.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3710. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 1. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(31): p. 10.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

NOTE: This file contains both Parts 1 and 2.ABSTRACT Many new studies are available to make an objective evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect possible. The phenomenon is conventionally known as “cold fusion,” or chemically assisted nuclear reactions (CANR)” when the environment is emphasized, or “low-energy nuclear-reactions (LENR)” if emphasis is placed on the process. A wide range of observations involving anomalous production of energy as well as nuclear products have been published. While many of the claims are still open to interpretation, the general conclusion is that an important, novel phenomenon has been discovered which deserves renewed interest.

3711. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 2. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(32): p. 52.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3712. Storms, E., Description of a dual calorimeter. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(34): p. 22.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, method

A dual calorimeter is described which can be used to study electrolytic processes. Experience with this instrument has revealed several deficiencies inherent in the isoperibolic calorimeter design that apply to all calorimeters of this type when used to study the cold fusion effect.

3713. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessment. 2001.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review effect of H2O

Many people still believe that cold fusion is the result of bad science. In contrast, numerous laboratories in at least 10 countries have now claimed production of anomalous energy using a variety of methods, many of which are now reproducible. This energy is proposed to result from nuclear reactions initiated within a special periodic array of atoms at modest temperatures (energy). Evidence for nuclear reactions involving fusion of deuterium, transmutation involving both light and heavy hydrogen, and nuclear interaction between heavy nuclei has been published. The claims, if true, reveal a new method to release nuclear energy without harmful radiation and without the radioactivity associated with conventional methods. This paper examines published evidence describing this new phenomenon in order to test its reality and to extend an understanding of the process.

3714. Storms, E. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2001. Seattle, WA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O?

ABSTRACT A large data base now exists to support the claim for nuclear reactions, including fusion, being initiated in solid environments at modest temperatures. This phenomenon is called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or “cold fusion”. Detailed information supporting the claims can be obtained from the website (xxxx://home.netcom.com/~storms2/index.html) as well as from any scientific data base. These claims provide the incentive for this study. In this work, methods to produce anomalous energy are studied using electrolytic loading in D2O of various materials (the Pons-Fleischmann method). Past work has concentrated on using palladium as the active material. This paper will demonstrate that energy-producing reactions can be made to occur in materials other than palladium. A unique method is proposed to explore many of the variables associated with the phenomenon.

3715. Storms, E., Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 45.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O

3716. Storms, E., The Nature of the Nuclear-Active-Environment Required for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 32.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

ABSTRACT A collection of observations is used to characterize the nuclear-active environment required to initiate low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).

3717. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

3718. Storms, E. Why Cold Fusion Has Been So Hard to Explain and Duplicate. in American Physical Society Winter Meeting. 2003. Austin Convention Center, Austin, TX: unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, thin film, NAE, surface composition, theory

The nuclear active environment for the Pons-Fleischmann method is proposed to be in the complex surface layer that forms by electrodeposition, not in the bulk material.  This surface is not beta-PdD as many theories and explanation have assumed.  Therefore, most theories are unhelpful because they do not explain what happens in the real world.

3719. Storms, E. How to Make A Cheap and Effective Seebeck Calorimeter. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

The Seebeck calorimeter is very effective in measuring heat generation over a wide range of power and with high sensitivity and stability.  Such a device can be constructed cheaply and easily, although with considerable investment of time.  A successful example is described.

3720. Storms, E. Use Of A Very Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter To Study The Pons-Fleischmann And Letts Effects. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter, laser stimulation

Characteristics of a commercial Seebeck calorimeter are described. This very stable instrument is applied to a study of the Pons-Fleischmann effect using a palladium anode and a platinum cathode.  The use of a laser to stimulate anomalous heat production (the Letts effect) is also described.  Positive results were obtained for both effects and these reveal important aspects of the nuclear-active-environment.

3721. Storms, E. What Conditions Are Required To Initiate The Lenr Effect? in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann    effect occurs is wrong.  The environment is not highly loaded beta-PdD.  Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium.  In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically important.  This new insight requires different explanations and experimental approaches than have been previously used.

3722. Storms, E., Estudo da Fusao a Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Brazilian Portuguese.PrefácioMeu interesse em fusão a frio começou pouco depois dos Professores Pons e Fleischmann anunciarem sua descoberta em 1989, então eu era mais um cientista trabalhando em pesquisa convencional costumeiro em LANL (Los Alamos Laboratório Nacional). Das numerosas tentativas de duplicar os anúncios, eu fui afortunado em produzir tritério assim como energia anômala. Não há nada como ver um fenômeno para fazer uma pessoa acreditar que é real, sem ter em conta o que pessoas menos observadoras possam dizer. Também, vendo muitos companheiros cientistas agindo tolamente e adquirindo uma educação adicional mas decepcionante. Desde que me aposentei de LANL há doze anos continuei a investigar o assunto, escrever documentos, incluindo várias revisões científicas, e pressionar para aceitação do fenômeno. A grande coleção de referências, totalizando quase 3000, adquiridos neste esforço transformou-se na BIBLIOTECA em xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Com a ajuda essencial de Britz Dieter e Rothwell Jed, esta coleção será mantida até data em que o campo cresce.

3723. Storms, E., Estudio de la Fusion en Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Spanish.Mi interés en la fusión en frío comenzó poco después que los Profesores Pons y Fleischmann anunciaran su descubrimiento en 1989. Entonces, yo era un científico más trabajando en la investigación convencional acostumbrada en el LANL (Laboratorio Nacional Los Álamos). Entre los numerosos intentos por duplicar lo ya anunciado, he sido afortunado en producir triterio, así como energía anómala. No hay nada como trabajar un fenómeno para hacer creer a una persona que es real, sin tener en cuenta lo que otras personas menos observadoras pudieran decir. También vemos actuar livianamente a muchos colegas científicos que adquirieron una educación adicional pero decepcionante. Desde mi jubilación en el LANL, hace 12 años, continué investigando el tema y escribí documentos, incluyendo varias revisiones científicas, presionando por la aceptación del fenómeno. La gran colección de referencias adquiridas en este esfuerzo, que totalizan casi 3.000, se transformó en la BIBLIOTECA disponible en xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Con la ayuda esencial de Britz Dieter y Rothwell Jed, esta colección será mantenida hasta la fecha en que crezca el campo.

3724. Storms, E., Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion; Methods, Problems and Errors. 2004, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Application of calorimetry to cold fusion or LENR presents unique problems that have not been previously summarized.  This paper discusses various calorimetric methods that have been applied to the subject and evaluates each in light of what has been discovered about their limitations and errors based on experimental studies. Such information is essential to a study of the effect and to evaluate the results.

3725. Storms, E., Why I believe “Cold Fusion” is Real. LENR-CANR.org, 2004.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: critique

The process called Cold Fusion is said to produce clean energy from fusion of deuterium nuclei using very simple devices, at least compared to the “hot” fusion method.  Many scientists have been outspoken in rejecting this claim based on their belief that the observations have not been replicated, are impossible, and cannot be explained.  The intent of this article is to provide a brief and easily understood description of why I believe this rejection is wrong. . . .This brief paper emphasizes the Fleischmann-Pons effect and studies done in the U.S., because it was written for and submitted to the DoE Panel that is re-evaluating the claims for cold fusion. It was submitted to the Panel on August 23, 2004.

