IWAHLM-12

Subpage of Proceedings

12th International Workshop
on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals,
Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017

Proceedings (Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Vol. 26)

Youtube list of videos of Workshop presentations.

FRENCH – Key Principles For Patenting In The Land Of LENR 29:59
RUERReanalysis Of An Explosion 40:18
ITOH –   Progress on Transmutation Experiments induced by D2 gas permeation 34:08
KITAMURAEffect of Supporter Material on Heat Evolution from Ni-based Nano 31:11
ALABINA Study on the Possibility of Initiating Tungsten Alpha Decay 31:16
DUBINKOPeculiarities of hydrogen interaction with Ni powders and melt spun Nd90Fe10 32:38
IWAMURAAnomalous Excess Heat Generation 29:07
CLAYTORSummary of Tritium Evolution from Various Experiments 25:00
FOWLERDevelopment of a System to Measure Trace Amounts of Helium 19:50
IWAMURAExperiments Using Metal Nanocomposites and Hydrogen Isotope Gass 27:53
KLIMOVInteraction Of Hydrogen Atoms And Ions With Erosive Metal Clusters In Heterog 27:22
CELANIObservation Of Zener-like Behavior Of Constantan Sub-micrometric Wires 20:22
NAGELSimulation and Measurements 32:35
COLLIS Can We Avoid Penetrating Radiation ? 21:55
PAILLETDeepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom 17:55
DUBINKOChemical And Nuclear Catalysis By Energy Localization In Crystals 43:45
MCKUBREWhat we must do to complete Martin Fleischmann’s undertaking 39:47
TOIMELAOn the Heat Transfer in LENR Experiments 22:20
SMITHLENR, Existential Risks and Rewards 19:59
RUERPreventing Thermal Runaways Of LENR Reactors 26:22
DAVIDAbout Descrete Breathers and LENR 22:23

V26

Subpage of JCMNS
JOURNAL OF CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017


source page: http://www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol26.pdf  pp.,    MB. All pages hosted here have been compressed, see the source for full resolution if needed.  stripped_JCMNS-Vol26, pp.,  1.8 MB, has front matter removed so that pdf page number and as-published page match. All files may have undiscovered errors. Please note any problems or desired creation of a discussion page in comments.

Front matter includes title pages, copyright, table of contents, and the preface.

Videos of presentations are available. See IWAHLM-12. * after a name indicates a video.


J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 26 (2018) 1–98
©2018 ISCMNS. All rights reserved. ISSN 2227-3123

VOLUME 26, October 2018
PREFACE
William Collis*
pref
RESEARCH ARTICLES
LENR – What We must Do to Complete Martin Fleischmann’s Undertaking
Michael C.H. McKubre*
1
Expectations of LENR Theories
David J. Nagel*
15
Isotopic and Elemental Composition of Substance in Nickel–Hydrogen Heat Generators
K.A. Alabin*, S.N. Andreev, A.G. Sobolev, S.N. Zabavin, A.G. Parkhomov and T.R. Timerbulatov
32
Cold Nuclear Transmutations. Distribution of Binding Energy within Nuclei
Philippe Hatt
45
Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom
Jean-Luc Paillet* and Andrew Meulenberg
54
On the Heat Transfer in LENR Experiments
T. Toimela*
69
Reanalysis of an Explosion in a LENR Experiment
Jacques Ruer* and Jean-Paul Biberian
76
Key Principles for Patenting in the Land of LENR*
David J. French
98

Bibliography P-S

Subpage of Bibliography

3092. Packham, N.J.C., et al., Production of tritium from D2O electrolysis at a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 270: p. 451.

First Author: Packham, N. J. C.
All Authors: Packham, N. J. C., Wolf, K. L., Wass, J. C., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, tritium, D2O

INTRODUCTIONIn the present communication, we report data that may be relevant to the phenomenon of room temperature fusion. It is the contention of the authors that the alleged phenomenon is better characterized by the production of nuclear particles than by the measurement of bursts of heat. Here, we describe the observation of tritium produced in eleven D2O electrolysis cells at levels 10^2-10^5 times above that expected from the normal isotopic enrichment of electrolysis. Particular attention has been paid to possible sources of contamination.

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3093. Page, W.S. Two-dimensional Proton Conductors. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Page, W. S.
All Authors: Page, W. S.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

An enormous literature has developed on the subject of the abnormal mobility of protons in aqueous solutions. Eigen and De Maeyer in 1958 [1] may have been among the first to observe that ” The proton transport in hydrogen-bonded media is completely different from normal ionic migration and corresponds more to electronic transport processes in semi-conductors . . . . Phenomenologically, the ice crystal may be considered as a ‘protonic semi-conductor’ with an intrinsic (thermal) distribution of the charge carriers (protons) between a ‘valence’ band (H-bonded H20) and a ‘conduction’ band (excess protons fluctuating in H-bonds). . . .

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3094. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Arguments for the Anomalous Solutions of the Dirac Equations. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 18.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, Dirac equation, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels in the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs). The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin1 /2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. We next analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant. As a prerequisite to a deep comprehension of the resolution methods, we recall in the appendices some essential elements of the Dirac theory.

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3095. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Basis for Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic Schrödinger and Dirac equations, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular

In this paper, we look into the difficult question of electron deep levels (EDLs) in the hydrogen atom. Acceptance of these levels and, in particular, experimental evidence of their existence would have major implications for the basis for cold fusion and would open up new fields of femto-physics and -chemistry. An introduction shows some general considerations on these orbits as “anomalous” (and usually rejected) solutions of relativistic quantum equations. The first part of our study is devoted to a discussion of the arguments against the deep orbits and for them, as exemplified in published solutions. We examine each of the principal negative arguments found in the literature and show how it is possible to resolve the questions raised. In fact, most of the problems are related to the singularity of the Coulomb potential when considering the nucleus as a point charge, and so they can be easily resolved when considering a more realistic potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In a second part, we consider specific works on deep orbits, named Dirac Deep Levels (DDLs), as solutions of the relativistic Schrodinger and of the Dirac equations. The latter presents the most complete solution and development for spin 1/2 particles, and includes an infinite family of DDL solutions. We examine particularities of these DDL solutions and more generally of the anomalous solutions. Next, we analyze the methods for, and the properties of, the solutions that include a corrected potential inside the nucleus, and we examine the questions raised by this new element. Finally, we indicate, in the conclusion, open questions such as the physical meaning of the relation between quantum numbers determining the deep levels and the fact that the angular momentum seems two orders-of-magnitude lower than the values associated with the Planck constant.

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3096. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Relativity and Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 40-58.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDOs). In a first part we quickly recall the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. In particular, a solution to fix all problems is to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. For this reason, we deeply analyzed the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, with such a modified Coulomb potential without singular point. Then, by using a more complete ansatz, we made numerous computations on the wavefunctions of these EDOs, allowing to confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of orbits and to find further properties. Moreover, we observed that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity. At a first glance, this fact results from an obvious algebraic property of the expression of energy levels obtained by the relativistic equations. Now, a comparative analysis of the relativistic and of the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation allows us to affirm that Special Relativity leads to the existence of EDOs because of the non-linear form of the relativistic expression for the total energy, which implies a relativistic non-linear correction to the Coulomb potential.

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3097. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 62-84.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

This work continues our previous works, on electron deep orbits of the hydrogen atom. An introduction shows the importance of the deep orbits of hydrogen (H or D) for research in the LENR domain, and gives some general considerations on the Electron Deep Orbits (EDO) and on other works about deep orbits. A first part recalls the known criticism against the EDO and how we face it. At this occasion we highlight the difference of resolution of these problems between the relativistic Schrodinger equation and the Dirac equation, which leads for this latter, to consider a modified Coulomb potential with finite value inside the nucleus. In the second part, we consider the specific work of Maly and Va’vra on deep orbits as solutions of the Dirac equation, the so-called Deep Dirac Levels (DDLs). As a result of some criticism about the matching conditions at the boundary, we verified their computation, but by using a more complete ansatz for the “inside” solution. We can confirm the approximate size of the mean radii ⟨r⟩ of DDL orbits and that ⟨r⟩ decreases when the Dirac angular quantum number k increases. This latter finding is a self-consistent result since (as distinct from the atomic-electron orbitals) the binding energy of the DDL electron increases (in absolute value) with k. We observe that the essential element for obtaining deep orbits solutions is special relativity.

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3098. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Advance on Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 258-277.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep electron levels, LENR, Magnetic interactions, Relativistic quantum physics, Singular solutions

In the previous works, we discussed arguments for and against the deep orbits, as exemplified in published solutions. So we considered the works of Maly and Va’vra on the topic, the most complete solution available and one showing an infinite family of EDO solutions. In particular, we deeply analyzed their second of these papers, where they consider a finite nucleus and look for solutions with a Coulomb potential modified inside the nucleus. In the present paper, we quickly recall our analysis, verification, and extension of their results. Moreover, we answer to a recent criticism that the EDOs would represent negative energy states and therefore would not qualify as an answer to the questions posed by Cold Fusion results. We can prove, by means of a simple algebraic argument based on the solution process, that, while at the transition region, the energy of the EDOs are positive. Next, we deepen the essential role of Special Relativity as source of the EDOs, which we discussed in previous papers. But the central topic of our present study is an initial analysis of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, with the aim of solving important physical questions: do the EDOs satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty relation (HUR)? Are the orbits stable? So, we examine some works related to the Vigie-“Barut Model, with potentials including magnetic coupling. We also carried out approximate computations to evaluate the strength of these interactions and the possibilities of their answering some of our questions. As a first result, we can expect the HUR to be respected by EDOs, due to the high energies of the magnetic interactions near the nucleus. Present computations for stability do not yet give a plain result; we need further studies and tools based on QED to face the complexity of the near-nuclear region. For the creation of EDOs, we outline a possibility based on magnetic coupling.

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3099. Paillet, J.-L. and A. Meulenberg, Deepening Questions about Electron Deep Orbits of the Hydrogen Atom. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 54-68.

First Author: Paillet, J-L.
All Authors: Paillet, J-L., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Confinement, Deep electron levels, Heisenberg uncertainty relation, Highly relativistic electrons, LENR, Magnetic interaction, Relativistic quantum physics

In previous works, we analyzed and countered arguments against the deep orbits, as discussed in published solutions. Moreover, we revealed the essential role of Special Relativity as source of electron deep orbits (EDOs). We also showed, from a well-known analytic method of solution of the Dirac equation, that the obtained EDOs have a positive energy. When including the magnetic interactions near the nucleus, we observed a breakthrough in how to satisfy the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation (HUR) for electrons confined near the nucleus, in a radial zone of only a few fm. Here we chose a different method, by directly facing the HUR for such confined electrons, from which we deduce the coefficient γ of these highly relativistic electrons. Then we show the effective Coulomb potential due to a relativistic correction, can maintain the electrons in containment. Next we resume and deepen our study of the effects of EM interactions near the nucleus. We first obtain computation results: though approximate, we can effectively expect high-energy resonances near the nucleus. These results should be confirmed by using QFT-based methods.

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3100. Palamalai, A., et al., Preliminary experimental studies on electrochemically induced fusion of deuterium. Trans. SAEST, 1990. 25: p. 73.

First Author: Palamalai, A.
All Authors: Palamalai, A., Ahmed, A., Sampath, M., Chinnusamy, A., Prasad, G. N., Krishna Rao, K. S., Sreedharan, O. M., Raman, V. R., Balasubramanian, G. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium, Pd, D2O, neutron

3101. Paleschi, V., et al., A plasma model of the process of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 148: p. 345.

First Author: Paleschi, V.
All Authors: Paleschi, V., Harith, M. A., Salvetti, G., Singh, D. P., Vaselli, M.
Keywords: theory

3102. Palibroda, E. and P. Gluck, Cold nuclear fusion in thin foils of palladium. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 154: p. 153.

First Author: Palibroda, E.
All Authors: Palibroda, E., Gluck, P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3103. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen to helium. Naturwiss., 1926. 43: p. 956 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium, H2, Pd

3104. Paneth, F. and K. Peters, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1926. 59: p. 2039 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K.
Keywords: helium H2, Pd, history

3105. Paneth, F., K. Peters, and P. Guenther, On the transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Ber., 1927. 60: p. 808 (in German).

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F., Peters, K., Guenther, P.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3106. Paneth, F., The transmutation of hydrogen into helium. Nature (London), 1927. 119: p. 706.

First Author: Paneth, F.
All Authors: Paneth, F.
Keywords: critique, retraction, history

3107. Paolo, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Paolo, P.
All Authors: Paolo, P.
Keywords: theory

3108. Pappas, P.T. The Electrically Induced Nuclear Fusion in a living Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Pappas, P. T.
All Authors: Pappas, P. T.
Keywords: theory, biology, transmutation, ICCF-7

3109. Para, A.F., et al., Neutron Monitoring and Related Measurements During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium and Titanium Cathodes: Activity Report. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 131.

First Author: Para, A. F.
All Authors: Para, A. F., Ducati, U., Sangiust, V., Cavallotti, P. L., Bortignon, P. F.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, Mass Spectrometry

3110. Parish, T.A., R.T. Perry, and W.B. Wilson, Neutron sources and spectra from cold fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 479.

First Author: Parish, T. A.
All Authors: Parish, T. A., Perry, R. T., Wilson, W. B.
Keywords: neutron, method spectra, gamma emission, theory

3111. Park, R.L., The Cold Fusion Story Has Been an Object Lesson on Why Science Flourishes Only in the Open. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989: p. A44.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history, critique, Fleischmann

3112. Park, Y.W., et al., The observation of 2.2 MeV gamma-rays in an electrochemical cell. Sae Mulli, 1989. 29: p. 231.

First Author: Park, Y. W.
All Authors: Park, Y. W., Yoon, C. O., Yoon, M. Y., Kim, J. C.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, Titanium, neutron, gamma emission

3113. Park, R.L., BOOK WORLD The Fizzle in the Fusion, in Washington Post. 1991.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: Critique

3114. Park, A.E., Some thoughts on a simple mechanism for the 2H + 2H –> 4He cold fusion reaction. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 319.

First Author: Park, A. E.
All Authors: Park, A. E.
Keywords: theory, He

3115. Park, R.L., Voodoo Science. 2000, New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 211 pages.

First Author: Park, R. L.
All Authors: Park, R. L.
Keywords: history,

3116. Park, S. and F. Gordon, Cold Fusion – from the Laboratory to the World Setting the Stage for ICCF-17. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Park, S.
All Authors: Park, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Cold Fusion, ICCF-17

The objective of ICCF-17 is to allow international groups of scientists to present their data to further the collective understanding of scientists working in the field and so that skeptical members of the mainstream scientific community, the media, and the public will see the evidence that “Cold Fusion” is real. Indeed several groups are currently developing commercial products that produce energy using the “Cold Fusion” phenomena. Ultimately, the reality of cold fusion will be determined by the public acceptance of commercial devices. People and companies who continue to deny the existence of cold fusion will become irrelevant as the applications are placed into service.

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3117. Parkhomov, A. and E. Belousova, Research into Heat Generators Similar to High-temperature Rossi Reactor. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Parkhomov, A.
All Authors: Parkhomov, A., Belousova, E.
Keywords: Element composition, High temperature, Hydrogen, Isotope composition, Nickel powder, Nuclear radiation, Power consumption, Power production, Reactor

Devices similar to a high-temperature Rossi reactor were made. Excess heat at the temperature of about 1100 deg C and higher was demonstrated. No nuclear radiation above the background level was observed during the excess heat production.

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3118. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in metals. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1989. 86: p. 8614.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, jellium

3119. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, Cold fusion in palladium: a more realistic calculation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 8652.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory, Thomas-Fermi-Mott

3120. Parmenter, R.H. and W.E. Lamb, More cold fusion in metals: corrected calculations and other considerations. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1990. 87: p. 3177.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H., Lamb, W. E.
Keywords: theory

3121. Parmenter, R.H., A possible scenario for the onset of cold fusion in deuterated metals. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 41.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: Theory tunneling screening, resonance

It is suggested that a pair of deuterons in a deuterated metal may resonant-tunnel through the Coulomb barrier separating them and form a helium isomer characterized by L = 1, S = 1 and odd parity. . . .

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3122. Parmenter, R.H., Enhancement of Cold Fusion Processes in Palladium by Catalytic Agents. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(43): p. 66.

First Author: Parmenter, R. H.
All Authors: Parmenter, R. H.
Keywords: theory

The process of fusion of a pair of deuterons into an α parti­cle in palladium metal can be enhanced by the presence of free protons. The process of fusion of lithium 6 and a deuteron into a pair of α particles can be enhanced by the presence of free neutrons. . . .

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3123. Parmigiani, F. and P.G. Sona, Theoretical considerations on the cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 913.

First Author: Parmigiani, F.
All Authors: Parmigiani, F., Sona, P. G.
Keywords: theory, heavy electron

3124. Paseka, I. and J. Vondrak, Cold nuclear fusion. Chem. Listy, 1990. 84: p. 897 (in Czech).

First Author: Paseka, I.
All Authors: Paseka, I., Vondrak, J.
Keywords: review

3125. Passell, T.O. Overview and Status of the EPRI Program on Deuterated Metals. in ASME Joint International Power Generation Conference. 1994. Phoenix, AZ.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, D/Pd

3126. Passell, T.O., Radiation data reported by Wolf at Texas A&M as transmitted by T. Passell. 1995, EPRI.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission

ABSTRACTThree cells were electrolyzed in series at constant low current 42 days near a neutron detector of low background (40 counts/hr) using a protocol of adding boron and aluminum at 0.001 molar to the 0.1 molar LiOD electrolyte at ~18th day. Cathodes were loaded with deuterium at a few 10’s of milliamps/cm^2, with a 12-hour cryogenic treatment at day 17. Cathodes were sanded and replaced in the cell every 7 days. On the ~21st & 22nd days two successive fast neutron episodes were observed at about 2 times background. The neutron detector is minimally sensitive to gamma rays but gammas were observed near the end of the 20-hour neutron episode. When the cells were dismantled in late Sept 1992, all three cathodes (6 mm diameter x 60 mm long) were observed to be mildly radioactive. Analysis by germanium gamma detectors revealed presence of 100 billion atoms of Ag, Pd, Rh, and (one) Ru isotopes having ratios unlike those from bombardment by high-energy deuteron or proton beams.

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3127. Passell, T.O. Charting the Way Forward in the EPRI Research Program on Deuterated Metals. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review, EPRI, Wolf, gamma emission, radioactivity, D2O, Pd ICCF-5, effect of H2O

Over six years have elapsed since the first announcement by Fleischmann, Pons and Hawkins ( l ) of the observation of excess heat from palladium heavily loaded with deuterium. The EPRI program began in April, 1 989, and has continued to the present time attempting to replicate the claimed excess heat and determine its source. Under conditions difficult to achieve, some 16 separate experiments have successfully reached that goal out of some 35 major attempts. The conditions found necessary for an observation of excess heat were found to be at least three in number: 1) atomic loading ratio (DlPd) > -0.9; 2) Initiation time of 8 to 23 days; 3) current density >0. 1 amperes per cm^2 of cathode area. A fourth condition suggested by the results of a recent experiment is that the FLUX of deuterium across the palladium metal surface must be above some threshold value. No definitive source for the excess heat has been yet robustly determined, but measurable helium-4 has been observed in the cell vapor space in a few cases. The major evidence that the heat may be from nuclear reactions is its magnitude – some 10 to 100 times larger than any known chemical reaction. The objective of the continuing effort is focussed upon identifying the source of the excess heat. Sonic cavitation at a Pd-D2O interface has apparently produced both He-4 in the vapor phase as well as apparent excess heat. This research has identified a huge matrix of possible experiments to confirm or refute various hypotheses on the source of the heat. To acquire sufficient resources to explore this matrix requires, in my opinion, a definitive signature of a nuclear reaction connected with the production of heat. Then and only then, with the promise of a potential energy source of almost unlimited size, will the necessary research funds be forthcoming.

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3128. Passell, T.O. Search for nuclear reaction products in heat-producing palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Pd, boron, theory, ICCF-6

3129. Passell, T.O., Overview of EPRI Program in Deuterated Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 3(4): p. 1.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,, EPRI

3130. Passell, T.O. Search for Nuclear Reaction Products in Heat-Producing Pd. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, electrolysis, boron. ICCF-7

3131. Passell, T.O. and R. George. Trace Elements Added to Palladium by Exposure to Gaseous Deuterium. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., George, R.
Keywords: Pd, transmutation, D2O, D2, ICCF-8

This is an experimental program to investigate possible trace element changes brought about in palladium (Pd) after extensive electrolysis in heavy water electrolytes as well as long time contact of particulate Pd with gaseous deuterium. Of particular interest are cathodes and particulate Pd which had experienced episodes of excess heat production beyond all electrical and other inputs. This paper details the careful analysis by neutron activation analysis (NAA) of a set of three samples of finely powdered Pd exposed to high deuterium pressures (hundreds of atmospheres) near room temperature at the core of hollow cylindrical Pd cathodes. A fourth sample of unused Pd powder from the same batch used in the cathodes was analyzed as a control. The most prominent change observed in the three active samples versus the virgin Pd was the Zn-64 content. The active samples showed an increase in the Zn-64 isotope of 6 to 14 times that in the virgin Pd. Speculation regarding the source of this increased zinc varies from contamination during electron beam welding (used to seal off the hollow core) to nuclear reactions generated by high pressure deuterium gas on the large surface area Pd particles in the core.

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3132. Passell, T.O. Evidence for Lithium-6 Depletion in Pd Exposed to Gaseous Deuterium and Hydrogen. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

3133. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

Changes in Pd-110/Pd-108 ratios as well as the concentration of silver, gold, zinc, cobalt, iridium and lithium-7/6 ratios have been measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) on a set of four samples of particulate palladium exposed to high-pressure deuterium gas in the hollow core of Arata-Zhang cathodes.  Three samples were from cathodes producing excess heat (10’s of megajoules) over a period of  several-months electrolysis, while the fourth was virgin powder from the same batch as that of the active samples.  If a nuclear process is the source of these changes, then multi-isotope elements such as silver, zinc, and iridium should show significant deviations in their isotopic ratios from the natural terrestrial values.  Surface trace lithium did indeed show such differences from that of the virgin material.  The Ag-109/107 ratio is currently under study by accelerator mass spectroscopy (AMS) for the one sample showing the greatest difference in Ag-109 content from that of the virgin material.  Since these variations may have explanations unrelated to nuclear reactions, these results are not yet definitive.  The 8% increase in the Pd-110/108 ratio for one of the four samples relative to the virgin material is one of the most difficult for which to find a conventional explanation.

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3134. Passell, T.O. Pd-110/Pd108 Ratios and Trace Element Changes in Particulate Palladium Exposed to Deuterium Gas (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: transmutation

PowerPoint slides for this paper.

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3135. Passell, T.O. and T. Benson. Glow Discharge Calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O., Benson, T.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry, heat,

3136. Passell, T.O. ICCF-14 Summary. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: review,

3137. Passell, T.O., The Case for Deuteron Stripping with Metal Nuclei as the Source of the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Passell, T. O.
All Authors: Passell, T. O.
Keywords: Deuterium, Energy, Metals, Nuclear, Oppenheimer–Phillips

Evidence is cited from the research literature on metals containing absorbed deuterium supporting the hypothesis that the excess heat episodes observed over the past 25 years are the result of exothermic deuteron stripping reactions with atomic nuclei of the absorbing metal. The deuteron stripping reaction is one in which the neutron half of the mass 2 deuteron is captured by an atomic nucleus while the proton half of the deuteron is ejected, repelled by the coulomb field of the positively charged metal nucleus. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation why so little external radiation accompanies the episodes of excess heat first observed by Fleischmann and Pons [1]. The reaction products from stable isotopes of the host metal are a proton with energies up to 9.2 MeV energy and a recoiling nucleus with energies of 100-to 600 keV. These two reaction products are retained near their birthplace because their range in solids is less than 100 m. The emitted proton is energetic enough to produce by (p,n), (p, ), (p,T), and (p,X-ray), reactions with host metal nuclei and their light-element impurities, the small number of neutrons, alpha particles, tritium atoms (T), and X-rays, occasionally observed associated with deuterated Ti and Pd. The PIXE process (proton induced X-ray emission) is expected in which numerous K, L, and M X-rays of the absorbing metal are produced. For metals with thicknesses of >1 mm the vast majority of such X-rays do not escape the metal. In experiments with foils of the host metal sufficiently thin, low levels of charged particles (mostly protons) have been observed. Some of the observed protons were at energies larger than 3.0 MeV, the largest possible energy of protons from the fusion of two deuterons. Widely observed He4 and tritium are known products of the deuteron stripping reaction with Li6, which is a major constituent of electrolytes and a minor impurity in most metals. In any case, researchers have observed small but definite indicators of nuclear reactions other than d+d fusion in deuterated metals at temperatures not significantly above ambient.

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3138. Patterson, J.A., Method for Electrolysis of Water to Form Metal Hydride. 1994: US Patent # 5,318,675.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: heat+, water, electrolysis, beads CETI patent,

3139. Patterson, J.A., System for Electrolysis. 1996: US Patent #5,494,559.

First Author: Patterson, J. A.
All Authors: Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis CETI patent,

3140. Pauling, L., Explanations of cold fusion” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 105.

First Author: Pauling, L.
All Authors: Pauling, L.
Keywords: PdD2, phase diagram, theory, structure

3141. Pease, D., et al., Search for Low-energy X-ray and Particle Emissions from an Electrochemical Cell. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Pease, D.
All Authors: Pease, D., Azizi, O., He, J., El-Boher, A., Hubler, G. K., Bok, S., Mathai, C., Gangopadhyay, S., Lecci, S., Violante, V.
Keywords: Anomalous heat effect, Electrolytic cell, Low energy, PdD cathode, X-rays

Several theories to explain anomalous heat production predict the emission of low-energy X-rays and/or MeV alpha particles from PdD cathodes in electrochemical cells. Such radiation, however, is not detectable from outside of a standard electrochemical cell due to absorption in the electrolyte and cell walls. A custom cell was therefore assembled which permits X-rays of energy > 1 keV to pass through a thin cathodic membrane and enter into an X-ray detector with minimal attenuation. This test cell geometry also potentially allows any emitted MeV alpha particles to be detected when they impact a Pd cathode and cause fluorescent emission of Pd-K (21.2, 23.8 keV) X-rays. The detection of X-ray emissions from a membrane electrolytic cell potentially permits the mechanism(s) for anomalous heat production to be investigated with great sensitivity. As an example, a typical X-ray detector allows 1 keV X-rays to be detected at emission rates of less than one per second and this level of sensitivity corresponds to a thermal resolution of < 0.2 fW. Time resolved X-ray spectral data ranging from 1 to 30 keV was collected for over a year using various types of membranes and different electrolytic solutions. None of these test cells, however, yielded any X-rays which were above ambient background levels.

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3142. Peat, F.D., Cold fusion: The making of a scientific controversy. 1989: Contempory Books.

First Author: Peat, F. D.
All Authors: Peat, F. D.
Keywords: history, book,

3143. Pell, E., Agreements and Disagreements with Storms. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Pell, E.
All Authors: Pell, E.
Keywords: theory, critique

Storms points out that cold fusion (LENR) does not produce a high energy particle as part of the final product. There is ample experimental proof of this and I agree.Storms includes all lattice defects as being lattice and not potential reaction sites. I disagree. I still see lattice defects as potential sites, particularly single atom vacancies. I do agree that regular undisturbed lattice material is not where reactions occur, even when loaded greater than 0.9 with deuterium.

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3144. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechancial Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords: Theory

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect [1] (FPE) was swiftly rejected when published in 1989, yet a significant number of researchers have since reported energy gains in similar experiments; for a review see ref. [2]. These gains have been associated with “cold fusion” or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) where energy is released from a deuterium-deuterium (d-d) fusion. Clearly, this raises fundamental questions because the probability of a d-d fusion, under the conditions of the FPE cell, is extremely small. As stated in ref. [1], “it is necessary to reconsider the quantum mechanics of electrons and deuterons in such host lattices.”The goal of this paper is to predict possible changes in the probability of d-d fusion, caused by perturbations to the energy barriers or positive interference caused by the effects of adjacent atoms in a lattice. We report preliminary work on formulating quantum-mechanical models of the behavior of deuterium atoms trapped in a lattice.

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3145. Pemberton, S., J. Mace, and D. Tasker. Quantum Mechanical Study of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Pemberton, S.
All Authors: Pemberton, S., Mace, J., Tasker, D.
Keywords:

Resonances in deuterium-deuterium fusion were examined by calculating the transmission behavior of a single deuteron through a deuterium atom, or through a system comprising two or three deuterium atoms, using transfer matrix methodology. Many unittransmission resonance peaks were observed in the results of the calculations, even at incoming deuteron energies of a few electron volts, but resonance peak widths were found to be very narrow at low energies, so that the probabilities of fusion would be small.

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3146. Pennisi, E., Helium find thaws the cold fusion trail. Sci. News (Washington, DC), 1991. 139(12): p. 177.

First Author: Pennisi, E.
All Authors: Pennisi, E.
Keywords: history

3147. Perez-Pariente, J. Evidence For The Ocurrence Of Lenr-Type Processes In Alchemical Transmutations. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Perez-Pariente, J.
All Authors: Perez-Pariente, J.
Keywords: transmutation

3148. Perfetti, P., et al., Neutron emission under particular nonequilibrium conditions from palladium and titanium electrolytically charged with deuterium. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. D, 1989. 11(6): p. 921.

First Author: Perfetti, P.
All Authors: Perfetti, P., Cilloco, F., Felici, R., Capozi, M., Ippoliti, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron, PdD, heat+, fractofusion

3149. Peroni, P., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (Letters to the Editor). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: Peroni, P.
All Authors: Peroni, P.
Keywords: critique, theory

3150. Petelenz, P., Hypothetical D-D bound states in solid palladium. Acta Phys. Pol. A, 1989. 75: p. 929.

First Author: Petelenz, P.
All Authors: Petelenz, P.
Keywords: theory, distance

3151. Peterson, C., The Guardian Poplar, A Memoir of Deep Roots, Journey and Rediscovery. 2012, Salt Lake City: The University of Utah Press.

First Author: Peterson, C.
All Authors: Peterson, C.
Keywords: History

Selected portions of chapter 12 from Chase Peterson’s autobiography. Peterson was president of the University of Utah when cold fusion was announced. This chapter is titled, “THEY WILL ONLY LAUGH AT YOU”: Cold Fusion.

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3152. Petit, C., Fusion Fever in Utah –State Aches With Pride, in Salt Lake City Chronicle. 1989: Salt Lake CityEditor.

First Author: Petit, C.
All Authors: Petit, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3153. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Problems with the gamma-ray spectrum in the Fleischmann et al experiments. Nature (London), 1989. 339(6221): p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: critique Fleischmann, gamma emission

3154. Petrasso, R.D., et al., Measurement of g-Rays from Cold Fusion. Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 667.

First Author: Petrasso, R. D.
All Authors: Petrasso, R. D., Chen, X., Wenzel, K. W., Parker, R. R., Li, C. K., Fiore, C.
Keywords: gamma emission, Pd, D2O, history, Fleischmann

3155. Petrii, O.A., et al., Attempts to detect electrochemical cold nuclear fusion by determining the excess tritium. Sov. Electrochem., 1991. 27: p. 1240.

First Author: Petrii, O. A.
All Authors: Petrii, O. A., Tsirlina, G. A., Simonov, E. F., Safonov, V. A., Lapshina, E. V.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3156. Petrillo, C. and F. Sacchetti, A possible mechanism for bulk cold fusion in transition metal hydrides. Europhys. Lett., 1989. 10: p. 15.

First Author: Petrillo, C.
All Authors: Petrillo, C., Sacchetti, F.
Keywords: theory, phase change

3157. Petrucci, A., R. Mignani, and F. Cardone. Comparison Between Piezonuclear Reactions and CMNS Phenomenology. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Petrucci, A.
All Authors: Petrucci, A., Mignani, R., Cardone, F.
Keywords:

The purpose of this paper is to place side by side the experimental results of Piezonuclear reactions, which have been recently unveiled, and those collected during the last twenty years of experiments on low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). We will briefly report the results of our campaign of experiments on piezonuclear reactions where ultrasounds and cavitation were applied to solutions of stable elements. These outcomes will be shown to be compatible with the results and evidences obtained from low energy nuclear reaction experiments. Some theoretical concepts and ideas, on which our experiments are grounded, will be sketched and it will be shown that, in order to trigger our measured effects, it exists an energy threshold, that has to be overcome, and a maximum interval of time for this energy to be released to the nuclear system. Eventually, a research hypothesis will be put forward about the chance to raise the level of analogy from the mere comparison of results up to the phenomenological level. Here, among the various evidences collected in LENR experiments, we will search for hints about the overcome of the energy threshold and about the mechanism that releases the loaded energy in a suitable interval of time.

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3158. Phillips, S.M., Extra-Sensory Preception of Quarks. 1980, India: The Theosophical Publishing House.

First Author: Phillips, S. M.
All Authors: Phillips, S. M.
Keywords: theory,

3159. Phipps, T.E., Neutron formation by electron penetration of the nucleus. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 58.

First Author: Phipps, T. E.
All Authors: Phipps, T. E.
Keywords: Theory neutron formation

3160. Piantelli, F., Energy Generation and Generator by Means of Anharmonic Stimulated Fusion WO 1995/020816. 1995: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, F.
All Authors: Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat,

3161. Piantelli, S. and F. Piantelli, Method for producing energy and apparatus therefor WO 2010/058288. 2010: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Piantelli, S.
All Authors: Piantelli, S., Piantelli, F.
Keywords: patent, Ni, H2, heat

Abstract: A method and a generator to produce energy from nuclear reactions between hydrogen and a metal, comprising the steps of a) production of a determined quantity of micro/nanometric clusters of a transition metal, b) bringing hydrogen into contact with said clusters and controlling its pressure and speed, preferably after applying vacuum cycles of at least 10^-9 bar between 35Рand 500у for degassing the clusters . . .

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3162. Picard, C., O.J. Kleppa, and G. Boureau, Thermodynamic Study of the Palladium-Hydrogen System at 245-352 C and at Pressures Up To 34 atm. J. Chem. Phys., 1978. 69: p. 5549.

First Author: Picard, C.
All Authors: Picard, C., Kleppa, O. J., Boureau, G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, PdH, thermodynamic, pressure, Phase Diagram, enthalpy

3163. Picasso, L.E., Fusione: Fredda o calda?” (Fusion; cold or hot?). Accaio Inossid., 1989. 56(2): p. 5 (in Italian).

First Author: Picasso, L. E.
All Authors: Picasso, L. E.
Keywords: review

3164. Pike, R. Chemical Aspects of LENR. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Pike, R.
All Authors: Pike, R.
Keywords: electrochemistry

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The chemistry connected with low energy nuclear reactions is considered, starting with the Fleischmann and Pons work. Further innovations in electrochemical experiments following upon Fleischmann and Pons are examined. The chemical and structural nature of metal hydrides is discussed. Attention is paid to the variety of mixed metal hydrides that might potentially be exploited in LENR. Finally, the issues connected with LENR reactor design are touched upon.

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3165. Pinch, T.J., Opening black boxes: Science, technology and society. Social Studies of Science, 1992. 22: p. 487.

First Author: Pinch, T. J.
All Authors: Pinch, T. J.
Keywords: history

3166. Pippard, B., Footnote to History. Nature (London), 1991. 350: p. 29.

First Author: Pippard, B.
All Authors: Pippard, B.
Keywords: history

3167. Platt, C., What If Cold Fusion Is Real?, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/coldfusion.html It was the most notorious scientific experiment in recent memory – in 1989, the two men who claimed to have discovered the energy of the future were condemned as imposters and exiled by their peers. Can it possibly make sense to reopen the cold fusion investigation? A surprising number of researchers already have.

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3168. Platt, C., The Wired 25, in Wired. 1998.

First Author: Platt, C.
All Authors: Platt, C.
Keywords: history

This article is available at: xxxx://www.wired.com/wired/archive/6.11/wired25.html Life is short. Especially when you’re determined to break all the rules.In any age, there are a few people who give the rest of us something we can truly aspire to – and never more so than today. Meet the Wired 25, class of 1998. They are actively, even hyperactively, inventing tomorrow. From a wide range of professions, they have one thing in common: devotion to a singular ambition. They are attempting the impossible, and whether they succeed or fail, they will have a lasting impact on your life (and the lives of your kids).

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3169. Plotkin, H., The war against cold fusion. What’s realy behind it?, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/05/17/coldfusion2.dtlTwo months ago, I reported that Dr. Michael McKubre, an electrochemist at Menlo Park-based SRI, was, like other researchers, generating unaccounted-for heat in a carefully-controlled cold fusion experiment. . . .

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3170. Plotkin, H., Power To The People. The return of cold fusion, in SF Gate. 1999.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: history

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/technology/archive/1999/03/15/coldfusion.dtlOn Friday, March 26, 1999, the director of Menlo Park-based SRI International’s Energy Research Center, Dr. Michael McKubre, will present the results of SRI’s 10-year, $6 million-dollar effort to replicate the cold-fusion experiments of chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann. McKubre’s startling conclusion: Pons and Fleischmann were on to something.

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3171. Plotkin, H., Cold Fusion Rides Again. Science magazine publishes more evidence of tabletop nuclear reactions, in SF Gate. 2002.

First Author: Plotkin, H.
All Authors: Plotkin, H.
Keywords: sonofusion

This news article is archived here:xxxx://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/gate/archive/2002/03/25/tbltpfusion.DTLScience magazine dropped a bombshell earlier this month: The prestigious journal published a paper by a team of researchers at Tennessee’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory who say they have discovered evidence of what looks like nuclear fusion taking place in a relatively inexpensive tabletop device. The findings bear striking similarities to the controversial cold-fusion claims made by chemists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischmann in 1989, although the particular experiment is different.

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3172. Pokropivnii, V.V. and V.V. Ogorodnikov, The bineutron model of cold nuclear fusion in metals. Pis`ma Zh. Teor. Fiz., 1990. 16(21): p. 31 (in Russian).

First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V.
All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V., Ogorodnikov, V. V.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3173. Pokropivnii, V.V., Bineutron theory of cold nuclear fusion. Dokl. Akad. Nauk Ukr., 1993(4): p. 86 (in Russian).

First Author: Pokropivnii, V. V.
All Authors: Pokropivnii, V. V.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3174. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Some Comments on the History of the Field. 1989.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: history

3175. Pons, S., et al., Method and Apparatus for Power Generation. 1990: WO 90/10935,1990.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M., Walling, C., Simons, J. P.
Keywords: patent, apparatus,

3176. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Calorimetry of the Palladium-Deuterium System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method., electrolysis, ICCF-1

3177. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric measurements of the palladium/deuterium system: fact and fiction. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 669.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, method, critique

3178. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-based Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-2

3179. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Concerning the detection of neutron and gamma-rays from cells containing palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105A: p. 763.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron gamma emission

3180. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann. Heat After Death. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, ICCF-4, electrolysis

Abstract We have described elsewhere . . . that Pd and Pd-alloy electrodes cathodically polarised in D2O solutions under extreme conditions can drive the calorimetric cells to the boiling point. We have then adopted the procedure of allowing the cells to boil to dryness. For these conditions the galvanostats are driven to the rail voltage (100 V) but the cell current is reduced to zero. We have then found that cells which contained D2O frequently remain at high temperatures (in the vicinity of 100у) before cooling rapidly to the bath temperature. Cells containing H2O can also be driven to the boiling point but such cells cool immediately on terminating the experiments. This phenomenon has become known as “Heat after Death” (the death referring to cessation of polarisation). Calibrations of the cells for such conditions show the generation of high levels of enthalpy at zero enthalpy input. Methods of investigating such systems will be outlined.

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3181. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 1). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 1, cover page to page 200.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large.

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3182. Pons, S., ed. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion (Part 2). 1995, IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France: Monte-Carlo, Monaco. 640.

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S.
Keywords:

This is the complete proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion, April 9-13, 1995, Monte-Carlo, Monaco.The printed book is in one volume, but this version has been split into two parts to facilitate downloading. This is Part 2, page 201 to page 640.This file is in image-over-text Acrobat format, so it is large.

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3183. Pons, S. and M. Fleischmann, Etalonnage du systeme Pd-D2O: effets de protocole et feed-back positif. [“Calibration of the Pd-D2O system: protocol and positive feed-back effects”]. J. Chim. Phys., 1996. 93: p. 711 (in French).

First Author: Pons, S.
All Authors: Pons, S., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Theory, enthalpy of formation, PdD

3184. Pool, R., Teller, Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3185. Pool, R., Fusion Breakthrough? Science, 1989. 244: p. 1661.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3186. Pool, R., Fusion Followup : Confusion Abounds. Science, 1989. 244: p. 27.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3187. Pool, R., Skepticism Grows Over Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 244: p. 285.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3188. Pool, R. and M. Crawford, How Cold Fusion Happened- Twice ! Science, 1989. 244: p. 423.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R., Crawford, M.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3189. Pool, R., Brookhaven Chemists Find New Fusion Method. Science, 1989. 245: p. 1448.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: cluster, D2O, ion bombardment

3190. Pool, R., Will New Evidence Support Cold Fusion ? AND Teller,Chu Boost Cold Fusion. Science, 1989. 246: p. 206, 449.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history, conference

3191. Pool, R., Wolf: My Tritium Was Impurity. Science, 1990.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3192. Pool, R., Cold Fusion: End of Act 1. Science, 1990. 244: p. 1039.

First Author: Pool, R.
All Authors: Pool, R.
Keywords: history

3193. Popa-Simil, L. Roadmap to Fusion Battery A Novel Type of Nuclear Battery and Potential Outcomes and Applications. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Popa-Simil, L.
All Authors: Popa-Simil, L.
Keywords: fusion, direct energy conversion

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.The Fusion battery was the object of many science fiction novels and movies; the most recent one being “Star Trek,” but now it is poised to come to life. These batteries rely on a process that converts the fusion energy into electricity. They are more compact and state-of-the-art and resemble an aluminum air battery, but up to about 10 million times more powerful. . . .

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3194. Popa-Simil, L. The Fusion-Transmutation Battery. in Nuclear and Emerging Technologies for Space 2013. 2013. Albuquerque, NM.

First Author: Popa-Simil, L.
All Authors: Popa-Simil, L.
Keywords: fusion battery

Nuclear reactions such as transmutation, fusion or fission may occur in special nano-structures arrangements with a specific excitation that creates a nuclear active environment.All the parameters of mass distribution, quantum states and field excitation contribute to the process that involves more than two bodies that are not smashed together through their Coulombian barrier, as is the normal nuclear practice. New concepts in physics such as quantum nonlocality and potential formation of nuclear molecules come into play when considering high quantum energy reactions triggered by low energy excitation of special quantum states. Several nuclear or sub-nuclear entities in various positions may entangle putting the nuclear mass in special communion that may react and end in totally different structures than for normally encountered combinations.In the past 20 years of experiments, some observations of reactions producing heat only, reactions exhibiting strong bursts of neutrons, gammas and X-rays, some explosions, and over 40 accidents give strong support for new physics ideas in the world.

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3195. Porter, J.D., et al., Limits on electromagnetic and particle emission from palladium-D2O electrolytic cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 319.

First Author: Porter, J. D.
All Authors: Porter, J. D., Shihab-Eldin, A. A., Bossy, H., Echegaray, F. J., Nitschke, J. M., Prussin, S. G., Rasmussen, J. O., Stoyer, M. A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, H2O, particle emission

3196. Postnikov, V.S., V.V. Postnikov, and V.M. Fedorov, Instability and Superconductivity in Pd-Ag-D and Pd-H Systems. Phys. Stat. Sol. B, 1978. 85: p. K115.

First Author: Postnikov, V. S.
All Authors: Postnikov, V. S., Postnikov, V. V., Fedorov, V. M.
Keywords: superconductivity, PdH, Pd-Ag

3197. Powell, G.L., et al., The preparation of palladium for cold fusion experiments. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 355.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Bullock, IV J. S., Hallman, R. L., Horton, P. J., Hutchinson, D. P.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2, pressure, method, preparation

3198. Powell, G.L., The Reaction Probability for Exchange of Hydrogen Isotopes on Pd. 1991.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L.
Keywords: exhange, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Tritium, Pd,

3199. Powell, G.L., et al., Surface and Bulk Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd. 1991.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Lasser, R., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W.
Keywords: Pd, PdD, diffusion, loading,

3200. Powell, G.L. and J.R. Kirkpatrick, Surface Conductance and Diffusion of H and D in Pd. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43(9): p. 6968.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R.
Keywords: Pd, D, H, diffusion

3201. Powell, G.L., J.R. Kirkpatrick, and J.W. Conant, Surface Effects in the Reaction of H and D with Pd-Macroscopic Manifestations. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 867.

First Author: Powell, G. L.
All Authors: Powell, G. L., Kirkpatrick, J. R., Conant, J. W.
Keywords: pressure, Pd, D, H, PdD, PdH, phase Diagram, diffusion

3202. Poyser, P.A., M. Kemali, and D.K. Ross, Deuterium absorption in Pd0.9Y0.1 alloy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 175.

First Author: Poyser, P. A.
All Authors: Poyser, P. A., Kemali, M., Ross, D. K.
Keywords: Pd-Y-D, PdD, loading, Pd, lattice parameter

3203. Pozwolski, A.E., Comments on composite electrolytes and cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 120.

First Author: Pozwolski, A. E.
All Authors: Pozwolski, A. E.
Keywords: theory

3204. Prati, P., et al., Search for neutron emission from titanium-deuterium systems. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 105: p. 293.

First Author: Prati, P.
All Authors: Prati, P., Ricco, G., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U.
Keywords: neutron method, titanium, D2

3205. Pratt, L.R. and J. Eckert, Molecular Dynamics of a Dilute Solution of Hydrogen in Palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 39(18): p. 13170.

First Author: Pratt, L. R.
All Authors: Pratt, L. R., Eckert, J.
Keywords: Pd, H, theory, vibration

3206. Prelas, M.A., Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 240.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A.
Keywords: discussion

3207. Prelas, M.A., et al., Cold fusion experiments using Maxwellian plasmas and sub-atmospheric deuterium gas. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 309.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Boody, F., Gallaher, W., Leal-Quiros, E., Mencin, D., Taylor, S.
Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, neutron, gamma emission

3208. Prelas, M.A. and E. Lukosi, Neutron Emission from Cryogenically Cooled Metals Under Thermal Shock. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Prelas, M. A.
All Authors: Prelas, M. A., Lukosi, E.
Keywords: Deuterium, Neutrons, Phase Change, Surface preparation, Thermal shock, Titanium

During the summer of 1991, intense neutron bursts were observed after temperature shocking titanium chips which had been saturated with deuterium gas. The titanium chips were cooled and loaded with deuterium at 77 K and then rapidly heated to 323 K. The rapid heating produces a large pressure increase inside the crystalline lattice of the host metal. An Event Timer/Counter (ETC) card was designed and developed which counted and kept a time distribution of the neutron pulses as they occurred from a helium-3 neutron counter embedded in a paraffin moderator [1]. The experiment produced copious neutron counts. During one cooling and heating cycle, over 2 million neutrons were counted over a 5 min time period. In subsequent cooling and heating cycles using the same titanium chips, significant neutron bursts were observed with diminishing counts after each subsequent cycle. This paper will discuss the 1991 experiments and the status of ongoing experiments.

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3209. Prelazzi, G., M. Cerboni, and G. Leofanti, Comparison of H2 adsorption, O2 adsorption, H2 titration, and O2 titration on supported palladium catalysts. J. Catal., 1999. 181: p. 73.

First Author: Prelazzi, G.
All Authors: Prelazzi, G., Cerboni, M., Leofanti, G.
Keywords: Pd, catalyst, PdH, composition, loading

3210. Premuda, F., Cold fusion: what’s going on? (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 712.

First Author: Premuda, F.
All Authors: Premuda, F.
Keywords: theory

3211. Premuda, F., Coulomb barrier total screening by Bose-Einstein-condensed deuterium in palladium blisters and reaction chains in high-density hysteresis. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 350.

First Author: Premuda, F.
All Authors: Premuda, F.
Keywords: Theory, screening, Bose-Einstein

3212. Preparata, G. Fractofusion Revisted. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory fractofusion

3213. Preparata, G. Theoretical Ideas on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1

3214. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid? in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, review, ICCF-2

3215. Preparata, G., Some theories of ‘cold’ nuclear fusion: a review. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 82.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: review, theory

3216. Preparata, G., A new look at solid-state fractures, particle emission and ‘cold’ nuclear fusion. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 104: p. 1259.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

3217. Preparata, G. Towards a Theory of Cold Fusion Phenomena. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory

3218. Preparata, G. Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

3219. Preparata, G. Comments on the Criticisms of M. Rabinowitz. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rabinowitz, ICCF-4

3220. Preparata, G., Cold Fusion ’93’: Some Theoretical Ideas. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 397.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory screening

3221. Preparata, G. Setting Cold Fusion in Context: A Reply. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

This talk consists of three parts: the first on the “pathological” nature of Cold Fusion ( CF ) phenomena, the second on a wide theoretical effort based on the new i deas of Q ED coherence in matter, and the third replying to explicit criticisms to my work.

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3222. Preparata, G. Everything Thing You Always Wanted to Know About Cold Fusion Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, critique, method, ICCF-6

3223. Preparata, G., M. Scorletti, and M. Verpelli, Isoperibolic calorimetry on modified Fleischmann-Pons cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1996. 411: p. 9.

First Author: Preparata, G.
All Authors: Preparata, G., Scorletti, M., Verpelli, M.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, replication, Fleischmann

3224. Press, A., LANL Confirms Cold Fusion Tritium -and- Lab Hasn’t Confirmed Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1989.

First Author: Press, A.
All Authors: Press, A.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3225. Press, A., Cold Fusion Experiments Produce Excess Tritium, in The Oak Ridger. 1990. p. 7.

First Author: Press, A.
All Authors: Press, A.
Keywords: history

3226. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoliminescence Induced Deuterium Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 530.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: acoustic, fusion, deuterium

3227. Prevenslik, T.V. Biological Effects of Ultasonic Cavitation. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: ultrasound, biology, cavitation, radiation, ICCF-5

Cavitation energy in a nearly evacuated bubble is shown to not likely reside in the thermal state of the water molecule. In a spherical bubble compression and until the bubble assumes a pancake collapse shape, a temperature increase does not occur in the bubble gas because the mean free path likely exceeds the bubble diameter. The subsequent collapse of the pancake shape to liquid density occurs with only a negligible volume change so that the temperature increase for compression heating of bubble gases is insignificant. Even near liquid density, a temperature increase does not occur as the energy transfer by molecular collisions is in the adiabatic limit for both vibrational and rotational modes. Instead, the IR radiation energy density present within the bubble is increased as required to satisfy standing wave boundary conditions with the bubble walls in the direction of collapse. For biological tissue in an opaque environment, bubble collapse is found to increase the 5- 10 micron I R thermal radiation at ambient temperature to about 3-5 e V that is capable of dissociating the water molecule and forming the chemically reactive hydroxyl radical. Hence, the biological effects of ultrasonic cavitation are proposed to be caused by the chemical reaction of the organisms with the excited electronic states of dissolved oxygen and water molecules.

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3228. Prevenslik, T.V., Ultrasound induced and laser enhanced cold fusion chemistry. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1995. 6: p. 198.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, ultrasound

3229. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: an IRaser creating cold fusion neutrons? Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1996. 7: p. 157.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence

3230. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: microwaves and cold fusion. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1997. 8: p. 94.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, sonofusion, microwaves

3231. Prevenslik, T.V., Sonoluminescence: fusion at ambient temperature? Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 128.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, D2O, liquid fusion

3232. Prevenslik, T.V., On the Possibility of a Cavity QED Cold Fusion Cell. Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys., 2000. 38: p. 155.

First Author: Prevenslik, T. V.
All Authors: Prevenslik, T. V.
Keywords: Theory, bubbles

3233. Price, P.B., et al., Search for energetic-charged-particle emission from deuterated Ti and Pd foils. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(18): p. 1926.

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B., Barwick, S. W., Williams, W. T., Porter, J. D.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2, particle emission, CR-39

3234. Price, P.B., Search for high-energy ions from fracture of LiD crystals. Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 542 (Feb 1990).

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B.
Keywords: LiD, fractofusoin, neutron

3235. Price, P.B., Advances in solid state nuclear track detectors. Nucl. Tracks Radiat. Meas., 1993. 22(1-4): p. 9.

First Author: Price, P. B.
All Authors: Price, P. B.
Keywords: particle emission, method

3236. Pryakhin, E., et al. Assessment Of The Biological Effects Of “Strange” Radiation. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Pryakhin, E.
All Authors: Pryakhin, E., Urutshoev, L., Tryapitsina, G., Akleyev, A.
Keywords: transmutation

3237. Putterman, S.J., Sonoluminescence: Sound into light. Scientific American, 1995. 272: p. 46.

First Author: Putterman, S. J.
All Authors: Putterman, S. J.
Keywords: Sonoluminescence, acoustic

3238. Pyun, S.I., C. Lim, and K.B. Kim, An investigation of the electrochemical kinetics of deuterium insertion into a Pd membrane electrode in 0.1M LiOD solution by the a.c. impedance technique. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1994. 203: p. 149.

First Author: Pyun, S. I.
All Authors: Pyun, S. I., Lim, C., Kim, K. B.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, electrolysis, PdD

3239. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada.

First Author: Qiao, G. S.
All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: helium transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2,, H2 ICCF-7

3240. Qiao, G.S., et al. Nuclear Products in a Gas-Loading D/Pd and H/Pd System. in ICCF7, Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada.

First Author: Qiao, G. S.
All Authors: Qiao, G. S., Han, X. L., Kong, L. C., Zheng, S. X., Huang, H. F., Yan, Y. J., Wu, Q. L., Deng, Y., Lei, S. L., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: 4He, transmutation, CR-39, radiation, D2 , H2?

3241. Qin, G., et al., Evolution of hydrogen (deuterium) in palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) system and the distribution of hydrogen near the surface. Wuli Xuebao, 1991. 40(6): p. 943 (in Chinese).

First Author: Qin, G.
All Authors: Qin, G., Peng, Q., Fu, J., Zhang, L., Zhang, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, x-ray diffraction, lattice parameter, H2O

3242. Qiu, W., Q. Dong, and F. Gan, Positron lifetime studies on systems of palladium filled galvanostatically with hydrogen or deuterium. Nucl. Sci. Tech., 1991. 2(3): p. 157.

First Author: Qiu, W.
All Authors: Qiu, W., Dong, Q., Gan, F.
Keywords: theory, position annihilation

3243. Qiu, W.C., et al., PAS studies on the new topic: Cold nuclear fusion. Mat. Sci. Forum, 1992. 105-110: p. 1961.

First Author: Qiu, W. C.
All Authors: Qiu, W. C., Dong, Q. H., Gan, F. X., Wang, S. J.
Keywords: positron annihilation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

3244. Quan, L.J. Physical basis of cold fusion excited in TiD2 lattice. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Quan, L. J.
All Authors: Quan, L. J.
Keywords: Theory, TiD2, fusion, D2, shielding,

3245. Quick, J.E., et al., Tritium concentrations in the active Pu’u O’o crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: implications for cold fusion in the Earth’s interior. Phys. Earth Planet. Interior, 1991. 69: p. 132.

First Author: Quick, J. E.
All Authors: Quick, J. E., Hinkley, T. K., Reimer, G. M., Hedge, C. E.
Keywords: tritium, volcano

3246. Quickenden, T.I. and T.A. Green, A calorimetric study of the electrolysis of D2O and H2O at palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 344: p. 167.

First Author: Quickenden, T. I.
All Authors: Quickenden, T. I., Green, T. A.
Keywords: heat-, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

3247. Rabinowitz, M., A theoretical framework for cold fusion mechanisms. IEEE Power Eng. Rev., 1989(November): p. 9.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory

3248. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Cluster-Impact Fusion: Bridge Between Hot and Cold Fusion? in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S.
Keywords: theory, cluster

3249. Rabinowitz, M., High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(4): p. 233.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

3250. Rabinowitz, M., Cluster-impact fusion: new physics or experimental error. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4: p. 665.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, critique

3251. Rabinowitz, M. and D.H. Worledge, An analysis of cold and lukewarm fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 344.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Worledge, D. H.
Keywords: theory, review

3252. Rabinowitz, M. Response to G. Preparata. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: theory, critique, Preparata, ICCF-4

3253. Rabinowitz, M., et al. Opposition and Support for Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M., Kim, Y. E., Chechin, V. A., Tsarev, V. A.
Keywords: theory, critique, ICCF-4

3254. Rabinowitz, M., Phenomenological Theory for Short Coherence Length Superconductivity. Chem. Phys. Lett., 1993. 216: p. 571.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: superconductivity, theory

3255. Rabinowitz, M., Do the Laws of Nature and Physics Agree On What is Allowed and Forbidden? 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1993. Spring.

First Author: Rabinowitz, M.
All Authors: Rabinowitz, M.
Keywords: review, theory

3256. Rabzi, G.S., Natural cold fusion-natural new energy- natural new physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: Theory, transmutation

3257. Rabzi, G.S., Mechanism of Low Temperature Transmutation. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 55.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, theory

3258. Rabzi, G.S., Natural Cold Fission-Natural New Energy-Natural New Physics. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 184.

First Author: Rabzi, G. S.
All Authors: Rabzi, G. S.
Keywords: transmutation,, theory

3259. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Search for Electrochemically Catalysed Fusion of Deuterons in Metal Lattice, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 5.

First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P.
All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Arunachalam, J., SitaramaRaju, V., Kalyanaraman, R., Gangadharan, S., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: Excess heat,

3260. Radhakrishnan, T.P., et al., Tritium Generation during Electrolysis Experiment, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 6.

First Author: Radhakrishnan, T. P.
All Authors: Radhakrishnan, T. P., Sundaresan, R., Gangadharan, S., Sen, B. K., Murthy, T. S.
Keywords: tritium

In continuation of the earlier R&D work carried out in connection with the investigations for electrochemically induced fusion of deuterons using palladium cathode and platinum anode, a series of experiments was carried out.

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3261. Rafelski, J. and S.E. Jones, Cold Nuclear Fusion. Scientific American, 1987. July: p. 84.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: muon

3262. Rafelski, J., et al., Limits on Cold Fusion in Condensed Matter: A Parametric Study. 1989.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Gajda, M., Harley, D., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, theory,

3263. Rafelski, J., et al., How cold fusion can be catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D.
Keywords: theory

3264. Rafelski, J., et al., Nuclear reactions catalyzed by a massive negatively charged particle. How Cold Fusion Can Be Catalyzed. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 136.

First Author: Rafelski, J.
All Authors: Rafelski, J., Sawicki, M., Gajda, M., Harley, D.
Keywords: theory, New Particle

3265. Rafelski, H.E., et al., Cold fusion: muon-catalyzed fusion. J. Phys. B, 1991. 24: p. 1469.

First Author: Rafelski, H. E.
All Authors: Rafelski, H. E., Harley, D., Shin, G. R., Rafelski, J.
Keywords: review, muon

3266. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, On the possibility of deuteron disintegration in electrochemically compressed deuterium ion (D+) in a palladium cathode. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 243.

First Author: Ragheb, M.
All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, Oppenheimer-Phillips

3267. Ragheb, M. and G.H. Miley, Deuteron disintegration in condensed media. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 429.

First Author: Ragheb, M.
All Authors: Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, D, Pd, tritium, Oppenheimer Phillips

3268. Ragland, E., Triode cell experiments for controlled Fleischmann/Pons effect. 1990.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: heat, method

3269. Ragland, E. A Physical Description of Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

Cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in an electrolysis cell with palladium electrodes is described as a comprehensive sequence of physical phenomena.1 . Electrolysis generates many more cations than are necessary to sustain ionization in the cell. The excess cations are adsorbed on the cathode surface where they create an electrical charge Qo of “overvoltage” Eo.2 A small fraction (0.01 to 0.1%) of the adsorbed cations, which are thousands of times smaller than typical electrolysis cations and driven by meV adsorption kinetics, penetrate several hundred lattice layers into the cathode metal. These nuclei absorb into the metal until its capacity C (nt) saturates. . . .

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3270. Ragland, E., A cold fusion technology assessment. Part I – Preliminary Report. 1994.

First Author: Ragland, E.
All Authors: Ragland, E.
Keywords: review

3271. Raj, P., et al., Search for Nuclear Fusion in Gas Phase Deuteriding of Titanium Metal, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 1.

First Author: Raj, P.
All Authors: Raj, P., Suryanarayana, P., Sathyamoorthy, A., Datta, T.
Keywords: Ti, neutron, D2

The possibility of D-D nuclear fusion in some deuterium-metal systems, under ambient conditions, has aroused feverish worldwide interest. Most of the work reported, so far, concerns deuterium charging of Pd metal through electrolysis of D2O. In the Chemistry Division, we have carried out some experiments on the deuteriding behaviour of Ti metal, through gaseous route, in the absorption as well as desorption modes, with the view to look for the fusion products, neutrons in the present case. These kinds of experiments have been reported by Frascatti Group in Italy. These authors detected neutron emission lasting over a period of several hours.

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3272. Rajagopalan, S.R., Cold fusion produces more tritium than neutrons. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1059.

First Author: Rajagopalan, S. R.
All Authors: Rajagopalan, S. R.
Keywords: theory, review

3273. Rajan, K.G., et al., Electromigration approach to verify cold fusion effects. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 100.

First Author: Rajan, K. G.
All Authors: Rajan, K. G., Mudali, U. K., Dayal, R. K., Rodriguez, P.
Keywords: electromigration, titanium, neutron, tritium, film

3274. Rajeev, K.P. and D. Gaur, Evidence for Nuclear Transmutations in Ni-H Electrolysis. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 278-283.

First Author: Rajeev, K. P.
All Authors: Rajeev, K. P., Gaur, D.
Keywords: Electrolysis, LENR, Ni–H systems, Transmutation

We report an easily reproducible Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) electrolysis experiment on an Ni-H system. An electrolytic cell with a Ni cathode and a Pt anode with an aqueous (H2O not D2O) solution of K2CO3 as electrolyte was used for the experiment. A dc-power supply capable of supplying up to 5 A current was used to drive the electrolysis with the typical current being around 4 A and the applied voltage about 100 V. After running the electrolysis for about two weeks with a daily run time of 8 h on an average, a part of the nickel electrode, which by this time had become black, was taken for elemental analysis using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed that a whole host of new elements had appeared on the cathode such as: K, Fe, Cu, O, Rh, Zr and Pb. The apparent concentration of the elements varied from just over a percent for K and Pb to about 10% for Rh and 20% for Cu. The sample was then taken to a Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) for isotopic analysis. This analysis also showed that a set of new elements had appeared on the nickel wire which were: K, Si, Mg, Mn, Zn, O & Rh. The Ni itself was found to have the following isotopes: 58Ni, 60Ni and 62Ni with isotope concentration ratios differing significantly from the ratio found in naturally occurring Ni. It was clear that in the electrolyzed Ni the concentrations of 60Ni and 62Ni had gone down compared to the concentration of 58Ni. This is a clear indication that nuclear reactions had taken place during electrolysis.

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3275. Ramamurthy, H., et al. Further Studies on Excess Heat Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ramamurthy, H.
All Authors: Ramamurthy, H., Srinivasan, M., Mukherjee, U. K., Adi Babu, P.
Keywords: H2O, heat+, tritium+, Ni, K2CO3, Na2CO3, Li2CO3, ICCF-4, electrolysis

3276. Rambaut, M. Lawson Criterion Made Obsolete by Cold Fusion through the Double Screening Process. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory, screening, ICCF-3

It is shown that the same phenomenon has been observed in cold fusion and also in other rather different experiments. The necessity to take into account the electron participation in nuclear fusion process in dense media is ensuing from this result. It implies that the fusion reaction rate, necessary for obtaining the Lawson criterion in the thermonuclear case, is not any valid for those experiments: so a new formula is proposed.

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3277. Rambaut, M., Double screened Coulomb barrier accounts for neutrons productions in cluster and other fusion experiments. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 164: p. 155.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3278. Rambaut, M., Account of Cold Fusion by Screening and Harmonic Oscillator Resonance. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 486.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3279. Rambaut, M. Experimental Evidences for the Harmonic Oscillator Resonance and Electron Accumulation Model of Cold Fusion. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monac: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: Theory, resonance, ICCF-5

Cold Fusion outside any substratum is again considered from the Harmonic oscillator resonance and electron accumulation (HOREA) model point of view. If one adds Fractal theory, one gets a more straigthforward agreement with the experimental growth of fusion burst after the apex I of a fast current, and varying approximately like the tenth power I^10. Then it is shown that the model could account for the solar neutrino discrepancy. The paper ends up by a short reminder of two experimental data, in agreement with the HOREA point of view: experimentally noticed Electron accumulations, and Top-Table soft X-ray Laser operation.

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3280. Rambaut, M. Electrons clusters and magnetic monopoles. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Rambaut, M.
All Authors: Rambaut, M.
Keywords: theory

3281. Rangarajan, S.K., Electrochemically induced cold fusion? A commentary. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 598.

First Author: Rangarajan, S. K.
All Authors: Rangarajan, S. K.
Keywords: discussion

3282. Ransford, H.E. and S.J. Pike. Apparatus for Safely ExtendingCold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E., Pike, S. J.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4

3283. Ransford, H.E., Apparatus for Safely Extending Cold Fusion Investigations to High Temperature, Pressure and Input Power Regimes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 78.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E.
Keywords: heat, method

3284. Ransford, H.E., Non-Stellar nucleosynthesis: Transition metal production by DC plasma-discharge electrolysis using carbon electrodes in a non-metallic cell. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 16.

First Author: Ransford, H. E.
All Authors: Ransford, H. E.
Keywords: transmutation, plasma discharge, H2O

3285. Rant, J., et al., Methods for in-situ detection of cold fusion in condensed matter. Kerntechnik, 1990. 55: p. 165.

First Author: Rant, J.
All Authors: Rant, J., Ilic, R., Skvarc, J., Sutej, T., Budnar, M., Miklavzic, U.
Keywords: particle emission, method

3286. Rao, K.A., Technique for Concentration of Helium in Electrolytic Gases for Cold Fusion Studies, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 11.

First Author: Rao, K. A.
All Authors: Rao, K. A.
Keywords: Helium,

3287. Rao, K.R. and S.L. Chaplot, Computer experiments concerning palladium-deuterium and titanium-deuterium lattices – implications to phenomenon of low-energy nuclear reaction. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 355.

First Author: Rao, K. R.
All Authors: Rao, K. R., Chaplot, S. L.
Keywords: Theory, lattice fluctuations

3288. Ratkje, S.K. and B. Hafskjold, Local heat effects by electrolysis of heavy water. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 273: p. 269.

First Author: Ratkje, S. K.
All Authors: Ratkje, S. K., Hafskjold, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, critique

3289. Ray, M.K.S., et al., The Fleischmann-Pons phenomenon – a different perspective. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 395.

First Author: Ray, M. K. S.
All Authors: Ray, M. K. S., Saini, R. D., Das, D., Chattopadhyay, G., Parthasarathy, R., Garg, S. P., Venkataramani, R., Sen, B. K., Iyengar, T. S., Kutty, K. K., Wagh, D. N., Bajpai, H. N., Iyer, C. S. P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron, heat

3290. Redey, L., et al., Calorimetric measurements on electrochemical cells with Pd-D cathodes. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 249.

First Author: Redey, L.
All Authors: Redey, L., Myles, K. M., Dees, D., Krumpelt, M., Vissers, D. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat-, tritium, H/D

3291. Rees, L.B., Cold Fusion: What Do We Know? What Do We Think? J. Fusion Energy, 1991. 10(1): p. 111.

First Author: Rees, L. B.
All Authors: Rees, L. B.
Keywords: muon, tritium, history, theory, critique

3292. Rehm, K.E., W. Kutschera, and G.J. Perlow, Search for protons from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction in an electrolytic cell with palladium-platinum electrodes. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(1): p. 45.

First Author: Rehm, K. E.
All Authors: Rehm, K. E., Kutschera, W., Perlow, G. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

3293. Reifenschweiler, O., Reduced radioactivity of tritium in small titanium particles. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 184: p. 149.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium tritium, reduced radioactivity

By heating a TiT0.0035 preparation consisting of extremely small monocrystalline particles (diameter ≈ 15 nm) a decrease of the radioactivity by 40% was observed. In further experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied (TiTx experiments) showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. Careful analysis of the experiments seems to rule out the possibility of trivial errors. A provisional hypothetical explanation is formulated. Our experiments may point to a connection with cold DD-fusion.

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3294. Reifenschweiler, O. Some Experiments on the Decrease of Radioactivity of Tritium Sorbed by Titanium. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, Tritium, half-life, reduced radioactivity

A sharp decrease of the radioactivity of tritium was observed when the hydrogen isotope is sorbed by small monocrystalline particles of titanium and the preparation is heated to several hundred degrees centigrade. In other experiments the concentration of tritium in such preparations was varied, showing that the radioactivity of the tritium increased less than proportionally to its concentration. A first attempt is presented to explain these remarkable effects in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis”.

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3295. Reifenschweiler, O., Some experiments on the decrease of tritium radioactivity. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 261.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity, Ti

Experiments claiming a sharp decrease in the radioactivity of tritium incorporated in small monocrystalline particles of titanium have been reported and are described here in more detail. Additional evaluation provides a high degree of evidence for the decrease in the radioactivity of tritium. A first attempt is made to explain this remarkable effect in terms of a “nuclear pair hypothesis.”

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3296. Reifenschweiler, O., About the possibility of decreased radioactivity of heavy nuclei. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 291.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: theory, radioactivity, reduced

3297. Reifenschweiler, O., Cold Fusion and Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity, in LENR-CANR.org. 2003.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

In recent papers (1, 2, 3, 4) the author has deduced from experiments with tritium (5) that during heating of a TiT0.0035 -preparation and of a TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity of the tritium decreased strongly. This strange effect was distinctly confirmed by the observation that with the TiT0.0035-preparation the radioactivity decreased 12.5 times stronger than the release of tritium (2,3,4). A quite independent proof of the strong decrease of λ of tritium could be obtained by a thermodynamic evaluation of the heating experiment with the TiT0.0035-preparation: Assuming that λ of tritium decreases to zero or nearly zero in a part of the tritons enables the determination of the number of tritons with normal λ, nT and the number of tritons with λ ≈ 0 nTo, both as a function of temperature. Then quite surprising nT and nTo follow the laws of chemical equilibria in distinct parts of the experimental A = f(T)-function. From this unexpected result the decrease of tritium radioactivity is definitely proved once again (6).

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3298. Reifenschweiler, O., Further Evidence of the Decrease of Tritium Radioactivity by a Thermodynamic Evaluation of a Heat Experiment. Infinite Energy, 2004. 9(54): p. 14.

First Author: Reifenschweiler, O.
All Authors: Reifenschweiler, O.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, reduced radioactivity

3299. Ren, X.Z. and X.Z. Li. Factors affecting hydrogen (deuterium) flux through a thin palladium film. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Ren, X. Z.
All Authors: Ren, X. Z., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: diffusion, flux, deuterium, D, H, Pd, Ni, electrolysis

3300. Ricco, G., et al. A Large Solid Angle MultiParameter Neutron Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ricco, G.
All Authors: Ricco, G., Anghinolfi, M., Corvisiero, P., Prati, P., Taiuti, M., Boragno, C., Eggenhoffner, R., Valbusa, U.
Keywords: neutron, apparatus, method, ICCF-2

3301. Rice, R.A., et al., The Effect of Velocity Distribution on Cold Deuterium-Deuterium Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J.
Keywords: theory

3302. Rice, R.A., G.S. Chulick, and Y.E. Kim. The Effect of Velocity Distribution and Electron Screening on Cold Fusion. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulick, G. S., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-1

3303. Rice, R.A., et al., The role of velocity distribution in cold deuterium-deuterium fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 147.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Chulik, G. S., Kim, Y. E., Yoon, J. H.
Keywords: theory

3304. Rice, R.A., et al. Comments on exotic chemistry models and deep Dirac states for cold fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1994. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E., Rabinowitz, M., Zubarev, A. L.
Keywords: theory resonance, Gamow

Several models are examined in which it is claimed that cold fusion is the result either of tight binding of the electrons in H isotope atoms or molecules, or of an electron-H isotope resonance which allows a higher probability of Coulomb barrier penetration. In the case of models in which the electron is tightly bound to the H isotope atom, we show that states below the most deeply bound (-16.39 eV) are impossible in principle. We also present evidence against the possibility of the existence of electron-H isotope resonances. Finally, a lower bound is found for the binding energy of H isotope molecules which is above that calculated in the tightly bound electron-H isotope models.

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3305. Rice, R.A. and Y.E. Kim, Comments on ‘Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I’. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 111.

First Author: Rice, R. A.
All Authors: Rice, R. A., Kim, Y. E.
Keywords: theory, critique, Maly,

3306. Rice-Evans, P. and H. Evans, Search for neutrons from cold nuclear fusion. Eur. J. Phys., 1990. 11: p. 251.

First Author: Rice-Evans, P.
All Authors: Rice-Evans, P., Evans, H.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3307. Richards, P.M., Molecular-Dynamics Investigation of Deuterium Separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40(11): p. 7966.

First Author: Richards, P. M.
All Authors: Richards, P. M.
Keywords: theory, D/Pd, distance, lattice parameter

3308. Richards, P.M., Molecular-dynamics investigation of deuteron separation in PdD1.1. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 7966.

First Author: Richards, P. M.
All Authors: Richards, P. M.
Keywords: theory, distance

3309. Rieker, A., et al., Potential error sources in combined electrochemistry/neutron detection experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1991. 46B: p. 1125.

First Author: Rieker, A.
All Authors: Rieker, A., Speiser, B., Mangold, K. M., Hanack, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd D2O neutron, gamma emission

3310. Riesterer, T., On the Hydrogen Site Occupation in Hydrides of Intermetallics. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 103: p. 219.

First Author: Riesterer, T.
All Authors: Riesterer, T.
Keywords: Zr-V, enthalpy, thermodynamic, H2

3311. Riesterer, T., J. Osterwalder, and L. Schlapbach, Inverse Photoemission from PdH0.65. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1985. 32: p. 8405.

First Author: Riesterer, T.
All Authors: Riesterer, T., Osterwalder, J., Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: PdH, density Of States, photoemission

3312. Riley, A.M., J.D. Seader, and D.W. Pershing, An in-situ volumetric method for dynamically measuring the absorption of deuterium in palladium during electrolysis. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139: p. 1342.

First Author: Riley, A. M.
All Authors: Riley, A. M., Seader, J. D., Pershing, D. W.
Keywords: loading, Pd, method, review, diffusion

3313. Riley, D. and M. McLaughlin, Turning thre corner: Energy solutions for the 21st century. 2001, Tahoe City, CA: Alternative Energy Institute, Inc.

First Author: Riley, D.
All Authors: Riley, D., McLaughlin, M.
Keywords: review energy,

3314. Ritchie, B., Compatibility of Hydrino States and Quantum Mechanics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 101-122.

First Author: Ritchie, B.
All Authors: Ritchie, B.
Keywords: Dirac equation, Hydrino states, Klein-Gordon equation

Rathke’s assertion [New J. Phys. 7 (2005) 127] that states with binding energy and size below those of known literature values are incompatible with quantum mechanics is corrected by reviewing the analytically known Coulomb solution of the Klein-Gordon equation with binding energy of order mc2 and size of order of the Compton wavelength. This is an example of a quantum state, which is mathematically acceptable in the sense of being square integrable and having a finite binding energy but yet is rejected as unphysical due in part to the point-nucleus nature of the model. Then the Dirac equation is studied for the existence of states which are similarly mathematically acceptable but whose physical acceptability requires physical judgment. States of Landau symmetry are found which meet these criteria. The existence of states of ambiguous physical interpretation for both the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations depends on using a point-nucleus versus a finite-nucleus potential model. On using a realistic model for the charge distribution of the proton, a Klein-Gordon state is found in the binding range of 5 keV, but no state is found for the Dirac equation.

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3315. Ritchie, B., Neutrino Equation of Motion and Neutrino-electron Bound Pairs in LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 41-53.

First Author: Ritchie, B.
All Authors: Ritchie, B.
Keywords: Electron, Neutrino, Nucleon, Positron, W-boson

The long-established electron-capture reaction e− +p+ = n +ν may be considered to be a prototype reaction in the nascent field of physics known as low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR) since it involves an interface between electron and atomic physics (EAP) on the left-hand side and nuclear physics on the right-hand side of the reaction. It is a form of inverse beta decay n = p+ +e− +ν, which is understood using a conceptual and mathematical methodology (forces mediated by the exchange of bosons known as force carriers and specifically for beta decay the W− boson as the force carrier for the electroweak force) which is totally foreign to EAP but well-supported by copious nuclear experimental data. Since no such established experimental database exists in LENR, an equation of motion (EOM) is proposed for the neutrino in analogy to Dirac’s equation, which is the EOM for the electron. The combined electron and neutrino EOM’s support temporary neutrino-electron binding and discover the mass and length scales of a nucleon on an ab initio basis. It is believed that the bound pair is a form of W boson, symbolized here by WѠs for binding of a neutrino to a positron or electron (ѩ and for spin (s) equal to 0 or 1. It is also believed that Wҳ bosons may be useful as building blocks in constructing models in the LENR regime which may be physically equivalent to quarks and the known WѠboson in the high-energy regime.

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3316. Ritley, K.A., et al. A Search for Cold Fusion Signatures in Cathodically Charged Palladium. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Wiesmann, H., Dull, P. M., Lynn, K. G., Weber, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, ICCF-8

3317. Ritley, K.A., et al., The behavior of electrochemical cell resistance: a possible application to cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 699.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: critique, resistance

3318. Ritley, K.A., et al., A search for tritium production in electrolytically deuterided palladium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19(1): p. 192.

First Author: Ritley, K. A.
All Authors: Ritley, K. A., Lynn, K. G., Dull, P. M., Weber, M. H., Carroll, M., Hurst, J. J.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, tritium, Helium

3319. Ritter, S.K., Cold fusion died 25 years ago, but the research lives on, in C&EN. 2016. p. 34-39.

First Author: Ritter, S. K.
All Authors: Ritter, S. K.
Keywords:

3320. Rittner, E.S. and A. Meulenberg, A chemical interpretation of heat generated in ‘cold fusion’. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 377.

First Author: Rittner, E. S.
All Authors: Rittner, E. S., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: critique, heat, recombination

3321. Roarty, B. and C. Walker, Protocol for a Silicate-based LENR Using Electrodes of Various Metals. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 30-39.

First Author: Roarty, B.
All Authors: Roarty, B., Walker, C.
Keywords: Gold, Heat transients, LENR, Lithium silicate, Palladium

This paper reports a protocol that consists of applying concurrent electronic and photonic stimuli in a cell with two or more electrodes at or near the boiling point of the liquid. The liquid in the cell is a solution including a silicate, a lithium salt, and a surfactant. The electrical stimuli are RF signals and, optionally, a direct current. The protocol generates an exothermic reaction characterized by sharp temperature transients. We have successfully used three different silicates and four different metals for electrodes. We believe the exothermic reaction is nuclear in nature. The evidence supporting that statement includes:• Data logs show brief, intense temperature transients.• Electron diffraction scattering (EDS) analyses show elements to be present after the reaction that could be transmutation products of several elements in the ingredients of the protocol, specifically including silver, a possible transmutation product of palladium.• Auger analysis of one experiment also shows evidence of transmutation of the elements in the reaction cell.• SEM photos show “volcanic sites” and other evidence of metal migration.• Other SEM photos show large areas where electrodes have spalled during experiments.

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3322. Roberts, D.A., et al., Energy and flux limits of cold fusion neutrons using a deuterated liquid scintillator. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 42: p. R1809.

First Author: Roberts, D. A.
All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ben-Jacob, E., Garik, P., Musser, J., Orr, B., Tarle, G., Tomasch, A., Holder, J.S., Redina, D., Heuser, B., Wicker, G.
Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd

3323. Roberts, D.A., et al., Deuterated liquid scintillator (NE230) as a fast neutron detector for cold- fusion and other research. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci., 1992. 39(4): p. 532.

First Author: Roberts, D. A.
All Authors: Roberts, D. A., Becchetti, F. D., Ashktorab, K., Stewart, D., Jaenecke, J., Gustafson, H. R., Dueweke, M. J.
Keywords: neutron, method, titanium, electrolysis, Pd, D2

3324. Robinson, G.W., Could cold fusion be caused by non-maxwell distributions? 1998.

First Author: Robinson, G. W.
All Authors: Robinson, G. W.
Keywords: theory

3325. Rock, P.A., et al., Energy balance in the electrolysis of water with a palladium cathode. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 293: p. 261.

First Author: Rock, P. A.
All Authors: Rock, P. A., Fink, W. H., McQuarrie, D. A., Volman, D. H., Hung, Y. F.
Keywords: review, loading, phase diagram, enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic

3326. Rodionov, B. and I. Savvatimova. Unusual Structures On The Material Surfaces Irradiated By Low Energy Ions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Rodionov, B
All Authors: Rodionov, B, Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: glow discharge

Some unusual structures on the surface of metals and films (various x-ray films and nuclear emulsions) caused by exposure to bombardment by low-energy ions in glow discharge plasma, in electrolysis and other low-energy processes (when energy of particles doesn’t exceed several keV) have been found. The mechanism and model of the strange tracks formations and explanation of their structure change are suggested.Neutrino-Dineutron Reactions (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. Y. Iwamura Effect)

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3327. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi gas like hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons experiments. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory, Pauli

3328. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory

3329. Roessler, O.E., et al., Fermi Gas Like Hypothesis for Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. Z. Nature. A, 1989. 44: p. 329.

First Author: Roessler, O. E.
All Authors: Roessler, O. E., Becker, J., Hoffmann, M., Nadler, W.
Keywords: theory

3330. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic hydrogen fusion in metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 254.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, theory

3331. Rogers, V.C., G.M. Sandquist, and K.K. Nielson, Deuterium concentration and cold fusion rate distributions in palladium. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 523.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M., Nielson, K. K.
Keywords: critique, theory, method

3332. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Cold fusion reaction products and their measurement. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 483.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: gamma emission, tritium, method, critique

3333. Rogers, V.C. and G.M. Sandquist, Isotopic Hydrogen Fusion in Metals. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 483.

First Author: Rogers, V. C.
All Authors: Rogers, V. C., Sandquist, G. M.
Keywords: gamma emission neutron method

3334. Rolison, D.R., et al. Anomalies in the Surface Analysis of Deuterated Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E., Doyle, Jr., R. J., Trzaskoma, P. P.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, micrographs, PdD, ICCF-1

The surface and near-surface analytical characterization of thin palladium foils after the electrolysis of H2O or D2O was performed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high resolution mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These surface characterizations revealed a number of anomalous results, as summarized below.

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3335. Rolison, D.R. and P.P. Trzaskoma, Morphological differences between hydrogen-loaded and deuterium-loaded palladium as observed by scanning electron microscopy. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 375.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., Trzaskoma, P. P.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, surface analysis, lattice parameter

3336. Rolison, D.R. and W.E. O’Grady, Observation of elemental anomalies at the surface of palladium after electrochemical loading of deuterium or hydrogen. Anal. Chem., 1991. 63: p. 1697.

First Author: Rolison, D. R.
All Authors: Rolison, D. R., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: Pd, surface analysis, transmutation, electrolysis

3337. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Timofeev, Yu.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-3

On the basis of the analysis of the energy lost by a fast particle and a solid it is supposed that the most probable energy range for the reactions of nuclear fusion in the condensed media is in the range of the reduced energy of the interacting particles from E0 to E2 (~(10-400 * 16 * 10^-19 J for D-D reactions) . . .

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3338. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Reproducibility of Tritium Generation From Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Elksnin, V., Skuratnik, Ya. B.
Keywords: W, Nb, Gas Discharge, tritium, D2, theory, ICCF-4

3339. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Concept of Target Material Choice for Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Korneev, S., Skuratni, Y.
Keywords: Gas Discharge, theory, method, ICCF-4

3340. Romodanov, V.A., et al. The nuclear reactions in condensed media for interaction of charge particles in energy region is forming by maximum elastic losses. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Ya. B., Majorov, V. N.
Keywords: gas discharge, heat, tritium, transmutation, He, ICCF-6

3341. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Tritium Generations in Metals at Thermal Activation. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Majorov, V. N.
Keywords: tritium, hydrogen, gas, H2, ICCF-7

3342. Romodanov, V.A., et al. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M.
Keywords: tritium, ion bombardment H2, Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti ICCF-7

3343. Romodanov, V.A., et al. Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Media and X-ray. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Savin, V. I., Skuratnik, Y., Yuriev, M.
Keywords: x-ray, tritium, ion bombardment, H2, ICCF-7

3344. Romodanov, V.A., N.I. Khokhlov, and A.K. Pokrovsky. Registration of Superfluous Heat at Sorbtion-Desorbtion of Hydrogen in Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Khokhlov, N. I., Pokrovsky, A. K.
Keywords: Ni, Nb, H2, heat+, ICCF-8

3345. Romodanov, V.A., Y.B. Skuratnik , and A.K. Pokrovsky. Generation of Tritium for Deuterium Interaction with Metals. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A., Skuratnik , Ya. B., Pokrovsky, A. K.
Keywords: Zr, H2, tritium, Ta, D2, ICCF-8

3346. Romodanov, V.A. Tritium Generation From The Interaction Of A Glow Discharge Plasma With Metals And With A Magnetic Field. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Romodanov, V. A.
All Authors: Romodanov, V. A.
Keywords: glow discharge, magnetic field, tritium

We present results of our research on tritium generation through the bombardment of the surface of various metals by accelerated ions of hydrogen isotopes from a glow discharge plasma, with and without a magnetic field. The introduction of a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface results in an increase in the tritium activity, and in the tritium generation rate, of almost two orders of magnitude as compared to similar experiments run with no magnetic field. The largest tritium generation rates observed were obtained with the glow discharge operating in a magnetic field, and were in the range 109-1010 atom/s. This is higher than our background by three to four orders of magnitude. The use of a magnetic field has resulted in good reproducibility, and the development of a reliable tritium generation rate of about 1010 atom/s for tantalum, tungsten, and platinum.

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3347. Rosamilia, J.M., J.A. Abys, and B. Miller, Electrochemical hydrogen insertion into palladium and palladium-nickel thin films. Electrochim. Acta, 1991. 36: p. 1203.

First Author: Rosamilia, J. M.
All Authors: Rosamilia, J. M., Abys, J. A., Miller, B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, Pd-Ni

3348. Rosen, G., Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1989. 91(7): p. 4415.

First Author: Rosen, G.
All Authors: Rosen, G.
Keywords: theory

3349. Rosen, G., Groundstate thermalization of hydrogen isotopes in certain metals: enhancement of p+d and d+d nuclear fusion rates by Bethe-Bloch polarization. Hadronic J., 1990. 13: p. 255.

First Author: Rosen, G.
All Authors: Rosen, G.
Keywords: theory

3350. Ross, K. and S.M. Bennington, Solid state fusion (?). Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 15.

First Author: Ross, K.
All Authors: Ross, K., Bennington, S. M.
Keywords: review

3351. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions WO 2009/125444. 2009: World Intellectual Property Organization.

First Author: Rossi, A.
All Authors: Rossi, A.
Keywords:

Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.

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3352. Rossi, A., Method And Apparatus For Carrying Out Nickel And Hydrogen Exothermal Reactions US 2011/0005506. 2011: United States Patent Application Publication.

First Author: Rossi, A.
All Authors: Rossi, A.
Keywords:

Abstract: A method and apparatus for carrying out highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel and hydrogen atoms in a tube, preferably, though not necessary, a metal tube filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature, preferably, though not necessary, from 150 to 5000C are herein disclosed. In the inventive apparatus, hydrogen is injected into the metal tube containing a highly pressurized nickel powder having a pressure, preferably though not necessarily, from 2 to 20 bars.

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3353. Rotegard, D., Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy. Space Power, 1991. 10: p. 205.

First Author: Rotegard, D.
All Authors: Rotegard, D.
Keywords: history

3354. Roth, J., et al., Fusion reactions during low energy deuterium implantation into titanium. Nucl. Fusion, 1990. 30: p. 441.

First Author: Roth, J.
All Authors: Roth, J., Behrisch, R., Moeller, W., Ottenberger, W.
Keywords: ion implantation, titanium, particle emission

3355. Roth, J.R., Ball Lightning: What Nature is Trying to Tell the Plasma Research Community. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 255.

First Author: Roth, J. R.
All Authors: Roth, J. R.
Keywords: Ball Lightning, plasma

3356. Rothwell, J., Highlights of the Fifth International Conference on Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(2): p. 8.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review, He, heat

3357. Rothwell, J., Very hot cold fusion: Dr. Mizuno’s ceramic proton conductors. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 14.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: proton conductor, heat

3358. Rothwell, J., Review of McKubre, M. C. H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, EPRI TR-104195. Infinite Energy, 1996(11).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review

A review of McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals. 1994. Selected pages from this report are available here: xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/McKubreMCHdevelopmen.pdfComprehensive, Meticulous and Definitive This is one of the most comprehensive descriptions of a set of cold fusion experiments ever published. The only reports I know of that rival it are from F.G. Will et al., and M. H. Miles et al. This EPRI book describes the research paid for by EPRI and performed at SRI International between 1989 and 1994 by M. McKubre, S. Crouch-Baker, F. Tanzella and eight other principal investigators. These are among the most careful cold fusion experiments ever done. The results are unequivocal.

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3359. Rothwell, J., CETI’s 1 kilowatt cold fusion device denonstrated. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5&6): p. 18.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review, heat, H2O, beads, Ni, CETI

3360. Rothwell, J., Introduction to the Cold Fusion Experiments of Dr. Melvin Miles. Infinite Energy, 1997. 3(15/16): p. 27.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

From 1989 until his funding was terminated in 1995, Melvin Miles performed some of the best cold fusion experiments on record. His goal was to answer two critical questions: Does cold fusion produce helium along with excess heat, like a plasma fusion reaction? And if so, does it produce roughly as much helium per joule of energy as a plasma fusion reaction does? He answers both questions affirmatively. When a cold fusion palladium cathode becomes active, it releases helium into the electrolyte. The helium leaves the cell in the effluent deuterium and oxygen gas. Cathodes that produced more excess heat produced greater amounts of helium. The ratio of helium to energy is roughly comparable to that of hot fusion, within an order of magnitude. This is strong evidence that cold fusion really is some form of nuclear fusion, and not fission, zero point energy, or something else.

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3361. Rothwell, J., Dieter Britz: A Knowledgeable Skeptic. Infinite Energy, 1998. 3(18).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: review

3362. Rothwell, J. and E. Mallove, Review of Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible, By Arthur C. Clarke. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(22).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

How did Arthur C. Clarke come to believe that cold fusion is real, and why should anyone care? The answer can be found in an unforgettable nonfiction book he wrote in 1963. It is Profiles of the Future, one of the best books about the future ever written, and one of the finest short overviews of science and technology. . . .

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3363. Rothwell, J., The Wright Brothers and Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 2(9): p. 37.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

History is not inevitable. If the Wrights had not built the airplane, man would not have flown for another ten or twenty years, most experts agree. History is a product of free will. People make decisions, take actions, and shape events. Things do not get invented just because they are needed. We learn to live with awkward machines like the automobile transmission. If Bell Labs had not come up with the transistor, by now we would have computers with a million “vacuum tubes on a chip.” (This kind of chip was fabricated for a special application years ago. Technology is flexible; transistors are not the only things you can miniaturize.)

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3364. Rothwell, J., Comparisons from the History of Technology. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 39.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

This paper was delivered at the Cold Fusion and New Energies Symposium held in Manchester, New Hampshire October 11, 1998. This version was modified and expanded in May 2003.Earlier at this conference Ed Storms said, “cold fusion is on life-support.” Will it survive? Can an unpopular scientific discovery be forgotten? Ed thinks that cold fusion is endangered. In a lecture titled “Cold Fusion – Does It Have a Future?” Nobel Laureate Julian Schwinger said that science itself is at risk . . .

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3365. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part I. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(25): p. 32.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history, materials

The history of transistors teaches many lessons about how cold fusion might develop and what should be done to help it along.Transistors are physically similar to cold fusion devices. In fact, some of the earliest experimental transistors were immersed in electrolyte with a counter electrode to neutralize the surface barrier. . . .

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3366. Rothwell, J., Transistors and Cold Fusion – Part II. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(26): p. 46.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history, materials

Part 1 closed with the questions: Was the transistor truly inevitable? Where would we be without it? Is any innovation inevitable and unstoppable? I conclude that fundamental breakthroughs, like the transistor, are not inevitable, but once they are made, contingent, derivative or follow‑up breakthroughs like integrated circuits become inevitable. The discovery of cold fusion was not inevitable by any means, and cold fusion technology may never be developed because of technical difficulties or political opposition, but if it is developed and it becomes established, many contingent breakthroughs, like home power generators, will become inevitable.

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3367. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion, the Titanic Disaster Aftermath, and the Internet. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(36).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

“News is the first rough draft of history.” -Newspaper publisher Philip L. Graham (1915-1963) Newspapers are indeed the first draft of history and, in many cases, the last draft as well.  This has been one of the reasons behind cold fusion’s bad press over the years.  Researchers made initial assessments of the phenomenon back in April 1989 and offered up their gut-reaction opinions to the media. Many of these erroneous, off-the-cuff ramblings are still widely quoted today.  The three famous “negative” experiments at Caltech, MIT, and Harwell are often cited as proof that cold fusion does not exist, although careful reexaminations have subsequently shown that the tests conducted at all three establishments did, in fact, yield positive results.  Reporters, commentators, and historians seldom look beyond immediate impressions formed in the earliest days of a major event, when confusion is rampant and detailed investigations have not yet begun. . . .

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3368. Rothwell, J., Butter Side Down: How Cold Fusion Researchers Battle the Innate Perversity of Inanimate Objects and Exploding Parameter Space. Infinite Energy, 2001. 7(37).

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

A brief introduction to some calorimeter types, and to some of the difficulties in cold fusion experiments.

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3369. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms. The LENR-CANR.Org Website, Its Past And Future. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E.
Keywords:

The LENR-CANR-org website has proven to be a popular source of information about cold fusion. This site has distributed more full text papers about LENR than any other source. In addition, it contains many features that allow easy search and insertion of the discovered references into a document.

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3370. Rothwell, J., et al., Appeal to Readers and Correspondence with the Scientific American. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E., Rennie, J., Piel, J.
Keywords: Review

An appeal to LENR-CANR readers to help spread the word and help bring about a rebirth of interest in cold fusion. This document also contains correspondence with the past and present editors of the Scientific American.

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3371. Rothwell, J. Introducing The Book “Cold Fusion and the Future”. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Review,

3372. Rothwell, J., Cold Fusion And The Future. 2004: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The purpose of this book is to show that with cold fusion we can accomplish marvelous things. This is not a review or history of the field. It is not meant to convince the reader that cold fusion exists. If you doubt that, please read original sources. The book describes how many nightmare problems that seem beyond any present solution, such as global warming, elimination of invasive species, and providing clean drinking water and sanitation to billions of poor people might be eliminated. The future might be better than you think.This book is not copyright. It is distributed for free at LENR-CANR.org.

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3373. Rothwell, J., A Fusao a Frio e o Futuro. 2006: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Sergio Bacchi.O livro “Fusão a Frio e o Futuro” traduzido ao português brasileiro por Sergio Bacchi. Uma visão das aplicações possíveis da fusão a frio do hidrogênio pesado. Um livro com muita imaginação e humanidade.

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3374. Rothwell, J., Mirai o kizuku jyouonkakuyuugou. 2007: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

The book “Cold Fusion and the Future” translated into Japanese.

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3375. Rothwell, J. and P. Mobberly, eds. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007, The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science: Sicily, Italy. 362.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Mobberly, P.
Keywords:

Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals, 13-18 October 2007, Sheraton Catania Sicily, Italy

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3376. Rothwell, J. and E. Storms, Report on Arata’s Paper and Lecture about his “Solid Fusion” Reactor. 2008, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J., Storms, E.
Keywords: review, heat

This paper describes the recent demonstration (May 2008) of anomalous heat and helium production, presented by Prof. Yoshiaki Arata, when two different materials are exposed to D2 near room temperature.

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3377. Rothwell, J., Tally of Cold Fusion Papers. 2009, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented.

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3378. Rothwell, J., Brief Technical Description of the Leonardo Corporation, University of Bologna, and INFN Scientific Demonstration of the Andrea Rossi ECat (Energy Catalyzer) Boiler. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Heat

Dr. Andrea Rossi, President of Leonardo Corporation, prepared in cooperation with scientists from the University of Bologna and INFN-Bologna an experimental demonstration of his ECat boiler for about 50 people, mostly scientists the afternoon of 14 January 2011.

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3379. Rothwell, J., How Nature refused to re-examine the 1989 CalTech experiment. 2012, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

In 1989 Nature published a paper by Lewis showing no excess heat in a cold fusion experiment. Several researchers including Noninski, Miles and Fleischmann discovered errors in this paper. Noninski wrote a critique of the paper describing one of these errors, and submitted it for publication. David Lindley, an editor at Nature, rejected the critique. This paper examines some of the errors in the paper, and Lindley’s reasons for refusing to re-examine the experiment.

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3380. Rothwell, J., Report on Mizuno’s adiabatic calorimetry. 2014, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

A report on the method of calorimetry employed by T. Mizuno starting in August 2014. Five sample runs are described.

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3381. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

Cold fusion researchers are prone to be unduly pessimistic about the potential for cold fusion. They know too much; they are too close to the problem. They may also have unexamined assumptions. Researchers feel put-upon because of political opposition. The LENR-CANR.org website log file proves there is a great deal of interest in this field. There is broad, untapped, latent support for it. The log shows that every week scientists and engineers download thousands of papers on cold fusion.

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3382. Rothwell, J., The Future May Be Better Than You Think (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Commercialization

Japanese version.

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3383. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

The field is somewhat chaotic. Results are inconsistent and seem contradictory. There is no widely-accepted theoretical explanation. History shows that this kind of chaos is healthy in emergent science. In fields such as plasma fusion there is broad agreement and a solid theoretical basis, but not much progress. We should embrace chaos and celebrate intellectual ferment.Despite the confusion, the literature does prove the effect is real, and it teaches how to replicate.

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3384. Rothwell, J., Lessons from cold fusion archives and from history (Japanese version). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

Japanese version

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3385. Rothwell, J. Cold Fusion Will Lower the Cost of both Energy and Equipment. in ICCF20 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2016. Sendai, Japan.

First Author: Rothwell, J.
All Authors: Rothwell, J.
Keywords: History

Cold fusion will lower the cost of energy because the fuel costs nothing. It will also greatly reduce the cost of many machines, especially electric generators. The cost of generators is likely to fall by a factor of 200, from $2,000/kW to $10/kW, which is the cost difference between a power company central generator and a portable gasoline generator.A radical reduction in the cost of one device does not always reduce the cost of others. Since 1900, the cost of illumination has fallen by a factor of 80, but this has not directly reduced the cost of other goods and services by a similar factor. Since 1970, the cost of computer memory has fallen by a factor of 108. Microprocessors and cheap memory enhanced many products. They brought us the Internet and ubiquitous cheap computing. But so far they have not drastically lowered costs outside of computer applications. Cold fusion is different. All machines use energy, so cold fusion will lower the cost of everything, but it will have the biggest impact replacing large, expensive machines with small mass-produced versions. Other new sources of energy such as solar panels also have zero cost fuel, but they will not reduce the cost of other machines. Only cold fusion can do this.It follows that the most profitable use of cold fusion in the first decades after it is introduced will be to replace existing technology, rather than to make radical new technology. Microprocessors brought us machines we did not have, such as cell phones and the Internet. Cold fusion will – at first – dramatically lower the cost of machines we already have.

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3386. Roulette, T., J. Roulette, and S. Pons. Results of ICARUS 9 Experiments Run at IMRA Europe. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roulette, T.
All Authors: Roulette, T., Roulette, J., Pons, S.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter

INTRODUCTION We describe herein the construction, testing, calibration and use of a high power dissipation calorimeter suitable for the measurements of excess enthalpy generation in Pd / Pd alloy cathodes during the electrolysis of heavy water electrolytes at temperatures up to and including the boiling point of the electrolyte. With the present design, power dissipation up to about 400W is possible. Excess power levels of up to ~250% of the input power have been observed with these calorimeters in some experiments. Extensions of the design to include recombination catalysts on open and pressurized cells will be the subject of a future report.

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3387. Rousseau, D.L., Case studies in pathological science. Am. Sci., 1992. 80: p. 54.

First Author: Rousseau, D. L.
All Authors: Rousseau, D. L.
Keywords: history

3388. Roussetski, A.S. Investigation of Nuclear Emissions in the Process of D(H) Escaping from Deuterized (Hydrogenized) PdO-Pd-PdO and PdO-Ag Samples. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, neutron, alpha, protron, CR-39, irradiation, ICCF-6, Helium

3389. Roussetski, A.S. Observation of (DD)-Fusion Reaction Products in Electrolyticaly Deuterized PdO/Pd Structures. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: neutron, PdO, layer particle emission, ICCF-7

3390. Roussetski, A.S. Application of CR-39 Plastic Track Detector for Detection of DD and DT-Reaction Products in Cold Fusion Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: CR-39, particle emission, layer, Au-Pd-PdO, method, ICCF-8

Abstract The results of application of CR-39 plastic track detector in Cold Fusion experiments are presented. According to the calibration, this detector registered not only dd-fusion reaction products, but also dT ones. The procedures for identifying different particles of dd and dT-reaction are recommended. According to these procedures the possible levels of dd and dT-reactions in different experiments have been estimated.

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3391. Roussetski, A.S. and E.I. Saunnin. Long-range a-particle emission from PuNi2 structure. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Saunnin, E. I.
Keywords: alpha, emission, Pu, Pd, Ni, fractofusion, strain

3392. Roussetski, A.S., A.G. Lipson, and V.P. Andreanov. Nuclear Emissions from Titanium Hydride/Deuteride, Induced by Powerful Picosecond Laser Beam. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Andreanov, V. P.
Keywords: charged particle, laser stimulation

The emission of nuclear particles (protons, deuterons, neutrons and alphas) was detected during irradiation of different targets, including 30 mm thick Ti-metal and Ti-deuteride foils as well as CH2- film, by picosecond laser beam (I= 2.0 x 10^18 W/cm^2, l=1.053 mm). The nominally pure Ti-metal target contained some amount of adsorbed hydrogen (TiHx).

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3393. Roussetski, A.S. Cr-39 Track Detectors In Cold Fusion Experiments: Review And Perspectives. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Introduction            Earlier experiments [1,2] have showed emissions of DD-reaction products (3-MeV protons) and energetic charged particle emission (a-particles) during exothermic D(H) desorption from the Pd/PdO:D(H) heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors [3, 4].

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3394. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission,

3395. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Correct identification of energetic alpha and proton tracks in experiments on CR-39 charged particle detection during hydrogen desorption from Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructure (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A. G., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Earlier experiments have showed emissions of energetic charged particles (α-particles and protons) during exothermic H desorption from the Pd/PdO:Hx heterostructures. The occurrence of these emissions was confirmed by independent experiments using both Si-surface barrier and CR-39 plastic track detectors. Earlier we already showed that purified CR-39 plastic track detectors can be considered as an adequate scientific instrument, which suitable for detection of individual uniformly distributed charged particles and also for the groups of these particles being emitted from the active spots (“hot zones”) attributed to the maximum internal strain area at the surface of PdDx and TiDx samples. The analysis of CR-39 data showed that in some cases energetic charged particle tracks (α-particles and protons) concentrated inside the small spots of detector. The typical “hot zone” with ~200 tracks within the area with the size of 0.2 × 0.5 mm2 were found to be appeared during the hydrogen desorption experiments with Pd/PdO:Hx samples.