3726. Storms, E. An Update of LENR for ICCF-11. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

3727. Storms, E., The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusion. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 2005.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The US government has once again made an effort to evaluate the reality of the phenomenon call cold fusion.  The first effort was made in 1989 by the ERAB Panel (Energy Research Advisory Board) shortly after Profs. Fleischmann and Pons announced their discovery. The result was a mixed message in which no support for the claims was provided. Nevertheless, an implication was made to evaluate proposals by the normal peer review process. None were funded by the DOE (Department of Energy). Now a new evaluation has been undertaken by a panel of reviewers assembled by the DOE, mainly from the physics profession.

3728. Storms, E., A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoE. 2005, Lattice Energy, LLC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Various critiques provided by reviewers assembled by the DOE to evaluate cold fusion are addressed. Important issues are clarified and some misunderstandings are corrected.

3729. Storms, E. Description Of A Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter Used For Cold Fusion Studies. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD.  This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.

3730. Storms, E. Why you should believe cold fusion is real (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review,

3731. Storms, E., Cold Fusion for Dummies. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The field and the name “Cold Fusion” started in 1989 when chemists Stanley Pons of the University of Utah and Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton reported the production of excess heat in an electrolytic cell that they concluded could only be produced by a nuclear process. . . .Three basic questions about cold fusion need answers: Why are some people so hostile to the claims; why should a person believe the claims are real; and why should anyone care if the claims are real or not?

3732. Storms, E., Fusao a Frio para Principiantes. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

3733. Storms, E., Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion. Thermochim. Acta, 2006. 441: p. 207-209.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Dr. Shanahan has published two papers (Thermochim. Acta 428 (2005) 207, Thermochim. Acta 382 (2002) 95) in which he argues that excess heat claimed to be produced by cold fusion is actually caused by errors in heat measurement. In particular, he proposes that unrecognized changes in the calibration constant are produced by changes in the locations where heat is being generated within the electrolytic cell over the duration of the measurement. Because these papers may lend unwarranted support to rejection of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Shanahan need to be answered.

3734. Storms, E., Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolyte. 2007, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Significant heat was generated for about 740 min when a sample of palladium foil was electrolyzed as the cathode in D2O+LiOD. A very stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to make the measurements. The source of this anomalous energy is unknown. However, the observed energy and production of unexpected elements based on EDX examination are similar to the behaviors claimed by many people who study what is called low energy nuclear reactions.

3735. Storms, E., The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction. 2007: World Scientific Publishing Company.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

3736. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation Produced By Glow Discharge In Deuterium. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

Radiation produced by low-voltage discharge in a gas containing deuterium was measured using a Geiger counter located within the apparatus. This radiation was found to consist of energetic particles that were produced only when the voltage was above a critical value. In addition, the emission was very sensitive to the presence of oxygen in the gas. In the presence of the required conditions, emission occurred reliably with reaction rates in excess of 108 events/second.

3737. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care. 2008, YouTube.com.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3738. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care (PowerPoint slides from video). 2008, Kiva Labs.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3739. Storms, E. The Method and Results Using Seebeck Calorimetry. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: particle emission

The characteristics of and errors associated with Seebeck calorimeters, as applied to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, are described. This type of calorimeter as well as a flow type calorimeter were used to measured apparent excess energy from the same sample of platinum plated with palladium and other materials.

3740. Storms, E., How to Explain Cold Fusion?, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 85-98.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3741. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation produced by glow discharge in a deuterium containing gas (Part 2). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

This is the second paper in a series describing the radiation produced by the cathode during glow discharge in low-pressure gas using DC voltages between 400 V and 800 V. Evidence for energetic electrons, low-energy X-rays, and occasional proton (deuteron) emission has been obtained. The energy, intensity, and type of the radiation are sensitive to gas composition and the material used as the cathode.

3742. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Detection of Radiation Emitted from LENR. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: particle emission

A study was made to detect X-radiation and energetic particle emission from nuclear reactions that may be initiated during low-voltage gas discharge in deuterium. Evidence is presented for X-radiation having an energy nearly equal to the voltage applied to the discharge and energetic particle emission similar to deuterons having energy with peaks between 0.5 and 3 MeV. A study of radiation emitted from materials exposed to deuterium gas is underway.

3743. Storms, E., What is believed about cold fusion? 2009, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

In 1989, Fleischmann and Pons[1-5] claimed to initiate a fusion reaction between deuterons in palladium that resulted in an unusual amount of heat. This claim was rejected because insufficient supporting experimental information was provided, the claim was very difficult to replicate, and no plausible explanation could be proposed. During the 20 years since then, studies in at least 8 countries has provided a rich collection of information, improved reproducibility, and encouraged many explanations. This work has been reviewed by Storms[6] in 2007 based on over 1000 citations and will not be repeated here. This paper provides a brief and focused summary of what is believed to be true about the effect at the present time.

3744. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process.  These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions.  Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

3745. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process. These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions. Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

3746. Storms, E. and T. Grimshaw, Judging the Validity of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 9-30.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: CMNS, Cold fusion, Critique, Nuclear energy, Review

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE, aka cold fusion) was rejected as legitimate science within a year after its announcement in 1989. The growing need for a source of clean energy makes a re-examination of the initial rejection increasingly important. An effective way of assessing the status of the effect as legitimate science is to apply criteria that have been established by scientific skeptics. When 27 criteria set forth by Langmuir, Sagan and Shermer are applied, the requirements for scientific legitimacy appear to be met. In addition, a large and growing number of independent experiments are consistent with a nuclear mechanism being the cause of FPE.

3747. Storms, E., Status of cold fusion (2010). Naturwiss., 2010. 97(10): p. 861-881.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, CMNS, LENR, heat production, transmutation, review

The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process. Various requirements of a model are examined.

3748. Storms, E. Examination of errors that occur when using a gas-filled calorimeter. in 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2011. Chennai, India: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Measurement of a reaction between D2 gas and a material using a calorimeter that is calibrated using H2 will show erroneous excess power production at temperatures above ambient if all energy present in the calorimeter is not totally measured, a requirement very difficult to accomplish. This insidious error is explored using a stable Seebeck calorimeter.

3749. Storms, E., What is now known about cold fusion? (Addendum to Student’s Guide). 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

This is an addendum to the “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.” It clarifies several issues. Because this is a stand-alone summary, some of the basic information given in more detail in the Guide is briefly repeated here.

3750. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What is Real about Cold Fusion and What Explanations are Plausible? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 17-31.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cluster, Cold fusion, Fusion, Nuclear reaction

Experimental observations are now available to test rational theories and models about the cold fusion effect. Some of these informations are summarized and used to draw logical inferences about the requirements a plausible theory must satisfy. A model based on the role of super-clusters is proposed.

3751. Storms, E., An explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies. The common environment in which LENR occurs is proposed to be cracks of a critical size, followed by a resonance process that dissipates energy by X-ray emission based on a laser-like process.  The LENR behavior has the potential to test the Standard Model of nuclear interaction.

3752. Storms, E. An Approach to Explaining Cold Fusion. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Cold fusion or Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) is a process that results in various nuclear reactions involving all isotopes of hydrogen within what appear to be ordinary materials at ordinary temperatures. In general terms, the reactions can be described as fusion when two hydrogen isotopes combine to form a single product nuclei or as transmutation when one or more hydrogen isotope nuclei enter a larger nuclei. As expected, these reactions generate energy but very little radiation is detected, which is unexpected and has been a cause for rejection.  Sufficient evidence is now available to justify believing this is a real phenomenon and not the result of error. The challenge is to explain how such an unusual process operates. The approached used in this paper is based on six assumptions and their logical relationship to many observations. Although many details are not quantified, the general characteristics of the LENR process are described. This analysis places severe limits on any proposed explanation.