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3396. Roussetski, A.S., M.N. Negodaev, and A. Lipson. Multifunctional Ion Beam Installation “HELIS” as a new instrument for advanced LENR research. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Negodaev, M. N., Lipson, A.
Keywords:

The ion beam installation HELIS (P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia) represents an ion accelerator of light elements with atomic number in the range Z=1-54 with ion energies ranging from 0.5 to 50 keV operating at deuteron current densities up to 2 A/cm2 and intended to perform a wide spectrum of physical experiments related to LENR.

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3397. Roussetski, A.S., et al. Evidence for Fast Neutron Emission During SRI’s SPARWAR/GALILEO Type Electrolysis Experiments #7 and #5, Based on CR39 Track Detector Record. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Roussetski, A. S.
All Authors: Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

We have reported [1] the detailed analysis of the CR-39 detector (Landauer) from SRI’s #BE013-7 (#7) Pd deposition experiment where the detector was separated from the cathode wire by a 6 μm Mylar® film. The Mylar® protected the CR-39 surface from chemical, mechanical, and electrostatic (spark discharge) damage during electrolysis. In this report we compared those results with that of the CR-39 detector, installed as in #7, in an identically operated cell using light water and with the background detector placed 2 m from the electrolytic cell.

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3398. Rout, R.K., M. Srinivasan, and A. Shyam, Autoradiography of Deuterated Ti and Pd Targets for Spatially Resolved Detection of Tritium Produced by Cold Fusion, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 3.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A.
Keywords: Ti, autoradiograph, x-ray

Introduction For the last few months, hectic activity has been underway in various laboratories to study the Cold Fusion phenomenon. De Ninno et al. reported emission of neutrons from titanium metal loaded with deuterium gas under pressure. Similar experiments have been conducted at Trombay. We report here evidence of cold fusion in D2 gas loaded Ti and Pd targets through the use of autoradiography for spatially resolved detection of tritium. Our study employed three different techniques to observe tritium:(i) Autoradiography using X-ray films.(ii) Characteristic X-ray measurement of titanium, excited by the tritium β.(iii) Liquid scintillation method for tritium β counting.

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3399. Rout, R.K., et al., Detection of high tritium activity on the central titanium electrode of a plasma focus device. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 391.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Chitra, V.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, ion bombardment, D2

A 2-kJ Mather plasma focus device is used to deuterate the top end surface (or tip) of its central titanium electrode to investigate the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in the context of the “cold fusion” phenomenon. The tip of the central titanium electrode is found to develop at least a few tens of microcuries of tritium after several plasma focus discharges. Neither the tritium impurity level in the deuterium gas used in the experiment nor the tritium branch of the d-d reactions that are known to occur in plasma focus devices can account for such activity in the electrode. Anomalous nuclear reactions in the deuterated titanium lattice appear to be the most probable source of this high activity.

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3400. Rout, R.K., et al., Copious low energy emissions from palladium loaded with hydrogen or deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1991. 29: p. 571.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Bansal, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, film, x-ray, electrolysis, autoradiograph, Zr, Hf, Ni-Ti

Palladium samples were loaded with deuterium and hydrogen using plasma focus and other loading techniques. Each sample, loaded so far, was observed to be emitting low energy, low intensity radiations. These radiations have been detected and analyzed by autoradiography and other supporting techniques.

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3401. Rout, R.K., et al. Phenomenon of Low Energy Emission from Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B.
Keywords: autoradiograph, film, electron emission, PdD, radiation. ICCF-3

Palladium loaded with either hydrogen or deuterium is found to give a clear autoradiograph on exposure to X-ray film. The phenomena is found to be 100% reproducible and is independent of the technique of loading, be it electrolytic, gas loading, plasma discharge or ion implantation. It appears only if the exposure to X-ray film is done in atmosphere of hydrogen, oxygen or air. These emissions are also detected by TLD measurements. Investigations seeking to identify the nature/energy of the radiation through transmission measurements using various filters tentatively indicate that the radiations could be low energy electrons having an energy of around 300 to 400 eV.

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3402. Rout, R.K., et al., Update on observation of low-energy emissions from deuterated and hydrated palladium. Indian J. Technol., 1993. 31: p. 551.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, M. S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, H2, CR-39, film

3403. Rout, R.K., et al., Reproducible, anomalous emissions from palladium deuteride/hydride. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 273.

First Author: Rout, R. K.
All Authors: Rout, R. K., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Garg, A. B., Shrikhande, V. K.
Keywords: electrolysis, autoradiograph, Pd, H2O, D2O, film, new radiation

Each and every palladium sample loaded/reloaded either with hydrogen or deuterium was observed to fog radiographic films kept in its close proximity in air. Strangely, even with ten layers of black paper (thickness ≈63 mg/cm^2) as a filter between film and sample, fogging was observed. On the other hand, no fogging could be observed even when thin beryllium foil (≈1.4 mg/cm^2), three layers of transparent polyester foils (≈10 mg/cm^2), or thin aluminized polycarbonate (0.3 mg/cm^2) were employed as filters. Several experiments have been performed to identify the phenomenon responsible for fogging. These experiments appear to rule out any of the known mechanisms, suggesting a new, strange, and unknown phenomena.

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3404. Rudesill, J., An Interview with Dr. Edmund Storms. Infinite Energy, 2007(75).

First Author: Rudesill, J.
All Authors: Rudesill, J.
Keywords:

An interview with Edmund Storms and a discussion of the book “The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction: A Comprehensive Compilation of Evidence and Explanations About Cold Fusion.”

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3405. Ruer, J., Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 54-68.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters , Explosion, LENR, Melting

Many authors reported the presence of small-size craters on the surface of cathodes after Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) electrolysis experiments. It is conjectured the craters result from violent reactions, perhaps of nuclear origin. Nagel proposed acorrelation between the crater diameter and the energy involved in its formation. Starting from this assumption, it can be estimated that the enthalpy released can raise the temperature of the crater content to about 2000 K. A simple model is used to calculate the crater cooling by conduction and radiation. It gives the order of magnitude of the maximum event duration in order to achieve some melting of the cathode material. The duration of the eruption is estimated from the gas pressure developed within the crater. A value of 6 ns is obtained for a 2µm diameter, and 600 ns for a 20µm crater. In large craters, a part of inner material can be molten. Small craters are strongly cooled by the surrounding metal and do not show signs of fusion.

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3406. Ruer, J., Response to Comment on the Article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Cooling, Craters, Expansion, Hydride dissociation, LENR, Melting

In Ref. [1] the kinetics of heat transfer during the heat bursts at the origin of the formation of the micro-craters on Pd cathodes during electrolysis are discussed. It is assumed that LENR is the source of energy. In Ref. [2], M. Tsirlin made several comments. The present paper answers these comments. Tsirlin thinks it is premature to accept the fact that craters result from LENR events. Other less exotic phenomena should be considered first to explain the crater formation, before nuclear reactions. Tsirlin proposes three potential heat sources:(A) Recombination (molarization) of atomic hydrogen.(B) Oxidation of the hydrogen at the cathode surface by oxygen evolved at the anode.(C) Sudden emissions of the absorbed gas.. . .

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3407. Ruer, J., Characterization of Energy Fluxes in LENR Reactors -Excess Heat, Coefficient of Performance and Conditions for Self-sustained Operation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 21: p. 13-25.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Carnot, COP, Ericsson, Excess heat, Gain, Insulation, ORC, Self-sustained, Stirling, Thermal engine

LENR reactors are considered as units that operate at a temperature above ambient and need an excitation provided by a supply powered by electricity. Different modes of operation are described following the characteristics of the heat and energy balance. LENR reactors may be characterized by different parameters, Coefficient of Performance (COP) or Energy Amplification factor (A). The thermal insulation plays an important role. LENR reactors that require external heating in small units may become self-sustained for large sizes. The production of electricity involves the coupling with a thermal machine. The system is able to export power if the COP and the temperature are high enough.

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3408. Ruer, J., Basic Design Considerations for Industrial LENR Reactors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 7-26.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Gas leakage, Heat engines, Power control, Runaway, Self-sustaining, Stability, Thermal insulation

LENR reactors able to deliver heat at a high temperature can be coupled with heat engines to generate electric power. The conditions of temperature and COP to achieve self-sustaining operation are given. According to the literature, the heat generation rate of some LENR processes increases rapidly with the temperature. This phenomenon dictates the cooling criteria to maintain a stable reactor operation. Power control can be obtained through appropriate temperature regulation. Several types of heat engines can be coupled to LENR reactors with appropriate power control. Heat losses must be minimized with sufficient thermal insulation. The insulation enclosure is also useful to recover the leaks of light gas, if any are present in the system.

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3409. Ruer, J., Simulation of the Behavior of Exotic Neutral Particles by a Monte-Carlo Modelisation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 27-44.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J.
Keywords: Brownian motion, Exotic neutral particles, Hot spots, Monte-Carlo, Particle lifetime, Simulation

Hot spots are small features that some authors suppose are created by a sudden local release of thermal energy. For example, the estimation of the energy involved in the formation of a 2 μm crater is 3 × 10−8 J or 2 × 105 MeV. Some theories attempting to explain these phenomena, and excess heat in general, involve the role of Exotic Neutral Particles (ENP), like Polyneutrons or Erzions. According to such theories, these ENPs are relatively rare. The problem investigated in this paper is whether a single particle may trigger a series of many reactions within a short time in solids that are properly loaded. A Monte-Carlo simulation has been written to study the potential behavior of ENPs. It is shown that the ENPs follow a developed and Brownian type movement. The number of reactions occurring at a given depth below the surface is calculated, as well as the probability for a series to exceed a given value. From a pure mathematical viewpoint, a parallel can be made between the diffusion laws and Brownian motion. It is shown that a small fraction of the ENP flux can trigger large series of reaction, to the point that the energy that can be produced is not limited if the ENP is stable as long as it is present in the lattice. It is necessary to introduce a limited lifetime with a decay to reconcile the model with the experimental observations. The discussion of the simulation results in the light of experimental data leads me to propose a mean free path on the order of 100 Å, and a lifetime in the nanosecond range.

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3410. Ruer, J. and J.P. Biberian, Reanalysis of an Explosion in a LENR Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 76-97.

First Author: Ruer, J.
All Authors: Ruer, J., Biberian, J. P.
Keywords: Deflagration, Detonation, Electrolytic cell, Explosion, Pd cathode, SWACER

An electrolytic cell operated with a hollow Pd cathode exploded in 2004. The violence of the explosion was surprising. We decided to re-analyze this event. The examination of the cell remnants indicate that the explosion occurred in the gas phase, and the electrodes seem unaffected. The stoichiometric H2-O2 mix can explode following different mechanisms that are briefly reviewed. A particular phenomenon called Shock Wave Amplification by Coherent Energy Release (SWACER) is able to produce strong detonations. A gas quantity similar to the original cell ignited by a hot spot or a spark produces only weak explosions that do not break the glass tube. Strong detonations are reproducibly obtained with a setup designed to induce the SWACER. The re-analysis of the event shows that the explosion was probably triggered by the SWACER resulting from a reaction in the hollow Pd cathode. In order to avoid accidents in the future during the operation of closed electrolytic cells, it is advised in addition to the conventional safety measures to avoid the presence of hollow, gas-filled metallic pieces in the reactor gas space, like a tube or a folded sheet.

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3411. Rugari, S.L., et al., Upper limits on emission of neutrons from Ti in pressurized D2 gas cells: A test of evidence for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 1298.

First Author: Rugari, S. L.
All Authors: Rugari, S. L., France, R. H., Lund, B. J., Smolen, S. D., Zhao, Z., Gai, M., Lynn, K. G.
Keywords: D2, titanium, Ti-Pd, neutron

3412. Rusetskiy, A.S., et al., Investigation of Enhancement and Stimulation of DD-reaction Yields in Crystalline Deuterated Heterostructures at Low Energies using the HELIS Ion Accelerator. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Rusetskiy, A. S.
All Authors: Rusetskiy, A. S., Bagulya, A. V., Kalkarov, O. D., Negodaev, M. A., Chubenko, A. P., Lyakhov, B. F., Saunin, E. I., Ralchenko, V. G.
Keywords: Enhancement of reaction yield, DD-reaction, Ion accelerator, Neutron detector, Plastic track detector

In this study, we present the results of studies of DD reactions in crystalline heterostructures at low energies using the ion accelerator HELIS. The results of measurements of the DD-reaction yields from the Pd/PdO:Dx and the Ti/TiO2:Dx heterostructures in the energy range of 10-25 keV are presented. The neutron and proton fluxes are measured using a neutron detector based on 3Hecounters and a CR-39 plastic track detector. Comparisons with calculations show significant DD-reaction yield enhancement. It was first shown that the impact of the H+ and Ne+ ion beams in the energy range of 10-25 keV at currents of 0.01-0.1 mA on the deuterated heterostructure results in an appreciable DD-reaction yield stimulation. We also studied the neutron yield in DD reactions within a polycrystalline deuterium-saturated CVD diamond, during irradiation of its surface by a deuterium ion beam with energy of less than 30 keV. The measurements of the neutron flux in the beam direction are performed in dependence on the target angle, Beta, with respect to the beam axis. A significant anisotropy in neutron yield is observed, it was higher by a factor of 3 at Beta = 0 compared to that at Beta = +/- 45 deg.

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3413. Rusov, V.D., et al., Fast neutron recording by dielectric track detectors in a palladium-deuterated-tritated water system in an electrolytic cell. Pis`ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz., 1989. 15(19): p. 9 (In Russian).

First Author: Rusov, V. D.
All Authors: Rusov, V. D., Zelentsova, T. N., Semenov, M. Yu., Radin, I. V., Babikova, Yu. F., Kruglyak, Yu. A.
Keywords: D2O, T2O, Pd-Ag, electrolysis, CR-39, neutron

3414. Russell, J.L., Plausibility argument for a suggested mechanism for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1990. 17(10): p. 545.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3415. Russell, J.L., Virtual electron capture in deuterium. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 75.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3416. Russell, J.L., Proposed heat producing nuclear reaction for cold fusion. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1991. 18: p. 305.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory

3417. Russell, J.L., On the nature of the cold fusion process. Ann. Nucl. Energy, 1993. 20: p. 227.

First Author: Russell, J. L.
All Authors: Russell, J. L.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3418. Ruzic, D.N., K. Schatz, and P.L. Nguyen, A novel apparatus to investigate the possibility of plasma-assisted cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 251.

First Author: Ruzic, D. N.
All Authors: Ruzic, D. N., Schatz, K., Nguyen, P. L.
Keywords: gas discharge, method, Pd, D2

3419. Ryan, R.R., et al., Exploration of the Possibility of Fracturing Processes of Metal Deuterides (or Tritides) as a Mechanism for Nuclear Fusion. 1989.

First Author: Ryan, R. R.
All Authors: Ryan, R. R., Garcia, E., Dickinson, J. T., Schmidt, S., Fowler, M., Wilhelmy, J., Voter, A., Agnew, S., Swanson, B.
Keywords: fractofusion, proposal

3420. Sada, H., Theory of nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 107.

First Author: Sada, H.
All Authors: Sada, H.
Keywords: Theory, Bloch

3421. Sahni, V.C., Comment on ‘Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible?’. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1990. 4(7): p. 497.

First Author: Sahni, V. C.
All Authors: Sahni, V. C.
Keywords: theory, critique, Schommers

3422. Saito, N., et al., Search for cold-fusion neutrons from palladium breathing deuterons. Denshi Gijutsu Sogo Kenkyusho Iho, 1990. 54(9): p. 986 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: Pd, D2, electrolysis, neutron, D2

3423. Saito, N., et al., Measurement of neutrons from cold fusion. Hoshasen, 1991. 17(1): p. 31 (in Japanese).

First Author: Saito, N.
All Authors: Saito, N., Sakuta, K., Sawata, S., Tanimoto, M., Takata, N.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2, electrolysis

3424. Saito, T., et al. Studies on Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetry with ICARUS 1. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Saito, T.
All Authors: Saito, T., Sumi, M., Asami, N., Ikegami, H.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat, electrolysis, critique, Fleischmann, ICCF-5

The Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry (FPC) is examined with the ICARUS 1 system, which is identical to the original cells which they designed for their calorimetry. In the present experimental studies, a critical evaluation is made of their original method (FPC) and a modified version of FPC is proposed. Its usefulness and validity is experimentally examined by detecting and regenerating artificial heat pulses regarded as heat excess.

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3425. Sakaguchi, H., G. Adachi, and K. Nagao. Helium Isotopes from Deuterium Absorbed in LaNi5. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakaguchi, H.
All Authors: Sakaguchi, H., Adachi, G., Nagao, K.
Keywords: Helium, D2, LaNi5 ICCF-3

Helium isotopes (3He and 4He) from D2 and H2 gases absorbed in LaNi4 were analyzed with a noble gas mass spectrometer. The reproducible increase in 3He, corresponding to a fusion probability of > 8.0×10^-24 d-d*s^-1, was observed on the D2-experiment, whereas 3He was not formed by the reaction of H2 and LaNi5. 4He production was unreliable, because the reproducibility of the result has not been obtained.

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3426. Sakamoto, S. Observations of Cold Fusion Neutrons from Condensed Matter. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sakamoto, S.
All Authors: Sakamoto, S.
Keywords: neutron, Pd, D2O, NaOH, ICCF-4, electrolysis

3427. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solution of hydrogen in palladium-based binary alloys. Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem., 1995. 99(6): p. 807.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Chen, F. L., Ura, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, thermodynamic, H2

3428. Sakamoto, Y., et al. Calorimetric Enthalpies in the b-phase Regions of Pd Black-H(D) Systems. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T.
Keywords: Pd-H, Pd-D, enthalpy of formation thermodynamic, pressure ICCF-6 PdD PdH

3429. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Calorimetric enthalpies for palladium-hydrogen (deuterium) systems at H(D) contents up to about [H]([D])/[Pd] = 0.86. J. Phys.: Condens. Mater., 1996. 8: p. 3229.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Imoto, M., Takai, K., Yanaru, T., Ohshima, K.
Keywords: enthalpy of formation, thermodynamic, pressure

3430. Sakamoto, Y., et al., Thermodynamic properties for solutions of hydrogen in Pd-Pt-Rh alloys. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 212.

First Author: Sakamoto, Y.
All Authors: Sakamoto, Y., Ohira, K., Kokubu, M., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: thermodynamic, Pd-Pt-Rh, H2, phase diagram, pressure

3431. Sakoh, H., et al., Hydrogen isotope absorption and heat release characteristics of a Ni-based sample. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 471-484.

First Author: Sakoh, H.
All Authors: Sakoh, H., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y., Murota, T., Tahara, T.
Keywords: Catalyst, Cu–Ni alloy nano-powder, Protium absorption

Recently, several researchers claimed excess heat from Ni-based alloy samples under application to gas-phase protium absorption experiments instead of expensive Pd-based nanocompounds. We have performed hydrogen isotope absorption runs using the Cu-Ni-ZrO2(CNZ) and Ni-ZrO2(NZ) nano-powders. We observed long-lasting temperature change corresponding to astonishingly large output energy of several hundred eV/atom-Ni.

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3432. Salamon, M.H., et al., Limits on the emission of neutrons, gamma-rays, electrons and protons from Pons/Fleischmann electrolytic cells. Nature (London), 1990. 344: p. 401.

First Author: Salamon, M. H.
All Authors: Salamon, M. H., Wrenn, M. E., Bergeson, H. E., Crawford, K. C., Delaney, W. H., Henderson, C. L., Li, Y. Q., Rusho, J. A., Sandquist, G. M., Seltzer, S. M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma emission

3433. Salomons, E.M., et al., Pressure-Composition Isotherms of Thin Pd-H Films. J. Less-Common Met., 1987. 130: p. 415.

First Author: Salomons, E. M.
All Authors: Salomons, E. M., Feenstra, R., de Groot, D. G., Rector, J. H., Griessen, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, layer

3434. Salvarezza, R.C., et al., Electrochemical study of hydrogen absorption in polycrystalline palladium. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1991. 313: p. 291.

First Author: Salvarezza, R. C.
All Authors: Salvarezza, R. C., Montemayor, M. C., Fatas, E., Arvia, A. J.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, electrolysis, overvoltage

3435. Samgin, A.L., et al. The Influence of Conductivity on Neutron Generation Process in Proton Conducting Solid Electrolytes. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Baraboshkin, A. N., Murigin, I., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: neutron proton conductor SrCeO, ICCF-4

3436. Samgin, A.L., et al. Cold Fusion and Anomalous Effects in Deuteron Conductors During Non-Stationary High-Temperature Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Samgin, A. L.
All Authors: Samgin, A. L., Finodeyev, O., Tsvetkov, S. A., Andreev, V. S., Khokhlov, V. A., Filatov, E. S., Murygin, I. V., Gorelov, V. P., Vakarin, S. V.
Keywords: Solid electrolyte, perovskite, heat+ neutron proton conductor, ICCF-5

The studies were conducted with the perovslcite-type solid electrolytes based on the strontium and barium ccrates under hydrogen and deuterium atmosphere. Anomalous effects were found manifesting themselves in the overbackground neutron bursts, excess heat release, phase composition and crystal lattice parameter changes. At 200-750РC the regions of the temperature were identified which accompained by significant heat evolution that was greater in the deuteron conductors than in the proton conductors.

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3437. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 220: p. 297.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: Theory, Bohr orbit

3438. Samsonenko, N.V., D.V. Tahti, and F. Ndahayo, Reply to the comment on ‘On the Barut-Vigier model of the hydrogen atom’ by Samsonenko et al. Phys. Lett. A, 1997. 229: p. 133.

First Author: Samsonenko, N. V.
All Authors: Samsonenko, N. V., Tahti, D. V., Ndahayo, F.
Keywords: theory, critique, Drazic

3439. Sanchez, C., et al. Cold Fusion During Electrolysis of Heavy Water With Ti and Pt Electrodes. in Understanding Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Varenna.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Canizares, J.
Keywords: titanium, D2O, neutron, gamma emission tritium

3440. Sanchez, C., et al., Nuclear products detection during electrolysis of heavy water with titanium and platinum electrodes. Solid State Commun., 1989. 71: p. 1039.

First Author: Sanchez, C.
All Authors: Sanchez, C., Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F. J., Canizares, J.
Keywords: gamma emission neutron, tritium, electrolysis, titanium, Pt, D2O, electrolysis

3441. Sandquist, G.M. and V.C. Rogers, Enhancement of cold fusion reaction rates. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 351.

First Author: Sandquist, G. M.
All Authors: Sandquist, G. M., Rogers, V. C.
Keywords: discussion

3442. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium, ICCF-4 electrolysis

3443. Sankaranarayanan, M., et al. Investigation of Low Level Tritium Generation in Ni-H2O Electrolytic Cells. in ICCF4, Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, M.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, M., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, tritium

3444. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al. Evidence for Tritium Generation in Self-Heated Nickel Wires Subjected to Hydrogen Gas Absorption/Desorption Cycles. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2, tritium, heat-, ICCF-5

The loading characteristics of hydrogen gas in electrically self-heated nickel wires was investigated with a view to maximise hydrogen absorption and thereafter “trigger” it to generate anomalous excess heat as reported by Focardi et. al in early 1994. The nickel wires were found to absorb substantial quantity of hydrogen following several alternate cycles of absorption/desorption. But calorimetric studies conducted with the system so far indicate that we have not succeeded in triggering excess heat generation. However on dissolution and counting using standard liquid scintillation techniques, a number of hydrogen loaded nickel wires were found to contain tritium in the range of 3 Bq to 2333 Bq. This finding corroborates the detection of tritium in light water solutions electrolysed by nickel cathodes reported by the authors first at ICCF – 3 (Nagoya, 1992) and again at ICCF – 4 (Hawaii, 1993), confirming the occurrence of anomalous nuclear reactions in nickel-hydrogen systems.

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3445. Sankaranarayanan, T.K., et al., Investigation of low-level tritium generation in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 349.

First Author: Sankaranarayanan, T. K.
All Authors: Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Srinivasan, M., Bajpai, M. B., Gupta, D. S.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, tritium

The generation of tritium during the electrolysis of aqueous light water alkali carbonate (K2CO3 and Li2CO3) solutions by nickel cathodes, first reported by us at the International Conference on Cold Fusion-3 (Nagoya, Japan, October 1992) has once again been verified and confirmed. During 1993, 10 out of 23 cells, whose electrolytes were analyzed using a newly set up dedicated liquid scintillation counting unit, indicated low tritium levels in the electrolyte, in the range of 0.5 to 4.8 Bq/ml. Except one cell, which contained 25% D2O, the remaining nine cells, which produced tritium, were charged with natural light water solutions only. Two of these cells, which were monitored for tritium every few days, and excluding cell OM-3, which was set up in 1992, indicated tritium level variations in a sawtooth fashion, suggesting the possible presence of an as yet unidentified mechanism responsible for periodically removing tritium from the electrolyte.

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3446. Sannikov, V.I., et al., Emission of neutrons and gamma-quanta from a titanium electrode polarised by a current in the gas phase over LiD. Rasplavy, 1991(4): p. 86 (in Russian).

First Author: Sannikov, V.I .
All Authors: Sannikov, V.I ., Gorodetskii, V. G., Sulimov, E. M., Polosukhin, B. G., Kudyakov, V. Ya.
Keywords: titanium, D2, LiD, gas discharge, gamma emission, neutron

3447. Sano, T., et al. Preparation of Pd Electrodes and Their Hydrogen Loading Rates. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sano, T.
All Authors: Sano, T., Terasuwa, T., Ohi, T., Nezu, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ce, Pd, H2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

We prepared a series of palladium-based rods with various compositions and processing histories as cathode for water electrolysis. These rods were evaluated in terms of hydrogen loading ratio (H/Pd). The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd-Ag and Pd-Ce alloys were compared with that of a pure Pd rod. The hydrogen loading ratios of Pd rods were subjected to a kneeling and/or cold-working (swaging) are also compared with that of a cast Pd rod. The results show that the alloying markedly reduces the loading ratio, and neither a kneeling (350 – 650у) your swaging (up to the processing ratio of 98%) produces a distinct effect.

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3448. Santandrea, R.P. and R.G. Behrens, A review of the thermodynamics and phase relationships in the palladium- hydrogen, palladium-deuterium and palladium-tritium systems. High Temperature Materials and Processes, 1986. 7: p. 149.

First Author: Santandrea, R. P.
All Authors: Santandrea, R. P., Behrens, R. G.
Keywords: review, Phase Diagram, thermodynamic, Pd, H, D, T, diffusion, structure

3449. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Electrochemically initiated cold fusion of deuterium. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 175.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Ragarajan, J., Braganza, O’N., Haram, S. K., Limaye, N. M., Mandal, K. C.
Keywords: titanium electrolysis, heat+, D2O, neutron NaCl Pd

3450. Santhanam, K.S.V., et al., Excess enthalpy during electrolysis of D2O. Curr. Sci., 1989. 58: p. 1139.

First Author: Santhanam, K. S. V.
All Authors: Santhanam, K. S. V., Rangarajan, J., Mandal, K. C., Haram, S. K.
Keywords: heat+, titanium, electrolysis, D2O, H2O

3451. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords: materials

* Pd-25% wt. Ag alloy is considered for manufacturing hydrogen separators * The linear expansion and resisitivity of Pg-Ag membranes have been measured under operating conditions typical of hydrogen separation processes * Membrane module design (finger-like tube assembly, ohmic heating) has been based on the results of the experimental tests

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3452. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-delta protonic conductor (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords: materials

In recent years, doped perovskite such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZr03) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.

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3453. Santucci, A., F. Borgognoni, and S. Tosti. Electrical resistivity and linear expansion of a hydrogenated Pd/Ag permeator tube. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Borgognoni, F., Tosti, S.
Keywords:

The Pd-Ag-H system is of particular importance with respect to the separation and purification of thehydrogen gas. Pd-Ag alloys have high selectivity for hydrogen gas permeation and thus are suitable for manufacturing hydrogen selective membranes. Accordingly, among the technological properties many authors have studied the electrical resistivity and linear expansion of the Pd-Ag-H system, but no data are available in a wide range of temperature and hydrogen pressure. During this activity, the solubility, the linear expansion, the resistivity and the permeability of a Pd/Ag (with Ag 25% wt) permeator tube has been measured in both hydrogenated and non-hydrogenated conditions. The experiments have been carried out in a temperature and in a lumen hydrogen partial pressure range of 50-400 у and 0-400 kPa, respectively.

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3454. Santucci, A., et al. Synthesis and characterization of BaCe1-xYxO3-δ protonic conductor. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Santucci, A.
All Authors: Santucci, A., Esposito, V., Licoccia, S., Traversa, E.
Keywords:

In recent years, doped perovskites such as barium cerates (BaCeO3), strontium cerates (SrCeO3) and barium zirconates (BaZrO3) have been studied as ceramic proton conductors for several technological applications: protonic membranes, hydrogen separation, catalytic support and solid oxides fuel cell components. Among those compounds, yttrium doped barium cerates have the best performances in terms of protonic conductivity at lowest temperature.In this activity, doped BCY oxide powders was synthesized via novel soft chemical route. The method is based on the formation of a metallorganic xero-gel at room temperature. The structural phase of powders and dense pellets were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the morphology was investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measures were performed on dense pellet under synthetic air flux and hydrogen atmosphere in a temperature range between 200-750 у with a frequency range of 10mHz-10MHz.

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3455. Sapogin, L.G. I. Deuterium Interaction in Unitary Quantum Theory. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3456. Sapogin, L.G. II. On the Mechanism of Cold Nuclear Fusion. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory

3457. Sapogin, L.G. On One of Energy Generation Mechanism in Initary Quantum Theory. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

It is now a well established fact that in Cold Nuclear Fusion (CNF) only a small portion of heat results from nuclear reactions, the rest being of a mysterious origin. In this connection Prof. Peter Hagelstain writes in [ 1 ] : “Some say that this heat can be explained easily by elementary chemical reactions, phase changes, or battery-like storage effects. I have trouble with these explanations” . For instance, nickel electrolysis in light water produces the same amount of energy as that of palladium in heavy water. Besides, we have to consider a no less mysterious phenomenon of sonoluminescence, that was discovered in Russia in 1 933 by S.N.Rzhevkin. At first sight these phenomena seem to bear no correlation. But Julian Schwinger, the Nobel Laureate and profound research worker, has drawn parallels between cold fusion and sonoluminescence in his continuous technical publication on both topics. He notes in [2] : “Like Cold Fusion, sonoluminescence “should not exist”, but it does. This now wellestablished phenomenon occurs when ultrasonic sound, beamed into liquid, causes bubbles to oscillate stably – to expand and contract regularly – and also to emit regular pulses of light”.

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3458. Sapogin, L.G. and I.V. Kulikov, Cold nuclear fusion in the unitary quantum theory. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1995. 17: p. 360.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G., Kulikov, I. V.
Keywords: theory

3459. Sapogin, L.G., Energy generation processes and cold nuclear fusion in terms of Schroedinger equation. Chin. J. Nucl. Phys., 1997. 19(2): p. 115.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: Theory

3460. Sapogin, L.G. The Theory of Excess Energy in PAGD Reactor (Correa Reactor). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sapogin, L. G.
All Authors: Sapogin, L. G.
Keywords: gas discharge, theory, ICCF-7

3461. Sarto, F., E. Castagna, and V. Violante. Microscopic characterization of palladium electrodes for cold fusion experiments. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Violante, V.
Keywords: cathode material,

3462. Sarto, F., et al. Electrode Surface Morphology Characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Sansovini, M., Lecci, S., Violante, V., Knies, D., Grabowski, K. S., Hubler, G. K.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

The introduction of hydrogen into a metal during electrolysis of water involves primarily the metallic surface. The effect of surface morphology on electrochemical reaction kinetics is well described in the literature 1 therefore it seems to be reasonable to assume that the surface morphology of the cathodes could play a role in the electrochemical metal-hydride formation. Actually, a wide variety of surface features and profiles have been observed in the Pd cathodes typically employed in excess heat production experiments. These features are noted in both the as-prepared samples and the electrolyzed ones. In order to establish a correlation between the occurrence of a particular surface morphology and calorimetric results, it is necessary to identify a useful metric with which to describe and compare the different surface morphologies. In this work an approach based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been investigated. The method is oriented toward the identification of parameters suitable for a pre-screening of the materials.

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3463. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology.

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3464. Sarto, F., et al. The Role of Cathode’s Surface Properties in the Electrochemical Deuterium Loading of Pd Foils. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sarto, F.
All Authors: Sarto, F., Castagna, E., Lecci, S., Sansovini, M., Violante, V.
Keywords:

Recent experimental evidences clearly indicate that the reproducibility of excess heat production is correlated with the cathode surface properties. To support the results, a theoretical frame has been also developed, that suggests that a relevant role in the excess heat production is played by the electrodynamics processes at the cathode interface. In particular, one of the mechanisms involved is the enhancement and spatial localization of the electro-magnetic field at the metal/electrolyte interface, promoted by proper surface roughness and morphology. A further point to be considered is the dynamic character of the metal/electrolyte interface during electrochemical deuterium loading, that derives from the coupling between the different interface characteristics. Surface reconstruction of the metallic cathode is expected to happen, due to corrosion-deposition mechanisms, D/H transport, stress relaxation and defect production, and so on. All these mechanisms both affect and are affected by the surface properties, such as the morphology of the metal/electrolyte interface, the metallurgical and crystal structure of the cathode and the presence of contaminants.

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3465. Sasaki, A., An approach to cold fusion. Kenkyu Kiyo – Miyagi Kogyo Koto Senmom Gakko, 1990. 26: p. 47.

First Author: Sasaki, A.
All Authors: Sasaki, A.
Keywords: gas discharge, titanium, ion bombardment, D2

3466. Sasaki, K., Report of my transmutation experiment. 1998.

First Author: Sasaki, K.
All Authors: Sasaki, K.
Keywords: transmutation

3467. Sasaki, Y., et al. Deuterium Gas Charging Experiments with Pd Powders for Excess Heat Evolution (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in The 9th Meeting of Japan CF-Research Society. 2009. Shizuoka, Japan.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Pd-black nanoparticle heat

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation during D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For PdZr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratios of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed during deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after deuteride formation. Results for 0.1-μm diameter Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown, for comparison.

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3468. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Nohmi, T., Miyoshi, Y., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

Aim It has been reported that charging of highly pure D2 gas into Pd nano-powders in the form of Pd/ZrO2 nano-composite contained in a stainless-steel vacuum vessel has induced significant excess heat. We have constructed an experimental system to confirm the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by calorimetry and investigate the underlying physics.

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3469. Sasaki, Y., et al. Anomalous Heat Generation in Charging of Pd Powders with High Density Hydrogen Isotopes, (I) Results of absorption experiments using Pd powders. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Sasaki, Y.
All Authors: Sasaki, Y., Kitamura, A., Miyoshi, Y., Nohmi, T., Taniike, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords:

A twin system for hydrogen-isotope absorption experiments has been constructed to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata and Zhang, and to investigate the underlying physics. For Pd×Zr oxide nano-powders, anomalously large energies of hydrogen isotope absorption, 2.4 Ѱ.2 eV/D-atom and 1.8 Ѱ.4 eV/H-atom, as well as large loading ratio of D/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.0 and H/Pd =1.1 Ѱ.3, respectively, were observed in the phase of deuteride/hydride formation. The sample charged with D2 also showed significantly positive output energy in the second phase after the deuteride formation. For comparison , results for 0.1-μmf Pd powder samples and Pd-black samples are also shown.

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3470. Sastry, K.S.R., Fusion reaction. Science, 1989. 244: p. 904 (Letters).

First Author: Sastry, K. S. R.
All Authors: Sastry, K. S. R.
Keywords: energy, nuclear reaction

3471. Sato, T., et al., Detection of neutrons in electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 357.

First Author: Sato, T.
All Authors: Sato, T., Okamoto, M., Kim, P., Fujii, Y., Aizawa, O.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

3472. Savinell, R.F. and H.S. Burney Jr., Report of the electrolytic industries for the year 1989. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1990. 137: p. 485C.

First Author: Savinell, R. F.
All Authors: Savinell, R. F., Burney Jr., H. S.
Keywords: history

3473. Savrasov, A., V. Prokopenko, and E. Andreev, CR-39 Detector Track Characterization in Experiments with Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 1-6.

First Author: Savrasov, A.
All Authors: Savrasov, A., Prokopenko, V., Andreev, E.
Keywords: alpha-Particle, Co-deposition, CR-39 Detector, Electrolysis

Four experiments replicating the GALILEO Project were performed. In two of them, excess ↵-particle track density was observed in the CR-39 detectors in comparison with background CR-39 detectors.

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3474. Savvatimova, I., Y. Kucherov, and A.B. Karabut. Cathode Material Change after Deuterium Glow Discharge Experiments. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Kucherov, Y., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, gas discharge, D2, fission, transmutation, Helium, radioactivity, gamma emission ICCF-4

The results of impurity concentration measurements in a palladium cathode by different methods before and after deuterium glow discharge experiments are presented. The concentration of some impurities increases up to 104 times. Elements appear which cannot be found in the discharge environment. Autoradiography of cathode samples shows that isotopes with different radiation energy (less than 20 keV and more 100 keV) exist in the cathode after experiment. The obtained results cannot be explained by the existence of a conventional fusion reaction, but may be explained by a more complex fusion-fission reaction.

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3475. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Nuclear Reaction Products Registration on the Cathode after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, transmutation, radioactivity, ICCF-5

We watched the changing of some impurity elements on tft7; Pd cathode ( 99,9% p u r i t y ) a fter proton, proton-deuteron and deuteron ion’s irradiation under the equal glow discharge conditions.

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3476. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut. Radioactivity of the Cathode Samples after Glow Discharge. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, deuterium radioactivity, ion bombardment, Ag, Nb, titanium, D2, H2, Ar, Xe ICCF-5 x-ray

We registered the residual radioactivity of the cathode foils (Pd, Ag, Nb and other mateirals) after irradiation at the glow discharge. The samples were irradiated by proton, deuteron and argon, xenon ions with low energy. We consider that the main activity is beta emission from samples after experiments. . . .

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3477. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Nuclear reaction products detected at the cathode after a glow discharge in deuterium. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 63 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: gas discharge, Pd, fusion-fission, surface analysis, transmutation

3478. Savvatimova, I. and A.B. Karabut, Radioactivity of palladium cathodes after irradiation in a glow discharge. Poverkhnost, 1996(1): p. 76 (in Russian).

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Karabut, A. B.
Keywords: Pd, Nb, As, titanium, gas discharge, autoradiograph transmutation

3479. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation Effects in the Cathode Exposed Glow Discharge, Nuclear Phenomena or Ion Irradiation Results? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: transmutation, ion bombardment, surface analysis, Pd, D2, H2, ICCF-7

3480. Savvatimova, I. and V.U. Korolev. Comparative Analysis of Heat Effect in Various Cathode Materials Exposed to Glow Discharge. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Korolev, V. UI.
Keywords: ion bombardment, heat+, gas discharge, D2 Pd-Pt-W, ICCF-7

3481. Savvatimova, I. Reproducibility of Experiments in Glow Discharge and Processes Accompanying Deuterium ions Bombardment. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, autoradiograph, film particle emission, titanium, Pd, radioactivity, gas discharge ICCF-8

The problems of reproducibility of experiments in glow discharge (GD) and electrolysis are considered. The difficulty in estimation of nuclear and non-nuclear processes contribution in isotopic and elemental composition change in material irradiated by ions is noted.The post-experimental charged particles flow from samples in Deuterium GD was measured. The current ranging ~ 10^-6A·cm^-2 – ~10^-13A·cm^-2 was registered in the first 1 – 3 post-experimental minutes for different materials (Pd, Pd alloys, Ag and Mo) and experimental parameters. The emissions duration lasted 30-100 minutes and depended upon experimental parameters.Analysis of tracks on X-ray films placed inside and outside of a metal GD chamber has shown existence of tracks varying from several to tens of millimeters. The tracks were of various shapes: round and curvilinear, and also rotating including double spirals.

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3482. Savvatimova, I. and J. Dash. Emission registration on films during glow discharge experiments. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Dash, J.
Keywords: glow discharge, ion bombardment, U, W, Zr, Pd, D2, D+, X-ray

Deuterium and protium experiments in the glow discharge apparatus were conducted with U, W, Zr, Pd foils placed on the cathode. The glow discharge apparatus contains two concentric quartz tubes, each with about five mm wall thickness. Kodak BioMax MR-2 films (13×18 cm) contained in individual packets are intended to detect gamma and x-ray emission in the energy range from 150 to 260 keV. The films were placed against the outer quartz tube about 70 mm from the electrodes during glow discharge operation time ranging from 1-25 hours. The applied glow discharge voltage during was 200-700 V, the current was 5-25 mA/cm^2, and the gas pressure was 2-5 torr.

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3483. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Results Of Analysis Of Ti Foil After Glow Discharge With Deuterium. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge, transmutation

In this study we report on the surface structure, distribution and isotopic composition of elements found on Ti cathodes before and after glow discharge in plasma, during which excess heat was produced. Irradiation was carried out with deuterium ions with a discharge voltage below 1000 volts, with a current of 10 to 20 mA.The analysis of the surface structure and of elemental composition of the Ti sample was carried out with a scanning electronic microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), which can detect impurities at concentrations as low as 0.2 atomic %. New metallic phase formation and newly present elements were revealed by the EDS method in several different, separate active spots on the cathode surface, with concentrations ranging from 0.3% up to 10 or 20% or more . . .

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3484. Savvatimova, I. and D. Gavritenkov. Influence Of Parameters Of The Glow Discharge On Change Of Structure And The Isotope Composition Of The Cathode Materials. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Gavritenkov, D.
Keywords: glow discharge

Results of examinations of changes in structure, element, and isotope composition of cathodes after the glow discharge exposure in hydrogen, deuterium, argon, and xenon are submitted. The voltage of the discharge was less than 1000 V and the current was 5-150 mA. Samples before and after ions bombardment in the glow discharge were explored by the methods of mass spectrometry: the secondary ions (SIMS), the secondary ions with additional ionization of neutral sprayed particles (SNMS), spark (SMS), and thermo-ionization (TIMS), and also methods of energy dispersion X-ray spectral analysis (EDX). The alpha-, beta-, gamma- emission, and gamma- spectrometry for radioactive uranium specimens were also carried out before and after experiments in the glow discharge. Changes in structure, isotope, and element composition of the cathode samples depend on current density, integrated ions flow (fluence of ions), kind of irradiating ions and other experimental conditions. Attempts are made to estimate qualitatively and quantitatively the role of each of the parameters on intensity of the observed changes in cathode composition. It is shown that the maximum changes in structure, chemical and isotope composition of the cathode material occur in “hot points,” such as craters from microexplosions, phase segregations, blisters and other new formations. . . .

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3485. Savvatimova, I. Transmutation in Tungsten Irradiated by Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3486. Savvatimova, I., G. Savvatimova, and A.A. Kornilova. Gamma Emission Evaluation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Savvatimova, I.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I., Savvatimova, G., Kornilova, A. A.
Keywords: glow discharge,

3487. Savvatimova, I.B., Transmutation of Elements in Low-energy Glow Discharge and the Associated Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 181-198.

First Author: Savvatimova, I. B.
All Authors: Savvatimova, I. B.
Keywords: Isotopic ratio change, Low-energy gas glow discharge, Mass-spectrometry, Palladium, Transmutation, Tungsten

The review of the main transmutation results in palladium and tungsten after the exposure to deuterium Glow Discharge (GD) measured by different Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Gamma-Spectrometry (GS) methods is given. The registered structure and isotopic ratio change alongside with formation of additional elements were accompanied by gamma and X-ray emission. The registered isotopic ratio change ranged within 2-1000 times, the quantity of additional elements undetected before varying within one tenth to dozens percents in Pd and Pd alloys. The isotopes with masses less than and exceeding those of the cathode material were measured in most of the experiments. The MS revealed that the tungsten isotopes transmutated into elements lighter than tungsten, higher post-experimental intensity of mass numbers 169, 170, 171, 178 and 180 being observed. The mass spectra peaks magnituded for isotopes lighter than W isotopes increased by factors ranging from 5 to 400. The registered increase varied from 5-50 cps in the original foils to 100-20 000 cps after the exposure to deuterium GD. Lighter isotopes in tungsten and tantalum foils placed on the GD cathode after deuterium GD exposure were identified using high resolution gamma/X-ray spectrometry. The comparison of thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (TIMS) data and data of gamma-spectra energy peaks allowed to assume that the peaks series observed in gamma spectra belong to the following isotopes: 169 70 Yb, 170 72 Hf , 171m 70 Yb, 172 72 Hf and 178 70 Yb. Correlation of TIMS and Gamma spectrometry data leads to the assumption that the appearance of light isotopes in tungsten resulted from the low-energy decay process initiation caused by deuterium GD.

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3488. Sawada, T., A Particle Physicist’s View on the Nuclear Cold Fusion Reaction. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2007. 1: p. 6-10.

First Author: Sawada, T.
All Authors: Sawada, T.
Keywords: Change of penetration factor, Charge quantization condition, Magnetic monopole, Nuclear cold fusion, Origin of nonreproducibility

There are two different types of scientists who believe in the reality of the nuclear cold fusion. The researchers, who observed the excess energy by experiments, belong to the first type. On the other hand, a small number of theoreticians, who are working on the physics of the magnetic monopole, know that the nuclear reaction of the zero incident energy proceeds when the system involves a magnetic monopole. Since the former group still lacks a theory of the nuclear cold fusion based on the first principle of the natural law, I believe it is fruitful to explain to the former group how the theoretician of the particle physics comes to arrive at the conclusion that the nuclear cold fusion must occur if a magnetic monopole exists, in the framework of the quantum theory.

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3489. Sawada, T., Underlying Mechanism of the Nuclear of Implied by the Energy-momentum Conservation [ I ]. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 118-134.

First Author: Sawada, T.
All Authors: Sawada, T.
Keywords: Charge-monopole system, Coulombic field, d-d Reaction, Momentum conservation, Momentum transfer

By studying the conservation of energy and momentum, it is found that in the nuclear cold fusion, existence of the localized external potential is necessary to absorb the large momentum transfer. We can narrow down the candidate of the required external field to the magnetic field produced by the magnetic monopole. The roll of the magnetic monopole in lowering the repulsive Coulomb barrier when two deuterons come close and fuse is considered.

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3490. Scalia, A., The Nuclear Fusion for the Reactions 2H (d,n) 3He, 2H (d,p) 3H, 3H (d,n) 4 He. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 101(5): p. 795.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A.
Keywords: theory, fusion Rate

3491. Scalia, A. and P. Figuera. The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p)3H + 2H(d,n) 3He at Very Low Temperature. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scalia, A.
All Authors: Scalia, A., Figuera, P.
Keywords: cross section, fusion, energy, low energy, ICCF-2, tritium, neutron, d-p

3492. Scaramuzzi, F. Survey of Gas Loading Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review loading, D2, Pd, titanium YBCO ICCF-2

3493. Scaramuzzi, F. Cold Fusion Research in Italy. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review, Italy, ICCF-3

In the past 3 ½ years many experiments have been performed in the field known with the conventional name of “cold fusion” (CF), and a number of theories have attempted to interpret them and to assess them in a coherent picture. Differently from other fields in science, this area has grown in a quite strange atmosphere: the most striking aspect of it is the anomalous “geography” of the activities, meaning by this term the different kind of development that research activities in this field have had in different countries.

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3494. Scaramuzzi, F., La fusione fredda quattro anni dopo (Cold fusion four years later). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1993. 75(5): p. 425 (in Italian).

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: review

3495. Scaramuzzi, F., Ten Years of Cold Fusion: An Eye-witness Account. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 77.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

INTRODUCTIONThe name of Cold Fusion (CF) comes from the interpretation given to certain phenomena taking place in a metal lattice roughly at room temperature, in terms of nuclear fusion, say between two deuterium nuclei: cold in comparison with the high temperatures of thermonuclear fusion (10^8 K). The first time this was suggested was in the Spring of 1989, ten years ago, by Fleischmann and Pons (1): their experiment gave rise to much turmoil all over the world, ending within a few months with the scientific community rejecting the experiment and thus this interpretation. Research in CF continued nevertheless in a few laboratories, mostly in the USA, Japan, Italy, Russia and China; International Conferences were held regularly, roughly every 1.5 years. However, after ten years, in spite of undeniable (although not overwhelming) progress in the field, there is hardly any communication between this small CF community and the scientific world at large.

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3496. Scaramuzzi, F., Gas loading of deuterium in palladium at low temperature. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2004. 385: p. 19.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: gas loading

The experimental technique presented in this article is aimed at measuring the absorption of hydrogen or deuterium gas in a thin palladium sample while the system is at low temperature. A result for deuterium is described, consisting in the measurement of the equilibrium loading ratio X (called also D/Pd ratio, atomic), as a function of pressure, on a palladium film 3.6 μm-thick at 150 K. Values of X up to 1 have been measured at pressures lower than 1 bar. The electric resistance of the palladium sample also has been measured as a function of temperature and of X, and the results are reported.

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3497. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading Of Deuterium In Palladium (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords: loading

Objectives of the experiment The idea is to realize a conceptually simple experiment, reproducible, and with a straightforward answer: * To start with, measuring the D/Pd ratio, aiming to high values. * Possibly detecting excess heat. * Analyze the gas, looking for 4He. * Studying the loading dynamics.

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3498. Scaramuzzi, F. Low Temperature Gas Loading of Deuterium in Palladium. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice). In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made.The present experiment is aimed at obtaining high loading ratios of deuterium in palladiumwithout using electrolysis. The idea is to have deuterium gas in contact with palladium. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.A first test experiment, performed at ENEA Frascati in 2002, showed that it was possible to have D/Pd ratios as high as 1 at 150 K with a pressure lower than 1 bar [1]. The experiment has been rebuilt at LNF/INFN and the first results are reported here.An anomaly in the loading dynamics will be also reported.

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3499. Scaramuzzi, F. Proposal of an Experiment Aimed at Charging Deuterium in Palladium at the Temperature of Liquid Nitrogen. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Scaramuzzi, F.
All Authors: Scaramuzzi, F.
Keywords:

One of the most established features of the phenomenon known with the name of “Cold Fusion”, with reference to the system palladium (Pd) – deuterium (D), is that a condition necessary (even though not sufficient) to be satisfied in order for these phenomena to take place is that the content of D in Pd, called also the D/Pd ratio X, approaches the value of 1 (understanding by this quantity the atomic ratio between the two species in the Pd lattice).In order to reach such an high value of X, extensive use of electrolysis of heavy water with a Pd cathode has been made. An alternative line that has been followed by the Author [1] consists of trying to obtain high values of X by the direct interaction of Pd with D2 gas. The use of low temperatures has the purpose of increasing the equilibrium loading ratio for a given gas pressure.The proposal of an experiment which requires little attention is presented here.

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3500. Scarborough, T., et al., The Center to Study Anomalous Heat Effects [AHE] at Texas Tech University. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scarborough, T.
All Authors: Scarborough, T., Duncan, R., McKubre, M. C. H., Violante, V.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cryogenic, Electrochemistry, Heat-helium, Spectroscopy

The Center for Emerging Energy Sciences at Texas Tech University (CEES) has been established to explore critical parameters in the observation of the anomalous heat effects (AHE). A large number of experiments report the production of heat from metal samples loaded with hydrogen or deuterium in amounts that are often thousands of times greater than the enthalpies of possible chemical reactions. The effect is anomalous because there is no agreed-to mechanism, and particle radiation rates are not reported at levels that are consistent with any known nuclear process.

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3501. Schaffer, M., What is the current scientific thinking on cold fusion? Scientific American, 1997. on line.