3753. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What Is Cold Fusion and Why Should You Care? Proc. NPA, 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: review

3754. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of energetic radiation emitted from a metal exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012(submitted).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm^2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fractofusion.

3755. Storms, E., An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) (translation into Chinese). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 86.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

A version of this paper, translated into Chinese:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanexplanat.pdfEnglish Abstract begins:A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. . . .

3756. Storms, E., Cold fusion from a chemist’s point of view. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: theory

Very small cracks are proposed as the location of the LENR process in a material. A resonance process is proposed to occur in these structures, resulting in fusion, while energy is emitted as coherent photons having a characteristic energy. The nuclear product depends on which isotope of hydrogen is present. Reasons are given why a crack structure is required to explain LENR.

3757. Storms, E., Response to Reviewer Comments. Infinite Energy, 2013(109).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Critique

I want to thank the reviewers (IE #108) for taking the time to make interesting and sometimes useful comments on my paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View.” This is the first and hopefully not the last time a proposed explanation of LENR has been reviewed publicly in such detail. The process is effective in revealing not only flaws but also howthe ideas can be better explained to avoid misunderstanding. I will comment on each review in the order they appeared in IE #108.

3758. Storms, E., The Role of Voids as the Location of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 123-141.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Crack structure, Energy

A proposed model explaining the low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) process is described. The process occurs in voids of a critical size and involves a string of resonating hydrons, each of which is separated by an electron. This unique structure, called a “hydroton”, is proposed to make LENR possible and provides a process that can explain all reported observations and predict several new behaviors while using only three basic assumptions.

3759. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of Energetic Radiation Emitted from a Metal Exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 142-156.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Fusion, LENR, Radiation

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fracto-fusion.

3760. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion (Russian version). 2015, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Translation of “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.”Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

3761. Storms, E., Explaining Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Five assumptions are used to create a new explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion) based on formation of a novel active environment within a variety of materials. The method to form this environment and the nuclear consequences are described. The fusion process is proposed to occur when a form of metallic hydrogen is created in nano-cracks. Methods to test the model are provided. Engineering variables are identified and used to show how the process can be controlled and amplified. These assumptions can also be used to evaluate other proposed explanations.

3762. Storms, E., In the Spirit of John Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Electrochemistry, John Bockris, Palladium, Transmutation, Tritium

The life of Prof. John Bockris provides a reminder of how good science should be undertaken and the harm a scientist and all of science suffer when these expectations are ignored.

3763. Storms, E., How the explanation of LENR can be made consistent with observed behaviour and natural laws. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, hydroton, LENR, theory

3764. Storms, E., Introduction to the main experimental findings of the LENR field. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3765. Storms, E., Anomalous Energy Produced by PdD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Enthalpy of reaction, Excess energy, PdD, Volume expansion

Two samples of commercial Pd from the same batch were reacted with D using the electrolytic method and found to produce sustained excess power and energy. The effects of temperature, applied current, and D/Pd ratio on the amount of excess power were studied.

3766. Storms, E., How Basic Behavior of LENR can Guide A Search for an Explanation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Energy production, Hydrogen fusion, LENR, PdD, Theory

The LENR effect was identified 27 years ago by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons as production of extra energy in a normal chemical structure, in this case PdD. Over a thousand published papers now support the discovery and the energy is shown to result from fusion of hydrogen isotopes without the need to apply energy and without energetic radiation being produced. By conventional standards, the claims are impossible. Nevertheless, a new phenomenon has been discovered requiring acceptance and understanding. The major behaviors and their present understanding are described in this paper and are used to suggest how an effective explanation might be constructed. Once again, science has been forced to either reject the obvious or accept the impossible. In this case, the normal skepticism needs to be ignored in order to determine if this promised energy source is real and can provide the ideal energy so critically needed.

3767. Storms, E., A New Source of Energy using Low-Energy Fusion of Hydrogen. Environ Sci Ind J, 2017. 13(2).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, ideal energy, clean energy, fusion energy

Chemical energy alone has powered civilization until relatively recently when nuclear fission power based on uranium became available. Efforts are now underway to go the next step on this path to nuclear sources by harnessing fusion power using hydrogen. So far, this so-called hot fusion process has not been successful in producing practical power. The complexity and size of the generator is expected to make this source impractical even after the many engineering problems are solved. Perhaps a different approach is needed. As answer to this need, a new method called cold fusion was recently discovered to cause fusion. Even though this might prove to be a better way to extract fusion energy, the claim has been difficult for some scientists to accept because it conflicts with what is known about nuclear interaction. This paper describes the cold fusion claim and gives reasons why the method should be accepted and applied.

3768. Storms, E. The enthalpy of formation of PdH as a function of H/Pd atom ratio and treatment (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.

Production of the LENR effect involves achieving a large concentration of D in the PdD lattice structure. A great deal of effort has been applied to understanding how this can be accomplished and the nature of the resulting structure. The bulk properties play a role in this process but are sensitive to the impurity content and treatment. The influence of the bulk properties on this process has not been fully explored.This paper describes a new method to directly measure the bond energy between the PdH structure and the contained H atoms in real time as a function of H/Pd ratio from zero to the maximum H content using the electrolytic method and H2SO4+H2O to react Pd with H. A unique and very accurate calorimeter (+/-5 mW) is used to measure power during the loading reaction. This method is applied to several types of Pd including commercial Pd sheet, extra pure Pd, and a zone refine single-crystal of Pd after each is subjected to several treatments. These treatments include repeated loading-deloading cycles, annealing at 900у, and reduction in thickness. The bond energy is found to be sensitive to purity, treatment, and H/Pd ratio, with good agreement with published measurements being achieved after certain treatments. In addition, three methods to measure the average H/Pd ratio are described and compared. These methods use weight gain, orphaned oxygen, and recombiner temperature. A great deal of information about the reaction process can be obtained by combining these three methods because they are sensitive to different possible errors and behaviours.

3769. Strackan, J.S., Thermoelectric Energy Conversion. 1994: US Patent #5,288,336.

First Author: Strackan, J. S.
All Authors: Strackan, J. S.
Keywords: thermoelectric, Energy Conversion,

3770. Stremmenos, C., Fusione fredda. Un dibattito che prosegue” (“Cold fusion. A debate that continues”). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1999. 81: p. 361 [in Italian].

First Author: Stremmenos, C.
All Authors: Stremmenos, C.
Keywords: Polemic, critique

3771. Stringham, R. and R. George, Cavitation induced micro-fusion solid state production of heat, 3He, and 4He. 1995.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., George, R.
Keywords: ultrasound, heat+, 4He, 3He, acoustic, bubble, cavitation

3772. Stringham, R. Anomalous heat production by cavitation. in 1998 IEEE International Ultrasonic Symposium. 1998. Sendai, Japan.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, cavitation, ultrasonic, sonofusion

3773. Stringham, R., First gate energies. 1998.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, progress report, sonicfusion, ultrasonic

3774. Stringham, R., et al. Predictable and Reproducible Heat. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., Chandler, J., George, R., Passell, T. O., Raymond, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat+, ICCF-7

3775. Stringham, R. The Cavitation Micro Accelerator. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: ultrasonic, cavitation, method, ICCF-8, accustic

3776. Stringham, R. Pinched cavitation jets and fusion events. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion, Pd, D2O

The collapse of a transient cavitation bubble in deuteriumoxide produces a high density plasma jet containing 109 deuterons.  The inertial compression of a jet via an electron induced magnetic field pinch effect on its plasma contents produces high to even higher deuteron densities in the order of 1025 gm/cc before implanting into a foil target.  This model is parallel to the systems found in the hot plasmas of inertial systems.   During the initial period of implantation of a few picoseconds, the high density deuterons in the target lattice experience reduced coulomb repulsion due to the high density charge screening.  In this environment it is possible that some DD fusion events occur as evidenced by photos of the metal target foils and by the evidence of helium four and tritium production.Making some basic assumptions the smallest diameter and highest population of vent sites in the target foils are produced by events in the order of 20 Mev.   When experiments were monitored there was no long range radiation detected.