First Author: Schaffer, M.
All Authors: Schaffer, M.
Keywords: review

3502. Schaller, C., Fusion Lecturer Cold To Press, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3503. Schaller, C., Scientist Convinced Process is Nuclear, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3504. Schaller, C., Scientists Careful in Fusion Finds, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 1.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3505. Schaller, C., Scientists Seeing Results in Cold Fusion, in Monitor. 1990: Los AlamosEditor. p. 183.

First Author: Schaller, C.
All Authors: Schaller, C.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3506. Schilling, K.D., et al., Search for charged-particle emission from deuterated palladium foils. Z. Phys. A: At. Nucl., 1990. 336: p. 1.

First Author: Schilling, K. D.
All Authors: Schilling, K. D., Gippner, P., Seidel, W., Stary, F., Wohlfarth, D.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, D2

3507. Schirber, J.E. and C.J.M. Northrup, Concentration Dependence of the Superconducting Transition Temperature In Pd-H and Pd-D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1974. 10: p. 3818.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Northrup, C. J. M.
Keywords: superconductivity, Pd, H,

3508. Schirber, J.E. and B. Morosin, Lattice Constants of Beta-Pd-Hx and Beta-PdDx with x Near 1.0. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1975. 12: p. 117.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Morosin, B.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, Lattice Parameter

3509. Schirber, J.E., et al., Search for cold fusion in high-pressure deuterium-loaded titanium and palladium metal and deuteride. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 397.

First Author: Schirber, J. E.
All Authors: Schirber, J. E., Butler, M. A., Ginley, D. S., Ewing, R. I.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, D2, neutron

3510. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Effects and the Formation of Metal Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 73: p. 145.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Seiler, A., Stucki, F., Siegmann, H. C.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, LaNi5, review

3511. Schlapbach, L. and J.P. Burger, A New XPS/UPS Study of the Electronic Structure of PdH0.6. J. Phys., Lett., 1982. 43: p. L-273.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: PdH, H2, structure, Density Of States

3512. Schlapbach, L. and T. Riesterer, The Composition of the Surface Properties of FeTi and Fe2Ti4Ox in View of the Different Hydrogen Sorption Behaviours. J. Less-Common Met., 1984. 101: p. 453.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Riesterer, T.
Keywords: surface, hydrogen, Fe-Ti, Fe-Ti-O

3513. Schlapbach, L., et al., Low Temperature Electronic Properties of Cerium Hydrides. J. Less-Common Met., 1986(130): p. 239.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Ott, H. R., Felder, E., Rudigier, H., Thiry, P., Bonnet, J. E., Petroff, Y., Burger, J. P.
Keywords: bonding, density Of States, CeH

3514. Schlapbach, L., et al., Surface Semiconductor-Metal Transition in Rare Earth Hydrides at Low Temperatures. Surf. Sci., 1987. 189-190: p. 747.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L., Burger, J. P., Bonnet, J. E., Thiry, P., Petroff, Y.
Keywords: photoelectron, bonding, CeH, LaH, GdH, TbH

3515. Schlapbach, L. Hydrogen and Its Isotopes in and on Metals. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Schlapbach, L.
All Authors: Schlapbach, L.
Keywords: Pd, LaNi5, density of states, diffusion, H, surface analysis, ICCF-2

3516. Schmidt, S., Cold Fusion Conundrum. Analog Science Fiction and Fact, 1995. Jan: p. 5.

First Author: Schmidt, S.
All Authors: Schmidt, S.
Keywords: history

3517. Schneider, J.H., How a rectangular potential in Schroedinger’s equation could explain some experimental results on cold nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 377.

First Author: Schneider, J. H.
All Authors: Schneider, J. H.
Keywords: Theory, tunneling

3518. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., Jâger, W.
Keywords: tritium, helium Vanadium

3519. Schober, T., et al., The Observation of Cylindrical Cavities at Dislocations in Dilute Tritium-Charged Vanadium. Scr. Metall., 1984. 18: p. 255.

First Author: Schober, T.
All Authors: Schober, T., Thomas, G. J., Lasser, R., J‰ger, W.
Keywords: tritium, helium Vanadium

3520. Scholkmann, F., T. Mizuno, and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Unexpected Daily Variations in an Electrochemical Transmutation Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Mizuno, T., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Daily oscillations, Diurnal oscillations, Electrochemical transmutation, Ensemble empirical mode decomposition, Intrinsic mode functions, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Phase synchronization, Signal correlating

In two electrochemical transmutation experiments, unexpected oscillations in the recorded signals with a daily period were observed for deuterium/palladium loading ratio (D/Pd), temperature (T ) and pressure (P). The aim of the present study was to analyze the time courses of the signals of one of the experiments using an advanced signal-processing framework. The experiment was a high temperature (375 K), high pressure (750 kPa) and long-term (866 h . 35 days) electrochemical transmutation exploration done in 2008. The analysis was performed by (i) selecting the intervals of the D/Pd, T and P signals where the daily oscillations occurred, (ii) filtering the signals to remove low-frequency noise, (iii) analyzing the waveforms of the daily oscillations, (iv) applying Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) to decompose the signals into Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs), (v) performing a statistical test on the obtained IMFs in order to identify the physically most meaningful oscillation mode, (vi) performing an power spectral analysis, (vii) calculating the correlations between the signals, and (viii) determining the time-dependent phase synchronization between the signals. We found that (i) in all three signals (D/Pd, T and P) a clear daily oscillation was present while the current density J did not show such an oscillation, (ii) the daily oscillation in T and P had similar waveforms and where anti-correlated to the oscillation in D/Pd, (iii) D/Pd and T had the highest correlation (r = 0.7693), (iv) all three signals exhibited phase synchronization over the whole signal length while the strongest phase synchronization took place between D/Pd and T . Possible origins of the daily oscillation were discussed and implications for further investigations and experiments were outlined.

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3521. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Statistical Analysis of Transmutation Data from Low-energy Nuclear Reaction Experiments and Comparison with a Model-based Prediction ofWidom and Larsen. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation,Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations were reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. In the present study, we analyzed (i) whether three available nuclear transmutation data sets show a consistent pattern and (ii) whether this pattern correlates with a model-based prediction ofWidom and Larsen. Our analysis revealed that the data sets (i) exhibit a similar pattern and (ii) correlate with the predicted function. The last three peaks as a function of atomic mass A (intervals: 64-70, 116-129, 191-208 A) were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with the averaged data despite great differences in the experiments.

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3522. Scholkmann, F. and D.J. Nagel, Is the Abundance of Elements in Earth’s Crust Correlated with LENR Transmutation Rates? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Elements in Earth’s crust, Low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR), Neutron scattering strength, Statistical analysis, Transmutation, Widom–Larsen theory

Nuclear transmutations are reported in many low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments. We showed in a previous study (Scholkmann and Nagel, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13 (2014) 485-494) that (i) the transmutation data of three independent experiments have a similar pattern and (ii) this pattern correlates with a model-based on the prediction of Widom and Larsen (WL). In the present study, we extended our analysis and investigated whether the abundance of elements in Earth’s crust is correlated with either (i) the WL-prediction, or (ii) the three LENR transmutation data sets. The first analysis revealed that there is no statistically significant correlation between these variables. The second analysis showed a significant correlation, but the correlation only reflects the trend of the data and not the peak-like pattern. This result strengthens the interpretation that the observed peak-like pattern in the transmutation data sets does not originate from contamination. Further implications of our study are discussed and a recommendation is given for future transmutation experiments.

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3523. Scholkmann, F., D.J. Nagel, and L. DeChiaro, Electromagnetic Emission in the kHz to GHz Range Associated with Heat Production During Electrochemical Loading of Deuterium into Palladium: A Summary and Analysis of Results Obtained by Different Research Groups. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Scholkmann, F.
All Authors: Scholkmann, F., Nagel, D. J., DeChiaro, L.
Keywords: Electromagnetic emissions, Electromagnetic radiation, Excess power, LENR, Heat production

There is a small literature on the combination of low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) experiments and radiofrequencies (RF). The papers are worth attention in case they can teach anything about the mechanisms behind LENR. Application of RF to LENR electrochemical cells in the mid-1990s clearly showed increases in the production of excess power. More recently, RF have been measured in LENR cells. However, it is still possible that those data are artifacts of the operation of the system, and not indicative of LENR. It has been suggested that the appearance of RF in LENR experiments is the cause of LENR, and not merely a manifestation of such reactions. That possibility has significant implications. In the present paper, we summarize and analyze the results obtained by different research groups concerning the application and emission of RF in the kHz to GHz range associated with heat production during electrochemical loading of deuterium into palladium.

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3524. Schommers, W. and C. Politis, Cold fusion in condensed matter: is a theoretical description in terms of usual solid state physics possible? Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3(8): p. 597.

First Author: Schommers, W.
All Authors: Schommers, W., Politis, C.
Keywords: theory

3525. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Experimental Results on the Thermal Behavior of Electrochemical Cells in the Hydrogen-Palladium and Deuterium-Palladium Systems. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, electrolysis, method

3526. Schreiber, M., et al. Recent Measurements of Excess Energy Production in Electrochemical Cells Containing Heavy Water and Palladium. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schreiber, M.
All Authors: Schreiber, M., Gur, T. M., Lucier, G., Ferrante, J. A., Chao, J., Huggins, R. A.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

This paper reports calorimetric experiments related to the energy breakeven issue during heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode in thermodynamically closed cells. A comparison with light water electrolysis under the same conditions is also given. Excess power has been observed in a number of cases in which the overall energy balance becomes positive after a short period, leading to the generation of significant amounts of excess energy. In one case, excess power was maintained over a period of ten days, and produced over 23 MJ of excess energy per mole of palladium.

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3527. Schrieder, G., H. Wipf, and A. Richter, Search for cold nuclear fusion in palladium-deuterium. Z. Phys. B: Condens. Matter, 1989. 76: p. 141.

First Author: Schrieder, G.
All Authors: Schrieder, G., Wipf, H., Richter, A.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, particle emission

3528. Schuldiner, S., G.W. Castellan, and J.P. Hoare, Electrochemical Behavior of the Palladium-Hydrogen System. I. Potential-Determining Mechanisms. J. Chem. Phys., 1958. 28: p. 16.

First Author: Schuldiner, S.
All Authors: Schuldiner, S., Castellan, G. W., Hoare, J. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Phase Diagram, loading, overvoltage

3529. Schulte, U., Die ‘Kalte Kernfusion’ – ein wissenschaftlicher Artifakt [in German] (‘Cold fusion’ – a scientific artifact). Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 2002. 142(14): p. 77.

First Author: Schulte, U.
All Authors: Schulte, U.
Keywords: Discussion

3530. Schultz, R. and J.P. Kenny, Electronuclear catalysts and initiators: The di-neutron model for cold fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(29): p. 58.

First Author: Schultz, R.
All Authors: Schultz, R., Kenny, J. P.
Keywords: theory dineutron

3531. Schultze, J.W., et al., Prospects and problems of electrochemically induced cold nuclear fusion. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34: p. 1289.

First Author: Schultze, J. W.
All Authors: Schultze, J. W., Koenig, U., Hochfeld, A., Van Calker, C., Kies, W.
Keywords: review, critique, history

3532. Schwinger, J. Nuclear Energy in an Atomic Lattice. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, d-p fusion, ICCF-1

The distinct nature of the cold fusion regime is emphasized: electromagnetic selection rules suppress radiation, permitting excess energy transference to the lattice; the coherent nature of the wave-function is at variance with the standard separation between barrier penetration and nuclear reactivity. The discussion is restricted to tritium production, based on the dd reaction that populates the first excited state of 4He, which decays into t+p, whereas the formation of 3He+n is energetically forbidden. Production rates compatible with the broad range of experimental results are realized within a narrow parametric interval. The great sensitivity to the physical circumstances is reminiscent of the reproducibility problems that have plagued this field.

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3533. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. 1. Z. Phys. D: At., Mol. Clusters, 1990. 15: p. 221.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3534. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: a hypothesis. Z. Naturforsch. A, 1990. 45A: p. 756.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, p-d fusion

3535. Schwinger, J., Cold fusion: Does it have a future? Evol. Trends Phys. Sci., Proc. Yoshio Nishina Centen. Symp., Tokyo 1990, 1991. 57: p. 171.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: history, review

Abstract. The case against the reality of cold fusion is outlined. It is based on preconceptions inherited from experience with hot fusion. That cold fusion refers to a different regime is emphasized. The new regime is characterized by intermittency in the production of excess heat, tritium and neutrons. A scenario is sketched, based upon the hypothesis that small segments of the lattice can absorb released nuclear energy.

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3536. Schwinger, J., Nuclear energy in an atomic lattice. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1991. 85: p. 711.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, critique

3537. Schwinger, J. Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-4

As Polonius might have said: “Neither a true-believer nor a disbeliever be.” From the very beginning in a radio broadcast on the evening of March 23, 1989, I have asked myself-not whether Pons and Fleischmann are right-but whether a mechanism can be identified that will produce nuclear energy by manipulations at the atomic-the chemical-level. Of course, the acceptance of that interpretation of their data is needed as a working hypothesis, in order to have quantitative tests of proposed mechanisms.

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3538. Schwinger, J., Energy Transfer In Cold Fusion and Sonoluminescence. 1994.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory,

3539. Schwinger, J., Cold Fusion, A Brief History of Mine. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. xiii.

First Author: Schwinger, J.
All Authors: Schwinger, J.
Keywords: theory

3540. Scott, C.D., et al., A preliminary investigation of cold fusion by electrolysis of heavy water. 1989: Oak Ridge.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, gamma, heat, tritium+, electrolysis

3541. Scott, C.D., et al. The Initiation of Excess Power and Possible Products of Nuclear Interactions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, ICCF-1, electrolysis

The electrolysis of heavy water is being investigated with an insulated flow calorimetric system. In each of a series of tests, the electrolyte was 0.1 to 1.0 LiOD in D2O and cylindrical palladium cathodes surrounded by wire-wound platinum anodes were used at cathode current densities of 100 to 800 mA/cm^2. The most recent test was made with a “closed system” without off-gas in which the electrolysis gases were internally recombined. Fast neutrons and gamma rays were measured continuously during each test. It was shown that certain system perturbations could initiate and extend the generation of excess power. In one test, an apparent increase in the neutron count rate was also coincident with system perturbations.

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3542. Scott, C.D., et al., Preliminary Investigation of Possible Low-Temperature Fusion. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 115.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Greenbaum, E., Michaels, G. E., Mrochek, J. E., Newman, E., Petek, M., Scott, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, gamma emission, heat+, neutron+

3543. Scott, C.D., et al., Measurement of excess heat and apparent coincident increases in the neutron and gamma-ray count rates during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 103.

First Author: Scott, C. D.
All Authors: Scott, C. D., Mrochek, J. E., Scott, T. C., Michaels, G. E., Newman, E., Petek, M.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, neutron, Pd gamma emission, tritium D2O, H2O

3544. Searson, P.C., Hydrogen evolution and entry in palladium at high current density. Acta metall. Mater., 1991. 39: p. 2519.

First Author: Searson, P. C.
All Authors: Searson, P. C.
Keywords: diffusion, PdH, loading, Pd

3545. Seeliger, D., et al., Search for DD-fusion neutrons during heavy water electrolysis. Electrochim. Acta, 1989. 34(7): p. 991.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Wiesener, K., Meister, A., Marten, H., Ohms, D., Rahner, D., Schwierz, R., Wuestner, P.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, heat-, energy

3546. Seeliger, D., Physical problems of the investigations into nuclear fusion in condensed media. Isotopenpraxis, 1990. 26: p. 384 (in German).

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: review, theory

3547. Seeliger, D., et al. Evidence of Neutron Emission From a Titanium Deuterium System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Bittner, M., Meister, A., Schwierz, R., Streil, T.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, D2 ICCF-2

3548. Seeliger, D. and A. Meister, A simple plasma model for the description of d-d fusion in condensed matter. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2114.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D., Meister, A.
Keywords: theory

3549. Seeliger, D., Theoretical limits of nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Acta Phys. Hung., 1991. 69: p. 257.

First Author: Seeliger, D.
All Authors: Seeliger, D.
Keywords: theory

3550. Segre, S.E., et al., A Search for Neutron Emission from Deuterated Palladium. 1989.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Batistoni, P., Bertalot, L., Bettinali, L., Martone, M.
Keywords: neutron, Pd,

3551. Segre, S.E., et al., A mechanism for neutron emission from deuterium trapped in metals. Europhys. Lett., 1990. 11: p. 201.

First Author: Segre, S. E.
All Authors: Segre, S. E., Atzeni, S., Briguglio, S., Romanelli, F.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

3552. Seifritz, W., No end to cold fusion (Kalte Fusion und kein Ende). GIT Fachz. Lab., 1991. 35: p. 114 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: theory

3553. Seifritz, W., Ein neuer Weg zur Nutzbarmachung der Kernfusion?[“A new way of using nuclear fusion?”]. Atomwirtsch. Atomtech., 1996. 41: p. 729 (in German).

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Theory, sonoluminescence

3554. Seifritz, W., Letter to the Editor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 357.

First Author: Seifritz, W.
All Authors: Seifritz, W.
Keywords: Polemic

3555. Seitchie, J.A., A.C. Gossard, and V.J. Accarino, Knight shifts and susceptibilities of transition metals: Palladium. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1964. 136: p. 1119.

First Author: Seitchie, J. A.
All Authors: Seitchie, J. A., Gossard, A. C., Accarino, V. J
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd

3556. Seitz, R., Fusion in from the cold?” (section editor’s title). Nature (London), 1989. 339: p. 185.

First Author: Seitz, R.
All Authors: Seitz, R.
Keywords: theory

3557. Semiletov, S.A., et al., Electron-Diffraction Investigation of Tetragonal PdH. Kristallografiya, 1980. 25: p. 665.

First Author: Semiletov, S. A.
All Authors: Semiletov, S. A., Baranov, R. V., Khodryev, Y. P., Imamov, R. M.
Keywords: Pd, hydrogen Electron Diffraction, structure, Gamma Phase, PdH

3558. Senjuh, T., et al. Study of Material Processing and Treatment for High Deuterium-Loading. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Asami, N., Mori, K., Sigemitsu, T.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, current density ICCF-6, electrolysis

3559. Senjuh, T., et al., Experimental study of electrochemical deuterium loading of Pd cathodes in the LiOD/D2O system. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 617.

First Author: Senjuh, T.
All Authors: Senjuh, T., Kamimura, H., Uehara, T., Sumi, M., Miyashita, S., Sigemitsu, T., Asami, N.
Keywords: loading, Pd, PdD, resistivity, electrolysis, D2O

3560. Seo, M. and M. Aomi, Piezelectric response to surface stress change of a palladium electrode in sulfate aqueous solutions. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1992. 139(4): p. 1087.

First Author: Seo, M.
All Authors: Seo, M., Aomi, M.
Keywords: loading,, Pd

3561. Service, A.W., New Tomorrow Dawns As LANL Confirms Cold Fusion, in The New Mexican. 1989: Santa FeEditor.

First Author: Service, A. W.
All Authors: Service, A. W.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3562. Sevilla, J., et al., Some characteristics of titanium and palladium samples used in cold fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 188.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Fernandez, F., Escarpizo, B., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: surface analysis, titanium, electrolysis, D2, pressure, Pd, T/n

3563. Sevilla, J., et al. Time-Evolution of Tritium Concentration in the Electrolyte of Prolonged Cold Fusion Experiments and its Relation to Ti Cathode Surface Treatment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Sevilla, J.
All Authors: Sevilla, J., Escarpizo, B., Fernandez, F., Cuevas, F., Sanchez, C.
Keywords: titanium, tritium, D2O, separation method ICCF-3 separation factor electrolysis

Tritium concentration in the electrolyte has been carefully monitored in more than twenty electrolytic cold fusion experiments accomplished in open cells. In order to distinguish between T-natural enrichment (isotopic enrichment) and any other T source inside the cell a macroscopic theoretical model is proposed to analyze the experimental data. It is concluded that T-concentration variations in the electrolyte above the level due to natural enrichment can be detected with confidence and therefore that open-cell experiments are convenient to investigate T -production. In addition, some empirical correlations between model parameters (measured separation factors) and cathode surface treatments prior to experiment have been found.

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3564. Shackelford, J.F., CRC Materials Science and Engineering Handbook Diffusion of metals into metalsShackelford, J.F. 1964.

First Author: Shackelford, J. F.
All Authors: Shackelford, J. F.
Keywords: diffusion, Pd,

3565. Shaheen, M., et al. Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M., Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: H/D, Oklo, ICCF-2, natural reactor

3566. Shaheen, M. and M. Ragheb, Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in naturally occurring fission reactions and the possibility of deuteron disintegration. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 1992. 158: p. 323.

First Author: Shaheen, M.
All Authors: Shaheen, M., Ragheb, M.
Keywords: geology, theory

3567. Shamoo, A.E., Editorial. Accountability Res., 2000. 8.

First Author: Shamoo, A. E.
All Authors: Shamoo, A. E.
Keywords: history critique

Before 1996, when I gave lectures on responsible conduct of research or research ethics, I used to emphasize the importance of ensuring in biomedical research the quality and integrity of research data. My reason for emphasizing this point was that, as opposed to situations associated with maintaining comparable standards in clinical trials, in which existing funding levels allow for the possibility that particular experiments will be repeated, in biomedical research, one cannot obtain funding to repeat research experiments that are large and expensive. For this reason, it was (and has remained) imperative that instances of possible fraud, misconduct and sloppy work be reduced from the outset. Because of limited funding, as a consequence, the self-correcting process of science may not be operative in these areas. I then used to end this part of my discussion by citing how in cold fusion research, and because of the potential significance and impact of the particular claims associated with this area, the self-correcting nature of science worked. The cold fusion experiments have been repeated dozens of times without success. The conclusion was that they were proven to be wrong. However, I was basing my conclusion on the numerous reports in newspapers and scientific magazines but not on any readings of the original literature.

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3568. Shanahan, K., A Possible Calorimetric Error in Heavy Water Electrolysis on Platinum. Thermochim. Acta, 2002. 387(2): p. 95-101.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: error, heat critique

Abstract A systematic error in mass flow calorimetry calibration procedures potentially capable of explaining most positive excess power measurements is described. Data recently interpreted as providing evidence of the Pons-Fleischmann effect with a platinum cathode are reinterpreted with the opposite conclusion. This indicates it is premature to conclude platinum displays a Pons and Fleischmann effect, and places the requirement to evaluate the erro-ڳ magnitude on all mass flow calorimetric experiments.

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3569. Shanahan, K., A Critique of the Student’s Guide To Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Critique

Dr. Edmund Storms has just released a new paper on cold fusion (CF, aka LENR, or CANR) that contains a section (in Chapter 8) that purports to address the issues I raise with cold fusion calorimetry in my paper and spf comments. I would like to address those comments dealing with my “calibration constant shift” (CCS) proposal to illustrate why they are incorrect.

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3570. Shanahan, K., Comments on Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 428: p. 207.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3571. Shanahan, K., Reply to ‘Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion,’ E. Storms. Thermochim. Acta, 2005. 441: p. 210.

First Author: Shanahan, K.
All Authors: Shanahan, K.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method,

3572. Shani, G., et al., Evidence for a background neutron enhanced fusion in deuterium absorbed palladium. Solid State Commun., 1989. 72(1): p. 53.

First Author: Shani, G.
All Authors: Shani, G., Cohen, C., Grayevsky, A., Brokman, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, application, enhanced fusion

3573. Shankland, S., Storms: Interest in cold fusion resurging, in Los Alamos Monitor. 1994: Los AlamosEditor. p. 31.

First Author: Shankland, S.
All Authors: Shankland, S.
Keywords: newspaper, history

3574. Shanley, E.S., The simplest explanation. Chem. Health & Saf., 1995. 2(2): p. 4.

First Author: Shanley, E. S.
All Authors: Shanley, E. S.
Keywords: Polemic, SRI explosion, critique

3575. Shapira, D. and M. Saltmarsh, Nuclear Fusion in Collapsing Bubbles — Is It There? An Attempt to Repeat the Observation of Nuclear Emissions from Sonoluminescence. Phys. Rev. Lett., 2002. 89(10): p. 104302-1.

First Author: Shapira, D.
All Authors: Shapira, D., Saltmarsh, M.
Keywords: Sonofusion

3576. Shapovalov, V.L., Test for additional heat evolution in electrolysis of heavy water with palladium cathode. JETP, 1989. 50: p. 117.

First Author: Shapovalov, V. L.
All Authors: Shapovalov, V. L.
Keywords: heat-, D2O, H2O, electrolysis, Pd

3577. Shaw, G.L., et al., Scenario for cold fusion by free quark catalysis. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102: p. 1441.

First Author: Shaw, G. L.
All Authors: Shaw, G. L., Shin, M., Bland, R. W., Fonda, L., Matis, H. S., Pugh, H. G., Slansky, R.
Keywords: theory, quark

3578. Sheldon, E., An overview of almost 20 years’ research on cold fusion. Contemporary Physics, 2008. 49(5).

First Author: Sheldon, E.
All Authors: Sheldon, E.
Keywords: review

3579. Shelton, D.S., et al., An assessment of claims of ‘excess heat’ in ‘cold fusion’ calorimetry. Thermochim. Acta, 1997. 297: p. 7.

First Author: Shelton, D. S.
All Authors: Shelton, D. S., Hansen, L. D., Thorne, J. M., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: critique, heat

3580. Shen, G., et al., The efficiency calculation of a low background neutron detection system. Yuanzineng Kexue Jishu (Atomic Energy Science and Technology), 1991. 25: p. 93 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shen, G.
All Authors: Shen, G., Li, S., Jing, W., Sui, Q., Li, Z., Yang, Z.
Keywords: neutron, method

3581. Sherfey, J.M. and A. Brenne, Electrochemical Calorimetry. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1958. 105(11): p. 665.

First Author: Sherfey, J. M.
All Authors: Sherfey, J. M., Brenne, A.
Keywords: method, heat

3582. Shibab-Eldin, A.A., et al., Cold fusion: effects of possible narrow nuclear resonance. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1989. 3: p. 965.

First Author: Shibab-Eldin, A. A.
All Authors: Shibab-Eldin, A. A., Rasmussen, J. O., Justice, M., Stoyer, M. A.
Keywords: theory

3583. Shibata, T., et al., A low background neutron measuring system and its application to the detection of neutrons produced by the D2O electrolysis. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1992. 316: p. 337.

First Author: Shibata, T.
All Authors: Shibata, T., Imamura, M., Shibata, S., Uwamino, Y., Ohkubo, T., Satoh, S., Yamakoshi, K., Oyama, N., Ohsaka, T., Yamamoto, N., Hatozaki, O., Niimura, N.
Keywords: neutron, method, electrolysis, Pd, tritium, D2O

3584. Shikano, K., H. Shinojima, and H. Kanbe. D2 Release Process From Deuterated Palladium in a Vacuum. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shikano, K.
All Authors: Shikano, K., Shinojima, H., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: Pd, deloading, D2, heat, layer, resistivity Au-Pd-Au Ag-Pd-MnOx, ICCF-5

To enhance reproducibility of the phenomena taking place in deuterated palladium, we studied in detail the change in surface temperature, electrical resistance, and D2 pressure during the release of D2 from deuterated palladium in a vacuum. As a result, we categorized the temperature changes into three different types that were independent of coating materials. In almost all experiments, the resistance decreased and the D2 pressure initially increased briefly and then gradually decreased in the D2 release process. We also tried to simulate the temperature changes by calculating the balance between Joule heat and heat dispersion.

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3585. Shimamura, I., Intramolecular nuclear fusion in hydrogen-isotope molecules. Prog. Theor. Phys., 1989. 82: p. 304.

First Author: Shimamura, I.
All Authors: Shimamura, I.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, p-d fusion

3586. Shinojima, H., et al. Studies of d-d Reactions in Deuterated Palladium by Using Low-Energy Deuterium Ion Bombardment. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Hishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, PdD, branching ratio, energy, ICCF-5

The cross sections and branching ratios of d+d reactions were measured as a function of deuteron energy by using low-energy deuterium ion bombardment. The branching ratio of d(d,3He)n to d(d,p)t were found to be one to one at energies from 2.5 keV to 20 keV in the CM frame. The reaction rate of d(d,p)t at 2.5 keV was four orders of magnitude less than that at 20 keV. These energy dependences were good agreement with those extrapolated from measurements of the d+d reaction which was derived by the high-energy (mega-electron-volts) deuterium ion bombardments.

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3587. Shinojima, H., et al. Detection for Nuclear Products in Transport Experiments of Deuterium through Palladium Metals. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shinojima, H.
All Authors: Shinojima, H., Nishioka, T., Shikano, K., Kanbe, H.
Keywords: Pd, ion bombardment, ICCF-6

3588. Shioe, Y., et al., Measurement of neutron production rate regarding the quantity of LiNbO3 in the fracturing process under D2 atmosphere. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112 A: p. 1059.

First Author: Shioe, Y.
All Authors: Shioe, Y., Mondal, N. N., Chiba, M., Hirose, T., Fujii, M., Nakahara, H., Sueki, K., Shirakawa, T., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, D2, LiNbO3, ball mill, neutron

3589. Shirai, O., et al., Some experimental results relating to cold nuclear fusion. Bull. Inst. Chem. Res., Kyoto Univ., 1991. 69: p. 550.

First Author: Shirai, O.
All Authors: Shirai, O., Kihara, S., Sohrin, Y., Matsui, M.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, gamma emission

3590. Shirakawa, T., et al. Neutron Emission from Crushing Process of High Piezoelectric Matter in Deuterium Gas. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T.
Keywords: LiNbO3, D2, fractofusion, neutron, ball mill, ICCF-3

We studied neutron emission from a crushing process of a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystal in deuterium gas atmosphere. We observed excess neutrons 3 counts / h with a confidence level of 99.95% that correspond 120 neutrons / h emission from process.

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3591. Shirakawa, T., et al., A neutron emission from lithium niobate fracture. Chem. Lett., 1993: p. 897.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Chiba, M., Fujii, M., Sueki, K., Miyamoto, S., Nakamitsu, Y., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T., Seimiya, T., Nakahara, H.
Keywords: fractofusion, ball mill LiNbO, neutron, titanium Pd

3592. Shirakawa, T., et al. Particle Acceleration and Neutron Emission in a Fracture Process of a Piezoelectric Material. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Shirakawa, T.
All Authors: Shirakawa, T., Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Sueki, K., Ikebe, T., Yamaoka, S., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Hirose, T., Nakahara, H., Utsumi, M.
Keywords: fractofusion, LiNbO3, D2, ICCF-4, H2

3593. Shkedi, Z., et al., Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1720.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z., McDonald, R. C., Breen, J. J., Maguire, S. J., Veranth, J.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, recombination, heat, electrolysis, critique

3594. Shkedi, Z., Response to “Comments on ‘Calorimetry, excess heat, and Faraday efficiency in Ni-H2O electrolytic cells'”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 133.

First Author: Shkedi, Z.
All Authors: Shkedi, Z.
Keywords: critique, Good

3595. Shohoji, N., Unique features of hydrogen in palladium metal lattice: hints for discussing the possible occurrence of cold nuclear fusion. J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 1990. 9: p. 231.

First Author: Shohoji, N.
All Authors: Shohoji, N.
Keywords: discussion, Ce, Au, Ni

3596. Shoulders, K.R., Patents. 1991: US Patent 5,018,180 (1991); 5,054,046 (1991); 5,054,047 (1991); 5,123,039 (1992) and 5,148,461 (1992).

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: charge cluster patent,

3597. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders, Observations on the role of charge clusters in nuclear cluster reactions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 111.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: charge cluster, EV transmutation, Pd, Dash, critique, theory

3598. Shoulders, K.R. and S. Shoulders. Charge clusters in action. in Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Bethesda, MD: Integrity Research Institute.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R., Shoulders, S.
Keywords: transmutation, charge cluster electron cluster EV

3599. Shoulders, K.R., Permittivity Transitions. J. New Energy, 2001. 5(2): p. 121.

First Author: Shoulders, K. R.
All Authors: Shoulders, K. R.
Keywords: electron cluster, EV

3600. Shrikhande, V.K. and K.C. Mittal, Deuteration of Machined Titanium Targets for Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. B 2.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Mittal, K. C.
Keywords: Ti, loading

Cold fusion experiments were initiated with solid targets made from titanium loaded with deuterium gas on receipt of reports of the successful Frascati experiments1. The absorption of deuterium by Ti is a reversible process and when titanium is heated in a deuterium atmosphere, the reaction will continue until the concentration of deuterium in the metal attains an equilibrium value. This equilibrium value depends on the specimen temperature and the pressure of the surrounding deuterium atmosphere. Any imposed temperature or pressure change causes rejection or absorption of deuterium until a new equilibrium state is achieved. If the surface of titanium is clean, the rate of absorption increases rapidly with temperature. At temperatures above 500у, the equilibrium is achieved in a matter of a few seconds. However deuterium absorption is considerably reduced if the surface of Ti is contaminated with oxygen. Keeping in view these facts, a procedure was evolved for titanium target preparation and subsequent deuteration. The following sections describe the details of preparation of the targets, their chemical cleaning and degassing followed by deuteration process.

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3601. Shrikhande, V.K., et al. Preliminary Results on the Variation of Electrical Resistance of TiDx Wire With Deuterium Concentration. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shrikhande, V. K.
All Authors: Shrikhande, V. K., Kaushik, T. C., Auluck, S. K. H., Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: TiD, resistance, resistivity, ICCF-5

Experiments have been carried out to study the variation and reproducibility of electrical resistance as a functiol1 of the deuterium concentration (D/Ti) in titanium wires. Deuterium loading is carried out in a series of steps by passing a D.C. current to ohmically heat the sample for some time in D2 gas until a measurable quantity is absorbed. After every loading, the wire resistance and decrease in the gas pressure are measured at room temperature using a four probe resistance meter (Ѱ.2% accuracy) and an oil manometer respectively.Significantly, it is observed that an apparently simple property like electrical resistance is not easily reproducible. The pre loading heat treatment and residual gases in high vacuum appear to play an important role on the behaviour of the resistance in TiDx. The preliminary results also suggest that this property may not be useful in estimating the deuterium content in titanium.

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3602. Shunjin, W., Effect of Coulomb screening on deuterium-deuterium fusion cross section. Gaoneng Wuli Yu Hewuli, 1991. 15(8): p. 761 (in Chinese).

First Author: Shunjin, W.
All Authors: Shunjin, W.
Keywords: theory, Gamow

3603. Shyam, A., et al., Multiplicity Distribution of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 4.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd, D,

3604. Shyam, A., et al. Observation of High Multiplicity Bursts of Neutrons During Electrolysis of Heavy Water with Palladium Cathode Using the Dead-Time Filtering Technique. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Srinivasan, M., Kaushik, T. C., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, ICCF-5

A series of experiments were carried out to detect production of neutrons from a commercial (Milton Roy) palladium-nickel electrolytic cell operated with 0.1 M LiOH or LiOD as the electrolyte at a current density of ~ 80 mA/cm^2. Neutron emission was monitored using a bank of 16 BF3 detectors embedded in a cylindrical moderator assembly. A dead-time filtering technique was employed to detect the presence of neutron “bursts” if any and characterize the multiplicity distribution of such neutron bursts. It was found that with an operating Pd-D2O cell located in the centre of the neutron detection set-up, the daily average neutron count rate increased by about 9% throughout a one month period, over the background value of ~ 2386 counts/day indicating an average daily neutron production of ~ 2220 neutrons/day by the cell. In addition analysis of the dead-time filtered counts data indicated that about 6.5% of these neutrons were emitted in the form of bursts of 20 to 100 neutrons each. On an average there were an additional 6 burst events per day during electrolysis with LiOD over the daily average background burst rate of 1.7 bursts/day. The frequency of occurrence of burst events as well as their multiplicity was significantly higher with D20 + LiOD in the cell when compared with background runs as also light water “control” runs.

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3605. Shyam, A. and T.C. Kaushik, Absence of neutron emission during interaction of deuterium with metal at low energies. Pramana, 1998. 50: p. 75.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron

3606. Shyam, A., Strange behavior of tritiated natural water. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 264.

First Author: Shyam, A.
All Authors: Shyam, A.
Keywords: critique tritium

3607. Siegmann, H.C., L. Schlapbach, and C.R. Brundle, Self-restoring of the active surface in the hydrogen sponge LaNi5. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1978. 40: p. 972.

First Author: Siegmann, H. C.
All Authors: Siegmann, H. C., Schlapbach, L., Brundle, C. R.
Keywords: LaNi5, D, H, surface, loading, Magnetic Susceptibility

3608. Silver, D.S., J. Dash, and P.S. Keefe, Surface topography of a palladium cathode after electrolysis in heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 423.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J., Keefe, P. S.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, tritium, neutron, gamma emission, transmutation

3609. Silver, D.S. and J. Dash. Surface Studies of Palladium After Interaction with Hydrogen Isotopes. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Silver, D. S.
All Authors: Silver, D. S., Dash, J.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, transmutation, ICCF-7

3610. Silvera, I.F. and E. Moshary, Deuterated palladium at temperatures from 4.3 to 400K and pressures to 105 kbar: search for cold fusion. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1990. 42(14): p. 9143.

First Author: Silvera, I. F.
All Authors: Silvera, I. F., Moshary, E.
Keywords: PdD, high pressure, loading low temperature

3611. Simanek, E., Quantum tunnelling through a fluctuating barrier. Enhancement of cold-fusion rate. Physica A, 1990. 164: p. 147.

First Author: Simanek, E.
All Authors: Simanek, E.
Keywords: theory, tunnelling

3612. Simons, J.W. and T.B. Flanagan, Effects of the Electronic Band Shape of Palladium Metal on the Proton Model for Hydrogen Absorption. Canadian J. Chem., 1965. 43: p. 1665.

First Author: Simons, J. W.
All Authors: Simons, J. W., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H, Density Of States, theory

3613. Simons, J.K. and T.B. Flanagan, Absorption Isotherms of H in the Alpha-Phase of the H-Pd System. J. Phys. Chem., 1965. 69: p. 3773.

First Author: Simons, J. K.
All Authors: Simons, J. K., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: PdH, pressure, thermodynamic, resistivity

3614. Singh, M., et al., Verification of the George Oshawa Experiment for Anomalous Production of Iron From Carbon Arc in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 266.

First Author: Singh, M.
All Authors: Singh, M., Saksena, M. D., Dixit, V. S., Kartha, V. B.
Keywords: Fe, transmutation, nonradioactive, carbon, plasma

A direct current arc was run between ultrapure graphite electrodes dipped in ultrapure water for 1 to 20 h, The graphite residue collected at the bottom of the water trough was analyzed for iron content by a conventional spectrographic method, It was found, in the first few experiments, that the iron content in the graphite residue was fairly high, depending on the duration of the arcing, The experiment was repeated initially six times, and the results showed large variations in iron content (50 to 2000 parts per million (ppm)) in the carbon residue, In the second series of experiments, which were done with the water trough fully covered, the amount of iron in the carbon residue decreased significantly (20 to 100 ppm), Here also there were large variations in the iron concentration in the residue, although the experiments were performed under identical conditions, Whether iron is really being synthesized through transmutation from carbon and oxygen as suggested by George Oshawa or is getting concentrated to different degrees through some other phenomenon is not currently clear, The iron in the carbon residue was also analyzed mass spectrometrically for the abundance of its various isotopes, and the results were more or less the same as that of natural iron, Besides iron, the presence of other elements like silicon, nickel, aluminum, and chromium was also determined in the carbon residue, and it was found that the variation of their concentrations followed the same pattern as that of iron.

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3615. Sinha, B., et al., Observations of neutron bursts in electrolysis of heavy water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 275.

First Author: Sinha, B.
All Authors: Sinha, B., Viyogi, Y. P., Chattopadhyaya, S., Mazumdar, M. R. D., Murthy, G. S. N., Muthukrishnan, G., Bandyopadhyaya, T., Trivedi, M. D., Ghosh, D., Srivastava, D. K., Sen, P.
Keywords: electrolysis Pd, titanium, D2O, neutron gamma emission, heat- NaCl

3616. Sinha, K.P. and D.C. Albright, The role of local electron pairing in facilitating fusion, fission and other mechanisms in reproducible experiments. 1999.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Albright, D. C.
Keywords: theory, electron pairing,

3617. Sinha, K.P. and P.L. Hagelstein. Electron Screening in Metal Deuterides. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3618. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg. A model for enhanced fusion reaction in a solid matrix of metal deuterides. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Theory

Our study shows that the cross-section for fusion improves considerably if d-d pairs are located in linear (one-dimensional) chainlets or line defects. Such non-equilibrium defects can exist only in a solid matrix.  Further, solids harbor lattice vibrational modes (quanta, phonons) whose longitudinal-optical modes interact strongly with electrons and ions.  One such interaction, resulting in potential inversion, causes localization of electron pairs on deuterons. Thus, we have attraction of D+ – D- pairs and strong screening of the nuclear repulsion due to these local electron pairs (local charged bosons: acronym, lochons).  This attraction and strong coupling permits low-energy deuterons to approach close enough to alter the standard equations used to define nuclear-interaction cross-sections. These altered equations not only predict that low-energy-nuclear reactions (LENR) of D+ – D- (and H+ – H-) pairs are possible, they predict that they are probable.

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3619. Sinha, K.P. and A. Meulenberg, Lochon-mediated Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 55-63.

First Author: Sinha, K. P.
All Authors: Sinha, K. P., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep orbital, Fragmentation, LENR, Lochon, Strong screening

In heavily hydrogenated (deuterated) palladium crystals, the crystallinity is degraded. This non-uniformity results in phonon modes that are localized and of higher frequency than for unloaded lattices. These modes create dynamic electrostatic fields that couple strongly with both bound and free electrons and the hydrogen (H and D) sub-lattice. A consequent potential inversion leads to the formation of “lochons” (local-charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state) and results in H− or D− ions in the sub-lattice. The nuclear-Coulomb repulsion between colliding D+ D− ion pairs in the sub-lattice is considerably reduced by the resultant “strong screening” and “lochon-drag” effects. Furthermore, work is done, by the bound lochon in a D− ion attracting an adjacent D+ ion. This results in reductions: of the deuteron’s electron-orbital radii, as the ion pair approaches; of the mass deficit between the deuteron pair and a 4He atom (or a proton pair and a 2He/2H atom); and finally of the Coulomb repulsion between nuclear protons in a helium nucleus. Thus, the end product of such a deuteron-pair fusion is an excited-helium nucleus (4He*) with lower energy relative to that resulting from energetic deuteron collisions. This reduced energy of the excited nucleus may be lower than its new fragmentation levels. The effect of lochon mediation, to alter the nuclear potential-well and fragmentation energies, allows decay to the 4He ground states to be free of particulate radiation. This decay process, of “neutral” 2He (from p+p) or 4He excited nuclei, is also a basis for observed transmutation.

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3620. Sinha, A. and A. Meulenberg, Quantum-correlated Fluctuations, Phonon-induced Bond Polarization, Enhanced Tunneling, and Low-energy Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Bond polarization, Correlated fluctuations, Lattice-assisted tunneling, LENR, Phonons

In heavily (deuterated or hydrogenated) palladium, some of the crystallinity is lost. As a consequence, the localized phonon modes of the crystal/damaged-region interface have a much higher frequency than the host. These high-frequency modes create electrostatic fields that interact strongly with electrons of the local atoms. A resulting instantaneous potential inversion, from polarization, leads to the formation of lochons (local charged bosons-electron pairs in the singlet state, perhaps isolated from the Pd d-orbital energy levels) and of an associated H+ or D+ ion (with its two shared electrons instantaneously isolated into the adjacent Pd d-levels). The Coulomb repulsion between the nuclei of these pairs is greatly reduced by strong screening from the lochons that can even generate an attractive polarization potential. Furthermore, the mutual tunneling penetration probability of the Coulomb barrier is enhanced by correlated fluctuations. This arises from the generalized uncertainty relations, x px,E t ≥ (n + 1/2)h/(1 − ρ2)0.5, where n may be on the order of 10-100 and where results from two models are combined. The integer n values represent excitations in the phonon modes of the H or D sub-lattice and ρ is the correlation coefficient with 0 < ρ < 1. Higher values of nand ρ, for a particle in a potential well, imply less localization and greater uncertainties in location (i.e., extending its probability distribution further into the barrier). These periodic fluctuations into the barrier are an interference effect similar to that of beat frequencies.

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3621. Sinha, A., Model of low energy nuclear reactions in a solid matrix with defects. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Sinha, A.
All Authors: Sinha, A.
Keywords:

3622. Sioda, R.E., Heat effects during room-temperature electrolysis of deuterium oxide. Bull. Electrochem., 1989. 5(12): p. 902.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pt, D2O, heat, method

3623. Sioda, R.E. and T.Z. Fahidy, A simplified approach to the thermal behaviour of electrolytic Dewar cell calorimeters. J. Appl. Electrochem., 1992. 22: p. 347.

First Author: Sioda, R. E.
All Authors: Sioda, R. E., Fahidy, T. Z.
Keywords: heat, method

3624. Sioda, R., Cavity in Metal (Hohlraum) Limited-Radiation Effect Law. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1994. 3: p. 349.

First Author: Sioda, R.
All Authors: Sioda, R.
Keywords: theory, hot spot

3625. Sjland, K.A., P. Kristiansson, and K.G.J. Westergard. Liquid Scintillator Detection and Multiparameter Data Acquisition for Neutron Detection in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Sjland, K. A.
All Authors: Sjland, K. A., Kristiansson, P., Westergard, K. G. J.
Keywords: neutron, method, ICCF-2

3626. Skelton, E.F., et al., In situ Monitoring of Crystallographic Changes in Pd Induced by Diffusion of D. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1998. 58(22).

First Author: Skelton, E. F.
All Authors: Skelton, E. F., Hagans, P. L., Qadri, S. B., Dominguez, D. D., Ehrlich, A. C., Hu, J. Z.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, diffusion

3627. Skerrett, P.J., Cold Fusion at Texas A&M: Problems, but No Fraud. Science, 1990. 250: p. 1507.

First Author: Skerrett, P. J.
All Authors: Skerrett, P. J.
Keywords: history

3628. Skibbe, U. and G. Neue, A 2D-NMR method to study near-surface regions of conductors. Colloids Surf., 1990. 45: p. 235.

First Author: Skibbe, U.
All Authors: Skibbe, U., Neue, G.
Keywords: surface analysis, Pd, diffusion, loading, electrolysis

3629. Slanina, Z., Towards molecular-thermodynamic aspects of postulated Pd/D low-temperature nuclear fusion: a useful example of a failure of the conventional translation partition function. Thermochim. Acta, 1989. 156: p. 285.

First Author: Slanina, Z.
All Authors: Slanina, Z.
Keywords: theory

3630. Smedley, S.I., et al. The January 2, 1992, Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic System at SRI International. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Smedley, S. I.
All Authors: Smedley, S. I., Crouch-Baker, S., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: explosion, SRI, accident, ICCF-3

This paper reviews the accident that occurred at SRI International on January 2, 1992. A plausible explanation for the cause of the accident is proposed, and recommendat ions are made pertaining to the safety of future experiments. These recommendations relate to the design of electrolysis experiments, and to the behavior of recombination catalysts, and may provide useful guidelines for other workers in the field.

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3631. Smilga, A.V. and V.P. Smilga, A small physical effect. Ross. Khim. Zh., 1996. 40(3): p. 122 (in Russian).

First Author: Smilga, A. V.
All Authors: Smilga, A. V., Smilga, V. P.
Keywords: theory

3632. Smith, D.P. and G.J. Derge, The Occlusion and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals. A. Metallographic Study of Palladium-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1935. LXVI: p. 253.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Derge, G. J.
Keywords: Pd H, diffusion, Excess Volume, Chemical Etch

3633. Smith, D.P. and C.S. Barret, Note on the Arrangement of Phases in Pd-H. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1940. 62: p. 2565.

First Author: Smith, D. P.
All Authors: Smith, D. P., Barret, C. S.
Keywords: Pd, H, diffusion, structure

3634. Smith, T.F. and G.K. White, Gruneisen Parameters , Electron-Phonon Enhancement and Superconductivity for Pd-H Alloys. J. Phys. F: Met. Phys., 1977. 7: p. 1029.

First Author: Smith, T. F.
All Authors: Smith, T. F., White, G. K.
Keywords: Thermal Expansion, Pd, H, superconductivity

3635. Sobkowski, J., Cold fusion – facts and opinions. Wiad. Chem., 1990. 44: p. 587 (in Polish).

First Author: Sobkowski, J.
All Authors: Sobkowski, J.
Keywords: review

3636. Sobotka, L.G. and P. Winter, Fracture without fusion (Scientific correspondence). Nature (London), 1990. 343: p. 601.

First Author: Sobotka, L. G.
All Authors: Sobotka, L. G., Winter, P.
Keywords: fractofusion, neutron, D2O

3637. Sof’ina, V.V., Activation of Hydrogen Adsorption by Palladium. Pribory i Teckh. Eksp., 1963(4): p. 174.

First Author: Sof’ina, V. V.
All Authors: Sof’ina, V. V.
Keywords: activation, Pd, H2, loading

3638. Sohlberg, K. and K. Szalewicz, Fusion rates for deuterium in titanium clusters. Phys. Lett. A, 1990. 144(6,7): p. 365.

First Author: Sohlberg, K.
All Authors: Sohlberg, K., Szalewicz, K.
Keywords: theory, distance

3639. Soifer, V.N., et al., Neutron yield in heavy-water electrolysis. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1990. 35(6): p. 546.

First Author: Soifer, V. N.
All Authors: Soifer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeev, F.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, neutron, titanium, Pt, Ti-V

3640. Sona, P.G., et al., Preliminary tests on tritium and neutrons in cold nuclear fusion within palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 713.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Parmigiani, F., Barberis, F., Battaglia, A., Berti, R., Buzzanca, G., Capelli, A., Capra, D., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, neutron

3641. Sona, P.G. and M. Ferrari, The possible negative influence of dissolved O2 in cold nuclear fusion experiments. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 678.

First Author: Sona, P. G.
All Authors: Sona, P. G., Ferrari, M.
Keywords: Li, Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis

3642. Song, X. and J. Liu, Cold fusion and its lessons. Juaxue Tongbao, 1997(1): p. 54 (in Chinese).

First Author: Song, X.
All Authors: Song, X., Liu, J.
Keywords: review

3643. Soriaga, M.P., Surface Electrochemical Studies of Pd in Alkaline D2O Solutions. 1990.

First Author: Soriaga, M. P.
All Authors: Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: Pd, surface, D, AES, XPS, TDMS, analysis

3644. Southon, J.R., et al., Upper limit for neutron emission from cold deuteron-triton fusion. Phys. Rev. C: Nucl. Phys., 1990. 41(5): p. R1899.

First Author: Southon, J. R.
All Authors: Southon, J. R., Stark, J. W., Vogel, J. S., Waddington, J. C.
Keywords: titanium D2, electrolysis, neutron

3645. Soyfer, V.N., et al., Neutron emission during heavy water electrolysis. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 1992. 43: p. 1041.

First Author: Soyfer, V. N.
All Authors: Soyfer, V. N., Goryachev, V. A., Salyuk, A. N., Sergeyev, A. F.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium D2O, neutron, Ti-V, Pt, Vanadium

3646. Spallone, A., et al. New Electrolytic Procedure for the Obtainment of Very High H/Pd Loading Ratios. Preliminary Attempts for its Application to the D/Pd System. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-8

A new electrolytic protocol is proposed, capable of insuring a very high Hydrogen loading of thin Palladium wires. The main characteristic of the procedure consists in the use of a particular electrolyte containing very small amounts of alkaline-earth metals dissolved in a diluted acid solution (H2O+HCl).The addition of alkaline-earth metals to the electrolyte appears to be decisive for the achievement of HlPd loading ratios close to 1. Two independent Research Groups have tested the protocol with similar results.Probably because of the presence of contaminants in the heavy water, less satisfactory results have been obtained for the DlPd loading ratios (best result: R/Ro = 1.52; DlPd ~ 0.97)

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3647. Spallone, A., et al. Experimental studies to achieve H/Pd loading ratio close to 1 in thin wires, using different electrolytic solutions. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading, Pd, thin wires, electrolysis, alcohol, H2O

Systematic studies have been performed in order to achieve very high concentration of Hydrogen (or Deuterium) into a Palladium lattice.In a very diluted acid electrolytic cell a thin Pd cathode wire (100 mm) and tick anode Pt wires (0.5 mm) has been used as electrodes in a coaxial geometry. Normalised resistance (R/Ro) of Pd-H wire system has been measured on-line and used as reference of H/Pd values.Alcoholic solution (95%) and electrolytic solution (5%) has been used with addition of a very low amount of Sr and Hg ions; high loading results have been achieved with a satisfactory grade of reproducibility.