3777. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

3778. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion – poster session. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

Natural cavitation phenomena in D2O using piezo devices, is now amplified initiating DD fusion events that produce heat and helium. We have adapted it for our use. The transient cavitation bubble, TCB, has been harnessed to produce high densities of deuterons, 10^25 to 25/cc. An electrically driven piezo device filled with D2O produces acoustic field generating TCBs that are, in the final collapse stage, micro accelerators. The result is the implanting of deuterons into a target foil producing 4He originating from the Pd foil and T from the Ti foil. We are an emergent tangent technology to sonoluminescence, SL, technology, which we use to give us an environmental parameter probe into the bubble contents at the moment of its highest energy density. (Much of the SL studies center on the pulses of photons coupled to the irradiating acoustic field emanating from an oscillating single stable cavitation bubble, SSCB.) The generation of these photons relates to conditions for the target implantation process. Recently we have been studying the effects of frequency on multi TCB SL conditions that produce fusion. These experiments and the analytical methods have concentrated on the mass spectroscopy of reactor gases, calorimetry of the reactor and power supply, and the scanning electron microscope photographs of target foils. The results from many experiments are pieced together to reach a plausible path for the TCB that terminates with deuterons implanting into a target with the resulting fusion events. The use of SL for monitoring the bubble content’s high energy densities allows for reactor parameter management for fusion events in the target foil. Studies of multi TCBs’ SL at higher temperatures (300-450ºK), external pressures (10^6-10^7.5 dynes/cm2) and frequencies (.02- 1.7 MHz) are proceeding in a search for better fusion environments. The results of these experiments will be presented.

3779. Stringham, R. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Reactor. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

ABSTRACT                                                                                                          We are using one of the most remarkable pulsing systems that nature offers for producing transient high energy densities and I have been fortunate enough to be involved with it for over 20 years.  Over time we have increased the frequency of our piezo cavitation drivers and are now at 1.6 MHz and find that our results are the same.  Even better, the Qx /(reactor gm), the energy density, is drastically increased when compared to our 40 and 20 KHz piezo systems [1,2,3]. The cost is decreased by at least an order of magnitude and the durability is greatly increased.  All Q values in this paper are dQ/dt Joules/sec. or watts.  The systems differ in several ways because of the 40 times increase in frequency.    These 1.6 MHz systems produce more sonoluminescence, SL, and more but smaller bubbles and an energy density in the collapsing bubble system that is the same magnitude as the 40KHz systems [4,5]. . . .

3780. Stringham, R. Ejecta Sites and DD Fusion Events. in APS March Meeting. 2006. Baltimore, MD.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

A cavitation-produced jet that implants a target foil at high impact velocities produces foil damage shown in color and SEM, scanning electron microscopy, photos. The work here dates from 1989 to 2001 and was produced in several different reactors, target foils, and frequencies. The result of high density pinched implantation of D+ and e-, deuterons and electrons; plasma is a D+ cluster. The implant occurs in a picosecond time frame with a creation of D+/Pd, in a 100/1 ratio of an initially electron free D+ cluster with a diameter in the order of a hundred nm. The mobile e- react with D+ and surround the D+ cluster with D. DD fusion events occurring in the transient high-density cluster produce a gamma free heat pulse. The heat pulse reaches the lattice surface in a nanosecond expelling the vapor/liquid foil and products as ejecta. The ejecta sites are easily seen in SEM photos and are counted and plotted as MeV DD fusion events. The results have been interpreted as DD fusion events that increase in energy as they decrease in frequency (counts) exponentially.

3781. Stringham, R. 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Measurement and Model. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Years of data collected from First Gate’s various sonofusion systems gain fundamental support from recent extrapolations of hot fusion research.  Consider the velocity, 3x104m/sec, of a high density low energy jet plasma of deuterons that originates from the collapse of the TCB, transient cavitation bubble, in D2O that implants a target foil [1 – Many ICCF & APS].  The foil generates heat via DD fusion events that produce 4He and T.  We compare our sonofusion to the jet plasma of Tokamak type plasma fusion systems with all their stability problems.  Since sonofusion is a compilation of billions single fusion events per second and not a continuous fusion system like Tokamak, Stellarator, and Jet fusion systems; a comparison gives sonofusion a decided advantage. . . .

3782. Stringham, R. Bubble Driven Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Sonofusion,

3783. Stringham, R. When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion. in 237rd ACS National Meeting. 2009. Salt Lake City.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

Experimentally, heat and 4He are the fusion products of sonofusion (SF). SF controls a naturally occurring phenomenon with cavitation-induced bubbles and their high energy density transferred to transient jets that implant deuteron clusters into a matrix or lattice. The SF path to clusters can be extrapolated from high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion, ICF, Bose Einstein Condensates, BEC, muon fusion, MF, and astrophysical phenomena, to explain our ejecta sites, Qx, 4He, and no measureable long-range radiation results. The fusion events emanate from deuteron clusters implanted into target foils. Clusters are squeezed and cooled via electromagnetic, EM, compression pressures and evaporative cooling of cluster surface deuterons producing the fusion environment. Evidence of these cluster fusion events is found in the millions of target foil ejecta sites in

3784. Stringham, R., Sonofusion, Deuterons to Helium Experiments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 159-173.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

3785. Stringham, R. Sonofusion Produces Tritium That Decays to Helium Three. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Three main points are covered that are unique to Ti sonofusion target foils. These are surface modification to TiOx shown by photos and scanning electron microscope, SEM, photos, and the decay measurement of tritium, T, by mass spectrum analysis, MS, to 3He, the Ti target foils, and the unexplained production of 1 microm Ti hollow tubes shown in SEM photos.

3786. Stringham, R., Model for Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 304-316.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Bubble, Calorimetry, Cavitation, Cluster, Ejecta, Fusion, Fusion products, Jet, Picosecond, Transient high-density plasma

Experimental cavitation sonofusion results needed a mechanism to explain the measured 4He and heat produced. A model is introduced based on high-density low-energy transient astrophysical behavior, creating an environment for fusion events by forming electron free clusters. The cluste-ڳ low temperature and high density are shown to be essential to the fusion environment.

3787. Stringham, R., When Bubble Cavitation becomes Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 1-12.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Charged-plasma, Clusters, High-density, Sonofusion

Experimentally, excess heat, Qx, and 4He are the measured fusion products of transient high-density sonofusion, SF.A possible path to DD fusion is explained by piezo driven cavitation bubbles, where the critical parameters are temperature, pressure, acoustic input, and frequency that control, for a picosecond, the low-energy nuclear reactions that produce DD fusion events. The electromagnetic, EM, pulse compressed deuteron clusters squeezing them into a Bose Einstein Condensate. The BEC cluster environment provides for the direct conversion of fusion energy into heat and 4He. The continuous production of 1016 bubbles/sec produces radiation free usable heat as observed via ejecta site surveys.