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3648. Spallone, A., et al. An Overview Of Experimental Studies On H/Pd Over-Loading With Thin Pd Wires And Different Electrolytic Solutions. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords:

ABSTRACT Hundreds of electrolytic loading tests of thin Pd wires in different experimental conditions have been performed in order to find out the best procedures for stable, high hydrogen overloading into the palladium lattice.In a very dilute acid solution thin Pd cathodes (50 or 100 mm in diameter) and thick Pt anodes (0.5 mm in diameter) were used in a parallel or coaxial geometry. Normalised resistance (R/Ro) of the Pd cathode was on-line and continuously measured in order to determine the actual H/Pd values.Different electrolytic solutions have been tested by adding to the acid solution very low amounts of Ca, Sr, Li and Hg ions; high loading H/Pd ratios have been achieved with a satisfactory grade of reproducibility.Several loading procedures have been performed in a wide range of electrolysis current (from a few mA up to one hundred mA) and at different Hg ion concentrations.The obtained results allowed for the definition of a loading protocol that ensures very high H/Pd over-loading. Stable R/Ro ≤ 1.2 values (corresponding to H/Pd ratios ≥ 1) can be currently achieved with an extremely low power electrolytic supply (10 V, 5 mA).

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3649. Spallone, A., et al. Measurements Of The Temperature Coefficient Of Electric Resistivity Of Hydrogen Overloaded Pd. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Di Stefano, V.
Keywords: loading

As reported in previous papers, we performed many electrolytic loading tests using thin Pd wires, achieving loading ratios of H/Pd  0.95 (H/Pd over-loading).  In particular, we defined a reproducible “loading protocol” suitable for achieving such an over-loading level, based on the use of very diluted acid electrolytic solutions (with additions of tenths of micro-moles of Ca or Sr or Li cations and some hundred nano-moles of Hg ions) and operating with electrolytic current cycles  from a few mA up to one hundred mA.By observing the day/night cyclic fluctuations of electrical resistance, as a function of the corresponding temperature variations, of stable, long term, H/Pd loadings we were able to calculate the temperature coefficient of resistivity (K) of the Pd-H system at very high H/Pd loadings. . . .

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3650. Spallone, A., et al. A Review of Experimental studies about Hydrogen over-loading within Palladium wires (H/Pd > 1). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Spallone, A.
All Authors: Spallone, A., Marmigi, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Stefano, V.
Keywords: excess heat, thin wires,

3651. Speiser, B. and A. Rieker, Energy from electrochemically induced nuclear fusion? Nachr. Chem. Tech. Lab., 1989. 37: p. 616 (in German).

First Author: Speiser, B.
All Authors: Speiser, B., Rieker, A.
Keywords: critique, heat, Fleischmann

3652. Spinrad, B.I., On cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 343.

First Author: Spinrad, B. I.
All Authors: Spinrad, B. I.
Keywords: theory

3653. Srinivasan, M., et al. Statistical Analysis of Neutron Emission in Cold Fusion Experiments. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Degwekar, S. B., Kulkarni, L. V.
Keywords: neutron, critique, method, ICCF-1

The paper discusses two techniques for studying the multiplicity spectrum of neutron emission in cold fusion experiments. In the first method the multiplicity distribution of counts in 20 ms time intervals is analysed to give information about the statistics of neutron emission in cold fusion. The results of six such experiments indicate that about 10 to 25% of the neutrons produced in cold fusion are emitted in the form of bunches 400 to 600 neutrons each. The other method discussed is an adaptation of the Artificial Dead Time method developed originally for reactor noise analysis as well as for the passive neutron assay of plutonium. An expression for the fractional loss of counts in the presence of dead time is derived. It is shown that a neutron detection efficiency of ~ 1% is adequate to estimate the average multiplicity as well as the fraction of bunched neutron emission in the presence of a Poisson background.

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3654. Srinivasan, M., et al. Observation of Tritium in Gas/Plasma Loaded Titanium Samples. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Kaushik, T. C., Rout, R. K., Kulkarni, L. V., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Nagvenkar, V. G., Iyengar, P. K.
Keywords: titanium, D2, tritium, ion implantation

The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then atleast six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non-equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focus device for deuteriding its central titanium electrode.

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3655. Srinivasan, M., Nuclear fusion in an atomic lattice: An update on the international status of cold fusion research. Curr. Sci., 1991. 60: p. 417.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: review

It is now two years since the first reports of the occurrence of nuclear reactions at ambient temperatures in deuterated metals such as Pd or Ti were published. ‘Cold fusion’, as this phenomenon has now come to be known, has, however, become embroiled in intense controversy with the scientific community becoming sharply polarized into ‘believers’ and ‘non-believers’ of this novel phenomenon. This ambivalence is primarily because of the non-reproducibility of the claimed results by many reputed research groups that have often used sophisticated experimental equipment. However, as the present review clearly shows, a large number of laboratories in many different countries have now obtained very reliable experimental evidence confirming the generation of 2.45-MeV neutrons, tritium, charged particles, X-rays, etc., both in electrolysis experiments and in a variety of other D2 -/plasma-/ion-beam-loading experiments, thereby confirming the nuclear origin of the phenomenon. . . .

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3656. Srinivasan, M., et al. Tritium and Excess Heat Generation During Electrolysis of Aqueous Solutions of Alkali Salts With Nickel Cathode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Shyam, A., Sankaranarayanan, T. K., Bajpai, M. B., Ramamurthy, H., Mukherjee, U. K., Krishnan, M. S., Nayar, M. G., Naik, Y. P.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, Ni, H2O, ICCF-3

A number of open cell electrolysis experiments of the Mills and Kneizys type using Nickel as cathode, Pt wire as anode and aqueous solutions of carbonates of Potassium, Sodium and Lithium (natural and enriched) as electrolyte have been carried out in three different laboratories at Trombay. The cells were fabricated out of commercial dewar vacuum flasks. The difference in temperature at equilibrium between the operating cells and that of an identical dummy reference flask was measured to deduce excess heat. The cells were calibrated using resistance heaters. In all, studies have been carried out so far in 29 electrolytic cells with various electrolytes. In some cases a mixture of H20 and D20 was used. The cells were operated for a few weeks at a time and excess heat up to a maximum of 70% appears to be present in most cells when the input joule power is upto a watt or two. The current density was less than 40 mA/cm^2.Electrolyte samples before and after electrolysis were analysed for tritium content after microdistillation to eliminate chemiluminiscence effects. Samples from 18 out of 29 experiments analysed have indicated tritium levels varying in the region of 46 Bq/ml to 3390 Bq/ml. One cell with enriched Li2C03 solution in H20 which was monitored continuously for over a month indicated that tritium generation is continuous. Although the highest amount of tritium produced so far was with a K2C03 in 25% D20 cell, the generation of tritium in cells containing only H20 is a new finding.

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3657. Srinivasan, M., Meeting Report — Energy Concepts for the 21st Century. Curr. Sci., 2008. 94(7): p. 842.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Review

A one-day discussion meeting on the emerging new energy concepts for the 21st century was held at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bangalore. B. V. Sreekantan and S. Ranganathan (NIAS) and M. Srinivasan (formerly of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai) served as co-conveners for this meeting. There were about 40 participants at the meeting, majority of whom had a scientific background. Two of the participants represented an Indian venture capitalist firm.

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3658. Srinivasan, M., Wide-Ranging Studies on the Emission of Neutrons and Tritium by LENR Configurations: An Historical Review of the Early BARC Results, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 35-57.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3659. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micronuclear Explosions (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Theory

Speculations on Characteristics of NAE * Two decades into the CF/LENR/CMNSera, the mechanism behind these reactions still eludes us! * General agreement that phenomenon occurs on surface, in “special” regions -NAEs by Storms. * One could speculate that spatial extant of the NAE could possibly be a single nano particle or a grain. * Reasonable to expect that all NAEs wont be created simultaneously all over cathode surface. * Similarly, once formed, NAEs cant be expected to continue catalyzing reactions for “ever & ever”. * The NAEs must have a finite “active” lifetime ! * Could this be ns, microseconds, seconds, hours, days?

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3660. Srinivasan, M. Hot Spots, Chain Events and Micro-nuclear Explosions. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

In 1990 the BARC group presented results at several fora, based on our neutron multiplicity studies as well as tritium measurements, that suggested micro-nuclear explosions seem to occur at localized hot spots in which both Tritium and neutrons are generated, subject to the n/T branching ratio anomaly. It was estimated that about 108 to 1010 tritium generating lenr reactions take place in these hot spots accompanied by a very small fraction of neutrons. During the last few years several researchers have reported detecting a variety of transmutation reaction products in localized sites, often associated with some type of crater formation. Other experimenters have reported online detection of flashes of “thermal hot spots” in their cathodes. It is therefore tempting to speculate that perhaps the concept of micro-nuclear explosions can be extended to heat generating helium producing reactions too, as well as nuclear reactions responsible for transmutation products. Many theoretical models such as those that depend on the catalyzing role of some exotic intermediate agent (such as Bose-Einstein condensates, deuteron clusters, Erzions, poly neutrons, trapped neutrons etc) seem to point to the possibility of occurrence of chain events. Two decades into the CMNS era, it is therefore worthwhile reexamining the merits of the micro-nuclear explosion hypothesis and seek independent experimental evidence to either corroborate or refute such a hypothesis.

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3661. Srinivasan, M. and L.V. Krishnan, eds. ICCF16, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Abstracts. 2011, ISCMNS.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Krishnan, L. V.
Keywords:

Book of Abstracts for ICCF-16 conference, 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, February 6 – 11, 2011, Chennai, India

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3662. Srinivasan, M., G.H. Miley, and E. Storms, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: Transmutations, in Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia: Science, Technology and Applications. 2011, Wiley. p. 503-540.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Miley, G. H., Storms, E.
Keywords: transmutation

Preprint of review article distributed to participants of ICCF 16 Conference held in Chennai during Feb 2011This article describes different aspects of the phenomenon called “Low Energy Nuclear Reactions” (LENR) which investigate the occurrence of various types of nuclear reactions in certain “host” metals such as Palladium, Titanium, Nickel, etc.  when they are “loaded” or “charged” with deuterium (or hydrogen) to form the corresponding metallic deuterides (or hydrides).

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3663. Srinivasan, M., Neutron Emission in Bursts and Hot Spots: Signature of Micro-Nuclear Explosions? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 161-172.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Hot spots, Micro-nuclear explosion, Neutron bursts, Statistics, Tritium

Within a few months of the Fleischmann Pons announcement of 1989 several independent groups at BARC had confirmed the production of neutrons and tritium in a variety of electrolytic cells. Among the many findings of the BARC groups were the first hint of the neutron to tritium branching ratio anomaly, namely that tritium production is several orders of magnitude higher than that of neutrons, that neutrons and tritium are probably being emitted simultaneously and that at least in the case of titanium targets, the generated tritium is found to be entrenched in highly localized “hot spots”. But the most intriguing observation of all was that neutrons appeared to be emitted in sharp bursts of up to 10^3 neutrons per event. An integrated view of all these findings taken together led to the speculation that perhaps up to 10^10-10^12 tritons each were being generated in the form of micro-nuclear explosions, with neutron emission being only a minor side reaction in the process. Whatever the nature of the phenomenon, it seemed to be occurring in a highly localized fashion, both in space and time. Since those early days however the aspect of spatially localized occurrence of nuclear reactions has gained further acceptance through the concept of “Nuclear Active Environment”. The observation of thermal hot spots, micro-craters and isolated regions wherein transmutation products are concentrated on the cathode surface has reinforced the suspicion that the phenomenon is spatially localized. But how reliable is the evidence for localization in time? This review revisits our early neutron multiplicity measurements since it appears that confirmation of multiple neutron production is possibly the only handle we have to establish the temporal localization feature and thereby give some insight into the possible occurrence of micro-nuclear explosions which in turn would have a tremendous bearing on the nature of the theoretical mechanism governing these LENR reactions.

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3664. Srinivasan, M., Transmutations and Isotopic shifts in LENR Experiments: An Overview. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Isotopic anomalies, Multi-deuteron capture, Transmutation reactions

This overview presents a brief summary of observations of products of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the “host metal” nuclei react with loaded deuterium or hydrogen, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present prior to an experimental run.

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3665. Srinivasan, M., Revisiting the Early BARC Tritium Results. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Autoradiography, BARC Studies, Deuterium gas loading, Electrolysis experiments, Ni–H experiments, Plasma focus, Tritium measurements

Within days of the F&P announcement of 1989, several groups at BARCembarked on a program to look for the generation of neutrons and tritium when deuterium (or hydrogen) is loaded into metals such as Pd, Ti and Ni. Electrolytic, gas and plasma loading techniques were deployed. Post run electrolyte samples were analyzed for tritium content using standard liquid scintillation techniques. In the case of gas and plasma loaded “dry” samples, surface tritium content was measured directly using windowless beta counters. Autoradiography was deployed as a very effective tool to monitor the spatial distribution of tritium in the near surface layers of test samples. The first confirmation of copious tritium generation was obtained on 21 April 1989 in a commercial “Milton Roy” Pd-D2O electrolytic cell. The results obtained during the first year of the BARC Cold Fusion campaign were presented at ICCF 1 in March 1990 where we reported observing tritium generation in 22 different electrolytic cells, which were set up totally independently by diverse research groups. The present paper revisits the early BARCtritium results obtained in a variety of experimental configurations during the period 1989-1996.

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3666. Srinivasan, M. and A. Meulenberg, Preface. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M., Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: introduction, history

3667. Srinivasan, M., Observation of neutrons and tritium in the early BARC cold fusion experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3668. Srinivasan, M., Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Srinivasan, M.
All Authors: Srinivasan, M.
Keywords:

3669. Srivastava, O.N., et al. On the Formation of Palladium Deuteride and its Relationship to Suspected Cold Fusion. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Srivastava, O. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, O. N., Babu, K. S. C., Lalla, N. P., Tiwari, R. S.
Keywords: theory

3670. Srivastava, Y.N., A. Widom, and L. Larsen, A Primer for Electro-Weak Induced Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 253-270.

First Author: Srivastava, Y. N.
All Authors: Srivastava, Y. N., Widom, A., Larsen, L.
Keywords:

In a series of papers, cited in the main body of the paper below, detailed calculations have been presented which show that electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can, under appropriate circumstances, be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons through weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge on various examples analyzed previously, present simplified order-of-magnitude estimates for each and illuminate a common unifying theme among them. PACS numbers: 12.15.Ji, 23.20.Nx, 23.40.Bw, 24.10.Jv, 25.30.-c

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3671. Stacey Jr., W.M., Reactor prospects of muon-catalyzed fusion of deuterium and tritium concentrated in transition metals. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 268.

First Author: Stacey Jr., W. M.
All Authors: Stacey Jr., W. M.
Keywords: theory, muon

3672. Stachurski, J. and A. Frackiewicz, A New Phase in the Pd-C System Formed During the Catalytic Hydrogenation of Acetylene. J. Less-Common Met., 1985. 108: p. 249.

First Author: Stachurski, J.
All Authors: Stachurski, J., Frackiewicz, A.
Keywords: PdC, Lattice Parameter, Pd, H2, structure

3673. Steinert, C., Laser-induced ‘semicold’ fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 206.

First Author: Steinert, C.
All Authors: Steinert, C.
Keywords: laser, method, PdD

3674. Stella, B., et al. The FERMI Apparatus and a Measurement of Tritium Production in an Electrolytic Experiment. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Alessio, M., Carradi, M., Croce, F., Ferrarotto, F., Improta, S., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Villoresi, G., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, neutron, electrolysis, expansion, ICCF-3

FERMI is a 7 BF3, 2 3He apparatus with high detection efficiency for moderated neutrons, pulse shape acquisition and good sensitivity to neutron bursts; it also performs a good statistical reconstruction of the average neutron energy. Gamma rays are detected by a complementary low background NaI detector. The total neutron background measured by the apparatus in the Gran Sasso INFN underground laboratory amounts to 0.09 Hz. A few different experiments have been performed with the same detector (see also the following contribution).A D2O-LiOD electrolysis with Pd cathode have been realized with emphasis on the cleanliness of all components. D2 and O2 produce gases were recombined using a room temperature catalyzer and the resulting water was monitored twice a day for tritium content; the same was done for samples of the electrolytic solution.Loading the Pd with variable currents, and a long patient of 130 μm (with much larger radial broadening) was observed in the first few days accompanied by a 60 – 100% tritium excess detected in the recombined water. The measured neutron rate in the same period was consistent with the background.

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3675. Stella, B., et al. Evidence for Stimulated Emission of Neutrons in Deuterated Palladium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Milone, V., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: PdD, D, neutron, irradiation, Pd, ICCF-3

In order to study the effect of palladium in cold fusion, metallic deuterated Pd samples have been irradiated with partly moderated Am/Be neutrons and the resulting neutron intensity has been measured by the Fermi apparatus, an efficient and sophisticated detector for motivated neutrons.Once subtracted from the vessel + (empty) Pd effect measured in “blank” runs, and excess of 13.0 Ѡ0.6 neutrons per second (~4% of the total measured rate close percent has been detected. Assuming 2.45 MeV energy for the electrons emitted by the radiated sample, the resulting rate corresponds to several outgoing neutrons for every neutron impinging on the Pd-D sample. Similar measurements with cadmium absorber gave lower effects. We don’t observe any effect with gaseous deuterium.The underlying process can be interpreted as d-d fusion in a Pd-D lattice perturbed by neutrons. The excess, predominantly due to thermal incident neutrons, demonstrates that the palladium lattice strongly increases the probability for d-d fusion even almost at rest.

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3676. Stella, B., et al., A high efficiency, low background neutron and gamma detector for cold fusion experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1995. 355: p. 609.

First Author: Stella, B.
All Authors: Stella, B., Celani, F., Corradi, M., Ferrarotto, F., Iucci, N., Milone, V., Spallone, A., Villoresi, G.
Keywords: neutron, method

3677. Stiff, D., Theories on Cold Fusion Abound, in The Wall Street Journal. 1989: New YorkEditor. p. B4.

First Author: Stiff, D.
All Authors: Stiff, D.
Keywords: history, newspaper

3678. Stilwell, D.E., K.H. Park, and M. Miles, Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies on the Electrolysis of Water and Heavy Water (D2O). J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 333.

First Author: Stilwell, D. E.
All Authors: Stilwell, D. E., Park, K. H., Miles, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, heat-, electrolysis

3679. Stoljarov, P., L. Urutskoev, and H. Lehn. Interaction Of Magnetic Monopoles On Polar Molecules. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stoljarov, P.
All Authors: Stoljarov, P., Urutskoev, L., Lehn, H.
Keywords: theory,

3680. Stoppini, G., Coulomb screening in superconducting PdH. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1991. 13D: p. 1181.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: theory, superconductivity

3681. Stoppini, G., Nuclear processes in hydrogen-loaded metals. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 81.

First Author: Stoppini, G.
All Authors: Stoppini, G.
Keywords: Theory, neutron, transmutation

3682. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott. A Study of Electrolytic Tritium Production. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-1

Tritium production is being investigated using cathodes made from palladium and its alloys (with Li, C, S, B, and Be) to which are applied various surface treatments. Three anode materials (Pt, Ni and stainless steel), and various impurities in the electrolyte have also been used. Tritium has been produced in about 10% of the cells studied, but there is, as yet, no pattern of behavior that would make the effect predictable.

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3683. Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott, Electrolytic tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 680.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott, C. L.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium

Fifty-three electrolytic cells of various configurations and electrode compositions were examined for tritium production. Significant tritium was found in eleven cells at levels between 1.5 and 80 times the starting concentration after enrichment corrections are made.

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3684. Storms, E., Review of experimental observations about the cold fusion effect. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 433.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

The experimental literature describing the cold fusion phenomenon is reviewed. The number and variety of careful experimental measurements of heat, tritium, neutron, and helium production strongly support the occurrence of nuclear reactions in a metal lattice near room temperature as proposed by Pons and Fleischmann and independently by Jones.

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3685. Storms, E. and C. Talcott-Storms, The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 246.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Talcott-Storms, C.
Keywords: Pd, loading, tritium, electrolysis, Pd

The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated, palladium cathode has been determined and compared to the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction.Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen adsorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can be lost from the cathode, thereby reducing the hydrogen concentration. This effect is influenced, in part, by impurities, the shape of the electrode, the charging rate, the achieved concentration of hydrogen and the length of time the maximum concentration is present.

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3686. Storms, E. Measurement of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann Type Electrolytic Cell. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd D2O heat electrolysis, ICCF-3

Two samples of Pd were obtained from Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K. K. (Japan). One sample gave 20% excess heat before the run was prematurely terminated and the other sample gave no excess heat. The sample giving excess energy contained only 0.8% excess volume while the nonproductive sample had 13.5 % excess volume. The calorimeter is dosed in an energy sense, pressured with D2, and stirred. Calibration was done before, during and after heat measurement. Four different calibration procedures were used including a blank using a platinum cathode. Temperature gradients were monitored and found to change when excess heat was produced. This change strongly suggests that normal electrolysis releases energy mainly at the anode while excess heat is released mainly at the cathode. The bulk D/Pd ratio was measured during initial charging and was found to reach 0.82. Voltage difference between cathode and reference electrode was measured and indicates that the deuterium concentration gradient is small during initial charging at 0.02A/cm^2. Excess volume in each palladium cathode was measured after each study. Heat production is proposed to be prevented if excess volume is too large.

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3687. Storms, E. The Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 28th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. 1993. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3688. Storms, E. Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density, electrolysis, ICCF-4

Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleischmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.

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3689. Storms, E., Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell using palladium sheet. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 230.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, excess volume, crack

Two pieces of palladium sheet similar to that used by Takahashi were loaded with deuterium in a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell, and heat production was measured. One sheet produced a steady increase in excess power that reached 7.5 W (20% of input power) before the study was interrupted. A second similar sheet from a different batch of palladium did not produce any measurable excess power. There were differences in the loading behavior, the maximum stoichiometry, and the presence of excess volume in the deuteride made from these materials. The first sheet contained 0.8% excess volume after having been deloaded from its maximum deuterium/palladium (D/Pd) ratio of 0.82 to 0.73, and the second sheet contained 13.5% excess volume while at its maximum ratio of 0.75. The high excess volume in the latter case is an indication of internal escape paths that reduce the required high D/Pd ratio.

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3690. Storms, E. Methods Required for the Production of Excess Energy Using the Electrolysis of Palladium in D2O-Based Electrolyte. in International Symposium, ÏCold Fusion and Advanced Energy SourcesÃâ€Ţ. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method

3691. Storms, E., Chemically-Assisted Nuclear Reactions. Cold Fusion, 1994. 1(3): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3692. Storms, E., Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion” Effect. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 96.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+ Pd, D2O, temperature, Current Density electrolysis

3693. Storms, E. The Nature of the Energy-Active State in Pd-D. in II Workshop on the Loading of Hydrogen/Deuterium in Metals. 1995. Asti, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Loading

Evidence is presented to show that the energy-active state is located within the surface of electrolyzed palladium.  Although a high average D/Pd ratio is required to form this state, this is not the only condition. Several additional conditions must exist to cause a very high surface composition to form and to cause a conversion of the resulting material from beta-PdD to another phase.  The required high surface composition depends only in part on a high average composition.  Absence of microcracks in the surface region, presence of surface and near surface impurities, and external energy application influence the eventual nucleation and growth of the required phase.

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3694. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: From reasons to doubt to reasons to believe. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(1): p. 23.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3695. Storms, E. Status of “Cold Fusion”. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

A selection of experimental evidence supporting the “cold fusion” effect is evaluated. In addition, an effort is made to show why these observations can be considered real and correct. The total evidence set strongly demonstrates a new phenomenon worthy of potential technological development.

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3696. Storms, E., Cold fusion, a challenge to modern science. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 585.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3697. Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladium. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, loading, heat, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-6

A large collection of palladium samples, supplied by IMRA Materials (Japan), were studied to determine the relationship between energy production and various properties including the amount of excess volume, the open-circuit-voltage, and the maximum D/Pd ratio. The following conclusions result from the work:1. Palladium, no matter how well prepared, is very inhomogeneous with respect to the properties relevant to cold fusion. Therefore, most general conclusions can not be based on the behavior of one or a few samples.2. The bulk properties do not represent the properties of the nuclear-active-regions. Theoreticians need to take special note of this observation.3. Energy active palladium will continue to produce excess energy even after being subjected to acid treatment or physical removal of the surface. Therefore, “good” palladium is difficult to ruin.4. A pretest method has been developed to identify “good” palladium.

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3698. Storms, E., A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effect. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(8): p. 50.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, D2O, method, excess volume, OCV, electrolysis

A large collection of palladium plates having different treatments were examined to determine the composition limit produced after electrolysis in LiOD-D2O electrolyte, the amount of excess volume produced by the contained deuterium, the open circuit voltage generated by the material referenced to a platinum electrode, and the deloading rate in air. The influence of these properties on the ability to produce excess power from the “Pons-Fleischmann” effect was explored.The palladium was found to be very nonuniform with respect to the measured properties. Excess power production was associated with a minimum amount of excess volume and an open circuit voltage above 1.0 V. Samples capable of producing excess energy can be reactivated even after deloading or removal of the surface.

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3699. Storms, E., A Review of the Cold Fusion Effect. J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10(2): p. 185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3700. Storms, E., How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effect. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 261.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: method, heat, Fleischmann

ABSTRACT Conditions required for producing excess energy in PdD created in an electrolytic cell are described and reasons for their importance are discussed. This difficult to accept effect can now be produced with a high probability for success using the described procedures.

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3701. Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cell. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, heat+, D2O, electrolysis, loading, overvoltage, surface composition, D/Pd, ICCF-7

INTRODUCTION Lack of reproducibility is still the major reason CANR is not generally accepted and has not advanced into commercial use. The ability to reproduce any phenomenon depends on knowing the major variables and conditions required for the events to operate. In the case of cold fusion, even fundamental factors such as the D/Pd ratio and the crystal structure of the nuclear-active regions are not known. It is the intent of this paper to demonstrate several techniques for obtaining such information and the results obtained from their application to the Pons-Fleischmann Effect.

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3702. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3703. Storms, E., Cold Fusion Revisited (translation into Chinese). Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(21): p. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

Translated by W.-S. Zhang.

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3704. Storms, E., Formation of b-PdD Containing High Deuterium Concentration Using Electrolysis of Heavy-Water. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1998. 268: p. 89.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd D2O PdD electrolysis loading OCV structure

ABSTRACT The limiting composition of beta-PdD obtained during electrolytic loading results from a complex competition between diffusion of D atoms through any surface barrier, diffusion within the bulk sample, and loss of deuterium gas from surface-penetrating cracks. Reductions in surface crack concentration and surface-barriers are essential steps to achieve high compositions. The highest compositions within any sample are located within the surface region as a complex patch-work of values. The open circuit voltage (OCV), referenced to platinum, is useful in understanding changes in the surface composition and structure. Values as high as -1.35 V have been observed for highly loaded beta-PdD. Evidence for several new, possibly impurity stabilized structures is given.

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3705. Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Generated by Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode and Heavy Water. in American Physical Society Meeting. 1999. Atlanta, GA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2O heat, electrolysis

ABSTRACT Samples of palladium sheet supplied by IMRA Japan were tested for anomalous energy production using electrolysis in heavy water and a sensitive calorimeter. Several samples were found to produce significant power above that being applied to produce electrolysis. This behavior was found to correlate with certain properties of the palladium metal. In addition, the anomalous heat was shown to originate at the cathode.

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3706. Storms, E. A New Method for Initiating Nuclear Reactions. in First International Conference on Future Energy. 1999. Washington, DC: Unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review, heat, cavitation, sonotfusion, plasma discharge, fractofusion, biology

ABSTRACT Energy from present sources has proven to have serious limitations. Fortunately for the future of mankind, several new but controversial sources of energy have been discovered. This talk will describe a method to initiate nuclear reactions within solid materials, so-called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) when the environment is the focus or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) if the process is to be emphasized. Proposed is a new field of study which combines the electron environment (chemistry) with the nuclear environment (nuclear physics), two environments which are thought not to interact. The method generates energy without producing serious amounts of radiation or radioactive waste. In addition, the method is suggested as a means to reduce the radioactivity associated with previously generated nuclear waste. A wide range of experience obtained world-wide over the last ten years will be described and the controversial nature of the method will be discussed.

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3707. Storms, E., My life with cold fusion as a reluctant mistress. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 42.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, tritium, method, history, D/Pd, OCV

Over 9 years have passed since many of us were lured into believing that the Pons-Fleischmann effect would solve the world’s energy problems and make us all rich. Things have not yet worked out as we had hoped. Each of us have followed a different path through the labyrinth of this expectation. I would like to share with you my particular path and show you how I came to believe that problems of reproducibility are caused solely by the properties of the materials in which the nuclear reactions are proposed to occur.

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3708. Storms, E. Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann Effect. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Pt, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, ICCF-8

ABSTRACT Excess power was produced using a platinum cathode. Efforts to produce active cathodes by plating palladium onto various metals were largely unsuccessful.

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3709. Storms, E., The present status of chemically-assisted nuclear reactions. Infinite Energy, 2000. 5(29): p. 26.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3710. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 1. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(31): p. 10.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

NOTE: This file contains both Parts 1 and 2.ABSTRACT Many new studies are available to make an objective evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect possible. The phenomenon is conventionally known as “cold fusion,” or chemically assisted nuclear reactions (CANR)” when the environment is emphasized, or “low-energy nuclear-reactions (LENR)” if emphasis is placed on the process. A wide range of observations involving anomalous production of energy as well as nuclear products have been published. While many of the claims are still open to interpretation, the general conclusion is that an important, novel phenomenon has been discovered which deserves renewed interest.

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3711. Storms, E., A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 2. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(32): p. 52.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

3712. Storms, E., Description of a dual calorimeter. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(34): p. 22.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, method

A dual calorimeter is described which can be used to study electrolytic processes. Experience with this instrument has revealed several deficiencies inherent in the isoperibolic calorimeter design that apply to all calorimeters of this type when used to study the cold fusion effect.

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3713. Storms, E., Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessment. 2001.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review effect of H2O

Many people still believe that cold fusion is the result of bad science. In contrast, numerous laboratories in at least 10 countries have now claimed production of anomalous energy using a variety of methods, many of which are now reproducible. This energy is proposed to result from nuclear reactions initiated within a special periodic array of atoms at modest temperatures (energy). Evidence for nuclear reactions involving fusion of deuterium, transmutation involving both light and heavy hydrogen, and nuclear interaction between heavy nuclei has been published. The claims, if true, reveal a new method to release nuclear energy without harmful radiation and without the radioactivity associated with conventional methods. This paper examines published evidence describing this new phenomenon in order to test its reality and to extend an understanding of the process.

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3714. Storms, E. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2001. Seattle, WA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O?

ABSTRACT A large data base now exists to support the claim for nuclear reactions, including fusion, being initiated in solid environments at modest temperatures. This phenomenon is called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or “cold fusion”. Detailed information supporting the claims can be obtained from the website (xxxx://home.netcom.com/~storms2/index.html) as well as from any scientific data base. These claims provide the incentive for this study. In this work, methods to produce anomalous energy are studied using electrolytic loading in D2O of various materials (the Pons-Fleischmann method). Past work has concentrated on using palladium as the active material. This paper will demonstrate that energy-producing reactions can be made to occur in materials other than palladium. A unique method is proposed to explore many of the variables associated with the phenomenon.

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3715. Storms, E., Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environments. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 45.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, CeO2, C, Pt, electrolysis, D2O

3716. Storms, E., The Nature of the Nuclear-Active-Environment Required for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2002. 8(45): p. 32.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

ABSTRACT A collection of observations is used to characterize the nuclear-active environment required to initiate low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).

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3717. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

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3718. Storms, E. Why Cold Fusion Has Been So Hard to Explain and Duplicate. in American Physical Society Winter Meeting. 2003. Austin Convention Center, Austin, TX: unpublished.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: heat, thin film, NAE, surface composition, theory

The nuclear active environment for the Pons-Fleischmann method is proposed to be in the complex surface layer that forms by electrodeposition, not in the bulk material.  This surface is not beta-PdD as many theories and explanation have assumed.  Therefore, most theories are unhelpful because they do not explain what happens in the real world.

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3719. Storms, E. How to Make A Cheap and Effective Seebeck Calorimeter. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

The Seebeck calorimeter is very effective in measuring heat generation over a wide range of power and with high sensitivity and stability.  Such a device can be constructed cheaply and easily, although with considerable investment of time.  A successful example is described.

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3720. Storms, E. Use Of A Very Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter To Study The Pons-Fleischmann And Letts Effects. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter, laser stimulation

Characteristics of a commercial Seebeck calorimeter are described. This very stable instrument is applied to a study of the Pons-Fleischmann effect using a palladium anode and a platinum cathode.  The use of a laser to stimulate anomalous heat production (the Letts effect) is also described.  Positive results were obtained for both effects and these reveal important aspects of the nuclear-active-environment.

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3721. Storms, E. What Conditions Are Required To Initiate The Lenr Effect? in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Accumulating evidence indicates that previous understanding of the environment in which the Pons-Fleischmann    effect occurs is wrong.  The environment is not highly loaded beta-PdD.  Instead, it is a complex alloy that may or may not contain palladium.  In addition, the size of the domains in which the nuclear reactions take place is critically important.  This new insight requires different explanations and experimental approaches than have been previously used.

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3722. Storms, E., Estudo da Fusao a Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Brazilian Portuguese.PrefácioMeu interesse em fusão a frio começou pouco depois dos Professores Pons e Fleischmann anunciarem sua descoberta em 1989, então eu era mais um cientista trabalhando em pesquisa convencional costumeiro em LANL (Los Alamos Laboratório Nacional). Das numerosas tentativas de duplicar os anúncios, eu fui afortunado em produzir tritério assim como energia anômala. Não há nada como ver um fenômeno para fazer uma pessoa acreditar que é real, sem ter em conta o que pessoas menos observadoras possam dizer. Também, vendo muitos companheiros cientistas agindo tolamente e adquirindo uma educação adicional mas decepcionante. Desde que me aposentei de LANL há doze anos continuei a investigar o assunto, escrever documentos, incluindo várias revisões científicas, e pressionar para aceitação do fenômeno. A grande coleção de referências, totalizando quase 3000, adquiridos neste esforço transformou-se na BIBLIOTECA em xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Com a ajuda essencial de Britz Dieter e Rothwell Jed, esta coleção será mantida até data em que o campo cresce.

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3723. Storms, E., Estudio de la Fusion en Frio. 2003, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion translated into Spanish.Mi interés en la fusión en frío comenzó poco después que los Profesores Pons y Fleischmann anunciaran su descubrimiento en 1989. Entonces, yo era un científico más trabajando en la investigación convencional acostumbrada en el LANL (Laboratorio Nacional Los Álamos). Entre los numerosos intentos por duplicar lo ya anunciado, he sido afortunado en producir triterio, así como energía anómala. No hay nada como trabajar un fenómeno para hacer creer a una persona que es real, sin tener en cuenta lo que otras personas menos observadoras pudieran decir. También vemos actuar livianamente a muchos colegas científicos que adquirieron una educación adicional pero decepcionante. Desde mi jubilación en el LANL, hace 12 años, continué investigando el tema y escribí documentos, incluyendo varias revisiones científicas, presionando por la aceptación del fenómeno. La gran colección de referencias adquiridas en este esfuerzo, que totalizan casi 3.000, se transformó en la BIBLIOTECA disponible en xxxx://www.LENR-CANR.org. Con la ayuda esencial de Britz Dieter y Rothwell Jed, esta colección será mantenida hasta la fecha en que crezca el campo.

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3724. Storms, E., Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion; Methods, Problems and Errors. 2004, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Application of calorimetry to cold fusion or LENR presents unique problems that have not been previously summarized.  This paper discusses various calorimetric methods that have been applied to the subject and evaluates each in light of what has been discovered about their limitations and errors based on experimental studies. Such information is essential to a study of the effect and to evaluate the results.

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3725. Storms, E., Why I believe “Cold Fusion” is Real. LENR-CANR.org, 2004.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: critique

The process called Cold Fusion is said to produce clean energy from fusion of deuterium nuclei using very simple devices, at least compared to the “hot” fusion method.  Many scientists have been outspoken in rejecting this claim based on their belief that the observations have not been replicated, are impossible, and cannot be explained.  The intent of this article is to provide a brief and easily understood description of why I believe this rejection is wrong. . . .This brief paper emphasizes the Fleischmann-Pons effect and studies done in the U.S., because it was written for and submitted to the DoE Panel that is re-evaluating the claims for cold fusion. It was submitted to the Panel on August 23, 2004.

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3726. Storms, E. An Update of LENR for ICCF-11. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

3727. Storms, E., The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusion. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 2005.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The US government has once again made an effort to evaluate the reality of the phenomenon call cold fusion.  The first effort was made in 1989 by the ERAB Panel (Energy Research Advisory Board) shortly after Profs. Fleischmann and Pons announced their discovery. The result was a mixed message in which no support for the claims was provided. Nevertheless, an implication was made to evaluate proposals by the normal peer review process. None were funded by the DOE (Department of Energy). Now a new evaluation has been undertaken by a panel of reviewers assembled by the DOE, mainly from the physics profession.

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3728. Storms, E., A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoE. 2005, Lattice Energy, LLC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Various critiques provided by reviewers assembled by the DOE to evaluate cold fusion are addressed. Important issues are clarified and some misunderstandings are corrected.

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3729. Storms, E. Description Of A Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter Used For Cold Fusion Studies. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

A sensitive and stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to determine the heat of formation of PdD.  This determination can be used to show that such calorimeters are sufficiently accurate to measure the LENR effect and give support to the claims.

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3730. Storms, E. Why you should believe cold fusion is real (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review,

3731. Storms, E., Cold Fusion for Dummies. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

The field and the name “Cold Fusion” started in 1989 when chemists Stanley Pons of the University of Utah and Martin Fleischmann of the University of Southampton reported the production of excess heat in an electrolytic cell that they concluded could only be produced by a nuclear process. . . .Three basic questions about cold fusion need answers: Why are some people so hostile to the claims; why should a person believe the claims are real; and why should anyone care if the claims are real or not?

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3732. Storms, E., Fusao a Frio para Principiantes. 2006, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

“Cold Fusion for Dummies,” translated into Brazilian Portuguese by Sergio Bacchi.O campo e o nome “Fusão a Frio” apareceu em 1989, quando os químicos Stanley Pons da Universidade de Utah e Martin Fleischmann da Universidade de Southampton, reportaram a produção de excesso de aquecimento numa célula eletrolítica e concluíram que só poderia ser produzido por um processo nuclear. Este anúncio foi baseado numa extraordinária quantidade de energia que apareceu. Através dos anos anúncios adicionais de reações nucleares inesperadas surgiram baseadas na produção de energia e produtos nucleares. Estes resultados foram e continuam sendo replicados por alguns laboratórios, mas não por outros. Conseqüentemente, a realidade dos anúncios é freqüentemente rejeitada e fica como objeto de controvérsia. Algumas pessoas chegam mesmo ao extremo de achar que isto é o exemplo de uma pseudo-ciência. Pode-se encontrar uma história detalhada da controvérsia em dois livros recentes sobre o assunto.

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3733. Storms, E., Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusion. Thermochim. Acta, 2006. 441: p. 207-209.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Dr. Shanahan has published two papers (Thermochim. Acta 428 (2005) 207, Thermochim. Acta 382 (2002) 95) in which he argues that excess heat claimed to be produced by cold fusion is actually caused by errors in heat measurement. In particular, he proposes that unrecognized changes in the calibration constant are produced by changes in the locations where heat is being generated within the electrolytic cell over the duration of the measurement. Because these papers may lend unwarranted support to rejection of cold fusion claims, these erroneous arguments used by Shanahan need to be answered.

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3734. Storms, E., Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolyte. 2007, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Excess heat

Significant heat was generated for about 740 min when a sample of palladium foil was electrolyzed as the cathode in D2O+LiOD. A very stable Seebeck calorimeter is described and used to make the measurements. The source of this anomalous energy is unknown. However, the observed energy and production of unexpected elements based on EDX examination are similar to the behaviors claimed by many people who study what is called low energy nuclear reactions.

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3735. Storms, E., The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction. 2007: World Scientific Publishing Company.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Selected pages from the book, including the Preface and Table of Contents.

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3736. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation Produced By Glow Discharge In Deuterium. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

Radiation produced by low-voltage discharge in a gas containing deuterium was measured using a Geiger counter located within the apparatus. This radiation was found to consist of energetic particles that were produced only when the voltage was above a critical value. In addition, the emission was very sensitive to the presence of oxygen in the gas. In the presence of the required conditions, emission occurred reliably with reaction rates in excess of 108 events/second.

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3737. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care. 2008, YouTube.com.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3738. Storms, E., How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care (PowerPoint slides from video). 2008, Kiva Labs.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

PowerPoint slides displayed during a video lecture on Google video:xxxx://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9026092151512597723

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3739. Storms, E. The Method and Results Using Seebeck Calorimetry. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: particle emission

The characteristics of and errors associated with Seebeck calorimeters, as applied to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, are described. This type of calorimeter as well as a flow type calorimeter were used to measured apparent excess energy from the same sample of platinum plated with palladium and other materials.

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3740. Storms, E., How to Explain Cold Fusion?, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 85-98.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3741. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation produced by glow discharge in a deuterium containing gas (Part 2). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: glow discharge

This is the second paper in a series describing the radiation produced by the cathode during glow discharge in low-pressure gas using DC voltages between 400 V and 800 V. Evidence for energetic electrons, low-energy X-rays, and occasional proton (deuteron) emission has been obtained. The energy, intensity, and type of the radiation are sensitive to gas composition and the material used as the cathode.

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3742. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Detection of Radiation Emitted from LENR. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: particle emission

A study was made to detect X-radiation and energetic particle emission from nuclear reactions that may be initiated during low-voltage gas discharge in deuterium. Evidence is presented for X-radiation having an energy nearly equal to the voltage applied to the discharge and energetic particle emission similar to deuterons having energy with peaks between 0.5 and 3 MeV. A study of radiation emitted from materials exposed to deuterium gas is underway.

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3743. Storms, E., What is believed about cold fusion? 2009, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

In 1989, Fleischmann and Pons[1-5] claimed to initiate a fusion reaction between deuterons in palladium that resulted in an unusual amount of heat. This claim was rejected because insufficient supporting experimental information was provided, the claim was very difficult to replicate, and no plausible explanation could be proposed. During the 20 years since then, studies in at least 8 countries has provided a rich collection of information, improved reproducibility, and encouraged many explanations. This work has been reviewed by Storms[6] in 2007 based on over 1000 citations and will not be repeated here. This paper provides a brief and focused summary of what is believed to be true about the effect at the present time.

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3744. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process.  These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions.  Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

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3745. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR process. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords:

Presence and absence of expected radiation, occurrence of nuclear reactions having only one apparent product, and transmutation reactions involving addition of more than one deuteron all indicate involvement of large clusters of deuterons in the LENR process. These clusters are proposed to hide their Coulomb barrier and to react with isolated deuterons to produce fusion and to react with larger nuclei to produce transmutation. Members of the cluster not directly involved in the nuclear reaction might be scattered by the released energy, thereby allowing momentum to be conserved and the resulting energy to produce particles having energy too small to be easily detected or to cause easily detectable secondary reactions. Justification of this model is discussed. This proposed model is consistent with most observations, but raises additional questions about the nature of such super-clusters and other ways the energy may be communicated directly to the lattice that will be addressed in future papers.

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3746. Storms, E. and T. Grimshaw, Judging the Validity of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 9-30.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: CMNS, Cold fusion, Critique, Nuclear energy, Review

The Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE, aka cold fusion) was rejected as legitimate science within a year after its announcement in 1989. The growing need for a source of clean energy makes a re-examination of the initial rejection increasingly important. An effective way of assessing the status of the effect as legitimate science is to apply criteria that have been established by scientific skeptics. When 27 criteria set forth by Langmuir, Sagan and Shermer are applied, the requirements for scientific legitimacy appear to be met. In addition, a large and growing number of independent experiments are consistent with a nuclear mechanism being the cause of FPE.

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3747. Storms, E., Status of cold fusion (2010). Naturwiss., 2010. 97(10): p. 861-881.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, CMNS, LENR, heat production, transmutation, review

The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process. Various requirements of a model are examined.

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3748. Storms, E. Examination of errors that occur when using a gas-filled calorimeter. in 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2011. Chennai, India: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Measurement of a reaction between D2 gas and a material using a calorimeter that is calibrated using H2 will show erroneous excess power production at temperatures above ambient if all energy present in the calorimeter is not totally measured, a requirement very difficult to accomplish. This insidious error is explored using a stable Seebeck calorimeter.

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3749. Storms, E., What is now known about cold fusion? (Addendum to Student’s Guide). 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: review

This is an addendum to the “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.” It clarifies several issues. Because this is a stand-alone summary, some of the basic information given in more detail in the Guide is briefly repeated here.

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3750. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What is Real about Cold Fusion and What Explanations are Plausible? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 17-31.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cluster, Cold fusion, Fusion, Nuclear reaction

Experimental observations are now available to test rational theories and models about the cold fusion effect. Some of these informations are summarized and used to draw logical inferences about the requirements a plausible theory must satisfy. A model based on the role of super-clusters is proposed.

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3751. Storms, E., An explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies. The common environment in which LENR occurs is proposed to be cracks of a critical size, followed by a resonance process that dissipates energy by X-ray emission based on a laser-like process.  The LENR behavior has the potential to test the Standard Model of nuclear interaction.

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3752. Storms, E. An Approach to Explaining Cold Fusion. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Cold fusion or Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) is a process that results in various nuclear reactions involving all isotopes of hydrogen within what appear to be ordinary materials at ordinary temperatures. In general terms, the reactions can be described as fusion when two hydrogen isotopes combine to form a single product nuclei or as transmutation when one or more hydrogen isotope nuclei enter a larger nuclei. As expected, these reactions generate energy but very little radiation is detected, which is unexpected and has been a cause for rejection.  Sufficient evidence is now available to justify believing this is a real phenomenon and not the result of error. The challenge is to explain how such an unusual process operates. The approached used in this paper is based on six assumptions and their logical relationship to many observations. Although many details are not quantified, the general characteristics of the LENR process are described. This analysis places severe limits on any proposed explanation.

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3753. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, What Is Cold Fusion and Why Should You Care? Proc. NPA, 2012.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: review

3754. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of energetic radiation emitted from a metal exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012(submitted).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: radiation

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm^2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fractofusion.

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3755. Storms, E., An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) (translation into Chinese). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 86.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

A version of this paper, translated into Chinese:xxxx://lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanexplanat.pdfEnglish Abstract begins:A plausible nuclear-active-environment in which LENR occurs is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all successful methods. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. . . .

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3756. Storms, E., Cold fusion from a chemist’s point of view. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: theory

Very small cracks are proposed as the location of the LENR process in a material. A resonance process is proposed to occur in these structures, resulting in fusion, while energy is emitted as coherent photons having a characteristic energy. The nuclear product depends on which isotope of hydrogen is present. Reasons are given why a crack structure is required to explain LENR.

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3757. Storms, E., Response to Reviewer Comments. Infinite Energy, 2013(109).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Critique

I want to thank the reviewers (IE #108) for taking the time to make interesting and sometimes useful comments on my paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View.” This is the first and hopefully not the last time a proposed explanation of LENR has been reviewed publicly in such detail. The process is effective in revealing not only flaws but also howthe ideas can be better explained to avoid misunderstanding. I will comment on each review in the order they appeared in IE #108.

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3758. Storms, E., The Role of Voids as the Location of LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 123-141.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Crack structure, Energy

A proposed model explaining the low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) process is described. The process occurs in voids of a critical size and involves a string of resonating hydrons, each of which is separated by an electron. This unique structure, called a “hydroton”, is proposed to make LENR possible and provides a process that can explain all reported observations and predict several new behaviors while using only three basic assumptions.

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3759. Storms, E. and B. Scanlan, Nature of Energetic Radiation Emitted from a Metal Exposed to H2. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 142-156.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E., Scanlan, B.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Fusion, LENR, Radiation

Layers of metals were applied so as to cause local stress, which is proposed to create voids in which nuclear reactions can be initiated when the material is exposed to H2. Photon emission having energy sufficient to pass through 3.86 g/cm2 of absorbing material was detected using a Geiger-Mueller detector. This radiation was observed to last many hours and is not typical of what is called fracto-fusion.

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3760. Storms, E., A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion (Russian version). 2015, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Review

Translation of “Student’s Guide to Cold Fusion.”Evidence supporting cold fusion (LENR) is summarized and requirements an explanation must take into account are justified. A plausible nuclear-active-environment is identified by ruling out various possibilities and by identifying an environment that is common to all methods used to produce LENR. When this environment is combined with a plausible mechanism, many testable predictions result. These insights and proposals are offered to help clarify understanding of LENR and to suggest future studies.

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3761. Storms, E., Explaining Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Theory

Five assumptions are used to create a new explanation of low energy nuclear reactions (cold fusion) based on formation of a novel active environment within a variety of materials. The method to form this environment and the nuclear consequences are described. The fusion process is proposed to occur when a form of metallic hydrogen is created in nano-cracks. Methods to test the model are provided. Engineering variables are identified and used to show how the process can be controlled and amplified. These assumptions can also be used to evaluate other proposed explanations.

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3762. Storms, E., In the Spirit of John Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Electrochemistry, John Bockris, Palladium, Transmutation, Tritium

The life of Prof. John Bockris provides a reminder of how good science should be undertaken and the harm a scientist and all of science suffer when these expectations are ignored.

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3763. Storms, E., How the explanation of LENR can be made consistent with observed behaviour and natural laws. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, hydroton, LENR, theory

3764. Storms, E., Introduction to the main experimental findings of the LENR field. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords:

3765. Storms, E., Anomalous Energy Produced by PdD. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Enthalpy of reaction, Excess energy, PdD, Volume expansion

Two samples of commercial Pd from the same batch were reacted with D using the electrolytic method and found to produce sustained excess power and energy. The effects of temperature, applied current, and D/Pd ratio on the amount of excess power were studied.

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3766. Storms, E., How Basic Behavior of LENR can Guide A Search for an Explanation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Cracks, Energy production, Hydrogen fusion, LENR, PdD, Theory

The LENR effect was identified 27 years ago by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons as production of extra energy in a normal chemical structure, in this case PdD. Over a thousand published papers now support the discovery and the energy is shown to result from fusion of hydrogen isotopes without the need to apply energy and without energetic radiation being produced. By conventional standards, the claims are impossible. Nevertheless, a new phenomenon has been discovered requiring acceptance and understanding. The major behaviors and their present understanding are described in this paper and are used to suggest how an effective explanation might be constructed. Once again, science has been forced to either reject the obvious or accept the impossible. In this case, the normal skepticism needs to be ignored in order to determine if this promised energy source is real and can provide the ideal energy so critically needed.

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3767. Storms, E., A New Source of Energy using Low-Energy Fusion of Hydrogen. Environ Sci Ind J, 2017. 13(2).

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: cold fusion, ideal energy, clean energy, fusion energy

Chemical energy alone has powered civilization until relatively recently when nuclear fission power based on uranium became available. Efforts are now underway to go the next step on this path to nuclear sources by harnessing fusion power using hydrogen. So far, this so-called hot fusion process has not been successful in producing practical power. The complexity and size of the generator is expected to make this source impractical even after the many engineering problems are solved. Perhaps a different approach is needed. As answer to this need, a new method called cold fusion was recently discovered to cause fusion. Even though this might prove to be a better way to extract fusion energy, the claim has been difficult for some scientists to accept because it conflicts with what is known about nuclear interaction. This paper describes the cold fusion claim and gives reasons why the method should be accepted and applied.

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3768. Storms, E. The enthalpy of formation of PdH as a function of H/Pd atom ratio and treatment (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Storms, E.
All Authors: Storms, E.
Keywords: loading, excess heat

Production of the LENR effect involves achieving a large concentration of D in the PdD lattice structure. A great deal of effort has been applied to understanding how this can be accomplished and the nature of the resulting structure. The bulk properties play a role in this process but are sensitive to the impurity content and treatment. The influence of the bulk properties on this process has not been fully explored.This paper describes a new method to directly measure the bond energy between the PdH structure and the contained H atoms in real time as a function of H/Pd ratio from zero to the maximum H content using the electrolytic method and H2SO4+H2O to react Pd with H. A unique and very accurate calorimeter (+/-5 mW) is used to measure power during the loading reaction. This method is applied to several types of Pd including commercial Pd sheet, extra pure Pd, and a zone refine single-crystal of Pd after each is subjected to several treatments. These treatments include repeated loading-deloading cycles, annealing at 900у, and reduction in thickness. The bond energy is found to be sensitive to purity, treatment, and H/Pd ratio, with good agreement with published measurements being achieved after certain treatments. In addition, three methods to measure the average H/Pd ratio are described and compared. These methods use weight gain, orphaned oxygen, and recombiner temperature. A great deal of information about the reaction process can be obtained by combining these three methods because they are sensitive to different possible errors and behaviours.

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3769. Strackan, J.S., Thermoelectric Energy Conversion. 1994: US Patent #5,288,336.

First Author: Strackan, J. S.
All Authors: Strackan, J. S.
Keywords: thermoelectric, Energy Conversion,

3770. Stremmenos, C., Fusione fredda. Un dibattito che prosegue” (“Cold fusion. A debate that continues”). Chim. Ind. (Milan), 1999. 81: p. 361 [in Italian].

First Author: Stremmenos, C.
All Authors: Stremmenos, C.
Keywords: Polemic, critique

3771. Stringham, R. and R. George, Cavitation induced micro-fusion solid state production of heat, 3He, and 4He. 1995.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., George, R.
Keywords: ultrasound, heat+, 4He, 3He, acoustic, bubble, cavitation

3772. Stringham, R. Anomalous heat production by cavitation. in 1998 IEEE International Ultrasonic Symposium. 1998. Sendai, Japan.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, cavitation, ultrasonic, sonofusion

3773. Stringham, R., First gate energies. 1998.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: heat+, progress report, sonicfusion, ultrasonic

3774. Stringham, R., et al. Predictable and Reproducible Heat. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R., Chandler, J., George, R., Passell, T. O., Raymond, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat+, ICCF-7

3775. Stringham, R. The Cavitation Micro Accelerator. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: ultrasonic, cavitation, method, ICCF-8, accustic

3776. Stringham, R. Pinched cavitation jets and fusion events. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion, Pd, D2O

The collapse of a transient cavitation bubble in deuteriumoxide produces a high density plasma jet containing 109 deuterons.  The inertial compression of a jet via an electron induced magnetic field pinch effect on its plasma contents produces high to even higher deuteron densities in the order of 1025 gm/cc before implanting into a foil target.  This model is parallel to the systems found in the hot plasmas of inertial systems.   During the initial period of implantation of a few picoseconds, the high density deuterons in the target lattice experience reduced coulomb repulsion due to the high density charge screening.  In this environment it is possible that some DD fusion events occur as evidenced by photos of the metal target foils and by the evidence of helium four and tritium production.Making some basic assumptions the smallest diameter and highest population of vent sites in the target foils are produced by events in the order of 20 Mev.   When experiments were monitored there was no long range radiation detected.

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3777. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

3778. Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion – poster session. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: cavitation, ultrasonic, heat

Natural cavitation phenomena in D2O using piezo devices, is now amplified initiating DD fusion events that produce heat and helium. We have adapted it for our use. The transient cavitation bubble, TCB, has been harnessed to produce high densities of deuterons, 10^25 to 25/cc. An electrically driven piezo device filled with D2O produces acoustic field generating TCBs that are, in the final collapse stage, micro accelerators. The result is the implanting of deuterons into a target foil producing 4He originating from the Pd foil and T from the Ti foil. We are an emergent tangent technology to sonoluminescence, SL, technology, which we use to give us an environmental parameter probe into the bubble contents at the moment of its highest energy density. (Much of the SL studies center on the pulses of photons coupled to the irradiating acoustic field emanating from an oscillating single stable cavitation bubble, SSCB.) The generation of these photons relates to conditions for the target implantation process. Recently we have been studying the effects of frequency on multi TCB SL conditions that produce fusion. These experiments and the analytical methods have concentrated on the mass spectroscopy of reactor gases, calorimetry of the reactor and power supply, and the scanning electron microscope photographs of target foils. The results from many experiments are pieced together to reach a plausible path for the TCB that terminates with deuterons implanting into a target with the resulting fusion events. The use of SL for monitoring the bubble content’s high energy densities allows for reactor parameter management for fusion events in the target foil. Studies of multi TCBs’ SL at higher temperatures (300-450ºK), external pressures (10^6-10^7.5 dynes/cm2) and frequencies (.02- 1.7 MHz) are proceeding in a search for better fusion environments. The results of these experiments will be presented.

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3779. Stringham, R. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Reactor. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

ABSTRACT                                                                                                          We are using one of the most remarkable pulsing systems that nature offers for producing transient high energy densities and I have been fortunate enough to be involved with it for over 20 years.  Over time we have increased the frequency of our piezo cavitation drivers and are now at 1.6 MHz and find that our results are the same.  Even better, the Qx /(reactor gm), the energy density, is drastically increased when compared to our 40 and 20 KHz piezo systems [1,2,3]. The cost is decreased by at least an order of magnitude and the durability is greatly increased.  All Q values in this paper are dQ/dt Joules/sec. or watts.  The systems differ in several ways because of the 40 times increase in frequency.    These 1.6 MHz systems produce more sonoluminescence, SL, and more but smaller bubbles and an energy density in the collapsing bubble system that is the same magnitude as the 40KHz systems [4,5]. . . .

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3780. Stringham, R. Ejecta Sites and DD Fusion Events. in APS March Meeting. 2006. Baltimore, MD.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

A cavitation-produced jet that implants a target foil at high impact velocities produces foil damage shown in color and SEM, scanning electron microscopy, photos. The work here dates from 1989 to 2001 and was produced in several different reactors, target foils, and frequencies. The result of high density pinched implantation of D+ and e-, deuterons and electrons; plasma is a D+ cluster. The implant occurs in a picosecond time frame with a creation of D+/Pd, in a 100/1 ratio of an initially electron free D+ cluster with a diameter in the order of a hundred nm. The mobile e- react with D+ and surround the D+ cluster with D. DD fusion events occurring in the transient high-density cluster produce a gamma free heat pulse. The heat pulse reaches the lattice surface in a nanosecond expelling the vapor/liquid foil and products as ejecta. The ejecta sites are easily seen in SEM photos and are counted and plotted as MeV DD fusion events. The results have been interpreted as DD fusion events that increase in energy as they decrease in frequency (counts) exponentially.

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3781. Stringham, R. 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Measurement and Model. in American Physical Society Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Years of data collected from First Gate’s various sonofusion systems gain fundamental support from recent extrapolations of hot fusion research.  Consider the velocity, 3x104m/sec, of a high density low energy jet plasma of deuterons that originates from the collapse of the TCB, transient cavitation bubble, in D2O that implants a target foil [1 – Many ICCF & APS].  The foil generates heat via DD fusion events that produce 4He and T.  We compare our sonofusion to the jet plasma of Tokamak type plasma fusion systems with all their stability problems.  Since sonofusion is a compilation of billions single fusion events per second and not a continuous fusion system like Tokamak, Stellarator, and Jet fusion systems; a comparison gives sonofusion a decided advantage. . . .

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3782. Stringham, R. Bubble Driven Fusion. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Sonofusion,

3783. Stringham, R. When Bubble Cavitation Becomes Sonofusion. in 237rd ACS National Meeting. 2009. Salt Lake City.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: sonofusion

Experimentally, heat and 4He are the fusion products of sonofusion (SF). SF controls a naturally occurring phenomenon with cavitation-induced bubbles and their high energy density transferred to transient jets that implant deuteron clusters into a matrix or lattice. The SF path to clusters can be extrapolated from high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion, ICF, Bose Einstein Condensates, BEC, muon fusion, MF, and astrophysical phenomena, to explain our ejecta sites, Qx, 4He, and no measureable long-range radiation results. The fusion events emanate from deuteron clusters implanted into target foils. Clusters are squeezed and cooled via electromagnetic, EM, compression pressures and evaporative cooling of cluster surface deuterons producing the fusion environment. Evidence of these cluster fusion events is found in the millions of target foil ejecta sites in

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3784. Stringham, R., Sonofusion, Deuterons to Helium Experiments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 159-173.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

3785. Stringham, R. Sonofusion Produces Tritium That Decays to Helium Three. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

Three main points are covered that are unique to Ti sonofusion target foils. These are surface modification to TiOx shown by photos and scanning electron microscope, SEM, photos, and the decay measurement of tritium, T, by mass spectrum analysis, MS, to 3He, the Ti target foils, and the unexplained production of 1 microm Ti hollow tubes shown in SEM photos.

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3786. Stringham, R., Model for Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 304-316.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Bubble, Calorimetry, Cavitation, Cluster, Ejecta, Fusion, Fusion products, Jet, Picosecond, Transient high-density plasma

Experimental cavitation sonofusion results needed a mechanism to explain the measured 4He and heat produced. A model is introduced based on high-density low-energy transient astrophysical behavior, creating an environment for fusion events by forming electron free clusters. The cluste-ڳ low temperature and high density are shown to be essential to the fusion environment.

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3787. Stringham, R., When Bubble Cavitation becomes Sonofusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 1-12.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Charged-plasma, Clusters, High-density, Sonofusion

Experimentally, excess heat, Qx, and 4He are the measured fusion products of transient high-density sonofusion, SF.A possible path to DD fusion is explained by piezo driven cavitation bubbles, where the critical parameters are temperature, pressure, acoustic input, and frequency that control, for a picosecond, the low-energy nuclear reactions that produce DD fusion events. The electromagnetic, EM, pulse compressed deuteron clusters squeezing them into a Bose Einstein Condensate. The BEC cluster environment provides for the direct conversion of fusion energy into heat and 4He. The continuous production of 1016 bubbles/sec produces radiation free usable heat as observed via ejecta site surveys.

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3788. Stringham, R., Model for Electromagnetic pulsed BEC Experiments. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: BEC, Deuteron, Sonoluminescense, Superconductivity, z-pinch

Sonofusion experiments, which incorporate transient Bose Einstein condensates, BEC, have recently focused on related sonosuperconductivity. Cavitation jets implant high-density deuteron clusters into a target foil. Clusters are then squeezed by accelerated charges that form dense transient EM pulses. Cavitation and the associated sonoluminescence phenomena, used as a measuring tool, helps develop and explain related experimental results. Two outcomes, sonofusion and sono-superconductivity both produce D+clusters in reactors of different geometries. MHz reactor No. 1 is driven by a disk piezo and has produced excess heat, Qx, using the foil target and other products, including 4He. The newMHz reactor No. 2 is driven by a cylindrical piezo lowpower with a concentric wire target with transient cluster steady state concentration near the wire surface. The target’s steady state cluster coverage may satisfy a sono-superconductivity subsurface cluster connectivity during the MHz’s 100 ns collective sonoluminescence pulse. It was anticipated that ambient sono-superconductivity was possible but so far has proved difficult to measure. Cavitation D2O bubbles in both reactors were controlled by three main parameters for the two reactors: temperature, pressure of Ar gas over D2O, and acoustic watt input; Ti, Pi, andQa. The z-pinch jets’contents of deuterons and electrons were implanted, with an induced picosecond transient charge separation. This charge separation produced an electromagnetic, EM, cluster compression pulse that formed a high-density BEC environment, as the EM pulse pressure overwhelmed repulsive deuteron cluster pressure for that picosecond. This model used unique attributes of the high-density transient deuterons to produce sonofusion in reactor No. 1 and sono-superconductivity in reactor No. 2 near ambient temperature. The measurements showed the presence of sonoluminescence pulses, implanted plasma, and heat pulse ejecta sites.

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3789. Stringham, R., Sonofusion’s Transient Condensate Clusters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords:

D2O cavitation produces Z-pinch jets implanting a target lattice. Measurements, data interpretations, and FE SEM photos explain products heat and 4He produced in target foils. The picosecond dynamics of a deuteron electron plasma charge separation and pressure pulse produce alpha particles and heat.

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3790. Stringham, R., Sonofusion: Ultrasound-Activated He Production in Circulating D2O. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Bremsstrahlung, Gamma, Heatk, Sonoluminescence

Experiments over the last 25 years have demonstrated sonofusion: the formation of He by ultrasound incident on D2O. The observed effect is described. Neither the characteristic gamma nor the neutron typically seen in the formation from two deuterons of 4He and 3He, respectively, is observed. The experimental arrangement is specified. A proposed model, based on cavitation-produced z-pinch jets in target-foil implants, is outlined. It involves formation in the implants of a BE condensate that provides the source of the deuterons and whose recoil ensures energy-momentum conservation. The model accounts for all experimental results. It also provides a guide for future work on sonofusion.

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3791. Stringham, R., Conservation of E and M, Single Cavitation Heat Events. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Alpha, Cavitation, Jets, Photons

Experiments spread over a period of 24 years create a model for sonofusion. An explanation of results will influence new paths for its further development. Cavitation produced z-pinch target-foil implanting jets produce SEM photos of single event ejecta sites equal to the binding energy differences, Eb, for alpha production.

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3792. Stringham, R., Helium Measurements From Target Foils, LANL and PNNL, 1994. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 284-295.

First Author: Stringham, R.
All Authors: Stringham, R.
Keywords: Cavitation, Gamma, 4He, Lattice, Mass spectrum

The alphas formed in Ti and Pd target foils were measured as 4He in a mass spectrum, MS, analysis at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL, a lab that specializes in 3He and 4He measurements. The exposed bcc crystal lattice Ti target foil, TF, measured an average of 39 x 10^12 +/- 1.4 trapped 4He atoms. The fcc crystal lattices of Pd, Ag, Ni, and Cu target foils, particularly the two measured fcc Pd TF lattices produced ~ 0.35 x 10^12 trapped 4He atoms. This helium level was just above its background level, and 1/100 that of the bcc Ti TF. In the fcc palladium TF, SEM crater volume measurements show that most of the alphas are ejected into the circulating D2O, where they were measured in the gas phase. In 1994 the samples were run at LANL and measured at PNNL. The helium was measured by melting small TF pieces cut from the active center zone. Then each piece was placed in a crucible, and melted under vacuum, releasing all gases including background helium. These collected gases from one piece were pretreated; then were measured. The data was converted to total 4He atoms trapped in the active zone of the TF lattice. A total of 24 measurements for 3He and 4He on three TFs found no 3He but 4He in all 12 measurements. SEM photos of single ejecta sites were combined with calculations of old data that used knowledge gained from 23 years of cavitation experience that enhances the old data.

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3793. Stritzker, B. and J. Becker, Superconductivity in Metastable Pd-Alloys Produced by Ion Implantation at Low Temperatures. Phys. Lett. A, 1975. 51: p. 147.

First Author: Stritzker, B.
All Authors: Stritzker, B., Becker, J.
Keywords: PdH, PdD, PdC, PdB, superconductivity, ion Implanation

3794. Stroka, A., B. Baranowski, and S.M. Filipek, Search for 3He and 4He in Pd-D2 system long term cumulation experiment in high pressure. Pol. J. Chem., 1993. 67: p. 353.

First Author: Stroka, A.
All Authors: Stroka, A., Baranowski, B., Filipek, S. M.
Keywords: helium, Pd, D2

3795. Stuhr, U., et al., An investigation of hydrogen diffusion in nanocrystalline Pd by neutron spectroscopy. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 393.

First Author: Stuhr, U.
All Authors: Stuhr, U., Striffler, T., Wipf, H., Natter, H., Wettman, B., Janssen, S., Hempelmann, R., Hahn, H.
Keywords: diffusion, H2, microcrystals, Pd

3796. Stukan, P.A., Y.M. Rumyantsev, and A.V. Shishkov, Generation of hard radiation and accumulation of tritium during electrolysis of heavy water. High Energy Chem., 1993. 27: p. 461.

First Author: Stukan, P. A.
All Authors: Stukan, P. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M., Shishkov, A. V.
Keywords: electrolysis, tritium, radiation, heat-, neutron, D2O, H2O, Pd

3797. Stukan, R.A. and Y.M. Rumyantsev, Effect of tritium on the generation of hard radiation in the electrolysis of D2O with a palladium cathode (T-D cold fusion reactions). High Energy Chem., 1996. 30: p. 343.

First Author: Stukan, R. A.
All Authors: Stukan, R. A., Rumyantsev, Yu. M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, radiation, neutron, H2O, T2O. tritium

3798. Stulen, R.H., Summary Abstract: Observation of Molecular H2 and D2 on Pd and Ag Using Thermal Desorption Between 5 and 20 K. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 1988. 6: p. 776.

First Author: Stulen, R. H.
All Authors: Stulen, R. H.
Keywords: Pd, Ag, H2, D2, absorption

3799. Sugai, H., M. Tanase, and M. Yahagi, Release of tritium, protium, and helium from neutron-irradiated Li-Al alloy. II. J. Nuclear Mater., 1998. 254(2/3): p. 151.

First Author: Sugai, H.
All Authors: Sugai, H., Tanase, M., Yahagi, M
Keywords: Li-Al, neutron, tritium

3800. Sugakov, V.I., Conditions for inducing, dynamics and manifestation of atom acceleration in nonequilibrium crystals. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1996. 41: p. 834 (Ukrainian).

First Author: Sugakov, V. I.
All Authors: Sugakov, V. I.
Keywords: Theory, crystal defects, energy focussing, solitons

3801. Sugiura, H. and E. Yamaguchi. Calorimetric Analysis of the Excess Heat Generated from Pd:D and Pd:H by the ‘In-vacuo’ Method. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Sugiura, H.
All Authors: Sugiura, H., Yamaguchi, E.
Keywords: Pd, D2, heat+, layer, Au-Pd, Ag-Pd, H2, ICCF-7

3802. Sullivan, D.L., Exclusionary epideictic: NOVA’s narrative excommunication of Fleischmann and Pons. Sci., Technol. Human Values, 1994. 19: p. 283.

First Author: Sullivan, D. L.
All Authors: Sullivan, D. L.
Keywords: history

3803. Sun, Z. and D. Tomanek, Cold fusion: how close can deuterium atoms come inside palladium? Phys. Rev. Lett., 1989. 63(1): p. 59.

First Author: Sun, Z.
All Authors: Sun, Z., Tomanek, D.
Keywords: theory, distance

3804. Sun, D.L., et al., A study of existing forms of deuterium in palladium by positron lifetime spectroscopy. Chin. Sci. Bull., 1992. 37: p. 1073.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Chen, Y. L., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Lu, X. N.
Keywords: PdD, structure, position

3805. Sun, D.L., et al., An explanation for the abnormal temperature rise of palladium cathode during electrochemical deuterium charging. Science in China A, 1993. 36: p. 1501.

First Author: Sun, D. L.
All Authors: Sun, D. L., Lei, Y. Q., Wu, J., Wang, Q. D., Wang, R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, heat

3806. Sun, Y., Q.D. Yang, and Q.F. Zhang, Application of real time surveillance technique to precision calorimetry system. Sichuan Lianhe Daxue Xuebao, Gongcheng Kexueban (J. Sichuan Union Univ., Eng. Sci. Ed.), 1999. 3(6): p. 119 [in Chinese].

First Author: Sun, Y.
All Authors: Sun, Y., Yang, Q. D., Zhang, Q. F.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann, heat, method

3807. Sundaresan, R. and J. Bockris, Anomalous Reactions During Arcing Between Carbon Rods in Water. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 261.

First Author: Sundaresan, R.
All Authors: Sundaresan, R., Bockris, J.
Keywords: transmutation, C, Fe, H2O plasma discharge

Spectroscopically pure carbon rods were subjected to a carbon arc in highly purified water. The arc current varied from 20 to 25 A and was passed intermittently for several hours. The original carbon contained ~2 parts per million (ppm) iron, and the detritus contained up to 286 ppm of iron. The carbon rods remained cool 10 the touch at >2 cm from their tips. Adsorption of iron from water or the surrounding atmosphere was established as not being the cause of the increase of iron. There is a weak correlation between the iron formed and the time of passage of current. When dissolved O2, was replaced by N2 in the solution, no iron was formed. Hence, the mechanism26C12 + 28O18 -> 26Fe56 + 2He4was suggested as the origin of the iron. The increase in temperature of the solution was consistent with expectation based on this reaction.

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3808. Sunden, O. Centripelal de Broglie Wave Fields Connected to Particles at Rest Explain Cold Fusion and Particle-Wave-Duality. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Sunden, O.
All Authors: Sunden, O.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-5

The controversy about Cold Fusion “CF” depends on the fact that the phenomena discovered are not in agreement with present physical theories, like QM and QED. The aim of this paper is to show that a. Time-Space-Oscillation `TSO’ connected to matter is a physical perspective able to explain CF and the Particle-Wave-Duality, even able to propose technical means for further development. According to this perspective a particle -even at rest- is joined to a real, centripetal TSO, a ‘de Broglie oscillation’, instead of a mathematical Schrodinger wave function1). This TSO-field propagates with velocity c toward a focus, where the particle is created as a flickering wave vertex, that can push an instrument trigger. Particles and nuclides including their Coulomb barriers, thus become endowed with phase dependency and a centripetal wave field, that can interfere in slits. This explains the Particle-Wave Duality and why the Coulomb barrier can be tunneled under certain phase conditions.. This TSO-perspective further hints at nuclear reactions of a ‘centripetal’ kind different from those based on ‘translational collisions’, described by present high energy physics. It is worth consideration because it gives accurate accountsfor physical constants, particle masses and charges, while the nuclides appear as focal resonance-shells, able to arrange acc. to Mendelejev.

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3809. Sundqvist, B.U.R., et al., On the observation of charged particles in cold fusion. Phys. Scr., 1989. 40: p. 303.

First Author: Sundqvist, B. U. R.
All Authors: Sundqvist, B. U. R., Haakansson, P., Hedin, A., Bucur, R. V., Johansson, B., Waeppling, R.
Keywords: particle emission, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

3810. Swartz, M.R., Quasi-one-dimensional model of electrochemical loading of isotopic fuel into a metal. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 296.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, electrolysis, Pd, structure

3811. Swartz, M.R. A Method to Improve Algorithms Used to Detect Steady State Excess Enthalpy. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method, ICCF-4

3812. Swartz, M.R. Some Lessons From Optical Examination of the PFC Phase-II Calorimetric Curves. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Fleischmann, critique, heat, evaluation, ICCF-4

3813. Swartz, M.R. Generalized Isotopic Fuel Loading Equations. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory

3814. Swartz, M.R., Isotopic Fuel Loading Coupled to Reactions at an Electrode. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 74.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: diffusion, gradient, Pd, deuterium

3815. Swartz, M.R., Potential for positional variations in flow calorimetric systems. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat, method critique,

3816. Swartz, M.R., The Relationship between Input Power and Enthalpic Behavior of Nickel Cathodes During Light Water Electrolysis. 1996.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, electrolysis, heat, method

3817. Swartz, M.R., Improved calculations involving energy release using a buoyancy transport correction. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 219.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, heat, error, critique

3818. Swartz, M.R., Possible deuterium production from light water excess enthalpy experiments using nickel cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

3819. Swartz, M.R., Four Definitions of Power Ratio used to Describe Excess Enthalpy in Solid-State Loading Systems. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 54.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, review

3820. Swartz, M.R., The Relative Impact of Thermal Stratification of the Air Surrounding a Calorimeter. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 141.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3821. Swartz, M.R., Experiments Using Nickel Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 68.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni,, electrolysis,, H2O,, heat

3822. Swartz, M.R., Hydrogen Redistribution by Catastrophic Desorption in Selected Transition Metals. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 26.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: deloading,, H2

3823. Swartz, M.R., Explanation for Some Difference Between Reports of Excess Heat in Solid State Fusion Experiments. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(1): p. 60.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: proton conductor,, critique, review, heat

3824. Swartz, M.R., Noise Measurement in Cold Fusion Systems. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 56.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: sound,, accoustic, electrolysis

3825. Swartz, M.R., Consistency of the biphasic nature of excess enthalpy in solid-state anomalous phenomena with the quasi-one-dimensional model of isotope loading into a material. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 63.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Ni, heat, electrolysis, Fe, Al, H2O

3826. Swartz, M.R., Phusons in nuclear reactions in solids. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, phuson

3827. Swartz, M.R., Codeposition of palladium and deuterium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 32: p. 126.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: theory, loading, codeposition, Pd, PdD, diffision

3828. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Characteristics of Nickel Light Water Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: H2O, Ni, heat+, electrolysis, OOP, ICCF-7

3829. Swartz, M.R., The Importance of Controlling Zero-Input Electrical Power Offset. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: heat,, method

3830. Swartz, M.R., Further confirmation of optimal operating point behavior. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3831. Swartz, M.R., Optimal Operating Point Analysis of Dr. Mizuno’s, Dr. Arata’s and Other Data. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3832. Swartz, M.R., Patterns of success in research involving low energy nuclear reactions- A metanalysis. 1999.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: history

3833. Swartz, M.R., et al. Importance of nondimensional numbers in cold fusion. in Symposium on New Energy. 1999. Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H., Fox, H.
Keywords: OOP, theory

3834. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner, Bremsstrahlung in Hot and Cold Fusion. J. New Energy, 1999. 3(4): p. 90-101.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: radiation

3835. Swartz, M.R., Generality of Optimal Operating Point Behavior in Low Energy Nuclear Systems. J. New Energy, 1999. 4(2): p. 218-228.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: OOP

3836. Swartz, M.R., Summary of the seventh international conference on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 99.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: review

3837. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A.H. Frank. The impact of heavy water (D2O) on nickel-light water cold fusion systems. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Frank, A. H.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, H2O, heat, Ni

3838. Swartz, M.R. Photoinduced Excess Heat from Laser-Irradiated Electrically-Polarized Palladium Cathodes in D2O. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3839. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. Excess Heat from Low Electrical Conductivity Heavy Water Spiral-Wound Pd/D2O/Pt and Pd/D2O-PdCl2/Pt Devices. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3840. Swartz, M.R. Can a Pd/D2O/Pt Device be Made Portable to Demonstrate the Optimal Operationg Point. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: in print.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter,

3841. Swartz, M.R. Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical Regions. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Theory,

3842. Swartz, M.R. Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR Devices Monitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling Engines. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess heat

3843. Swartz, M.R. Electrical Breakeven from LANR Phusor Device Systems: Relative Limitations of Thermal Loss in Feedback Loop. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Excess power

3844. Swartz, M.R. and L. Forsley. Analysis of “Superwave-as-Transitory-OOP-Peak” Hypothesis. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Theory,

3845. Swartz, M.R. and G.M. Verner. The Phusor LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial which Creates Deuteron Flux for Excess Power Gain. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M.
Keywords: Theory

3846. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and A. Weinberg. Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR Devices. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Weinberg, A.
Keywords: radiation

3847. Swartz, M.R., Impact of an Applied Magnetic Field on a High Impedance Dual Anode LANR Device. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 93-105.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Deuterium, Deuterons, Excess heat, Excess power gain, Flux, Lattice assisted nuclear reactions, Loading, Metamaterials, Nanostructures, Optimal operating point, Palladium

This paper reports on the impact of an applied magnetic field intensity on LANR solution electrical resistance and an analysis of its role in metal deuteride loading and LANR performance. A dual anode PHUSOR®-type Pd/D2O/Au LANR device was driven at its optimal operating point, with two electrical current sources; to drive, and examine by 4-terminal electrical resistance, the loaded PdDx cathode. An applied magnetic field ∼0.3 T increases the LANR solution’s electrical resistance ∼10-17% with a time constant in minutes. The incremental resistance increase to an applied H-field is greatest at low loading current. The incremental resistance increase from an applied H-field is greatest with the applied H-field perpendicular to the driving electrical field (E-field) intensity. The modified LANR deuteron loading rate equation indicates that an applied magnetic field intensity increases deuteron loading in a LANR system by the increasing solution resistance and limiting undesired gas evolving reactions.

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3848. Swartz, M.R., LANR Nanostructures and Metamaterials Driven at their Optimal Operating Point. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 149-168.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Deuterium, Lattice-assisted nuclear reactions, Loading flux, Metamaterials, Nanostructures, OOP manifolds, Optimal operating point, Palladium

In lattice-assisted nuclear reactions (LANR, or LENR), the size and structural metamaterial shape of Pd-D nanostructures, and the deuterium flux through them all play decisive roles. The spiral Phusor®-type cathode system with open helical cylindrical geometry in a high electrical resistance solution is a LANR metamaterial design creating an unusual electric field distribution and requisite intrapalladial deuteron flow. Optimal operating point (OOP) technology allows improved and more reproducible operation. LANR power gain can be considerable. In situ imaging has revealed that the excess power gain is linked to non-thermal near-IR emission when the LANR devices are operated at their OOP.

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3849. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Demonstration of Energy Gain from a Preloaded ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Device at MIT. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

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3850. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and J. Tolleson, Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2-PdNi-D Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J.
Keywords:

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3851. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Transient Vacancy Phase States in Palladium after High Dose-rate Electron Beam Irradiation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CF materials, Electrode Irradiation, Fukai states, Superabundant vacancies, Vacancy phase metals

A high voltage electron irradiator was used to generate high vacancy content VP metal samples. High Frenkel defects (FD) content (vacancy phase) metal samples of Pd and Ni were generated by a single treatment with a high voltage electron irradiator (2.5 MV electrons, 2500 Gray/s dose rate, single portal, 1.50-3.0 megaGray midplane dose) at room temperature. These irradiationsynthesized, vacancy-phase (ISVP) metals were examined for their room-temperature annealing rate using four-terminal conductivity measurements. We show that high dose rate supervoltage irradiated palladium and nickel can achieve saturation densities of defects at the level of a few tenths percent and that level can be followed with the appearance of lattice quakes repairing the damage. The most heavily irradiated samples developed incremental electrical resistivities of “4 μ!-cm, with rapid recovery consistent with room-temperature annealing. The early labile vacancy phase state of ISVP metals has a half-life “2.5 h. Lattice quakes are observed when electrical transconduction spectroscopy is used to monitor the lattice healing and vacancy recombination. The irradiation produced an effective increase in the cross-sectional area of the palladium wires (99.98%) pure) of “2.5% at 3 megaGray delivered, consistent with the literature.

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3852. Swartz, M.R., et al., Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Fractionated magnetic fields, Magnetic field intensities, ZrO2PdD, Magnetic fields and CF/LANR

Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions (LANR) (CF) activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdNiD CF/LANR components are capable of significant energy gain over long periods of time with reproducibility and controllability. We report the response of such active components to steady and dynamic applied magnetic field intensities up to 1.5 T changing with a 0.1 ms rise time. Power gain was determined by the triple verified system of dT/Pin, HF/Pin, and calorimetry. Fractionated magnetic fields have a significant, unique amplification effect. Residual, late-appearing effects are complex. Importantly, at higher input electrical currents, high intensity fractionated magnetic fields demonstrate their own, new optimal operating point (OOP) manifold curve. This suggests that cold fusion (LANR) is the first stage, and may be mediated by other than phonons.

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3853. Swartz, M.R., et al., Imaging of an Active NANOR-type LANR Component using CR-39. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Wright, L., Goldbaum, R., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: CR-39 Imaging, Imaging CF/LANR Systems, Preloaded CF/LANR component, ZrO2PdD

This effort examined CR-39 chips exposed to a ZrO2-PdD NANOR-type CF/LANR component exhibiting significant energy. There was a fall-off in pit count with increasing distance from the operating system. Most interestingly, the CR-39 over the device essentially imaged the active CF/LANR device at very low resolution. Large tracks were the most effective for imaging. Smaller and mid-sized tracks appear to be useful for measuring fall off of the chip irradiation as a function of distance. The conclusion is that CF/LANR is a nuclear process, and for this system at this power level, the quantitative amount is measurable in a spatial, controllable, pattern.

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3854. Swartz, M.R., Incremental High Energy Emission from a ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Quantum Electronic Component CF/LANR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: High energy CF/LANR emission, Preloaded CF/LANR component, quantum electronic cold fusion component, ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR nanostructure

In situ measurement for possible incremental penetrating ionizing radiation output from an activated nanocomposite ZrO2-PdD CF/LANR component revealed a barely detectable, incremental emission when there was significant energy gain. The autonomous driver minimized background radiobiological interference. This effort demonstrates that CF/LANR is relatively safe, with penetrating ionizing emissions, at these power levels, of lower biological impact than typical background sources.

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3855. Swartz, M.R., Entrepreneurial Efforts: Cold Fusion Research at JET Energy Leads to Innovative, Dry Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Dry cold fusion component, NANOR, Preloaded cold fusion component, Preloaded energy production

Dry, preloaded NANOR-type technology makes cold fusion (LANR) reactions more accessible. These self-contained, twoterminal nanocomposite components have at their core PdD and NiD nanostructured material. Their CF/LANR/CF activation is separated from their loading, and yields up to 20 times input; characterized by reasonable reproducibility and controllability. With an excess power density of 19,500 W/kg, and zero-carbon footprint, could these ready-to-be-activated NANOR-type LANR components/systems/materials be the future of clean efficient energy production?

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3856. Swartz, M.R., et al., Dry, preloaded NANOR (R)-type CF/LANR components. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Tolleson, J., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords:

3857. Swartz, M.R., G.M. Verner, and P.L. Hagelstein, Impact of Electrical Avalanche through a ZrO2-NiD Nanostructured CF/LANR Component on its Incremental Excess Power Gain. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Verner, G. M., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Deuterated nickel, Nanomaterials, Nanostructured ZrO2, ZrO2–NiD

Cold fusion nanomaterials, in general, and NANOR R-type LANR components (derived from them), in particular, have two distinct regions of performance on each side of the electrical avalanche. This had lead to the identification of three (3) distinct regions of their electrical operation. We now report that the optimal power gain of NANOR R-type cold fusion components is found far below the breakdown voltage and that the power gain decreases continuously as the electrical avalanche threshold is approached. Beyond the region of electrical avalanche, the previously active preloaded LANR quantum electronic components then give a thermal output similar to a standard ohmic control (a carbon composition resistor). Therefore, use of this technique of driving an active CF/LANR nanomaterial component into, and beyond, their avalanche threshold, provides verification of the excess heat an additional way, which confirms that the calorimetry was calibrated. Also, this investigation indicates where, on the input power axis, to drive them for a maximum effective use. We also report that deuterium can fuel nanomaterial ZrO2-Ni systems, consistent with the previously report involving aqueous CF/LANR systems by Swartz et al. (ICCF-9).

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3858. Swartz, M.R., Optical Detection of Phonon Gain Distinguishes an Active Cold Fusion/LANR component (3). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 20.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR, Phonon gain

Successful cold fusion is heralded by a large, if not quite abnormal, increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio in coherent multi-wavelength optical reflection volume-enhanced electric-driven spectroscopy (CMORE-spectroscopy). This distinguishing phonon gain is not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. It heralds seven acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K.

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3859. Swartz, M.R., Oscillating Excess Power Gain and Magnetic Domains in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR Components. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 22: p. 35-46.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: LANR, Magnetic domains, Magnetism, NANOR, Oscillating power gain

Post-magnetization effects, both significant and time-variant, were observed in NANOR (R) -type CF/LANR components. In contrast to previously observed exponential falloffs of sample activity (peak incremental excess power gain), post-magnetization activity demonstrates oscillatory activity. This paper reports an analysis of the force density and expected theoretical frequency for oscillations, which have already been observed to exist between these magnetic domains after magnetization, calculated by using the Maxwell stress tensor.

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3860. Swartz, M.R. and P.L. Hagelstein, Increased PdD anti-Stokes Peaks are Correlated with Excess Heat Mode. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 130-145.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Avalanche mode, CMORE spectroscopy, Excess heat mode, NANOR-type LANR component, Phonon gain

Volume-enhanced Coherent Multi-wavelength Optical Reflection Electric-driven (CMORE) spectroscopy successfully differentiates active states in LANR nanomaterials. All the anti-Stokes peaks are relatively missing in the undriven mode for all of the nanostructured materials. Weak anti-Stokes peaks are elicited from Pd (and Ni and their alloy) nanostructured material in ZrO2. But when NANOR-type components are electrically driven, there is diversity in outcome. When driven in the avalanche mode, the anti-Stokes peaks differ considerably from those which appear during the excess heat (XSH)-producing or desired mode. The anti-Stokes peak(s) differ in energy, amount, and in what stimulates their appearance. However, normal anti-Stokes peaks return when the electrical drive creates “avalanche mode” characterized by higher electrical current at decreasing voltage. The avalanche anti-Stokes peaks are many, and they are lower energy than the XSH mode produced anti-Stokes peak (described main text). By contrast, successful cold fusion is heralded by a large increase in the anti-Stokes to Stokes (aS/S) ratio, and the generated anti-Stokes peak for the desired and XSH-producing state is very different from the avalanche-generated multiple anti-Stokes peaks. That XSHrelated peak is singular and at higher energy. This distinguishing, higher energy, single, anti-Stokes peak is also not seen in the “off” state or the avalanche (undesirable) mode. Our analysis finds that the excess-heat produced anti-Stokes peak is matched to the Stokes line of PdD. We also find that the several lower energy anti-Stokes in avalanche mode (unsuccessful regarding CF/LANR) are matched to the many Stokes peaks for zirconia. In the desired electric-driven XSH-producing mode, the two-terminal deuterided NANORr-type CF/LANR component has a measured Boltzmann Stokes ratio ~1.3. Analysis of the phonon gain heralds ~7^+/- 0 15 acoustic phonons assisting nuclear reactions and a core peak calculated Stokes temperature of circa 1645 K. Therefore, these findings confirm a role for PdD acoustic phonons in successful CF/LANR.

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3861. Swartz, M.R., Quasiparticles, Collective Excitations and Higher-order Collective Quasi-excitations in Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 26-55.

First Author: Swartz, M. R.
All Authors: Swartz, M. R.
Keywords: Coherent excitations, Collective excitations, LANR, Phonons, Quasiparticle

Quasiparticles and collective excitations are similar in that they arise de novo from material interactions. They are in need of classification and important because some of them are highly relevant to successful lattice assisted nuclear reactions (LANR). This report reviews this classification along with discussion of their impact on our ability to enable LANR.

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3862. Switendick, A.C., Electronic structure and stability of palladium hydrogen (deuterium) systems, PdH(D)n, 1*n*3. J. Less-Common Met., 1991. 172-174: p. 1363.

First Author: Switendick, A. C.
All Authors: Switendick, A. C.
Keywords: theory, structure, PdD2, PdD3

3863. Szalewicz, K., J.D. Morgan, and H.J. Monkhurst, Fusion rates for hydrogen isotopic molecules of relevance for ‘cold fusion’. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1989. 40(5): p. 2824.

First Author: Szalewicz, K.
All Authors: Szalewicz, K., Morgan, J. D., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, energy

3864. Szeflinski, Z., et al., Upper limit of neutron emission from the chemical reaction of LiD with heavy water. Phys. Lett. A, 1992. 168: p. 83.

First Author: Szeflinski, Z.
All Authors: Szeflinski, Z., Kozlowski, M., Osuch, S., Sawicki, P., Szeflinska, G., Wilhelmi, Z., Starowieyski, K. B., Tkacz, M.
Keywords: LiD, chemical, neutron

3865. Szklarczyk, M., R.C. Kainthla, and J. Bockris, On the Dielectric Breakdown of Water: An Electrochemical Approach. J. Electrochem. Soc., 1989. 136: p. 2512.

First Author: Szklarczyk, M.
All Authors: Szklarczyk, M., Kainthla, R. C., Bockris, J.
Keywords: H2O, breakdown

3866. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, tritium, co-deposition, ICCF-2, electrolysis

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only ca 1/10 of all attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reactions. Here, we show that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing electrodes prepared by electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production.

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3867. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuterium. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 302: p. 255.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACTRecently, Fleischmann et al. [1] reported that nuclear events can occur when deuterium is electrochemically compressed within the Pd-lattice. These events were reported to produce excess enthalpy, tritium, and neutrons. The exact nature of these events and the conditions leading to their initiation are poorly understood. In fact, the existence of such events is questioned by many [2]. The present position among those investigating this problem [3] is as follows: enthalpy production is a non-steady state process whose rate depends on the nature of the electrode material; however, the observed steady state production arises from an averaging of small perturbations. Nuclear events are believed to occur on the electrode surface as well as within the electrode interior.

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3868. Szpak, S., et al., Electrochemical charging of Pd rods. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 309: p. 273.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gabriel, C. J., Smith, J. J., Nowak, R. J.
Keywords: Pd, loading, electrolysis, OCV, diffusion

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Abstract: A model describing the electrochemical charging of Pd rods is presented. The essential feature of this model is the coupling of the interfacial processes with the transport of interstitials in the electrode interior. It is shown that boundary conditions arise from the solution of equations governing the elementary adsorption-desorption and adsorption-absorption steps and the symmetry of the electrode. Effects of the choice of rate constants of the elementary steps and the charging current on the surface coverage, the electrode potential and the time required to complete electrode charging are examined.

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3869. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determination. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, detection, method, ICCF-3

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.Three methods of tritium data analysis are considered-comparison between experimental and theoretical data, total mass balance and curve-fitting.

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3870. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber, Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphase. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 337: p. 147.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Scharber, S. R.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, surface, OCV, loading

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The dynamics of transport of electrochemically generated deuterium across the electrode/electrolyte interphase was examined by slow scan (10 mV s-1) voltammetry. The investigation covers the potential range -1.2 to +0.4 V measured vs. an Ag/AgCl reference. It was found that a coupled, twolayer model of the interphase describes the observed behavior as a function of scan rate and electrolyte composition. The effect of chemisorbing species, e.g. CN- ions, as well as reactive species, e.g. SC(NH_)2, on the transport across the interphase is also discussed. Results are contrasted with those obtained for light water.

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3871. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel, Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experiment. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 365: p. 275.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gabriel, C. J.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, loading

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The electrochemical charging of Pd rods by deuterium involves a complex coupling of electrochemical, interfacial and transport processes. In order to predict the overpotential, surface coverage and bulk loading of the electrode during charging, a model has been developed that incorporates the essential features of these processes and involves variables such as the electrochemical rate constants, the bulk diffusion coefficient and the charging current. Features of the computed time dependence of the bulk loading are then compared with published experimental charging curves. New microscopic observations and X-ray diffraction data provide further evidence for the details of the charging process.

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3872. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and R.D. Boss, Comments on the analysis of tritium content in electrochemical cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 373: p. 1.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Boss, R. D.
Keywords: tritium, theory, method, electrolysis

INTRODUCTIONFollowing the report by Fleischmann and Pons [1] in 1989 that nuclear events, including the production of tritium, can be initiated in electrochemical cells during the electrolysis of heavy water on Pd cathodes, tritium production has been claimed in a number of publications, a list of which was compiled by Storms [2] and more recently reviewed by Chien et al. [3]. However, substantial difficulties have been encountered in reproducing reported data and considerable controversy remains concerning the occurrence of such events, including tritium production.

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3873. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, Deuterium uptake during Pd-D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 379: p. 121.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, codeposition, loading, electrolysis, D2O

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACTThe mode of deuterium uptake during Pd-D co-deposition has been explored using galvanostatic perturbation techniques. The resultant potential relaxation curves exhibit four distinct potential-time intervals where the relaxation process is controlled by the interaction between the transport of deuterium from the lattice to the surface to form adsorbed deuterium and the reduction of palladium from solution. These interactions are discussed in terms of the palladium + electrolyte interphase.

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3874. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: heat He Pd, D2O, electrolysis

This report includes an introduction and a number of reprinted papers. The papers are also available as individual files in this library.INTRODUCTIONThese introductory remarks illustrate the controversial climate that existed when the NRaD program investigated the anomalous effects the Pd/D system exhibited. These effects included, among others, excess enthalpy production at rates exceeding those usually associated with chemical reactions. The controversy concerns the origin of the observed excess enthalpy which, according to Fleischmann and Pons, is due to room temperature nuclear events involving deuterons present within the Pd lattice, hence, the term cold fusion. To avoid unnecessary arguments, this report refers to the phenomenon as the Fleishmann-Pons (FP) effect.

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3875. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Calorimetry of Open Electrolysis Cells. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT&E Division.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: calorimetry heat

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT A special case of calorimetry of open electrochemical cells, that employing adiabatic enclosures, is examined. Conditions for an experimental realization of such enclosures is discussed in detail. Practical arrangement and method for data collection are presented.

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3876. Szpak, S., et al., Cyclic voltammetry of Pd + D codeposition. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 380: p. 1.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Scharber, S. R., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, electrolysis, overvoltage

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Processes associated with the Pd + D alloy codeposition are examined by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammograms cover the potential range: +0.3 to -1.3 V (measured against an Ag/AgCl/KCl (sat) reference) and indicate that the partial current due to the Pd2+ ion reduction is diffusion limited at slow scan rates. Except for the significant increase in cathodic currents due to D2O reduction at ca. -0.25 V which occurs on a freshly generated Pd surface, the shapes of the voltammograms marginally differ from those recorded in the absence of Pd2+ ions in the electrolyte phase. A discussion of the dynamics of the interphase is presented.

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3877. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D Codeposition. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 54.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: heat, tritium, x-ray

In the Pd+D codeposition process, palladium is electrodeposited in the presence of evolving deuterium. This process favors the initiation and propagation of nuclear and thermal events through a rapid absorption of deuterium to yield high D/Pd atomic ratios. This process results in the formation of non-equilibrium electrode structures that become the seat for localized gradients. Evidence for tritium production, X-ray emanation and generation of localized heat sources, with emphasis on experimental methodology, is provided. The active role of the electrode/electrolyte interphase in the development of these events is examined.

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3878. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiation. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 210: p. 382.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, gamma emission, electrolysis

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Evidence for the emission of low intensity X-rays during cathodic polarization of the Pd/D system(s) is presented. The Pd/D system was prepared by charging with electrochemically generated deuterium either palladium foil or palladium electrodeposited from D2 0 electrolytes. Experimental and analytical procedures are described in detail.

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3879. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: a response to Vigier’s comments. Phys. Lett. A, 1996. 221: p. 141.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: critique, Vigier, codeposition, Pd, loading, electrolysis, D2O, theory

Electrodes prepared by Pd/D codeposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces which achieve high degrees of D/Pd loading within seconds. In this communication, morphology of the Pd electrode, the structure of the interphase, and selected thermal effects are discussed.

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3880. Szpak, S., et al., On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium production. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 38.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Boss, R. D., Smith, J. J.
Keywords: tritium, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

This paper is available as a single file (here), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.ABSTRACT Evidence for tritium production in the Pd/D system under cathodic polarization is presented. A comparison of the observed distribution and that calculated, based upon the conservation of mass, leads to the conclusion that tritium is produced sporadically at an estimated rate of ca 103—104 atoms per second. The results of several runs are interpreted by employing the concept of an electrode/electrolyte interphase and the accepted kinetics of hydrogen evolution. Observation of burst-like events followed by longer periods of inactivity yield poor reproducibility when distributions are averaged over the total time of electrolysis.

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3881. Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, On the release of n/1H from cathodically polarized palladium electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1998. 34: p. 273.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Theory, tritium

Release paths for tritium produced during electrochemical compression of deuterium in a Pd lattice are examined. Arguments in support of the reversal of diffusion caused by gas evolution on the electrode surface are presented.

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3882. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. Miles, Calorimetry of the Pd+D codeposition. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 234.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Miles, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

Thermal activities associated with electrochemical compression of deuterium produced on electrodes prepared by Pd D codeposition are discussed. Three cases are considered: activities during and shortly after commencement of current flow, those observed during runs of several days duration, and surface temperature distribution recorded by infrared scanning. Experimental results show excellent reproducibility, high-power outputs, and the development of thermal instabilities resulting in the formation of local hot spots.

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3883. Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions”. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Heat, IR detector, heat after death, hot spots

Two types of activities occurring within the polarized D+/Pd-D2O system, viz. the presence of localized heat sources (hot spots) and associated with them mini- explosions, are described. The “birth and death” of hot spots is monitored by IR imaging while the mini-explosions are displayed by the voltage spikes exhibited by a piezoelectric substrate onto which a Pd/D film was co-deposited. Processes leading to the formation of unstable domains as a precursor to the observed behavior is examined.

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3884. Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and “Mini-Explosions” (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Heat, IR detector, heat after death, hot spots

we have pioneered the use of co-deposition as the means to prepare the electrode to investigate the F-P effect and have conducted several hundred experiments using this basic technique over the past 13+ years.We co-deposited onto a Ni mesh that was physically placed close to a mylar film, covering a hole in the cell wall.  An IR camera was positioned to focus on the electrode and recordings were made during and after the co-deposition process to monitor the temperature of the electrode and the surrounding solution.

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3885. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

The effect of an external electric field on the physical appearance of the Pd/D electrode in an operating cell is discussed. It is shown that the individual globules of the “cauliflower-like structure undergo a shape change exhibiting two distinct features, viz those that require energy expenditure that can be extracted from the applied external field (eg re-orientation, separation of individual globules, dendrite formation) and those that require energy expenditure far in excess of one that can be supplied by the electric field alone (eg exhibiting features usually associated with the solidification of a molten metal under liquid or the presence of localized catastrophic events leading to the formation of craters). It is shown, by energydispersive X-ray method, that the needed energy is provided by nuclear events occurring in the region close to the electrode surface. The nuclear events are of the type: precursor –> unstable nucleus –> stable nucleus.

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3886. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field (PowerPoint slides). in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

PowerPoint presentation for the paper of the same title.

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3887. Szpak, S., et al., Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-deposition. Thermochim. Acta, 2004. 410: p. 101.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, heat+, co-deposition, D2O hot spots

Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrode, prepared by the co-deposition technique, serving as a cathode in the Dewar-type electrochemical cell/calorimeter is examined. It is shown that: (i) excess enthalpy is generated during and after the completion of the co-deposition process; (ii) rates of excess enthalpy generation are somewhat higher than when Pd wires or other forms of Pd electrodes are used; (iii) positive feedback and heat-after-death effects were observed; and (iv) rates of excess power generation were found to increase with an increase in both cell current and cell temperature, the latter being higher.

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3888. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: review

Recent experiments at the U.S. Navy San Diego SPAWAR Systems Center have demonstrated nuclear effects with palladium co-deposition cathodes subjected to magnetic or high voltage fields. CR-39 is used to detect high energy particles. It is placed in close proximity to the cathode because the particles do not travel far. These experiments appear to be highly reproducible.

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3889. Szpak, S., et al., Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice. Naturwiss., 2005. 92(8): p. 394-397.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Young, C., Gordon, F.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

An operating Pd//D2O, Li+, Cl-//Pt cell, placed in an external electrostatic field, yielded unexpected results, viz. (i) Morphological changes in the form of discrete sites exhibiting molten-like features, i.e. features that require substantial energy expenditure. (ii) Presence of elements (Al, Mg, Ca, Si, Zn, . . .) that could not be extracted from cell components and deposited on discrete sites. The cell design and the experimental protocol assuring reproducibility is described in detail.

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3890. Szpak, S., et al., The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D films. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2005. 580: p. 284-290.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Young, C., Gordon, F.
Keywords: co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

The polarized PdD electrode undergoes significant morphological changes when exposed to an external electric field. These changes range from minor, e.g. re-orientation and/or separation of weakly connected globules, through forms that result from a combined action of the field as well as that connected with the evolution of gaseous deuterium, to shapes that require substantial energy expenditure.