3788. Stringham, R., Model for Electromagnetic pulsed BEC Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Deuteron, Sonoluminescense, Superconductivity, z-pinch

Sonofusion experiments, which incorporate transient Bose Einstein condensates, BEC, have recently focused on related sonosuperconductivity. Cavitation jets implant high-density deuteron clusters into a target foil. Clusters are then squeezed by accelerated charges that form dense transient EM pulses. Cavitation and the associated sonoluminescence phenomena, used as a measuring tool, helps develop and explain related experimental results. Two outcomes, sonofusion and sono-superconductivity both produce D+clusters in reactors of different geometries. MHz reactor No. 1 is driven by a disk piezo and has produced excess heat, Qx, using the foil target and other products, including 4He. The newMHz reactor No. 2 is driven by a cylindrical piezo lowpower with a concentric wire target with transient cluster steady state concentration near the wire surface. The target’s steady state cluster coverage may satisfy a sono-superconductivity subsurface cluster connectivity during the MHz’s 100 ns collective sonoluminescence pulse. It was anticipated that ambient sono-superconductivity was possible but so far has proved difficult to measure. Cavitation D2O bubbles in both reactors were controlled by three main parameters for the two reactors: temperature, pressure of Ar gas over D2O, and acoustic watt input; Ti, Pi, andQa. The z-pinch jets’contents of deuterons and electrons were implanted, with an induced picosecond transient charge separation. This charge separation produced an electromagnetic, EM, cluster compression pulse that formed a high-density BEC environment, as the EM pulse pressure overwhelmed repulsive deuteron cluster pressure for that picosecond. This model used unique attributes of the high-density transient deuterons to produce sonofusion in reactor No. 1 and sono-superconductivity in reactor No. 2 near ambient temperature. The measurements showed the presence of sonoluminescence pulses, implanted plasma, and heat pulse ejecta sites.

3789. Stringham, R., Sonofusion’s Transient Condensate Clusters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

D2O cavitation produces Z-pinch jets implanting a target lattice. Measurements, data interpretations, and FE SEM photos explain products heat and 4He produced in target foils. The picosecond dynamics of a deuteron electron plasma charge separation and pressure pulse produce alpha particles and heat.

3790. Stringham, R., Sonofusion: Ultrasound-Activated He Production in Circulating D2O. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Bremsstrahlung, Gamma, Heatk, Sonoluminescence

Experiments over the last 25 years have demonstrated sonofusion: the formation of He by ultrasound incident on D2O. The observed effect is described. Neither the characteristic gamma nor the neutron typically seen in the formation from two deuterons of 4He and 3He, respectively, is observed. The experimental arrangement is specified. A proposed model, based on cavitation-produced z-pinch jets in target-foil implants, is outlined. It involves formation in the implants of a BE condensate that provides the source of the deuterons and whose recoil ensures energy-momentum conservation. The model accounts for all experimental results. It also provides a guide for future work on sonofusion.

3791. Stringham, R., Conservation of E and M, Single Cavitation Heat Events. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Cavitation, Jets, Photons

Experiments spread over a period of 24 years create a model for sonofusion. An explanation of results will influence new paths for its further development. Cavitation produced z-pinch target-foil implanting jets produce SEM photos of single event ejecta sites equal to the binding energy differences, Eb, for alpha production.

3792. Stringham, R., Helium Measurements From Target Foils, LANL and PNNL, 1994. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 284-295.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Cavitation, Gamma, 4He, Lattice, Mass spectrum

The alphas formed in Ti and Pd target foils were measured as 4He in a mass spectrum, MS, analysis at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL, a lab that specializes in 3He and 4He measurements. The exposed bcc crystal lattice Ti target foil, TF, measured an average of 39 x 10^12 +/- 1.4 trapped 4He atoms. The fcc crystal lattices of Pd, Ag, Ni, and Cu target foils, particularly the two measured fcc Pd TF lattices produced ~ 0.35 x 10^12 trapped 4He atoms. This helium level was just above its background level, and 1/100 that of the bcc Ti TF. In the fcc palladium TF, SEM crater volume measurements show that most of the alphas are ejected into the circulating D2O, where they were measured in the gas phase. In 1994 the samples were run at LANL and measured at PNNL. The helium was measured by melting small TF pieces cut from the active center zone. Then each piece was placed in a crucible, and melted under vacuum, releasing all gases including background helium. These collected gases from one piece were pretreated; then were measured. The data was converted to total 4He atoms trapped in the active zone of the TF lattice. A total of 24 measurements for 3He and 4He on three TFs found no 3He but 4He in all 12 measurements. SEM photos of single ejecta sites were combined with calculations of old data that used knowledge gained from 23 years of cavitation experience that enhances the old data.

3793. Stritzker, B. and J. Becker, Superconductivity in Metastable Pd-Alloys Produced by Ion Implantation at Low Temperatures. Phys. Lett. A, 1975. 51: p. 147.

First Author: Stritzker, B.
All Authors: Stritzker, B., Becker, J.
Keywords: PdH, PdD, PdC, PdB, superconductivity, ion Implanation

3794. Stroka, A., B. Baranowski, and S.M. Filipek, Search for 3He and 4He in Pd-D2 system long term cumulation experiment in high pressure. Pol. J. Chem., 1993. 67: p. 353.

First Author: Stroka, A.
All Authors: Stroka, A., Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M.
Keywords: helium, Pd, D2

3795. Stuhr, U., et al., An investigation of hydrogen diffusion in nanocrystalline Pd by neutron spectroscopy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 393.

First Author: Stuhr, U.
All Authors: Stuhr, U., Striffler, T., Wipf, H., Natter, H., Wettman, B., Janssen, S., Hempelmann, R., Hahn, H.
Keywords: diffusion, H2, microcrystals, Pd

3796. Stukan, P.A., Y.M. Rumyantsev, and A.V. Shishkov, Generation of hard radiation and accumulation of tritium during electrolysis of heavy water. High Energy Chem., 1993. 27: p. 461.

First Author: Stukan, P. A.
All Authors: Stukan, P. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M., Shishkov, A. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, tritium, radiation, heat-, neutron, D2O, H2O, Pd

3797. Stukan, R.A. and Y.M. Rumyantsev, Effect of tritium on the generation of hard radiation in the electrolysis of D2O with a palladium cathode (T-D cold fusion reactions). High Energy Chem., 1996. 30: p. 343.

First Author: Stukan, R. A.
All Authors: Stukan, R. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, radiation, neutron, H2O, T2O. tritium

3798. Stulen, R.H., Summary Abstract: Observation of Molecular H2 and D2 on Pd and Ag Using Thermal Desorption Between 5 and 20 K. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1988. 6: p. 776.

First Author: Stulen, R. H.
All Authors: Stulen, R. H.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, H2, D2, absorption

3799. Sugai, H., M. Tanase, and M. Yahagi, Release of tritium, protium, and helium from neutron-irradiated Li-Al alloy. II. J. Nuclear Mater., 1998. 254(2/3): p. 151.

First Author: Sugai, H.
All Authors: Sugai, H., Tanase, M., Yahagi, M
Keywords: Li-Al, neutron, tritium

3800. Sugakov, V.I., Conditions for inducing, dynamics and manifestation of atom acceleration in nonequilibrium crystals. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1996. 41: p. 834 (Ukrainian).

First Author: Sugakov, V. I.
All Authors: Sugakov, V. I.
Keywords: Theory, crystal defects, energy focussing, solitons

3801. Sugiura, H. and E. Yamaguchi. Calorimetric Analysis of the Excess Heat Generated from Pd:D and Pd:H by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sugiura, H.
All Authors: Sugiura, H., Yamaguchi, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2, heat+, layer, Au-Pd, Ag-Pd, H2, ICCF-7

3802. Sullivan, D.L., Exclusionary epideictic: NOVA’s narrative excommunication of Fleischmann and Pons. Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1994. 19: p. 283.

First Author: Sullivan, D. L.
All Authors: Sullivan, D. L.
Keywords: history

3803. Sun, Z. and D. Tomanek, Cold fusion: how close can deuterium atoms come inside palladium? Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(1): p. 59.

First Author: Sun, Z.
All Authors: Sun, Z., Tomanek, D.
Keywords: theory, distance

3804. Sun, D.L., et al., A study of existing forms of deuterium in palladium by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1992. 37: p. 1073.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Chen, Y. L., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Lu, X. N.
Keywords: PdD, structure, position

3805. Sun, D.L., et al., An explanation for the abnormal temperature rise of palladium cathode during electrochemical deuterium charging. Science in China A, 1993. 36: p. 1501.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Wang, R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat

3806. Sun, Y., Q.D. Yang, and Q.F. Zhang, Application of real time surveillance technique to precision calorimetry system. Sichuan Lianhe Daxue Xuebao, Gongcheng Kexueban (J. Sichuan Union Univ., Eng. Sci. Ed.), 1999. 3(6): p. 119 [in Chinese].

First Author: Sun, Y.
All Authors: Sun, Y., Yang, Q. D., Zhang, Q. F.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann, heat, method

3807. Sundaresan, R. and J. Bockris, Anomalous Reactions During Arcing Between Carbon Rods in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 261.

First Author: Sundaresan, R.
All Authors: Sundaresan, R., Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, C, Fe, H2O plasma discharge

Spectroscopically pure carbon rods were subjected to a carbon arc in highly purified water. The arc current varied from 20 to 25 A and was passed intermittently for several hours. The original carbon contained ~2 parts per million (ppm) iron, and the detritus contained up to 286 ppm of iron. The carbon rods remained cool 10 the touch at >2 cm from their tips. Adsorption of iron from water or the surrounding atmosphere was established as not being the cause of the increase of iron. There is a weak correlation between the iron formed and the time of passage of current. When dissolved O2, was replaced by N2 in the solution, no iron was formed. Hence, the mechanism26C12 + 28O18 -> 26Fe56 + 2He4was suggested as the origin of the iron. The increase in temperature of the solution was consistent with expectation based on this reaction.

3808. Sunden, O. Centripelal de Broglie Wave Fields Connected to Particles at Rest Explain Cold Fusion and Particle-Wave-Duality. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sunden, O.
All Authors: Sunden, O.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The controversy about Cold Fusion “CF” depends on the fact that the phenomena discovered are not in agreement with present physical theories, like QM and QED. The aim of this paper is to show that a. Time-Space-Oscillation `TSO’ connected to matter is a physical perspective able to explain CF and the Particle-Wave-Duality, even able to propose technical means for further development. According to this perspective a particle -even at rest- is joined to a real, centripetal TSO, a ‘de Broglie oscillation’, instead of a mathematical Schrodinger wave function1). This TSO-field propagates with velocity c toward a focus, where the particle is created as a flickering wave vertex, that can push an instrument trigger. Particles and nuclides including their Coulomb barriers, thus become endowed with phase dependency and a centripetal wave field, that can interfere in slits. This explains the Particle-Wave Duality and why the Coulomb barrier can be tunneled under certain phase conditions.. This TSO-perspective further hints at nuclear reactions of a ‘centripetal’ kind different from those based on ‘translational collisions’, described by present high energy physics. It is worth consideration because it gives accurate accountsfor physical constants, particle masses and charges, while the nuclides appear as focal resonance-shells, able to arrange acc. to Mendelejev.

3809. Sundqvist, B.U.R., et al., On the observation of charged particles in cold fusion. Phys. Scr., 1989. 40: p. 303.

First Author: Sundqvist, B. U. R.
All Authors: Sundqvist, B. U. R., Haakansson, P., Hedin, A., Bucur, R. V., Johansson, B., Waeppling, R.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3810. Swartz, M.R., Quasi-one-dimensional model of electrochemical loading of isotopic fuel into a metal. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 296.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, Pd, structure

3811. Swartz, M.R. A Method to Improve Algorithms Used to Detect Steady State Excess Enthalpy. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4

3812. Swartz, M.R. Some Lessons From Optical Examination of the PFC Phase-II Calorimetric Curves. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Fleischmann, critique, heat, evaluation, ICCF-4

3813. Swartz, M.R. Generalized Isotopic Fuel Loading Equations. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory

3814. Swartz, M.R., Isotopic Fuel Loading Coupled to Reactions at an Electrode. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 74.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.

3815. Swartz, M.R., Potential for positional variations in flow calorimetric systems. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method critique,

3816. Swartz, M.R., The Relationship between Input Power and Enthalpic Behavior of Nickel Cathodes During Light Water Electrolysis. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis, heat, method

3817. Swartz, M.R., Improved calculations involving energy release using a buoyancy transport correction. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 219.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, heat, error, critique

3818. Swartz, M.R., Possible deuterium production from light water excess enthalpy experiments using nickel cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3819. Swartz, M.R., Four Definitions of Power Ratio used to Describe Excess Enthalpy in Solid-State Loading Systems. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 54.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, review

3820. Swartz, M.R., The Relative Impact of Thermal Stratification of the Air Surrounding a Calorimeter. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 141.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3821. Swartz, M.R., Experiments Using Nickel Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni,, electrolysis,, H2O,, heat

3822. Swartz, M.R., Hydrogen Redistribution by Catastrophic Desorption in Selected Transition Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 26.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.

3823. Swartz, M.R., Explanation for Some Difference Between Reports of Excess Heat in Solid State Fusion Experiments. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(1): p. 60.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: proton conductor,, critique, review, heat

3824. Swartz, M.R., Noise Measurement in Cold Fusion Systems. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 56.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: sound,, accoustic, electrolysis

3825. Swartz, M.R., Consistency of the biphasic nature of excess enthalpy in solid-state anomalous phenomena with the quasi-one-dimensional model of isotope loading into a material. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 63.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, heat, electrolysis, Fe, Al, H2O

3826. Swartz, M.R., Phusons in nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, phuson

3827. Swartz, M.R., Codeposition of palladium and deuterium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 126.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.

3828. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Characteristics of Nickel Light Water Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis, OOP, ICCF-7

3829. Swartz, M.R., The Importance of Controlling Zero-Input Electrical Power Offset. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3830. Swartz, M.R., Further confirmation of optimal operating point behavior. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3831. Swartz, M.R., Optimal Operating Point Analysis of Dr. Mizuno’s, Dr. Arata’s and Other Data. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3832. Swartz, M.R., Patterns of success in research involving low energy nuclear reactions- A metanalysis. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: history

3833. Swartz, M.R., et al. Importance of nondimensional numbers in cold fusion. in Symposium on New Energy. 1999. Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H., Fox, H.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3834. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner, Bremsstrahlung in Hot and Cold Fusion. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 90-101.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.