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3891. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice. in NDIA 2006. 2006. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: neutron, co-deposition, voltage, magnetic field,

3892. Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon, Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particles. Naturwiss., 2007. DOI 10.1007.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Almost two decades ago, Fleischmann and Pons reported excess enthalpy generation in the negatively polarized Pd/D-D2O system, which they attributed to nuclear reactions. In the months and years that followed, other manifestations of nuclear activities in this system were observed, viz. tritium and helium production and transmutation of elements. In this report, we present additional evidence, namely, the emission of highly energetic charged particles emitted from the Pd/D electrode when this system is placed in either an external electrostatic or magnetostatic field. The density of tracks registered by a CR-39 detector was found to be of a magnitude that provides undisputable evidence of their nuclear origin. The experiments were reproducible. A model based upon electron capture is proposed to explain the reaction products observed in the Pd/D-D2O system.

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3893. Szpak, S., et al. SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publications. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Khim, J., Forsley, L.
Keywords: review

Scientists at the US Navy SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific (SSC-Pacific), and its predecessors, have had extraordinary success in publishing LENR papers in peer-reviewed journals. This success hasn’t come easily and is due to several factors. One key reason for this success was the courage of the SSC-Pacific upper management in allowing scientists to conduct research and publish results in a controversial field. The few journal editors, who had the fortitude to consider our work, also contributed to this success. This contrasts with the majority of their peers who, taking the path of least resistance, ignored our work out of hand and returned manuscripts with, ‘the subject matter is not in the purview of the journal’. The reviewers also played a role in the successful publication of LENR-related papers. A multitude of reviewers, many outside the LENR field, had to put aside their biases and look objectively at our data.  In turn, the reviewers’ relentless concerns forced us to tenaciously address their issues. Ultimately, the SSC-Pacific team published 21 refereed papers in seven journals and a book chapter, spanning 19 years beginning in 1989. This paper is a brief synopsis of those publications.

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3894. Szpak, S., et al. LENR Research Using Co-Deposition. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Dea, J., Miles, M., Khim, J., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, heat+, film

The Pd/D co-deposition process was developed by Stan Szpak at the Naval Laboratory in San Diego as an alternative means of initiating LENR. Besides heat, other nuclear products that have been measured using Pd/D co-deposition include tritium and the emission of γ- and X-rays, neutrons, and energetic particles. This communication summarizes 19 years of LENR research that has focused on the Pd/D co-deposition process.

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3895. Szpak, S. and J. Dea, Evidence for the Induction of Nuclear Activity in Polarized Pd/H-H2O System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 9: p. 21-29.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Dea, J.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Coupled reaction, Magnetic field, Pd/H-H2O system

In cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process, the polarized Pd/D-D2O system becomes nuclear active when the concentration of deuterium, expressed as D/Pd atomic ratio, is equal to or greater than one. In contrast, to activate the polarized Pd/H-H2O system, action of an external magnetic field, modulation of cell current or both, are required. Evidence for the nuclear active state in the Pd/H-H2O system namely deuterium production, particle emission and catastrophic thermal event, is presented.

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3896. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, The Fleischmann-Pons Effect: Reactions and Processes. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12: p. 143-157.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Hot spots, Modeling, Particle emission, Transmutation

A selected group of experimental evidence indicates that the Pd/D-D2O system can be put in its nuclear active state. This is done by negatively polarizing the system which (i) starts the process of self-organization, i.e. development of coherent processes involving protons/deuterons and lattice defects to produce the pre-nuclear active state and (ii) creates conditions for the electron capture by proton/deuteron reaction to occur. The low energy neutrons transform the pre-nuclear active state into an active state, i.e. display of features such as hot spots, transmutation and particle emission which, in turn, yields information on participating reactions and processes.

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3897. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, Forcing the Pd/^1 H – ^1H2O System into a Nuclear Active State. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Nuclear Active State, Electron capture

In cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process, the polarized Pd/D – D2O system becomes nuclear active when the concentration of deuterium, expressed as D/Pd atomic ratio, is equal to or greater than one. In contrast, to activate the polarized Pd/H-H2O system, action of an external magnetic field, modulation of cell current or both, are required. Evidence for the nuclear active state in the Pd/H – H2O system, namely deuterium production, particle emission and catastrophic thermal event, is presented. Extension of nuclear active state to the Pd/^1 H – ^1H2O system under the application of an external magnetic field and modulated cell current profile is discussed.

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3898. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, On the Mechanism of Tritium Production in Electrochemical Cells. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Polarized Pd/D–D2O system, Tritium production

An electron capture reaction e−+d+ ” 2n followed by deuteron to triton transmutation, the n+d+ ” t+ reaction, is judged to be the prime reaction in polarized Pd/D-D2O system . Supporting evidence for the proposed mechanism is interpreted and discussed in terms arising from the content and meaning of chemical and nuclear reactions occurring in condensed matter.

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3899. Szpak, S., The Pd + D Co-Deposition: Process, Product, Performance. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S.
Keywords: Co-deposition

The preparation of electrodes by a co-deposition is discussed in detail. The electrode reactions are identified, the structural features of the deposit are described and the relevant experimental evidence is assembled.

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3900. Szpak, S. and F. Gordon, Cathode to Electrolyte Transfer of Energy Generated in the Fleischmann-Pons Experiment. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords:

In our recent paper [1] we asked: why an exothermic system with the positive feedback, such as the Fleischmann-Pons experiment, does not suffer thermal run-a-way. In seeking an answer we selected two items (i) formation of hot spots and (ii) system’s response following a fast nuclear event, that seem to point to a simple model of cathode to electrolyte energy transfer.

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3901. Szpak, S., On the Path Leading To The Fleischmann-Pons Effect. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 17.

First Author: Szpak, S.
All Authors: Szpak, S.
Keywords: Plasma, Self-organization, Transmutation

Processes leading to the excess enthalpy production, the Fleischmann-Pons effect, are identified. The thermodynamic treatment [1] is extended to include self-organization. Discussion is limited to cells employing cathodes prepared by the co-deposition process.

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3902. Szumski, D., Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model Using Reversible Thermodynamics. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Szumski, D.
All Authors: Szumski, D.
Keywords: LANP model, Least action, Reversible process, Theory

This research develops the Least Action Nuclear Process (LANP) model of cold fusion, by assuming that the process is thermodynamically reversible. This requires: 1) one element of new physical theory, a far-from-equilibrium blackbody equation having a second temperature scale, and 2) a nuclear reaction selection method based in the Principle of Least Action. The model appears to predict nuclear transmutations observed in Miley’s nickel microspheres, without false positives, and provides a plausible explanation of loading and ignition processes, excess heat, no excess heat, and the absence of gamma radiation. The model shows how solar core temperatures can exist in a laboratory temperature device. The presentation is abstracted from a larger technical paper.

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Bibliography M-O

Subpage of Bibliography

2435. Ma, Y.L., H.X. Yang, and X.X. Dai, A theoretical study of the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter. Nucl. Fusion Plasma Phys., 1992. 12: p. 171 (in Chinese).

First Author: Ma, Y. L.
All Authors: Ma, Y. L., Yang, H. X., Dai, X. X.
Keywords: theory, screening

2436. Ma, Q., et al. The Analysis of the Neutron Emission from the Glow Discharge in Deuterium Gas Tube. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ma, Q.
All Authors: Ma, Q., Chen, Y., Huang, G., Yu, W., Mo, D. W., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: neutron, Gas Discharge, Pd, critique, ICCF-4

2437. Ma, Q., et al. The Analysis of the Neutron Emission from the Glow Discharge in Deuterium Gas Tube. in ICCF4, Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Ma, Q.
All Authors: Ma, Q., Chen, Y., Huang, G., Yu, W., Mo, D., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: neutron, Gas Discharge, Pd, critique

2438. Ma, Y.L., H.X. Yang, and X.X. Dai, Nuclear-fusion enhancement in condensed matter with impacting and screening. Europhys. Lett., 1993. 24: p. 305.

First Author: Ma, Y. L.
All Authors: Ma, Y. L., Yang, H. X., Dai, X. X.
Keywords: theory

2439. Macy, M., ICCCF15 in Rome, Italy. Infinite Energy, 2009(88): p. 11.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: review

The Fifteenth International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF15) took place in Italy on October 5-9, 2009 at Angelicum University. Angelicum resides in the heart of Rome just behind Trajan’s Markets, at the opposite end to the Colosseum and between the Roman Forums — the central area around which the ancient Roman civilization developed — and the Quirinale Palace, the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic.

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2440. Macy, M., Specifics of Andrea Rossi’s “Energy Catalyzer” Test, University of Bologna, January 14, 2011. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: heat

On January 14, 2011, Andrea Rossi submitted his “Energy Catalyzer” reactor, which burns hydrogen in a nickel catalyst, for examination by scientists at the University of  Bologna and The INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics). The test was organized by Dr. Giuseppe Levi of INFN and the University of Bologna and was assisted by other members of the physics and chemistry faculties. This result was achieved without the production of any measurable nuclear radiation. The magnitude of this result suggests that there is a viable energy technology that uses commonly available materials, that does not produce carbon dioxide, and that does not produce radioactive waste and will be economical to build.

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2441. Macy, M., Defkalion Press Conference in Athens Introduces Rossi Energy Catalyzer. Infinite Energy, 2011.

First Author: Macy, M.
All Authors: Macy, M.
Keywords: History

Defkalion Green Technologies held a press conference and went online with a new website (xxxx://www.defkalion-energy.com) to formally introduce themselves as the Greek, Balkan and worldwide representatives of Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat), which they plan to market as Hyperion. Ampenergo is the North and South American representative.

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2442. Maddox, J., End of Cold Fusion in Sight. Nature (London), 1989. 340: p. 15.

First Author: Maddox, J.
All Authors: Maddox, J.
Keywords: history

2443. Maddox, J., Farewell (not fond) to cold fusion. Nature (London), 1990. 344(6265): p. 365.

First Author: Maddox, J.
All Authors: Maddox, J.
Keywords: review

This paper is available from:xxxx://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v344/n6265/pdf/344365a0.pdfA copy is also available here:xxxx://newenergytimes.com/v2/inthenews/1990/Nature-Farewell.shtmlThese links along with some selected quotes from the paper are included in the version here.

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2444. Maeland, A.J. and T.R.P. Gibb, X-Ray Diffraction Observations of The Pd-H system Through the Critical Region. J. Phys. Chem., 1961. 65: p. 1270.

First Author: Maeland, A. J.
All Authors: Maeland, A. J., Gibb, T. R. P.
Keywords: Pd, H, Lattice Parameter, Phase Diagram

2445. Magnouche, A. and R. Fromageau, Hydrogen Dissolution in Palladium: A Resistometric Study Under Pressure. J. Appl. Phys., 1984. 56: p. 1617.

First Author: Magnouche, A.
All Authors: Magnouche, A., Fromageau, R.
Keywords: Pd, H, solubility, Phase Diagram, resistivity

2446. Maizza, G., et al., Study on deuterium absorption of Pd at high-pressure D2 gas and low temperatures. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1992. 14D: p. 27.

First Author: Maizza, G.
All Authors: Maizza, G., Nakamura, K., Fujitsuka, M., Kitajima, M.
Keywords: loading, pressure, Ti, Pd, resistivity, diffusion

2447. Malakoff, D., DOE to Review Nuclear Grant. Science, 1999. 285: p. 505.

First Author: Malakoff, D.
All Authors: Malakoff, D.
Keywords: history,

2448. Malhotra, S.K., M.S. Krishnan, and H.K. Sadhukhan, Material Balance of Tritium in Electrolysis of Heavy Water. 1989.

First Author: Malhotra, S. K.
All Authors: Malhotra, S. K., Krishnan, M. S., Sadhukhan, H. K.
Keywords: D2O, separation, tritium,

2449. Mallove, E., MIT Urgent Media Advisory. 1989.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

2450. Mallove, E., Fire From Ice. 1991, NY: John Wiley.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history, book

Here is the Preface and Prologue to the book Fire From Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor by Eugene F. Mallove, a reprint of 1991 Edition, 338 pp., Paperback. It is available from Infinite Energy Press, P.O. box 2816, Concord, NH 03302-2816, www.infinite-energy.com

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2451. Mallove, E., Classic Nasty, Incompetent, and Stupid Statements About Cold Fusion. 1991.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: History

Compiled from the Bad Mouthings of the Ignorant, Misinformed, and Arrogant Circa 1989 – 1991A Public Service by Dr. Eugene F. Mallove(Compiled from Fire from Ice and other sources.)

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2452. Mallove, E., Cold Fusion: Still a Hot Topic? Phys. Today, 1994. March: p. 93.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Letter to Physics Today, with a response by Williams. Letter begins:David Williams’s review of John R. Huizenga’s unrepentantly negative book Cold Fusion: The Scientific Fiasco of the Century (January 1993, page 73) contains disturbing and false assertions. Williams says, “now investigations on so-called cold fusion are confined to only a few laboratories,” a claim that is entirely without foundation . . .

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2453. Mallove, E., Excess heat in cavitation devices: World-wide testing reports. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(3): p. 16.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: heat-, cavitation, untrasonic replication, Potapov

2454. Mallove, E., Alchemy Nightmare: Skeptic Finds Heavy Element Transmutation Cold Fusion Experiment! Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(2): p. 30.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: transmutation

At ICCF5 in April, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) cold fusion program direc­tor Dr. Tom Passell gave an overview of the cold fusion field. The biggest news from his talk, however, was the first public revelation of the results of the EPRI-funded work of physi­cist Dr. Kevin Wolf at Texas A&M University. This research occurred back in 1992, but oth­ers-including Dr. Wolf-have since tried to keep these results from surfacing. Why?

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2455. Mallove, E., Carl Sagan and Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1997. 13,14(3).

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Astronomer and science popularizer Dr. Carl Sagan, who lost his battle against a virulent disease this year, could have been a major force for truth about cold fusion research. Unfortunately, despite my sending him scientific articles on cold fusion since 1991, plus Infinite Energy Magazine since its inception, Carl chose to remain undecided.

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2456. Mallove, E., Reproducible Catalytic Fusion Process Announced by Dr. Les Case. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(19).

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: gas loading, heat+, catalytic, Case, replication

Dr. Leslie C. Case, an experienced chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT, surprised all of us at ICCF-7 by revealing his process of gasphase “catalytic fusion,” which he has developed over the past six years or so. He was inspired by the 1992 work at NTT labs by E. Yamaguchi –helium production and excess heat evolution from Pd in gas-phase cold fusion. (Ironically, Yamaguchi at ICCF-7 was less sanguine about the implications of his own work that can reproducibly generates excess heat from deuterium gas loading of thin-film palladium foil “sandwiches.” Yamaguchi is no longer of the opinion that his excess energy is a nuclear effect, but this conclusion may not be correct.)

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2457. Mallove, E., Progress in catalytic fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 9.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: Case, heat history

To the delight of many at the Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-7) in Vancouver, BC last April, a new approach to cold fusion emerged. Dr. Les Case, an experienced chemical engineer with four degrees from MIT, announced what he is calling “catalytic fusion” — to distinguish it somewhat from the original electrochemical approach. He had concluded that the electrochemical method of Fleischmann and Pons was going to continue to be limited by materials issues — palladium cracking, composition, etc. — and the inherent difficulties of working with electrochemical systems. Furthermore, he wanted to achieve the higher temperatures that are allowed by gas-phase systems.

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2458. Mallove, E., MIT Special Report. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(24): p. 64.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

MIT has played an extraordinary role in the history of cold fusion. By acts of commission and omission it continues to do so. On the occasion of the tenth anniversary of the startling announcement by Drs. Fleischmann and Pons on March 23, 1989, it is imperative that Infinite Energy explore the major role of MIT in shaping the history of the investigation of cold fusion.

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2459. Mallove, E., CSICOP: “Science Cops” at War with Cold Fusion. Infinite Energy, 1999. 4(23): p. 54.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

The collective wisdom of the so-called Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP) is that cold fusion –and any other claim about an anomalous energy source not taught in the sacred halls of academe’is scientific heresy worthy of mockery and rebuke. That is the message, by commission and omission, that is conveyed in CSICOP’s ritualistic debunking of cold fusion and related low-energy transmutation discoveries.

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2460. Mallove, E. and J. Rothwell, The pseudoscientists of APS. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(25): p. 23.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: history

Not all attendees at the American Physical Society’s Centennial Meeting, held March 20-26 in Atlanta, Georgia, were scientists in the true sense of that word. Many of them were pseudoscientists, as their behavior proved. Some 1,000 physicists, including, we are informed, President Clinton’s Science advisor, were present as three pseudoscientists took turns mocking cold fusion at a session dubbed, “Science, Junk Science, and Pseudoscience,” Monday afternoon, March 22.

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2461. Mallove, E., The strange birth of the water fuel age: The cold fusion “miracle” was no mistake. Infinite Energy, 2000.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

2462. Mallove, E., The triumph of alchemy: Professor John Bockris and the transmutation crisis at Texas A&M. Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(32): p. 9.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at Texas A&M University, John O’M. Bockris, is one of the top two or three electrochemists of the twentieth century. He must be counted as a lineal intellectual descendant of one of the greatest scientists of all time, Michael Faraday, who was of humble birth but became a towering figure of nineteenth century science. Like Bockris, Faraday was raised in England and came to love many facets of science. In addition to his fundamental discoveries in electromagnetism, Faraday had much to do with the birth of electrochemistry. . . .

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2463. Mallove, E., Book Review: Biological Transmutations (Kervran). Infinite Energy, 2000. 6(34): p. 56.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review

Reading this translation and compilation of a number of Prof. Louis Kervran’s pre-1970 works is very disturbing, producing the disorientation that accompanies a possible deep paradigm shift in science. Kervran (1901-1983), a medical scientist and engineer with a high official position in the French research and occupational health community, had a life-long interest in the possibility of biological transmutations. His curiosity apparently began in his youth when he watched the hens pecking at specks of mica in the farmyard. His later professional observations concerned (in one small part) the anomalous reappearance of robust calcium-bearing eggshells in calcium-deprived chickens that had been administered dietary mica (a potassium-rich mineral). Over a century earlier (in 1799), French chemist Louis Nicolas Vauquelin had noted this. The Kervran bio-transmutation story and its background is summarized eloquently in “Alchemists in the Garden,” a chapter of the best-selling book The Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkins and the late Christopher Bird.

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2464. Mallove, E., Ethics in the Cold Fusion Controversy. Infinite Energy, 2001. 6(35): p. 4.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

Long time Infinite Energy readers are aware that we have repeatedly and vigorously discussed ethical issues that attend the multifaceted cold fusion controversy, a battle within the scientific community that has been roiling and boiling since March 1989. Thus, we were happy to receive a copy of the academic journal Accountability in Research (Vol. 8, Nos. 1-2, 2000), in which eight essays assess, in the words of Editor-in-Chief Dr. Adil E. Shamoo, “The Ethical Import of the Cold Fusion Controversy.” This material makes up 90% of this journal issue and is a worthwhile 162-page collection of comment and history. Unfortunately, the journal is not widely available except in specialized libraries.NOTE: All of the Accountability in Research papers were later added to the LENR-CANR.org library.

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2465. Mallove, E. LENR and “Cold Fusion” Excess Heat: Their Relation to Other Anomalous Microphysical Energy Experiments and Emerging New Energy Technologies. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: Theory

This paper is at:xxxx://www.infinite-energy.com/resources/iccf10.htmlIt begins:During the past 15 years, indisputable experimental evidence has built up for substantial excess heat (far beyond ordinary chemical energy) and low-energy nuclear reaction phenomena in specialized heavy hydrogen and ordinary hydrogen-containing systems.1 The primary theorists in the field that is properly designated Cold Fusion/LENR have generally assumed that the excess heat phenomena is commensurate with nuclear ash (such as helium), whether already identified or presumed to be present but not yet found. That was an excellent initial hypothesis. However, the commensurate nuclear ash hypothesis has not been proved, and appears to be approximately correct in only a few experiments. During this same period, compelling evidence- although not as broadly verified as data from cold fusion/LENR- has also emerged for other microphysical sources of energy that were previously unexpected by accepted physics. . . .

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2466. Mallove, E., New Energy and Early Aeronautics: The Perils and Rewards of Visionaries. Infinite Energy, 2004. 9(54): p. 51.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: review, history

Last December the world celebrated the 100th anniversary of the Wright brothers’ triumph: the first controlled flight of a heavier-than-air craft on December 17, 1903. In honor of that now well-recognized historic event, we are reprinting a reflection by Wilbur Wright himself, which appeared in the Aero Club of America Bulletin in April 1912. The great aviation pioneer was celebrating the work of the now (2004) and then (1912) little-known Louis Pierre Mouillard, whose 1881 book, Empire of the Air, apparently played a seminal role in the history that led to the Wrights’ accomplishment. It is a fascinating story that offers lessons for the struggling New Energy community. Sad to say, the very next month, on May 30, 1912, Wilbur Wright died of typhoid fever. His brother, Orville, who had piloted the first flight, lived on to 1948.

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2467. Mallove, E., Intimations of Disaster: Glenn Seaborg, the Scientific Process, and the Origin of the “Cold Fusion War”. Infinite Energy, 2004. 10(55): p. 40.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Almost seven years ago in an issue of Infinite Energy (#15/16, July-November 1997), we discussed some of the material that follows. But in 2004, with the U.S. Department of Energy’s impending review of the past fifteen years of evidence for low-energy nuclear reactions (a.k.a. “cold fusion”), it is an appropriate time to review — in a fresh light — a most critical turning point in the saga of cold fusion. In an episode which occurred in the spring of 1989, we find the seeds of the disastrous DOE response to cold fusion. Upon further investigation, I later found that the false premises that gave rise to the “Cold Fusion War” were evident as far back as 1964.

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2468. Mallove, E., Historic Perspective on ICCF1: Dr. Mallove’s Commentary on the Conference. Infinite Energy, 2008. 14(80): p. 18.

First Author: Mallove, E.
All Authors: Mallove, E.
Keywords: history

Infinite Energy founding editor, the late Dr. Eugene Mallove, attended the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF1), unofficially representing the MIT News Office and also in part conducting research for his “on again/off again” book contract from John Wiley & Sons (the publisher cancelled, then reinstated the contract for Fire from Ice: Searching for the Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor, which was ultimately released in May 1991).The conference ended on March 30; on April 1, Gene recorded notes to himself about the event. We present here excerpted portions of the transcript, which are testament to Gene’s commitment to and excitement for the cold fusion field from the very start.

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2469. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 307.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory, Schroedinger equation

2470. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Response to ‘Comments on ‘Electron transitions on deep Dirac levels I”. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 112.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: critique, Rice

2471. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Electron Transitions on Deep Dirac Levels II. Fusion Technol., 1995. 27: p. 59.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory

2472. Maly, J.A. and J. Vavra, Reply to ‘Letter to the Editor’ Fusion Technol. 27, 348 [1995]”. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 386.

First Author: Maly, J. A.
All Authors: Maly, J. A., Vavra, J.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rice

2473. Mamyrin, B.A., L.V. Khabarin, and V.S. Yudenich, Anomalously High Isotope Ratio in Helium in Technical-Grade Metals and Semiconductors. Sov. Phys. Dokl., 1978. 23: p. 581.

First Author: Mamyrin, B. A.
All Authors: Mamyrin, B. A., Khabarin, L. V., Yudenich, V. S.
Keywords: helium abnormal isotope

2474. Manduchi, C., et al., Anomalous effects during the interaction of subatmospheric D2(H2) with Pd from 900C to room temperature. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107 A: p. 171.

First Author: Manduchi, C.
All Authors: Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Milli, E., Riccardi, L., Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, CR-39, particle emission

2475. Manduchi, C., et al., Electric-field effects on the neutron emission from Pd deuteride samples. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1995. 108: p. 1187.

First Author: Manduchi, C.
All Authors: Manduchi, C., Salviato, S., Ciricillo, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G., Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, electromigration, loading

2476. Manuel, A.J. and J.M.P. St Quinton, The magnetic susceptibility of palladium and palladium-rhodium alloys from 1.85 to 293Ã…K. Proc. Royal Soc London, A, 1963. 273: p. 412.

First Author: Manuel, A. J.
All Authors: Manuel, A. J., St Quinton, J. M. P.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pd-Rh

2477. Manuel, A.J. and J.M.P. St Quinton, The magnetic susceptibility of palladium and palladium-rhodium alloys from 1.85 to 293K. Proc. Royal Soc London, A, 1963. 273: p. 412.

First Author: Manuel, A. J.
All Authors: Manuel, A. J., St Quinton, J. M. P.
Keywords: susceptibility, Pd, Pd-Rh

2478. Maoka, T. and M. Enyo, Hydrogen Absorption by Palladium Electrode Polarized in Sulfuric Acid Solution Containing Surface Active Substances- I. The Cathodic Region. Electrochim. Acta, 1981. 26(5): p. 607.

First Author: Maoka, T.
All Authors: Maoka, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2, overvoltage, resistance, pressure, electrolysis

2479. Marcus, H.L., AES Examination of CF Samples. 1990: letter.

First Author: Marcus, H. L.
All Authors: Marcus, H. L.
Keywords: surface analysis, tritium,

2480. Marcus, M., Cold fusion research is alive and well – but not in the mass media. St. Louis Journalism Rev., 1993. 22(153): p. 16.

First Author: Marcus, M.
All Authors: Marcus, M.
Keywords: history

2481. Marinelli, M., et al., Heat release from deuterated titanium-iron (TiFe) or lanthanum-nickel (LaNi5) on exposure to the air. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1989. 102: p. 959.

First Author: Marinelli, M.
All Authors: Marinelli, M., Morpurgo, G., Vitale, S., Olcese, G. L.
Keywords: Ti-Fe, D2, x-ray, negative

2482. Marini, P., et al., Protocollo innovativo per l’ ipercaricamento di catodi di Palladio con Idrogeno messo a punto all’INFN di Frascati, in 21mo Secolo. 1999.

First Author: Marini, P.
All Authors: Marini, P., Di Stefano, V., Celani, F., Spallone, A.
Keywords: Review

Review in Italian.L’articolo espone, in linguaggio non strettamente specialistico, i risultati più recenti di una parte dell’attività sperimentale effettuata presso i Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell’Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare.

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2483. Marion, J.B., et al., A Versatile, High Efficiency 4 pi Neutron Detector. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1960. 8: p. 297.

First Author: Marion, J. B.
All Authors: Marion, J. B., Levesque, R. J. A., Ludemann, C. A., Detenbeck, R. W.
Keywords: neutron, method, apparatus

2484. Marmigi, A., et al. Anomalous heat Generation by surface oxidized Pd wires in a hydrogen atmosphere. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Marmigi, A.
All Authors: Marmigi, A., Spallone, A., Celani, F., Marini, P., Stefano, V.
Keywords: excess heat, thin wires,

2485. Martin, S.E., Using expert sources in breaking science stories: A comparison of magazine types. Journalism Quarterly, 1991. 68: p. 179.

First Author: Martin, S. E.
All Authors: Martin, S. E.
Keywords: history

2486. Martynov, M.I., A.I. Mel’dianov, and A.M. Chepovskii, Experiments on the detection of nuclear reaction products in deuterated metals. Vopr. At. Nauki Tekh. Ser.: Termoyader Sintez, 1991(2): p. 77 (in Russian).

First Author: Martynov, M. I.
All Authors: Martynov, M. I., Mel’dianov, A. I., Chepovskii, A. M.
Keywords: neutron, gamma emission, particle emission, electrolysis, ion bombardment, Titanium

2487. Marwan, J., Study of the Nanostructured Palladium Hydride System, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 353-375.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J.
Keywords:

2488. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, eds. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, Oxford University Press.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2489. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, Acknowledgments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. xi-xiii.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2490. Marwan, J., Preface, Acknowledgments, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. ix-xi.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J.
Keywords:

2491. Marwan, J. and S. Krivit, eds. Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, Oxford University Press.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., Krivit, S.
Keywords:

2492. Marwan, J., et al., A new look at low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research: a response to Shanahan. J. Environ. Monit., 2010. 12(9): p. 1765-1770.

First Author: Marwan, J.
All Authors: Marwan, J., McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L., Miles, M. H., Swartz, M. R., Storms, Edmund, Iwamura, Y., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L. P. G.
Keywords:

In his criticisms of the review article on LENR by Krivit and Marwan, Shanahan has raised a number of issues in the areas of calorimetry, heat after death, elemental transmutation, energetic particle detection using CR-39, and the temporal correlation between heat and helium-4. These issues are addressed by the researchers who conducted the original work discussed in the Krivit and Marwan (K&M) review paper.

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2493. Mas, F., et al., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6118.

First Author: Mas, F.
All Authors: Mas, F., Paniagua, J. C., Puy, J., Salvador, J., Vilaseca, E.
Keywords: critique, Rosen, theory

2494. Massaron, M. and F. Lamperti, La fusione fredda (Cold fusion). Tecnol. Chim., 1990. 10(4): p. 98 (in Italian).

First Author: Massaron, M.
All Authors: Massaron, M., Lamperti, F.
Keywords: history

2495. Mastromatteo, U. Very Thin Nickel Layers Heated Over Curie Temperature Show High Temperature Spots in Hydrogen Loading Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Ni, H2, gas, heat+, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2496. Mastromatteo, U. An Energy Amplifier Device. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: method, layer, Ni, ICCF-8

2497. Mastromatteo, U. and R. Aina. Investigation of Anomalous Densities of High-energy Alpha-Particles Tracks in CR-39 Detectors during Electrolysis of Heavy Water on Palladium Cathodes. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U., Aina, R.
Keywords:

Recently, several researchers claim the finding of anomalous alpha-particles generation during very simple electrolysis experiments with heavy water and palladium cathodes. The phenomenon seems to improve if deuterium formation on the cathode is associated with deposition of palladium nanostructures coming from chlorides of the same metal present in the electrolytic solution. Due to the relevance of the claims and considered the simplicity of the experimental apparatus, several tests have been performed in order to confirm the claimed results. The results of these tests will be the object of this scientific report.

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2498. Mastromatteo, U., A. Bertele, and F. Celani, Hydrogen Absorption and Excess Heat in a Constantan Wire with Nanostructured Surface. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U., Bertele, A., Celani, F.
Keywords: Constantan, LASER, LENR, Palladium, Transmutations

To go beyond the important and encouraging results obtained in Pd-D and Pd-H systems, overcoming the limitations related to the relative rareness of Pd, several tests were made using constantan wires with nanostructured surface in hydrogen atmosphere and temperatures up to 350 deg C.

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2499. Mastromatteo, U., LENR Anomalies in Pd-H2 Systems Submitted to Laser Stimulation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Mastromatteo, U.
All Authors: Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Laser, LENR, Palladium, Transmutations

In a continuation of the research started in the late 1990s at the University of Lecce, and then repeated in 2004, recently in the second half of 2014 in the A.R.G.A.L. lab., it was decided to thoroughly investigate the LENR anomalies of Pd-H2 system (in gaseous environment), having as reference the preparation techniques and surface analysis used in the microelectronics industry, to demonstrate convincingly that material contamination was not affecting the transmutation findings. As previously, the activation of the anomalies occurred during irradiation by low power lasers (633 nm, 1 mW, or 403 nm, 3 mW) on 250 nm thick palladium layers deposited by high vacuum e-beam evaporation on silicon oxide substrates, and with 30 nm of Cr as adhesion layer. In summary we did the following: in a stainless steel chamber filled with hydrogen, through a glass viewport, the sample surface was irradiated for two weeks and then accurately inspected in a SEM equipped with an EDX microprobe. A reference sample was also accurately analyzed before irradiation.

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2500. Mathews, C.K., et al., On the possibility of nuclear fusion by the electrolysis of heavy water. Indian J. Technol., 1989. 27: p. 229.

First Author: Mathews, C. K.
All Authors: Mathews, C. K., Periaswami, G., Srinivas, K. C., Gnanasekaran, T., Babu, S. R., Ramesh, C., Thiyagarajan, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, titanium, Pd, D2O, gamma emission, H2O, neutron

2501. Mathews, S., et al., Surface Preparation of Materials for LENR: Femtosecond Laser Processing. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Mathews, S.
All Authors: Mathews, S., Nagel, D. J., Minor, B., Pique, A.
Keywords: Femtosecond lasers, LENR, Low energy nuclear reactions, Surface modification

Because surfaces have been shown to be important for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), their preparation for experiments or energy generators is naturally of interest. We demonstrate that irradiation of Pd with pulses from a femtosecond laser produces surface topography with features on both micro- and nano-meter size scales. Micrographs of these features were analyzed to obtain the spatial frequencies for later correlation with production of excess heat.

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2502. Mathur, M.S., et al. Recent Modifications to the Manitoba Deuterium Implantation Accelerator and a Study of the Properties of the Online Neutron Monitor Detector. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mathur, M. S.
All Authors: Mathur, M. S., Johnston, H. L., Mirzai, A., McCkee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Furutani, K., Mayer, J. K., Yeo, Y. H., Hnatiuk, H., King, S., Hempel, A., Sharma, K. S., Williams, G.
Keywords: Pd, D2, ion implantation, method, ICCF-2

2503. Matschele, T. and R. Kirchheim, Hydrogen as a Probe for the Average Thickness of a Grain Boundary. Scr. Metall., 1987. 21: p. 1101.

First Author: Matschele, T.
All Authors: Matschele, T., Kirchheim, R.
Keywords: PdH, loading, grain Boundary, Phase Diagram

2504. Matsuda, J.I., T. Matsumoto, and K. Nagao, An attempt to detect (3)He from the cold nuclear fusion. J. Geochem., 1990. 24: p. 379.

First Author: Matsuda, J. I.
All Authors: Matsuda, J. I., Matsumoto, T., Nagao, K.
Keywords: electrolysis neutron, titanium, helium tritium, D2O, H2O

2505. Matsui, K. New Hydrogen Energy (NHE) Research Project in Japan. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Matsui, K.
All Authors: Matsui, K.
Keywords: Japan, NHE, organization ICCF-4

2506. Matsui, K., et al. Excess Heat Measurement and Nuclear Detection Experiments in the NHE Program. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Matsui, K.
All Authors: Matsui, K., Asami, N., Sumi, M., Kamimura, H., Kubota, A., Shimada, R., Miyashita, S., Lipson, A. G., Tripodi, P., Watanabe, H.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, NHE, He, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2507. Matsumoto, T., ‘Nattoh’ model for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 532.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, theory deuteron cluster

2508. Matsumoto, O., et al. Tritium Production Rate. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, T/n, electrolysis

2509. Matsumoto, T. Progress of NATTOH Model and New Particles Emitted During Cold Fusion. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Theory Nattoh, iton new particle

2510. Matsumoto, T., Cold fusion observed with ordinary water. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 490.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, neutron, H2O

2511. Matsumoto, T., Observation of new particles emitted during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 356.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, iton, film, electrolysis, Pd

2512. Matsumoto, T., Prediction of new particle emission on cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 647.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: iton, nattoh, theory new particle deuteron cluster

2513. Matsumoto, O., et al., Detection of neutrons in electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O solution by means of fission track method. Denki Kagaku, 1990. 58: p. 147.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2SO4, Pd, neutron

2514. Matsumoto, O., et al., Detection of tritium in cathode materials after the electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1990. 58: p. 471.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2SO4, tritium, Pd

2515. Matsumoto, T., Observation of quad-neutrons and gravity decay during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 2125.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: quadneutron, film, iton

2516. Matsumoto, T., Microscopic observations of palladium used for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 567.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, Nattoh, surface, analysis, H2O, D2O

2517. Matsumoto, T. and K. Kurokawa, Observation of heavy elements produced during explosive cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 323.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T., Kurokawa, K.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, tritium, Helium surface analysis

2518. Matsumoto, O., et al. Detection of Neutron and Tritium during Electrolysis of D2SO4-D2O Solution. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, O.
All Authors: Matsumoto, O., Kimura, K., Saito, Y., Uyama, H., Yaita, T., Yamaguchi, A., Suenaga, O.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron+, tritium+, T/n, electrolysis, ICCF-3

During the electrolysis of 0.5 M D2SO4-D2O solution using Pd as the cathode material and Pt as an anode material, the emission of neutron was detected by means of the fission track method and the production of tritium was investigated with a liquid scintillation method.The neutron emission rate was estimated to be comparable with the natural abundance of neutrons at the surface of the earth which was 2 neutrons cm^-2 s^-1 estimated by fission track method comparing with the neutron radiation from the 241Am-9Be neutron source. The tritium production rate was established to be 10^4 T atoms cm^-2 s^-1 in the Pd metal used as the cathode materials by the liquid scintillation method. The branching ratio (T/n) was established to be 10^4.

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2519. Matsumoto, T. Review for “Nottoh” Model and Experimental Findings during Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: theory, Nottoh, iton, ICCF-3

A review is described for the Nattoh model that provides the framework of the mechanisms of cold fusion. The model classifies the reactions into two categories: fundamental and associated reactions. The former involves the “hydrogen-catalyzed” fusion reaction and the chain reactions of hydrogens. And extremely exciting physics are involved in the latter. Furthermore experimental findings are described.

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2520. Matsumoto, T., Interference Phenomena Observed During Cold Fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 179.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: quadneutron, film, iton

2521. Matsumoto, T., Observation of gravity decays of multiple-neutron nuclei during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 164.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: iton Nattoh theory new particle

2522. Matsumoto, T., Searching for tiny black holes during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 281.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Nattoh, iton, film

2523. Matsumoto, T., Observation of stars produced during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1992. 22: p. 518.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: film, iton, quadneutron, PdD

2524. Matsumoto, T. Cold Fusion Experiments by Using Electrical Discharge in Water. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, gas discharge, dineutron, plasma, ICCF-4

2525. Matsumoto, T., Observation of meshlike traces on nuclear emulsions during cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 103.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, emission, new particle Nattoh, theory

2526. Matsumoto, T., Cold fusion experiments with ordinary water and thin nickel foil. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 296.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Ni, film, electrolysis, radiation, particle emission, Nattoh

2527. Matsumoto, T., Experiments of one-point cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 332.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: gas discharge, ion bombardment, film, iton

2528. Matsumoto, T., Response to ‘Comments on ‘Experiments of one-point cold fusion”. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 347.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: critique, Fox, iton

2529. Matsumoto, T., Two Proposals Concerning Cold Fusion. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 1337.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: critique, review

2530. Matsumoto, T., Artificial Ball-Lightning. Photographs of Cold Fusion. 1995.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: BallLightning

2531. Matsumoto, T. Cold Fusion Experiments Using Sparking Discharges in Water. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: H2O, spark discharge, radiation, particle emission, ICCF-5

Experiments on the DC discharge associated with microsparks were performed in ordinary water. Thin metal wires of Pd, Ni, Ti, Fe, Cd, Mo, Pt and W were used as the electrodes. Numerous sparks appeared on the surface of the electrodes, in high voltage over 40 V, and simultaneously extraordinary phenomena were obseryed, such as ball-lightning like phenomena.

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2532. Matsumoto, T., Mechanisms of cold fusion: Comprehensive explanations by the Nattoh model. Mem. Fac. Eng. Hokkaido Univ., 1995. 19(2): p. 201.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Theory, Nattoh, iton new particle

2533. Matsumoto, T., Extraordinary Traces Produced during Pulsed Discharge in Water. Bull. Faculty of Eng., Hokkaido Univ, 1995. 175.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: H2O, radiation, gas discharge, film

2534. Matsumoto, T. Extraordinary traces on nuclear emulsions obtained during the Matsumae earthquakes in 1996. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: film, earthquake, radiation, ICCF-6

2535. Matsumoto, T. Carbon Tubes and Films Produced in a Lead Electrode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Pb, spark discharge, arc, film, carbon, ICCF-7

2536. Matsumoto, T., Comments on “Evidence of micrometre-sized plasmoid emission during electrolysis cold fusion. Fusion Sci. & Technol., 2001. 40: p. 108.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: plasmoids theory Nattoh

2537. Matsumoto, T. Cold fusion like phenomena in natural fields. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Matsumoto, T.
All Authors: Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: ICCF-9, ball lightning, theory, EV, electron clusters

2538. Matsunaka, M., et al. Studies of coherent deuteron fusion and related nuclear reactions in solid. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China.

First Author: Matsunaka, M.
All Authors: Matsunaka, M., Isobe, Y., Ueda, S., Yabuta, K., Ohishi, T., Mori, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, neutron, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, electron beam, transmutation

In order to induce coherent deuteron fusion in metal-deuteride, three kinds of experiments have been performed. In the closed type D2O /Pd electrolysis experiment, significant amount of helium-4 atom was detected in upper gas of electrolysis cell and inside the palladium cathode by QMS analysis. In the discharge type electrolysis experiment, anomalous elements were detected on the surface of cathode palladium by PIXE analysis after experiment. The detected elements are iron and zinc. Under electron beam irradiation to highly D-loaded palladium, anomalous spectra were taken in X-ray measurement.

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2539. Matsunami, N., Solid state effects on tunnelling probability for d+d nuclear fusion at room temperature. Radiat. Effects Defects Solids, 1990. 112: p. 181.

First Author: Matsunami, N.
All Authors: Matsunami, N.
Keywords: Theory, screening

2540. Matsunami, N. A Mechanism for Cold Nuclear Fusion: Barrier Reduction by Screening Under Transient Coherent Flow of Deuterium. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Matsunami, N.
All Authors: Matsunami, N.
Keywords: theory, screening, ICCF-3

A mechanism for the cold nuclear fusion is suggested, based on reduction of the barrier penetration factor lambda due to screening by enhanced electron density around deuterium at excited/ionic states under transient coherent flow of d in metals. Four D- state, lambda ~ 70 or the rate of ~1 fusion/s*cm^3 is obtained. The effective region and probability of the transient coherent D- state are discussed.

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2541. Matsuzaki, A., T. Nishina, and I. Uchida, In situ low incident angle XRD technique with electrochemical methods. Application to deuterium charging into palladium cathode. Hyomen Gijutsu, 1994. 45: p. 106.

First Author: Matsuzaki, A.
All Authors: Matsuzaki, A., Nishina, T., Uchida, I.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, x-ray diffraction, structure

2542. Maxwell, J. and T. Grimshaw, Public Policy Planning for Broad Deployment of Cold Fusion for Energy Production in the U.S.: Technology Assessment of LENR Impacts. 2012, Center for International Energy & Environmental Policy, the University of Texas at Austin.

First Author: Maxwell, J.
All Authors: Maxwell, J., Grimshaw, T.
Keywords: policy

The introduction of technology can be viewed as throwing a rock into a body of water and the ripples which radiate outwards are the impacts to society with the strongest ripples being the structures of society which have a disturbance of the highest magnitude. Technology Assessment is one way that policymakers can predict where and how far those “ripples” will travel with the “splash” of a new technology.

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2543. Mayer, F.J., J.S. King, and J.R. Reitz, Nuclear fusion from crack-generated particle acceleration. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 269.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., King, J. S., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2544. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz. Summary of Progress in Hydron Physics. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, review, hydron, ICCF-2

2545. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, Nuclear energy release in metals. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 552.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: theory, dineutron

2546. Mayer, F.J., Comments on ‘Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion’. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 511.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J.
Keywords: critique, Mills, theory

2547. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, On very low energy hydrogenic nuclear reactions. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 367.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: hydron, theory, hydron

2548. Mayer, F.J. and J.R. Reitz, Response to ‘Comments on “Nuclear energy release in metals”‘. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 95.

First Author: Mayer, F. J.
All Authors: Mayer, F. J., Reitz, J. R.
Keywords: critique, Bryan, hydron

2549. Mayer, R.E., et al., Neutron detection system for extremely low count rate. Calculation, construction and employment in search for ‘cold fusion’. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1993. 324: p. 501.

First Author: Mayer, R. E.
All Authors: Mayer, R. E., Patino, N. E., Florido, P. C., Gomez, S. E., Granada, J. R., Gillette, V. H.
Keywords: neutron, method

2550. Mazitov, R.K., On the detection of cold nuclear fusion. Koord. Khim., 1989. 15(9): p. 1294 (in Russian).

First Author: Mazitov, R. K.
All Authors: Mazitov, R. K.
Keywords: critique

2551. Mazitov, R.K., Possibility of nuclear transformation in chemical reactions. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR Fiz. Khim., 1989. 307: p. 1158 (in Russian).

First Author: Mazitov, R. K.
All Authors: Mazitov, R. K.
Keywords: theory, distance, heavy fermion

2552. Mazzetti, P. Basic Concepts on the Theory of the Magnetic Properties of Solids. in Magnetic Properties of Matter. 1986. Villa Gualino, Turin: World Scientific.

First Author: Mazzetti, P.
All Authors: Mazzetti, P.
Keywords: susceptibility theory

2553. Mazzolai, F.M., P.G. Bordoni, and F.A. Lewis, Elastic Energy Dissipation Effects in the Palladium-Hydrogen System. J. Less-Common Met., 1980. 74: p. 137.

First Author: Mazzolai, F. M.
All Authors: Mazzolai, F. M., Bordoni, P. G., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: Pd, H, stress, deformation

2554. McAllister, J.W., Competition among scientific disciplines in cold nuclear fusion research. Science in Context, 1992. 5: p. 17.

First Author: McAllister, J. W.
All Authors: McAllister, J. W.
Keywords: history

2555. McBreen, J., Absorption of electrolytic hydrogen and deuterium by Pd: the effect of cyanide adsorption. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 287: p. 279.

First Author: McBreen, J.
All Authors: McBreen, J.
Keywords: Pd, D, H, overvoltage, CN, absorption, surface

2556. McCarthy, W., Water-free Replication of Pons-Fleischmann LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: McCarthy, W.
All Authors: McCarthy, W.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Copper, Hydrogen, Nuclear reaction

Statistically significant heat is produced by a method similar to Pons and Fleischmann but not involving electrolysis or water. Instead of putting hydrogen into electrodes by operation for a few days, hydrogen solute is incorporated into electrode alloys by temperature and pressure, before the cell is assembled.

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2557. McCevoy, A.J. and C.T.D. O’Sullivan, Cold fusion: what’s going on? Nature (London), 1989. 338: p. 711.

First Author: McCevoy, A. J.
All Authors: McCevoy, A. J., O’Sullivan, C. T. D.
Keywords: theory, muon

2558. McCracken, D.R., et al., In search of nuclear fusion in electrolytic cells and in metal/gas systems. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(2): p. 121.

First Author: McCracken, D. R.
All Authors: McCracken, D. R., Paquette, J., Boniface, H. A., Graham, W. R. C., Johnson, R. E., Briden, N. A., Cross, W. G., Arneja, A., Tennant, D. C., Lone, M. A., Buyers, W. J. L., Chambers, K. W., McIlwain, A. K., Attas, E. M., Dutton, R.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, Titanium D2 neutron, gamma emission, tritium, heat-

2559. McCracken, G.M., et al., Experimental search for ‘cold fusion’ in the deuterium-titanium system. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 1990. 23: p. 469.

First Author: McCracken, G. M.
All Authors: McCracken, G. M., Bailey, M., Croft, S., Findlay, D. J. S., Gibson, A., Govier, R. P., Jarvis, O. N., Milton, H. J., Powell, B. A., Sadler, G., Sene, M. R., Sweetman, D.R., van Belle, P., Watson, H. H. H.
Keywords: titanium D2 neutron diffusion

2560. McDonald, K.A., Energy Department Panel Remains Unconvinced by New Claims of Room-Temperature Fusion. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989: p. A1.

First Author: McDonald, K. A.
All Authors: McDonald, K. A.
Keywords: history

2561. McDonald, K.A., Claims of Proponents of Cold Fusion Still Spark Controversy a Year Later. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 1990.

First Author: McDonald, K. A.
All Authors: McDonald, K. A.
Keywords: history, review

2562. McFee, R.W., Review of ICCF1, Proceedings of the First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990.

First Author: McFee, R. W.
All Authors: McFee, R. W.
Keywords: history

2563. McIntyre, R. Proposal for an Experiment designed to seek evidence for cold fusion. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McIntyre, R.
All Authors: McIntyre, R.
Keywords: gas loading

In experiments carried out in 1990 to investigate the application of the gas phase as a medium for cold fusion, a Pd vessel was exposed to deuterium gas, dissociated in an electric discharge at between -10 and -20 degrees C. The thickness of the metal was about one millimeter. In the first of a number of experiments positive indications of fusion were observed but these could not be repeated in subsequent experiments. The inability to repeat results has been found to occur in other cold fusion experiments and signifies that the processes involved are not understood (1). Since 1990, a number of results have been obtained which may put these earlier failures in a new light. In particular, the discovery by Miles (2), who reported positive results during electrolysis from 6mm thick rod after failure with Pd electrodes one mm thick. This introduces the bulk of the metal as a possible factor in the occurrence of cold fusion. Another noticeable feature of the absorption of deuterium in Pd is the obvious signs of cold work done on the metal. The surface is roughened, cracks appear and measurements show an apparent 15% increase in volume. With these factors in mind, a hypothesis has been formulated which seeks to explain how this might influence the process of cold fusion.

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2564. McKee, S.G., J.P. Magennis, and F.A. Lewis, Hydrogen Isotope Distribution Equilibria in the Pd/H2-H2O System. Surf. Technol., 1982. 16: p. 175.

First Author: McKee, S. G.
All Authors: McKee, S. G., Magennis, J. P., Lewis, F. A.
Keywords: PdD, PdH, Separation Factor, resistivity

2565. McKee, S.G., et al., The Establishment of Equilibria in the Pd-H2-D2-H2O-D2O System. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 475.

First Author: McKee, S. G.
All Authors: McKee, S. G., Lewis, F. A., Magennis, J. P., Kelly, T. J.
Keywords: H2O, D2O, Pd, separation Factor

2566. McKee, J.S.C., et al. Neutron Emission from Low-Energy Deuteron Injection of Deuteron-Implanted Metal Foils (Pd, Ti, and In). in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: McKee, J. S. C.
All Authors: McKee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Kwok, C. B., Johnston, H. L., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., Mirzai, A., Yeo, Y. H., Sharma, K. S., Williams, G.
Keywords: ion implantation Pd, D2, titanium, neutron, x-ray

2567. McKee, J.S.C., et al., The role of fractofusion in the creation of anomalies in neutron production from deuterium-implanted solids. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1992. 67: p. 448.

First Author: McKee, J. S. C.
All Authors: McKee, J. S. C., Smith, G. R., Durocher, J. J. G., Johnston, H. L., Mathur, M. S., Mayer, J. K., Mirzai, A., Yeo, Y. H., Hempel, A., Hnatiuk, H., King, S.
Keywords: theory, fractofusion

2568. McKibben, J.L., Can particles having both fractional electric charge and color charge with 1/r2 force be in existence since the big bang? 1989.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory, quark

2569. McKibben, J.L., Evidence for three primordially created particles and can one of them catalyze cold fusion? 1989.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory new particle

2570. McKibben, J.L., Explanation of low-intensity cold fusion. 1990.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory

2571. McKibben, J.L., Passed-Over Evidence for Fractionally-Charged Particles with Associated Color Change. 1990.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory fractional charge new particle

2572. McKibben, J.L., Particles as Standing Waves in a Superdense Aether. 1994.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory

2573. McKibben, J.L., The missed fractionally-charged particles. 1995.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory fractional charge new particle

2574. McKibben, J.L., Can Cold Fusion be Catalyzed by Fractionally-Charged Ions that have Evaded FC Particle Searches. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(4): p. 14.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory, hemitrons new particle

2575. McKibben, J.L., Strange-particle catalysis in the production of COH2 gas or iron. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(11): p. 37.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory new particle

2576. McKibben, J.L., Catalytic behavior of one (or two) subquarks bound to their nuclear hosts. Infinite Energy, 1997. 3(13/14): p. 103.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory new particle

2577. McKibben, J.L., Design of a nuclear-powered steam engine or jet for space propulsion. 1998.

First Author: McKibben, J. L.
All Authors: McKibben, J. L.
Keywords: theory method heat

2578. McKibben, J.L., Recent observations that yield information on catalytic particles. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 70.