3835. Swartz, M.R., Generality of Optimal Operating Point Behavior in Low Energy Nuclear Systems. J. New Energy, 1999. 4(2): p. 218-228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3836. Swartz, M.R., Summary of the seventh international conference on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 99.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: review

3837. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A.H. Frank. The impact of heavy water (D2O) on nickel-light water cold fusion systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, H2O, heat, Ni

3838. Swartz, M.R. Photoinduced Excess Heat from Laser-Irradiated Electrically-Polarized Palladium Cathodes in D2O. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3839. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. Excess Heat from Low Electrical Conductivity Heavy Water Spiral-Wound Pd/D2O/Pt and Pd/D2O-PdCl2/Pt Devices. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3840. Swartz, M.R. Can a Pd/D2O/Pt Device be Made Portable to Demonstrate the Optimal Operationg Point. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3841. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical Regions. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Theory,

3842. Swartz, M.R. Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR Devices Monitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling Engines. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

3843. Swartz, M.R. Electrical Breakeven from LANR Phusor Device Systems: Relative Limitations of Thermal Loss in Feedback Loop. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess power

3844. Swartz, M.R. and L. Forsley. Analysis of “Superwave-as-Transitory-OOP-Peak” Hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Theory,

3845. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. The Phusor LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial which Creates Deuteron Flux for Excess Power Gain. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Theory

3846. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A. Weinberg. Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR Devices. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Weinberg, A.

3847. Swartz, M.R., Impact of an Applied Magnetic Field on a High Impedance Dual Anode LANR Device. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 93-105.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Deuterium, Deuterons, Excess heat, Excess power gain, Flux, Lattice assisted nuclear reactions, Loading, Metamaterials, Nanostructures, Optimal operating point, Palladium

This paper reports on the impact of an applied magnetic field intensity on LANR solution electrical resistance and an analysis of its role in metal deuteride loading and LANR performance. A dual anode PHUSOR®-type Pd/D2O/Au LANR device was driven at its optimal operating point, with two electrical current sources; to drive, and examine by 4-terminal electrical resistance, the loaded PdDx cathode. An applied magnetic field ∼0.3 T increases the LANR solution’s electrical resistance ∼10-17% with a time constant in minutes. The incremental resistance increase to an applied H-field is greatest at low loading current. The incremental resistance increase from an applied H-field is greatest with the applied H-field perpendicular to the driving electrical field (E-field) intensity. The modified LANR deuteron loading rate equation indicates that an applied magnetic field intensity increases deuteron loading in a LANR system by the increasing solution resistance and limiting undesired gas evolving reactions.

3848. Swartz, M.R., LANR Nanostructures and Metamaterials Driven at their Optimal Operating Point. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 149-168.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.

In lattice-assisted nuclear reactions (LANR, or LENR), the size and structural metamaterial shape of Pd-D nanostructures, and the deuterium flux through them all play decisive roles. The spiral Phusor®-type cathode system with open helical cylindrical geometry in a high electrical resistance solution is a LANR metamaterial design creating an unusual electric field distribution and requisite intrapalladial deuteron flow. Optimal operating point (OOP) technology allows improved and more reproducible operation. LANR power gain can be considerable. In situ imaging has revealed that the excess power gain is linked to non-thermal near-IR emission when the LANR devices are operated at their OOP.

3849. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Demonstration of Energy Gain from a Preloaded ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Device at MIT. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

3850. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and J. Tolleson, Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2-PdNi-D Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J.
Keywords:

3851. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Transient Vacancy Phase States in Palladium after High Dose-rate Electron Beam Irradiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CF materials, Electrode Irradiation, Fukai states, Superabundant vacancies, Vacancy phase metals

A high voltage electron irradiator was used to generate high vacancy content VP metal samples. High Frenkel defects (FD) content (vacancy phase) metal samples of Pd and Ni were generated by a single treatment with a high voltage electron irradiator (2.5 MV electrons, 2500 Gray/s dose rate, single portal, 1.50-3.0 megaGray midplane dose) at room temperature. These irradiationsynthesized, vacancy-phase (ISVP) metals were examined for their room-temperature annealing rate using four-terminal conductivity measurements. We show that high dose rate supervoltage irradiated palladium and nickel can achieve saturation densities of defects at the level of a few tenths percent and that level can be followed with the appearance of lattice quakes repairing the damage. The most heavily irradiated samples developed incremental electrical resistivities of “4 μ!-cm, with rapid recovery consistent with room-temperature annealing. The early labile vacancy phase state of ISVP metals has a half-life “2.5 h. Lattice quakes are observed when electrical transconduction spectroscopy is used to monitor the lattice healing and vacancy recombination. The irradiation produced an effective increase in the cross-sectional area of the palladium wires (99.98%) pure) of “2.5% at 3 megaGray delivered, consistent with the literature.

3852. Swartz, M.R., et al., Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fractionated magnetic fields, Magnetic field intensities, ZrO2PdD, Magnetic fields and CF/LANR

Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR) (CF) activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdNiD CF/LANR components are capable of significant energy gain over long periods of time with reproducibility and controllability. We report the response of such active components to steady and dynamic applied magnetic field intensities up to 1.5 T changing with a 0.1 ms rise time. Power gain was determined by the triple verified system of dT/Pin, HF/Pin, and calorimetry. Fractionated magnetic fields have a significant, unique amplification effect. Residual, late-appearing effects are complex. Importantly, at higher input electrical currents, high intensity fractionated magnetic fields demonstrate their own, new optimal operating point (OOP) manifold curve. This suggests that cold fusion (LANR) is the first stage, and may be mediated by other than phonons.

3853. Swartz, M.R., et al., Imaging of an Active NANOR-type LANR Component using CR-39. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CR-39 Imaging, Imaging CF/LANR Systems, Preloaded CF/LANR component, ZrO2PdD

This effort examined CR-39 chips exposed to a ZrO2-PdD NANOR-type CF/LANR component exhibiting significant energy. There was a fall-off in pit count with increasing distance from the operating system. Most interestingly, the CR-39 over the device essentially imaged the active CF/LANR device at very low resolution. Large tracks were the most effective for imaging. Smaller and mid-sized tracks appear to be useful for measuring fall off of the chip irradiation as a function of distance. The conclusion is that CF/LANR is a nuclear process, and for this system at this power level, the quantitative amount is measurable in a spatial, controllable, pattern.

3854. Swartz, M.R., Incremental High Energy Emission from a ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Quantum Electronic Component CF/LANR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: High energy CF/LANR emission, Preloaded CF/LANR component, quantum electronic cold fusion component, ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR nanostructure

In situ measurement for possible incremental penetrating ionizing radiation output from an activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR component revealed a barely detectable, incremental emission when there was significant energy gain. The autonomous driver minimized background radiobiological interference. This effort demonstrates that CF/LANR is relatively safe, with penetrating ionizing emissions, at these power levels, of lower biological impact than typical background sources.

3855. Swartz, M.R., Entrepreneurial Efforts: Cold Fusion Research at JET Energy Leads to Innovative, Dry Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Dry cold fusion component, NANOR, Preloaded cold fusion component, Preloaded energy production

Dry, preloaded NANOR-type technology makes cold fusion (LANR) reactions more accessible. These self-contained, twoterminal nanocomposite components have at their core PdD and NiD nanostructured material. Their CF/LANR/CF activation is separated from their loading, and yields up to 20 times input; characterized by reasonable reproducibility and controllability. With an excess power density of 19,500 W/kg, and zero-carbon footprint, could these ready-to-be-activated NANOR-type LANR components/systems/materials be the future of clean efficient energy production?

3856. Swartz, M.R., et al., Dry, preloaded NANOR (R)-type CF/LANR components. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

3857. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and P.L. Hagelstein, Impact of Electrical Avalanche through a ZrO2-NiD Nanostructured CF/LANR Component on its Incremental Excess Power Gain. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Deuterated nickel, Nanomaterials, Nanostructured ZrO2, ZrO2–NiD

Cold fusion nanomaterials, in general, and NANOR R-type LANR components (derived from them), in particular, have two distinct regions of performance on each side of the electrical avalanche. This had lead to the identification of three (3) distinct regions of their electrical operation. We now report that the optimal power gain of NANOR R-type cold fusion components is found far below the breakdown voltage and that the power gain decreases continuously as the electrical avalanche threshold is approached. Beyond the region of electrical avalanche, the previously active preloaded LANR quantum electronic components then give a thermal output similar to a standard ohmic control (a carbon composition resistor). Therefore, use of this technique of driving an active CF/LANR nanomaterial component into, and beyond, their avalanche threshold, provides verification of the excess heat an additional way, which confirms that the calorimetry was calibrated. Also, this investigation indicates where, on the input power axis, to drive them for a maximum effective use. We also report that deuterium can fuel nanomaterial ZrO2-Ni systems, consistent with the previously report involving aqueous CF/LANR systems by Swartz et al. (ICCF-9).

3858. Swartz, M.R., Optical Detection of Phonon Gain Distinguishes an Active Cold Fusion/LANR component (3). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR, Phonon gain

Successful cold fusion is heralded by a large, if not quite abnormal, increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio in coherent multi-wavelength optical reflection volume-enhanced electric-driven spectroscopy (CMORE-spectroscopy). This distinguishing phonon gain is not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. It heralds seven acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K.

3859. Swartz, M.R., Oscillating Excess Power Gain and Magnetic Domains in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 35-46.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: LANR, Magnetic domains, Magnetism, NANOR, Oscillating power gain

Post-magnetization effects, both significant and time-variant, were observed in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR components. In contrast to previously observed exponential falloffs of sample activity (peak incremental excess power gain), post-magnetization activity demonstrates oscillatory activity. This paper reports an analysis of the force density and expected theoretical frequency for oscillations, which have already been observed to exist between these magnetic domains after magnetization, calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor.

3860. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Increased PdD anti-Stokes Peaks are Correlated with Excess Heat Mode. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 130-145.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR-type LANR component, Phonon gain

Volume-enhanced Coherent Multi-wavelength Optical Reflection Electric-driven (CMORE) spectroscopy successfully differentiates active states in LANR nanomaterials. All the anti-Stokes peaks are relatively missing in the undriven mode for all of the nanostructured materials. Weak anti-Stokes peaks are elicited from Pd (and Ni and their alloy) nanostructured material in ZrO2. But when NANOR-type components are electrically driven, there is diversity in outcome. When driven in the avalanche mode, the anti-Stokes peaks differ considerably from those which appear during the excess heat (XSH)-producing or desired mode. The anti-Stokes peak(s) differ in energy, amount, and in what stimulates their appearance. However, normal anti-Stokes peaks return when the electrical drive creates “avalanche mode” characterized by higher electrical current at decreasing voltage. The avalanche anti-Stokes peaks are many, and they are lower energy than the XSH mode produced anti-Stokes peak (described main text). By contrast, successful cold fusion is heralded by a large increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio, and the generated anti-Stokes peak for the desired and XSH-producing state is very different from the avalanche-generated multiple anti-Stokes peaks. That XSHrelated peak is singular and at higher energy. This distinguishing, higher energy, single, anti-Stokes peak is also not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. Our analysis finds that the excess-heat produced anti-Stokes peak is matched to the Stokes line of PdD. We also find that the several lower energy anti-Stokes in avalanche mode (unsuccessful regarding CF/LANR) are matched to the many Stokes peaks for zirconia. In the desired electric-driven XSH-producing mode, the two-terminal deuterided NANORr-type CF/LANR component has a measured Boltzmann Stokes ratio ~1.3. Analysis of the phonon gain heralds ~7^+/- 0 15 acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K. Therefore, these findings confirm a role for PdD acoustic phonons in successful CF/LANR.

3861. Swartz, M.R., Quasiparticles, Collective Excitations and Higher-order Collective Quasi-excitations in Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 26-55.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Coherent excitations, Collective excitations, LANR, Phonons, Quasiparticle

Quasiparticles and collective excitations are similar in that they arise de novo from material interactions. They are in need of classiﬁcation and important because some of them are highly relevant to successful lattice assisted nuclear reactions (LANR). This report reviews this classiﬁcation along with discussion of their impact on our ability to enable LANR.

3862. Switendick, A.C., Electronic structure and stability of palladium hydrogen (deuterium) systems, PdH(D)n, 1*n*3. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 1363.

First Author: Switendick, A. C.
All Authors: Switendick, A. C.
Keywords: theory, structure, PdD2, PdD3

3863. Szalewicz, K., J.D. Morgan, and H.J. Monkhurst, Fusion rates for hydrogen isotopic molecules of relevance for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. 2824.

First Author: Szalewicz, K.
All Authors: Szalewicz, K., Morgan, J. D., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, energy

3864. Szeflinski, Z., et al., Upper limit of neutron emission from the chemical reaction of LiD with heavy water. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 168: p. 83.

First Author: Szeflinski, Z.
All Authors: Szeflinski, Z., Kozlowski, M., Osuch, S., Sawicki, P., Szeflinska, G., Wilhelmi, Z., Starowieyski, K. B., Tkacz, M.
Keywords: LiD, chemical, neutron

3865. Szklarczyk, M., R.C. Kainthla, and J. Bockris, On the Dielectric Breakdown of Water: An Electrochemical Approach. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1989. 136: p. 2512.

First Author: Szklarczyk, M.
All Authors: Szklarczyk, M., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: H2O, breakdown

3866. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, co-deposition, ICCF-2, electrolysis

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only ca 1/10 of all attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reactions. Here, we show that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production.

3867. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 302: p. 255.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACTRecently, Fleischmann et al. [1] reported that nuclear events can occur when deuterium is electrochemically compressed within the Pd-lattice. These events were reported to produce excess enthalpy, tritium, and neutrons. The exact nature of these events and the conditions leading to their initiation are poorly understood. In fact, the existence of such events is questioned by many [2]. The present position among those investigating this problem [3] is as follows: enthalpy production is a non-steady state process whose rate depends on the nature of the electrode material; however, the observed steady state production arises from an averaging of small perturbations. Nuclear events are believed to occur on the electrode surface as well as within the electrode interior.

3868. Szpak, S., et al., Electrochemical charging of Pd rods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 309: p. 273.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gabriel, C. J., Smith, J. J., Nowak, R. J.

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Abstract: A model describing the electrochemical charging of Pd rods is presented. The essential feature of this model is the coupling of the interfacial processes with the transport of interstitials in the electrode interior. It is shown that boundary conditions arise from the solution of equations governing the elementary adsorption-desorption and adsorption-absorption steps and the symmetry of the electrode. Effects of the choice of rate constants of the elementary steps and the charging current on the surface coverage, the electrode potential and the time required to complete electrode charging are examined.

3869. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determination. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, detection, method, ICCF-3

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Three methods of tritium data analysis are considered-comparison between experimental and theoretical data, total mass balance and curve-fitting.

3870. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber, Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphase. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 337: p. 147.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Scharber, S. R.

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The dynamics of transport of electrochemically generated deuterium across the electrode/electrolyte interphase was examined by slow scan (10 mV s-1) voltammetry. The investigation covers the potential range -1.2 to +0.4 V measured vs. an Ag/AgCl reference. It was found that a coupled, twolayer model of the interphase describes the observed behavior as a function of scan rate and electrolyte composition. The effect of chemisorbing species, e.g. CN- ions, as well as reactive species, e.g. SC(NH_)2, on the transport across the interphase is also discussed. Results are contrasted with those obtained for light water.

3871. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel, Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experiment. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 365: p. 275.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gabriel, C. J.