First Author: McKibben, J L.
All Authors: McKibben, J L.
Keywords: Theory, new particle

2579. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Calorimetry and Electrochemistry in the D/Pd System. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Chao, J., Chexal, B., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, resistance, loading, autoradiograph, X-ray, ICCF-1

Experiments have been performed to examine the anomalous effects associated with the D/Pd system, and to discover some of the experimental variables that might be important to the effects. Experiments were concerned with calorimetry of the D/Pd system, but also monitored those experimental variables that might be important in causing the effects: the D/Pd ratio and its rate of change, interfacial phenomena such as the reduction of D2O, or reduction of contaminant species. . . .

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2580. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Crouch-Baker, S., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, method, Current Density, loading, electrolysis, ICCF-2

INTRODUCTIONAn experimental program was undertaken to explore the central idea proposed by Fleischmann et al. that heat, and possibly nuclear products, could be created in palladium lattices under electrolytic conditions.Three types of experiments were performed to determine the factors that control the extent of D loading in the Pd lattice, and to search for unusual calorimetric and nuclear effects. It is the purpose of this communication to discuss observations of heat output observed calorimetrically in excess of known sources of input heat. . . .

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2581. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Excess Power Observations in Electrochemical Studies of the D/Pd System; The Influence of Loading. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Riley, A. M., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, loading, Pd, D2, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Excess power measurements have been carried out on a deuterium-based electrochemical system of novel design. The excess power generation is reported as a function of electrochemical current and cathode loading. A phenomenological model for excess power production is introduced and briefly discussed.

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2582. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Loading, Calorimeteric and Nuclear Investigation of the D/Pd System. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Bush, B. F., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Srinivasan, M., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S.
Keywords: heat+, loading, Pd, D2O, resistivity, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2583. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. An overview of excess heat production in deuterated palladium system. in IECEC Conference. 1994. Monterey, CA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

2584. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Development of Advanced Concepts for Nuclear Processes in Deuterated Metals, TR-104195. 1994, Electric Power Research Institute.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L., Smedley, S. I., Williams, M., Wing, S., Maly-Schreiber, M., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Searson, P. C., Pronko, J. G., Kohler, D. A.
Keywords:

The excess heat generated in electrochemical cells with palladium cathodes and heavy water electrolyte appears to be far too large to result from chemical or metallurgical transformation. The evidence implies that the heat source is a nuclear reaction of some as yet undetermined nature.This book is available here:xxxx://my.epri.com/portal/server.pt?Abstract_id=TR-104195The LENR-CANR.org version is searchable.

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2585. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd and H/Pd Systems. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1994. 368: p. 55.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Rocha-Filho, R. C., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Passell, T. O., Santucci, J.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, method

Isothermal calorimetric studies of the D/Pd and H/Pd systems have been carried out at high deuterium (hydrogen) loadings (i.e. [D(H)]/[Pd] > 0.9) at approximately 30у. Under these conditions, the generation of “excess power” was observed in a series of deuterium-based experiments, but not in a hydrogen-based experiment. The results of these experiments enable several (tentative) conclusions to be reached concerning the conditions necessary for the reproducible observation of this anomalous thermal effect.

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2586. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Concerning Reproducibility of Excess Power Production. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A. K., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M. S., Wing, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2, D2O, loading, method, electrolysis, heat+, Al, ICCF-5

An apparent irreproducibility in the production of an, as yet, anomalous excess power from Pd cathodes electrochemically loaded with D can be associated with irreproducibility in the attainment of several necessary starting conditions. Of these, the threshold loading (D/Pd atomic ratio) has received the most attention. A statistical analysis is presented of the results of 176 experiments intended to test the means of establishing reproducible control over D/Pd loading. A set of variables are examined, and procedures identified which permit the attainment of loading above the threshold necessary for excess heat production.Calorimetric results from two experiments are presented and analyzed. A mathematical function is identified which correlates closely with the time evolution of excess power. An important element of this correlation is the measured rate of change of the cathode resistivity. We have interpreted the resistance change as indicating the presence of an oscillation or “breathing” of the cathode loading induced by a flux of deuterons through the cathode/electrolyte interface.The observed functionality of excess power with deuteron flux above a loading threshold, conforms closely with theoretical predictions.

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2587. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. New Hydrogen Energy Research at SRI. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, loading, boiling, surface, ICCF-6

2588. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Energy Production Processes In Deuterated Metals. 1998, EPRI: Palo Alto.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Hauser, A., Jevtic, N., Smedley, S. I., Tanzella, F. L., Williams, M., Wing, S., Bush, B. F., McMahon, F., Srinivasan, M., Wark, A. W., Warren, D.
Keywords: Electrochemical power generation, Palladium, Heavy Water, Deuterium, Cold fusion, Heat source independent

2589. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Materials Issues of Loading Deuterium into Palladium and the Association with Excess Heat Production. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, loading, ICCF-7, electrolysis

Abstract The ability of palladium cathodes to attain and maintain high loading levels, at high current density and for long times, is controlled by two factors: the condition of the electrochemical interface which allows the attainment of high deuterium activity; the defect density and mechanical condition of the bulk material which permits the Pd lattice to withstand and contain high bulk deuterium activities when these equilibrate to produce extreme pressures of deuterium gas inside closed incipient voids within the metal.       Examples are given from a set of 26 intentionally similar current ramps which show three distinct Modes of loading performance: Mode A – a linear decrease of Pd resistance, beyond the resistance maximum, with logarithmic increase in electrochemical current; Mode B – an initial log-linear decrease on the Mode A trajectory, followed by a rapid increase in resistance when the resistance falls below a critical value; Mode C –  a shallow decrease in resistance with approximately symmetric increase as the [log] current density is increased beyond a threshold value similar to that for Mode B. Mode A is most frequently associated with the appearance of calorimetrically determined excess heat.

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2590. McKubre, M.C.H., S. Crouch-Baker, and F.L. Tanzella, Conditions for the observation of excess power in the D/Pd system. 1999.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Crouch-Baker, S., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, electrolysis, heat+, loading

2591. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Finite Element Modeling of the Transient Colorimetric Behavior of the MATRIX Experimental Apparatus: 4He and Excess of Power Production Correlation through Numerical Results. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Di Gioacchino, D., Violante, V.
Keywords: heat+, D2, calalyst, method replication Case, ICCF-8

2592. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. The Emergence of a Coherent Explanation for Anomalies Observed in D/Pd and H/Pd System: Evidence for 4He and 3He Production. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: heat+, He, D2, D2O, Pd-black, catalyst, replication Arata, ICCF-8

Introduction             Numerous observations have been made of apparent anomalies in carefully performed experimental studies of D/Pd and H/Pd systems.  Such anomalies include:  prompt emission of electrons and charged particles; unexplained heat in excess of known input sources; the residual presence of light elements (notably 3H, 3He and 4He); the possible occurrence of isotope anomalies in higher mass elements (including the host metal); unusual electrical conductance effects both stable and transient (not discussed in this paper).  The features that unify these apparently disparate observations are the common elements of the needed experimental stimuli, and the requirement for extended lattice coherent processes in any obvious explanation.

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2593. McKubre, M.C.H. Closing comments summerizing the status and progress of experimental studies. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review, ICCF-9

McKubre summarizes his impressions and reports on experiments at the ICCF-9 conference, Beijing, China, 2002.

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2594. McKubre, M.C.H., et al. Progress towards replication. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Tripodi, P., Violante, V.
Keywords: ICCF-9, 4He, helium, Arata, tritium

ABSTRACT A collaborative effort has been established formally between SRI International in Menlo Park, California, and ENEA (Frascati) in Italy.  In addition to providing a framework for an International replication effort, this collaboration is intended to focus the complementary skills of the two laboratories on carefully selected problems of Pd/D studies.

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2595. McKubre, M.C.H. Review of experimental measurements involving dd reactions (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: dd fusion, excess heat, review

PowerPoint slides presented at the Short Course on LENR for ICCF-10, August 25, 2003.

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2596. McKubre, M.C.H. The Need for Triggering in Cold Fusion Reactions. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: dd fusion, excess heat, review

It has long been recognized that initiation of the cold fusion heat effect observed in heavy water electrolysis at palladium cathodes requires simultaneous attainment of three conditions: (i) high loading or chemical potential of D within the Pd lattice; (ii) an initiation time at least ten times larger than the D diffusion time constant: (iii) a minimum or threshold electrochemical surface current or current density that is not correlated to the bulk D loading. In 1995 a fourth condition was added with the recognition [5] that (iv) deuterium flux plays an important role in determining the excess heat power density.

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2597. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Using resistivity to measure H/Pd and D/Pd loading: method and significance. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: loading

The resistance ratio method is the most frequent technique used to determine the extent of interstitial loading of hydrogen or deuterium atoms into palladium electrodes, or extended structures used in electrolytic or gas phase cold fusion experiments. Specifically, advantage is taken of an empirical relationship between the measured resistance, R, normalized to that of the same body at the same temperature in the absence of hydrogen isotope, RЬ hence R/RЬ and the atomic fraction occupancy of octahedral interstitials, x = H/Pd or D/Pd. This method was first suggested and employed in cold fusion studies by the present authors [1], and received immediate and widespread acceptance because of the ease with which this experimental technique could be used to make insitu, real-time measurements of a parameter, D/Pd, anticipated [2] or hypothesized [3-6] at that time to relate to cold fusion heat excess or nuclear production.

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2598. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion at SRI (PowerPoint slides). in APS March Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: sonofusion

Cold Fusion at SRI An 18 Year Retrospective (and brief Prospective)

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2599. McKubre, M.C.H. The Importance of Replication. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: excess heat, replication

Much discussion in the Condensed Matter Nuclear Science or “Cold Fusion” fields centers on the subject of replication. It is a topic that comes up in essentially every conversation about the Fleischmann Pons Effect (FPE). Assembled here is a set of essentially personal views on this subject of replication.

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2600. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella. Mass Flow Calorimetry. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Discussion of the Mass Flow first principles calorimeter in this paper is based primarily on the analysis and experience gained at SRI in answering the question: “is there a Fleischmann Pons heat effect (FPE)”? Subsequently other mass flow calorimeters, or more generically heat balance calorimeters, were designed to answer this same question and some comment will be directed to the technical differences resulting from different design philosophies, specifically those designed and operated by ENEA, and Energetics Technologies. Discussion will be undertaken of ideal and non-ideal calorimeter operation, design principles and practical implementation including long and short term accuracy and sensitivity as well as limitations of heat balance calorimeters as the vehicle chosen to study the FPE.

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2601. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Replication of Condensed Matter Heat Production, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 219-247.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Dardik, I., El-Boher, A., Zilov, T., Greenspan, E., Sibilia, C., Violante, V.
Keywords:

2602. McKubre, M.C.H., F.L. Tanzella, and V. Violante. The Significance of Replication (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L., Violante, V.
Keywords: Excess heat

What have we learned in 18 years of experiments performed at SRI, about the experimental conditions for success and reasons for failed replication?

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2603. McKubre, M.C.H. COLD FUSION, LENR, the Fleischmann-Pons Effect; ONE PERSPECTIVE on the STATE of the SCIENCE (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

With recent publicity outside the GRINS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?

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2604. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion (LENR) One Perspective on the State of the Science. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

Abstract. With recent publicity outside the CMNS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?In this Foreword to the Proceedings of ICCF15 I lean heavily on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators (ENEA Frascati, Energetics and MIT) with a view to define experiment-based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides.

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2605. McKubre, M.C.H. Cold Fusion (LENR) One Perspective on the State of the Science (Japanese version). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

Japanese version.Abstract. With recent publicity outside the CMNS field it has become increasingly important to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low Energy or lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community?In this Foreword to the Proceedings of ICCF15 I lean heavily on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators (ENEA Frascati, Energetics and MIT) with a view to define experiment-based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides.

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2606. McKubre, M.C.H. Excess Power Observations in Electrochemical Studies of the D/Pd System; the Operating Parameter Space. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords:

The research activity into the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, FPE [1] at SRI has now accumulating more than 60 man-years of research. Here we focus attention on aspects of that work that lead to an improved understanding of the parameter space in which the FPE occurs.

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2607. McKubre, M.C.H., What Happened to Cold Fusion (PowerPoint slides). 2011, Cafe Scientifique, SRI International Building.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: review

These are the PowerPoint slides from a lecture by Michael McKubre of SRI, Inc.A look at McKubre’s own work and at some of the major trends in the field, especially the gas-loading approach pioneered by Arata and Piantelli, which and now the focus of the field, especially with Rossi. It is available as an 8-part video on YouTube:1. Introduction xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EtweR_qGHEc 2. Major Segments xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MeikEgjC1qg 3. Department of Energy Reference xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gqeA8n37XFg 4. Necessary but Not Sufficient Conditions xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_XN52jXl78 5. Gas-Loading Experiments xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mYZfgvSFYDM 6. Experiments by Italian Scientists xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3N3dWlIPUQ 7. Recap xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1QhIWrA4pGI 8. Q&A Discussion xxxx://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWkVyg_iul4

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2608. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, Cold Fusion, LENR, CMNS, FPE: One Perspective on the State of the Science Based on Measurements Made at SRI. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 32-44.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cold fusion, Excess heat

Our object is to clarify in non-specialist terms what is known and what is understood in the general field of so called Low-Energy or Lattice Enhanced Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It is also crucial and timely to expose and elaborate what objections or reservations exist with regard to these new understandings. In essence, we are concerned with the answers to the following three questions: What do we think we know? Why do we think we know it? Why do doubts still exist in the broader scientific community? Progress in the LENR field will be reviewed with primary focus on the experimental work performed at SRI by and with its close collaborators with a view to defining experiments based non-traditional understandings of new physical effects in metal deuterides. Particular attention is directed to the Fleischmann-Pons Effect, nuclear level heat from the deuterium-palladium, and the associated nuclear products: 4He, 3He and 3H.

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2609. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, What is needed in LENR/FPE studies? J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cold fusion, Deuterium, Electrochemistry, Excess heat, Helium, Palladium

ICCF16 marks nearly 22 years of research into the phenomenon first called “cold fusion”. This newfield has expanded in breadth to the point that numerous acronyms compete to describe overlapping effects. Two of these are: LENR(LowEnergy Nuclear Reactions) and its subset FPE (the Fleischmann Pons Effect). Research to elucidate the basic processes and shed light on mechanisms has proceeded effectively continuously since March 1989 at SRI and elsewhere, and diligently and as “time and funds” have allowed at numerous other accomplished institutions worldwide. It is now clear to a well-informed but relatively small group of scientifically interested individuals that the deuterium-palladium systems conceals a heat source with energy exceeding by several orders of magnitude mechanical, lattice storage or chemical energy effects. Evidences of possible dd fusion products have been widely and numerously observed, at least partially ratifying the original speculative designation of “cold fusion”. The effect, however, is apparently not limited to deuterium as a fuel, to helium as a product or to palladium as a matrix, hence the classification of the field as Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS) to differentiate these “new” effects from those observed in the rarified environments of particle and plasma physics. The materials-related issues associated with the so-called irreproducibility of CMNS effects presents the greatest barrier to the advancement and acceptance of the field. Precisely because we are dealing with condensed matter, micro-structural and micro-impurity control is difficult and expensive, requiring specialized equipment, control and skill. Problems of similar scale (and origin) have been faced and overcome in the past in the development of technologies having similar significance for mankind. Two (of many) examples are: the development of solid-state semiconductors; implementation of conventional nuclear power (and weapons). Absent another Bell Labs or Manhattan Project how should the CMNS field best proceed? Several overlapping options will be discussed. It is well within the capability of “mainstream” scientists and engineers in academia, and in national and private laboratories to resolve the materials issues and the questions of whether or not specific products are or are not present. Without funding they will not be encouraged to do so; without (a higher degree of) acceptance, adequate funding will not be made available. This paper will address various options and strategies to surmount this logical dilemma.

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2610. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold Fusion; 25 years of research at SRI, in NTVA – Tekna, Can LENR provide cheap and clean energy? 2014: Oslo, Norway.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Excess heat, history

The slides from a presentation given at Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA) on November 5, 2014. See:xxxx://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue119/norway.html

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2611. McKubre, M.C.H., et al., Calorimetric Studies of the Destructive Stimulation of Palladium and Nickel Fine Wires. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Bao, J., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: deuterium, hydrogen, nickel, palladium

An experimental program was designed and performed to test three aspects of CMNS studies. A fourth objective was added in the light of reports from Rossi regarding large scale heat release from the nickel – natural hydrogen system, that prompted re-evaluation of earlier work on this system performed by Piantelli, and later claims by Defkalion

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2612. McKubre, M.C.H., A Brief History and Introduction to the International Conference Series. 2015, ICCF-19 Website.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: history

2613. McKubre, M.C.H. and F.L. Tanzella, Flux Effects in Metal Hydrogen Loading: Enhanced Mass Transfer. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15: p. 1.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H., Tanzella, F. L.
Keywords:

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2614. McKubre, M.C.H., Personal Recollections of John O’Mara Bockris. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Graham Hills, John Bockris, John Tomlinson, Martin Fleischmann, Physical electrochemistry

Nobody contributed more to the development of physical electrochemistry than John Bockris. He did this directly through his thinking, research and teaching, and indirectly through his numerous publications and by taking responsibility for the training of the next generations of electrochemists in Europe, North America (twice) and Australia / New Zealand. My career might have been impossible, and would certainly have been greatly different, were it not for the direct and indirect contributions that John Bockris made to my life and learning. For this I am eternally grateful. Some details are described.

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2615. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold fusion: comments on the state of scientific proof. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Fleischmann, Pons, scientific proof

2616. McKubre, M.C.H., Cold Fusion – CMNS – LENR; Past, Present and Projected Future Status. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Excess heat, Helium, LENR, Reproducibility

A brief overview of the SRI effort over 26 years is provided as a precursor to suggestions on how we might best proceed to validate the vision of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, and proceed towards its logical conclusion.

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2617. McKubre, M.C.H., CMNS Research – Past, Present and Future. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 15-24.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: CMNS, Cold fusion, Excess heat, Helium, LENR, Tritium

As a community, we have invested a great deal of time and money in investigating claims of anomalous heat first asserted by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons in 1989. Despite this effort, we remain unable to specify the phenomenon or phenomena revealed. Although it is clear within the LENR community that the effect is of nuclear origin and is exo-energetic, we have yet to define with confidence the pathway to practical technology that seemed implicit in the original announcement. Bringing this community together largely is the belief that such a path is possible, or even imminent. What is taking us so long?

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2618. McKubre, M.C.H., LENR – What We must Do to Complete Martin Fleischmann’s Undertaking. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 1-14.

First Author: McKubre, M. C. H.
All Authors: McKubre, M. C. H.
Keywords: Demonstration prototype, Fleischmann, Heat effect, Pons

It is clear to most who have studied the matter carefully that condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS) expresses a real and new phenomenon in physics. The efforts to communicate this reality outside a rather small group have not been very convincing. For something of such potential importance this dichotomy seems strange. How might we improve this situation? A working theory could certainly help, and better correlation between experimental variables, both input and output. A working demonstration that stood alone even as a toy could help facilitate communication directly with influential technical but non-specialist individuals and groups. Some thoughts on the possibilities and constraints are offered below.

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2619. McNally, J.R., On the possibility of a nuclear mass-energy resonance in deuterium + deuterium reactions at low energy. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 237.

First Author: McNally, J. R.
All Authors: McNally, J. R.
Keywords: theory, resonance

2620. McNeil, J.A. Relativistic Hyperfine Interaction and the Spence-Vary Resonance. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: McNeil, J. A.
All Authors: McNeil, J. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-2, resonance

2621. Mebrahtu, T., et al., Observations on the surface composition of palladium cathodes after D2O electrolysis in LiOD solutions. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1989. 267: p. 351.

First Author: Mebrahtu, T.
All Authors: Mebrahtu, T., Rodriguez, J. F., Bothwell, M. E., Cheng, I. F., Lawson, D. R., McBride, J. R., Martin, C. R., Soriaga, M. P.
Keywords: surface analysis, electrolysis, Pd, loading, D2O

2622. Melendez, L., et al., Titanium deuteration with neutron emission through electrical discharges. Fusion Technol., 1998. 35: p. 71.

First Author: Melendez, L.
All Authors: Melendez, L., Chavez, E., Lopez, R., Cruz, G. J., Olayo, M. G.
Keywords: titanium, neutron, gas discharge, ion bombardment

2623. Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Some Lessons from 3 Years of Electrochemical Calorimetry. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Melich, M. E.
All Authors: Melich, M. E., Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: critique, Harwell, heat, error, ICCF-3

An analysis of the time series data from the 16 Harwell FPH electrochemical cells is being conducted. Using generally accepted calorimetric principles and detailed numerical analysis, the behavior of “cold fusion” output data is used to estimate the instrumental sensitivity and the time varying accuracy of the results of the experiments. In Harwell’s D2O Cell 3 there are more than ten time intervals where an unexplained power source or energy storage mechanism may be operating. A comparison to a previous analysis of Pons and Fleischmann data is made.

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2624. Melich, M.E. and W.N. Hansen. Back to the Future, The Fleischmann-Pons Effect in 1994. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Melich, M. E.
All Authors: Melich, M. E., Hansen, W. N.
Keywords: review, critique, ICCF-4

Abstract From its initial public announcement on 23 March 1989, the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE) has been attributed to: nuclear fusion nuclear fission exotic chemistry some previously unidentified law of nature instrumental error.Highly public as well as private efforts were made in 1989 to decide if an FPE existed and if so, what caused it. This paper reevaluates some of the factual bases for the scientific and management judgments of 1989 with the advantage of what has been learned after four years of worldwide experimentation and analysis. We conclude that there is an FPE and its signature is heat. Data existed in 1989 that could have lead to this conclusion. The source of the excess heat is still not understood. Scientific progress was not made through this debate, which was largely uninformed by appropriate experimentation, and patent considerations may have played a determining role in the scientific progress associated with the FPE.

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2625. Mellican, R.E., From fusion frenzy to fraud: Reflections on science and its cultural norms. Bull. Sci. Tech. Soc., 1992. 12: p. 1.

First Author: Mellican, R. E.
All Authors: Mellican, R. E.
Keywords: history

2626. Mendes, R.V., Ergodic motion and near collisions in a Coulomb system. Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 1991. 5: p. 1179.

First Author: Mendes, R. V.
All Authors: Mendes, R. V.
Keywords: theory, cluster

2627. Menegus, F. Nuclear and Electronic Structure of Atoms. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Menegus, F.
All Authors: Menegus, F.
Keywords:

The plot of Extra Neutron number against the Z number of natural elements reveals a trend that shows the same periodicity observed in the chemical properties of elements. Nuclei appears to direct the electronic structure of atoms.

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2628. Mengoli, G., et al. Tritium and Neutron Emission in Conventional and Contact Glow Discharge Electrolysis of D2O at Pd and Ti Cathodes. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O neutron, tritium, titanium ICCF-2

2629. Mengoli, G., et al., The observation of tritium in the electrolysis of D2O at palladium sheet electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1991. 304: p. 279.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Veronesi, F., Buffa, A.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, tritium, loading

2630. Mengoli, G., et al., Tritium and neutron emission in D2O electrolysis at Pd and Ti cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1992. 322: p. 107.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G., Riccardi, L., Buffa, A.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, electrolysis, tritium, neutron, D2O

2631. Mengoli, G., et al., Surface and bulk effects in the extraction of hydrogen from highly loaded Pd sheet electrodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 350: p. 57.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Pd, loading, diffusion

2632. Mengoli, G., et al., Absorption-desorption of deuterium at Pd95%-Rh5% alloy. I: Environment and temperature effects. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 390: p. 135.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: loading, Pd-Rh, overvoltage

2633. Mengoli, G., et al., Absorption-desorption of deuterium at Pd95%-Rh5% alloy. II: Neutron emission. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1995. 395: p. 249.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Fabrizio, M., Manduchi, C., Milli, E., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Pd-Rh, neutron, electrolysis, loading, D2O

2634. Mengoli, G., et al. The nickel-K2CO3, H2O system: an electrochemical and calorimetric examination. in Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals. 1997. Societa Italiana Di Fisica.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Comisso, N., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: electrolysis, H2O, Ni, heat+

2635. Mengoli, G., et al., Anomalous heat effects correlated with electrochemical hydriding of nickel. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1998. 20 D: p. 331.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: electrolysis, H2O, Ni, heat+

Summary. The hydrogen evolution reaction at sintered nickel in H2O-K2CO3 electrolyte was investigated by electrochemical and calorimetric techniques. Hydrogen evolution was accomplished with surface conversion of Ni into β-Ni-hydride, the extent of this reaction being strongly enhanced by temperature. Isoperibolic or isothermal calorimetry measurements show that electrochemical hydriding, especially at a temperature close to the boiling point of the electrolyte, is paralleled by anomalous heat evolution in large excess of electric power input. Electrochemically activated Ni electrodes, led in open circuit, keep on doing heat.

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2636. Mengoli, G., et al., Calorimetry close to the boiling temperature of the D2O/Pd electrolytic system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1998. 444: p. 155.

First Author: Mengoli, G.
All Authors: Mengoli, G., Bernardini, M., Manduchi, C., Zannoni, G.
Keywords: Calorimetry; Temperature; D20/Pd electrolytic system

The electrolytic insertion of deuterium into Pd at 95у was investigated by a simple calorimetric technique. This involved continuous feeding of heating power to the electrolytic cell to maintain it isothermal with an external thermostatic bath: any extraneous thermal phenomenon taking place inside the cell is directly determined by the lack of balance of the original heating power input. It was thus found that Pd loading by deuterium is always paralleled by excess power generation, which largely exceeds the electrolytic power input. After prolonged electrolysis the loaded electrodes were found to continue heat generation in open circuit (o.c.) conditions. The reproducibility of the thermal phenomenon allowed its dependence on several experimental parameters to be investigated.

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2637. Menlove, H.O., et al. Measurement of Neutron Emission From Cylinders Containing Titanium With Pressurized Deuterium Gas. in Workshop on Cold Fusion Phenomena. 1989. Santa Fe, NM.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Mayer, A., Miller, M. C., Ryan, R. R.
Keywords: titanium D2, Pd, neutron

2638. Menlove, H.O. High-Sensitivity Measurements of Neutron Emission From Ti Metal in Pressurized D2 Gas. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, D2 ICCF-1

2639. Menlove, H.O., et al. Reproducible Neutron Emission Measurements From Ti Metal in Pressurized D2 Gas. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Paciotti, M. A., Claytor, T. N., Maltrud, H. R., Rivera, O. M., Tuggle, D. G., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

During the past year, we have measured neutron emission from samples of titanium (Ti) metal and sponge in pressurized D2 gas. In January 1990, we improved our sample preparation procedure and our detector sensitivity level so that the neutron-emission measurements are now reproducible, but not yet predictable. We have measured excess neutron emission from the majority of our most recent samples using our high-sensitivity neutron detectors. The improved sensitivity in our new detector system was obtained by using low-radioactive-background stainless steel tubes, a small detector volume with high efficiency, and additional cosmic-ray shielding. Our most sensitive detector consists of two independent segments making up inner and outer rings of 3He tubes. The combined total efficiency is 44%. In addition to inner and outer ring segments, we have three separate detector systems operating in parallel control experiments to monitor environmental change. We have measured neutron bursts from a variety of samples containing Ti metal and D2 gas. The low-multiplicity bursts, emitting from 2 to 10 n, occur much more frequently than the higher multiplicity bursts. By measuring high-mass samples (300 g Ti) over several weeks, with many liquid nitrogen temperature cycles, we have detected neutron emission above the background from most of the samples with a significance level of 3 to 9 σ.

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2640. Menlove, H.O., et al., The measurement of neutron emission from Ti plus D2 gas. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9: p. 215.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Mayer, A., Miller, M. C., Ryan, R. R., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron

2641. Menlove, H.O., et al., Measurement of neutron emission from Ti and Pd in pressurized D2 gas and D2O electrolysis cells. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 495.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Fowler, M. M., Garcia, E., Miller, M. C., Paciotti, M. A., Ryan, R. R., Jones, S. E.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, electrolysis, neutron, D2O

2642. Menlove, H.O. and M.C. Miller, Neutron-burst detectors for cold-fusion experiments. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1990. 299: p. 10.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Miller, M. C.
Keywords: neutron, titanium, method, D2

2643. Menlove, H.O., et al. Low-background Measurements of Neutron Emission from Ti Metal in Pressurized Deuterium Gas. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Menlove, H. O.
All Authors: Menlove, H. O., Paciotti, M. A., Claytor, T. N., Tuggle, D. G.
Keywords: titanium, D2, neutron method ICCF-2

A wide variety of neutron detector systems have been used at vari­ous research facilities to search for anomalous neutron emission from deuterated metals. Some of these detector systems are summarized here together with possible sources of spurious signals from electronic noise. During the past two years, we have performed experiments to measure neutron emission from pressurized D2 gas mixed with various forms of titanium metal chips and sponge. Details concerning the neutron detec­tors, experimental procedures, and results have been reported previ­ously. Our recent experiments have focused on increasing the low-level neutron emission and finding a way to trigger the emission. To improve our detection sensitivity, we have increased the shielding in our count­ing laboratory, changed to low-background 3He tubes, and set up addi­tional detector systems in deep underground counting stations. This re­port is an update on this experimental work.

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2644. Merriman, B. and P. Burchard, An attempted replication of the CETI cold fusion experiment. 1996.

First Author: Merriman, B.
All Authors: Merriman, B., Burchard, P.
Keywords: CETI, replication, Ni, H2O

2645. Metzler, F., P.L. Hagelstein, and S. Lu, Developing Phonon-Nuclear Coupling Experiments with Vibrating Plates and Radiation Detectors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Metzler, F.
All Authors: Metzler, F., Hagelstein, P. L., Lu, S.
Keywords: Karabut experiment, kHz and MHz transducers, Phonon–nuclear coupling, Radiation detection, Up-conversion

Excess heat has been reported in cold fusion experiments since 1989; however, there is at present no accepted explanation for what mechanisms are involved. Over the past decades a general theory has been developed which seems applicable to excess heat and other anomalies systematically; but in this case we do not yet have unambiguous experimental support for the phonon-nuclear coupling and enhanced up-conversion and down-conversion mechanism. This has motivated experimental studies with which we hope to develop relevant experimental results from which clear tests of theory can be made. A facility has been developed with which we are able to induce vibrations in metal plates from about 10 kHz up to about 10 MHz and then measure the relative displacement. With a high-power piezo transducer we have driven a steel plate at 2.23 MHz to produce a vibrational power of 100 W. We are able to detect X-rays with film, scintillator and camera, with low-cost sensitive scintillator/PMT detectors, and with an Amptek X-123 detector. We also have detectors that can see gamma and neutron emission.

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2646. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha. Tunneling Beneath the 4He Fragmentation Energy (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords: Theory

Abstract At ICCF-14, we presented the means whereby the repulsive Coulomb barrier between hydrogen (deuterium) nuclei is reduced in length, perhaps by orders of magnitude. This mechanism, involving optical phonons and electric fields (internally or externally generated) in a lattice that induce the formation of H- H+ (D- D+) pairs, increases the tunneling probability by more than 100 orders of magnitude. It has additional major consequences.The lattice constraints and collision processes force the ions into a temporary, but cyclic, 1-D configuration that greatly deepens the electron ground-state potential well. The tightly-bound and energetic electron pair (a local-charged Boson – the lochon) becomes more than strong screening, it becomes a binding force between the nuclei. Thus, the Coulomb-barrier height is reduced as well as its length. With this greatly enhanced barrier-penetration probability, the energy level of nuclei with reasonable tunneling probability drops from the multi-100 keV range down into the eV range. . . .

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2647. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha. Tunneling beneath the 4He* fragmentation energy. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords:

The repulsive Coulomb barrier between deuterium nuclei is reduced in length and height by a catalytic mechanism involving optical phonons and electric fields in a lattice. If the mechanism induces the formation of D- D+ pairs, the tightly-bound and energetic electron pair (in the D- ion) becomes a binding force between the nuclei. The lattice constraints and slow collision processes, force the ions into a near 1-D configuration that deepens the electron ground-state potential well. This permits the electron pair to remain closely bound to one deuteron and to do work in bringing the D- D+ pair together. These tightly-bound electrons may remain as a pair, attached to a single deuteron, during the fusion process. In reducing the Coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons, these electrons bring down the total energy of the fusing D- D+ pair and raise the fragmentation energy level. This process accounts for the observations in CMNS of excess heat (in both p-p and d-d reactions) and for the differing observations (or their absence) of tritium, 3He, neutrons, and 4He in the d-d reaction. Thus, all major observed CMNS processes are explained.

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2648. Meulenberg, A. and K.P. Sinha, Tunneling Beneath the 4He∗ Fragmentation Energy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 241-255.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, K. P.
Keywords: CMNS, Catalyst, Deuterium, LENR, Phonon-assisted, Tight-binding

The repulsive Coulomb barrier between deuterium nuclei is reduced in length and height by a catalytic mechanism involving optical phonons and electric fields in a lattice. If this mechanism induces the formation of D− D+ pairs, the tightly bound and energetic electron pair (a “lochon” in the D− ion) becomes an attractive force between the nuclei. The lattice constraints and slow collision processes force the ions into a near 1-D configuration within the lattice that deepens the electron ground-state potential well. This permits the electron pair to remain closely bound to one deuteron and to do work in bringing the D− D+ pair together. The work done reduces the nuclear-mass deficit (transferring it to electron kinetic and field energy) and that, along with the reduced Coulomb repulsion of the nuclear protons, brings down the helium nuclear-energy levels of the fusing pair and raises the 4He fragmentation level. The proposed model accounts for the observations in condensed-matter nuclear science (CMNS) of excess heat (in both p-p andd-d reactions) and the differing observations (or for the absence) of tritium, 3He, neutrons, and 4He. The variation (unpredictability) of results (inherent in the many experiments) and evidence for transmutation, heretofore stumbling blocks to acceptability of CMNS, is now perhaps a validation of its existence. All major observed CMNS processes are addressed by the model.

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2649. Meulenberg, A., Review of Storms Paper. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: theory, critique

Edmund Storms’ paper, “Cold Fusion from a Chemist’s Point of View,” has some serious flaws, but it also has some good points.A major flaw of the paper is its dependence on a hypothesis of “two-in-two-out.” The argument is flawed and is based on physics quite different than that suggested in the paper. It is used throughout the paper and, by it being incorrect, thereby vitiates the value of the paper. . . .

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2650. Meulenberg, A., From the Naught Orbit to the 4He Excited State. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Electron-capture, Internal-conversion, LENR, Lochon, Muon-catalysis, Naught-orbit

An electron pair (lochon) in a deep hydrogen ‘naught’ orbit (n = 0) has similarities to muonic hydrogen in that it has a small orbital radius that allows the protons in molecular hydrogen to be very much closer together than is possible in a normal molecule. There are also significant differences between lochon- and muon-catalyzed fusion (e.g., one leads to ‘cold’ fusion and the other the ‘hot’ fusion). However, since muon-catalyzed fusion is an accepted phenomenon and Lattice-assisted Nuclear Reaction (LANR) or Low-energy Nuclear Reaction ( LENR) is not, we will examine the similarities and differences in various mechanisms with the fusion of deuterons in mind. We start with the assumption that both solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation are actually real and the one that has here-to-for been rejected correctly identifies a single deep orbit below the n = 1 ground state. (It is generally accepted that, at least for spinless bosons such as the lochon, this solution of the Klein-Gordon equation holds.) We then compare the creation model and characteristics of these two naught orbits with those of the muonic orbits (both atomic and molecular). The similarities lead both naught-orbit and muonic-orbit molecules to fusion. The differences lead the non-relativistic (but >100 MeV excess energy) muon-induced fusion of deuterons to the fragmentation of excited helium nuclei and the relativistic (but <10 eV excess energy) lochon-induced D-D fusion to an excited helium 4He* state that is below these fragmentation levels. The reason for this different response to the respective “tight” orbits is described along with some of the consequences, e.g., electron capture. In addition, internal conversion, a known physical process involving nucleon interaction with atomic electrons, is compared with the Extended Lochon Model to provide a means of de-exciting 4He* without production of energetic particles or radiation.

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2651. Meulenberg, A., Femto-Atoms and transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Deep-electron levels, Femto-atoms, Fusion, Transmutation

The low-energy nuclear-reaction fusion process for a deep-electron orbit femto-hydrogen atom, H# , with an atomic nucleus yields new isotopes and femto-atoms. The multi-body interaction, strong near-field radiation from tightly bound electrons, and low input energies, make energetic particle emission less common than for normal fusion or neutron-activation processes.

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2652. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, New Visions of Physics through the Microscope of Cold Fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

Cold-Fusion (CF) Research is not hindered as much by what we do not know as it is by what we know too well. This paper identifies several standard physics models, which must be extended beyond present practice, and indicates condensed-matter nuclear science (CMNS) work in this direction.

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2653. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, Deep-orbit-electron radiation emission in decay from 4H^*# to 4He. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

The process of nuclear energy transfer to the lattice involves near-field electromagnetic coupling of energy from energetic charged nuclei to deep-Dirac level electrons. From there, the energetic electrons near-field and far-field couple energy into adjacent Pd-bound electrons causing intense local ionization, but no energetic radiation beyond the multi-keV level.

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2654. Meulenberg, A. and A. Sinha, Deep-electron orbits in cold fusion. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Sinha, A.
Keywords: Theory

The lochon models of cold fusion, among others, propose deep-energy electrons as necessary for low-energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Relativistic Schrodinger equations, e.g., the Klein-Gordon (K-G) and Dirac equations, have â€ËŢirregular’ solutions that predict such levels at ~500 keV. The basis for such a level and its implications are presented.

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2655. Meulenberg, A., Femto-Helium and PdD Transmutation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Femto-atoms, Femto-molecules, Deep-Dirac levels, Neutral-alpha, Selective fusion

Extensive evidence exists for cold fusion to produce transmutation products as well as excess heat. This paper deals with the palladium-deuteride (PdD) structure that is generally modeled with a deuterium-to-helium (D + D ) 4He) cold-fusion process. How this process results in transmutation is based on the extended-lochon model that predicts deep-orbit electrons that are tightly bound to the 4He nucleus and thus make the equivalent of a neutralized alpha particle. This model is compared with the NiH system (H + H)D, H##2 , or 2H#/ described earlier and distinguishes long-range from short-range transmutation (distance from the fusion site) as well as the relative excess energies from fusion vs. transmutation. The model predicts the probable transmutation process(es) and products in the palladium system and explains other observed results of cold-fusion experiments.

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2656. Meulenberg, A., Pictorial Description for LENR in Linear Defects of a Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Coulomb potential, Linear array, Nuclear Coulomb potential, Spin–spin coupling Variable lattice spacing

This note provides a pictorial description of several new concepts in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) and thereby provides an image for both theoreticians and experimentalists to better grasp the differences with the old. Recent work on the concept of a ‘linear hydrogen molecule within a lattice defect’ is emphasized by showing how the interatomic spacing of the unusual molecule is no longer bound by the lattice spacing. A concept of the nature of the Coulomb potential for finite-sized charges at nuclear distances is pictured so that people stop clinging to the point- and separated-charge descriptions that are no longer appropriate. A known force, spin-spin coupling, may be important when dimensions approach those of the nucleus. The strong magnetic moment of the electron, indicating the importance of this effect at larger distances, is also pictured.

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2657. Meulenberg, A., Radiation Coupling: Nuclear Protons to Deep-Orbit-Electrons, then to the Lattice. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Deep-Dirac levels, Non-photonic coupling, Nucleon radiation, Potential shapes

This paper [1] explores the properties of the tightly bound electrons predicted by the anomalous solution to the Dirac equations. Starting with the assumption that electrons can exist in these deep-Dirac levels (DDLs) with orbits in the femtometer range and 500 keV binding energies, the electromagnetic radiation fields and their coupling to both nuclear and atomic-electrons are identified. The shapes of both the nuclear potentials and the potential at the bottom of the Coulomb regime have a major role in the coupling between excited nucleons and the DDL electrons. The many orders-of-magnitude differences in frequency of the nucleons, the DDL electrons, and the atomic electrons account for the small interactions under normal circumstances. The changes in these frequencies in radioactive nuclides and for excitation of the DDL electrons account for many of the observed phenomena in cold fusion.

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2658. Meulenberg, A., Extensions to physics: what cold fusion teaches. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A.
Keywords:

2659. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Nature of the Deep-Dirac Levels. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Anomalous solution, Dirac equations, Electron deep levels, Hydrogen atom, Relativity

Maly and Va’vra (M&V) in 1993 and 1995 presented a computational evaluation of the Dirac equations that included the ‘anomalous’ solution. The regular solutions of these equations are the basis for modern quantum mechanical predictions for comparison with the experimental values of atomic-electron orbital energies. The other solution, discussed in the literature for over 55 years, is relativistic and considered anomalous because its predicted levels are very deep (up to 511 keV) and have never been observed. Nevertheless, the existence of these deep levels provides a ready explanation of the mechanism for penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the means of D-D fusion below the 4He fragmentation levels. Since these levels also provide the basis for all of the other cold fusion observations (both PdD and NiH systems), it is important that arguments for and against the Dirac model be examined. The theoretical support for this anomalous solution is provided in a companion paper in this conference. This presentation seeks: to update the deep-orbit information provided in a poster at ICCF-17, to describe the nature of these deep-Dirac levels (DDLs), to report on additional, but unpublished, results presented by Va’vra in 1998, and to correct some interpretations of the model that Va’vra has provided in 2013. There are some unusual properties of the DDLs relative to those of the known atomic orbitals. Interpretation of the DDL properties, based on the non-relativistic solutions, leads to misunderstandings and further rejection of the concept of the deep levels. We hope to clarify this situation and indicate the importance of the calculations for cold fusion models. Cold fusion results provide a basis for understanding the DDLs and the proposed new fields of femto-physics and femto-chemistry.

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2660. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Basis for Femto-molecules and -Ions Created from Femto-atoms. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Deep-Dirac levels, Femto-hydrides, Halo nuclei, Isotopic anomalies, Medium-range nuclear binding

Starting with the assumption of validity of the Dirac equations (relativistic quantum mechanics), which are fundamental to much of atomic physics today, we also assume that the anomalous solutions to these equations are valid. If they are valid, then short-lived femto-atoms with electron orbitals in the low femto-meter range should exist. If femto-atoms exist, then the existence of femtomolecules could be expected. This paper addresses the possibility and nature of the femto-molecules and the nature of the forces creating them. The approach is that of Feynman’s molecular-hydrogen ion derivation using the Yukawa potential. The result is a molecular ion with femto-meter order spacing between the nuclei and an attractive potential identical with a medium-range Yukawa potential for an exchange particle with the mass of an electron. There are significant implications for both cold fusion and for nuclear physics and chemistry.

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2661. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Implications of the Electron Deep Orbits for Cold Fusion and Physics – Deep-orbit-electron Models in LENR: Present and Future. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 214-229.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Femto-atoms, 500 keV binding energies, Near-field interactions, Nuclear remediation, Relativistic bound electrons, Sub-restmass nucleons, Transmutation

Relativistic deep-orbit electrons (D-O-Es) have previously been identified as the probable mechanism in the development of lowenergy nuclear reaction (LENR) theories based on experimental Cold Fusion (CF) results. This present paper highlights how relativity and the near-field interactions (of deep-orbit electrons with both the nucleus and the lattice) predict accepted and many reported, but not-yet-accepted, CF observations. Included in the former category are: all of the new fragmentation ratios for the D+D => 4He CF nuclear reaction; a high-probability p-e-p => d reaction; a ‘fast’ decay process for transitions from excited to ground nuclear states; and a means of transferring excess nuclear energy to the lattice. Included in the latter category are: energy transfer from s-orbit atomic electrons to low-lying nuclear states; the formation of femto-atoms and femto-molecules – a basis for transmutations without the known ‘hard’ radiation (particulate or photonic) characteristic of neutron activation processes; selective attraction of femto-atoms/molecules to radio-nuclides (nuclear remediation); and the ‘preferred’ transmutation pathways in CF. Other effects, based on the published deep-orbit models, are predicted. Because of the successes of these models in explaining so much of CF, their mathematical basis is presently being explored beyond previous work(s). The physical bases for, and the consequences of, the mathematical predictions are proposed and described here. These include: special relativity and binding energy; the deBroglie term and spin-axis precessions; the deep-orbit quantum number, k; and deep-level splitting from spin-orbit, spin-spin, momentum and magnetic interactions. Theoretical concepts such as: symmetry breaking, ‘sequestration’, and elementary-particle mass changes to below their rest mass are also addressed. The new results and their interpretation, while incomplete, provide both satisfaction (in resolving prior issues) and surprises (in the magnitude and variety of near-nuclear effects).

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2662. Meulenberg, A. and J.-L. Paillet, Physical Reasons for Accepting the Deep-Dirac Levels- Physical Reality vs Mathematical Models in LENR. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 230-235.

First Author: Meulenberg, A.
All Authors: Meulenberg, A., Paillet, J-L.
Keywords: Deep-electron orbits, Hydrogen atom, Relativistic equations, Singularities

Limitations to contemporary models of Coulomb and nuclear interactions have previously been identified in the development of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) theories based on experimental Cold Fusion (CF) results. However, relativistic quantum mechanics has already provided a means to overcome these limitations. Nevertheless, this ‘anomalous’ solution has been repeatedly rejected, based on the mathematical formalism of an assumed singular potential, simply because it has not been necessary heretofore in the description of available physical data. The physical realities of a non-singular potential and its interaction with a relativistic electron are not new physics and provide a solid theoretical basis for CF (as indicated in another paper in this conference, and the references therein) and for new fields in femto-physics and nuclear chemistry. This present paper is essentially a reasoned complaint against those critics who proclaim the limitations of the anomalous solution, yet ignore the inapplicability of their chosen potential to the real world where they claim the solution(s) fail. It also castigates those physicists who accept the mathematical limitations as applicable to the real world even when presented with the evidence of assumptions made where they are no longer valid. The paper picks a few of these alleged limitations and shows how relativity and near-field interactions alter predictions based on the mathematical models and approximations used to characterize the conventionally accepted observations. It identifies where the simple models fail, or violate physical reality, and points to the implications of extending the models to better fit the real world and to properly understand the physical mechanism(s) involved.

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2663. Meyerhof, W.E. Statistical Analysis of a Cold Fusion Experiment. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Meyerhof, W. E.
All Authors: Meyerhof, W. E.
Keywords: critique, Yagi

2664. Meyerhof, W.E., Statistical Analysis of a ‘Cold Fusion’ experiment. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. Lett., 1991. 153: p. 391.

First Author: Meyerhof, W. E.
All Authors: Meyerhof, W. E.
Keywords: critique, Yagi

2665. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on the possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Xuebao. Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30(1): p. 39 (in Chinese).

First Author: Miao, B.
All Authors: Miao, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, titanium, D2O, heat

2666. Miao, B., Experimental exploration on possible mechanism of D-D cold fusion in titanium lattice. Xibei Shifan Daxue Xuebao, Ziran Kexueban, 1994. 30: p. 44 (in Chinese).

First Author: Miao, B.
All Authors: Miao, B.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat tritium, neutron, titanium Helium

2667. Michrowski, A., Advanced transmutation processes and their application for the decontamination of radioactive nuclear waste. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 122.

First Author: Michrowski, A.
All Authors: Michrowski, A.
Keywords: transmutation, Brown’s gas, reduce radioactivity

2668. Middleton, R., J. Klein, and D. Fink, Tritium measurements with a tandem accelerator. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 1990. 47: p. 409.

First Author: Middleton, R.
All Authors: Middleton, R., Klein, J., Fink, D.
Keywords: tritium, method, titanium, D2 TiD

2669. Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell. Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies of the Cold Fusion Effect. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Park, K. H., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, method, electrolysis, ICCF-1

Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd/D2O cells and the controls. For example, the ratio of heat out to Joule heat in was 1.00 Ѱ.04 for one study and 1.065 Ѱ.04 for another study in LiOD/D2O compared to 1.075 Ѱ.07 in LiOH/H2O. The use of a much thicker palladium rod (99.96%, d = 0.635 cm) from Johnson Matthey, however, resulted in calorimetric evidence for excess enthalpy in five out of six cells. The excess rate of heating averaged 0.39 W/cm^3 over a 9-day period in one experiment. The total excess enthalpy observed was 110,000 J. This excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by chemical reactions. Similar experiments conducted in H2O did not produce significant amounts of excess enthalpy. Possible experimental errors in these calorimetric studies are being investigated.

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2670. Miles, M. and R.E. Miles, Theoretical neutron flux levels, dose rates, and metal foil activation in electrochemical cold fusion experiments. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 295: p. 409.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Miles, R. E.
Keywords: theory, neutron, method

2671. Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell, Electrochemical calorimetric evidence for cold fusion in the palladium-deuterium system. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1990. 296: p. 241.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Park, K. H., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat+, electrolysis, Pd, D2O, H2O, tritium

2672. Miles, M., et al. Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Ostrom, G. S., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: heat+ Helium Pd D2O electrolysis

2673. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Search for Anomalous Effects Involving Excess Power and Helium During D2O Electrolysis Using Palladium Cathodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: helium Pd D2O heat+ electrolysis ICCF-3

Eight electrolysis gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production in two identical cells showed the presence of 4He. Six control samples gave no evidence for helium. Various studies of helium diffusion intoour Pyrex glass sample flasks established a minimum helium detection limit of 3 x 10^13 4He/500 mL (3 ppb) for our experiments. This places our rate of 4He production at 10^11 – 10^12 4He/s * W which is the correct magnitude for typical fusion reactions that yield helium as a product. Simultaneous evidence for excess power, helium production, and anomalous radiation was present in these experiments. Progress relating to helium measurements have been hindered by difficulties in obtaining large excess power effects.

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2674. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Calorimetric Principles and Problems in Pd-D2O Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: error critique, heat+ ICCF-3

Most of the laboratories involved with the question of excess enthalpy in Pd-D2O electrolysis experiments have employed isoperibolic calorimetric techniques. A careful re-examination of earlier results from several laboratories (California Institute of Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Harwell Laboratory) is needed in terms of our present understanding of electrochemical calorimetry. Error sources in their experiments are discussed. There is possible evidence for excess power production in the Pd-D2O electrolysis experiments at one of these laboratories. A significant experimental problem in many isoperibolic calorimetric studies is the fact that the decrease in the electrolyte level due to electrolysis produces a significant decrease in the calorimetric cell constant if the temperature is measured in the electrolyte of the electrochemical cell. Furthermore, heat conduction pathways out of the top of the cell can produce large errors, especially at low power levels. There is no steady state in electrochemical calorimetry, hence accurate results require the evaluation of all terms in the differential equation governing the calorimeter.

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2675. Miles, M. and C.P. Jones, Cold fusion experimenter Miles responds to critic. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 1992. Spring: p. 75.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Jones, C. P.
Keywords: critique Jones Miles, He heat

2676. Miles, M., Letter to Steven E. Jones. 1993.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

2677. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: D2O heat+, electrolysis, helium Pd ICCF-4

2678. Miles, M., et al., Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. J. Electroanal. Chem., 1993. 346: p. 99.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Hollins, R. A., Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J., Miles, R. E.
Keywords: heat+ electrolysis Pd, D2O, He layer, H2O tritium

A critical issue in determining whether or not the anomalous effects that occur during D2O electrolysis are of nuclear origin is the measurement of nuclear products in amounts sufficient to explain the rate of excess enthalpy generation. Calorimetric evidence of excess power up to 27% was measured during the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium cathodes. Maximum excess power was 0.52 W (1.5 W/cm^3) at 250 mA/cm^2. Eight electrolysis gas samples collected during episodes of excess power production in two identical cells and analysed by mass spectrometry showed the presence of 4He. Furthermore, the amount of helium detected correlated qualitatively with the amount of excess power and was within an order of magnitude of the theoretical estimate of helium production based upon fusion of deuterium to form 4He. Any production of 3He or neutrons in these experiments was below our detection limits. However, the exposure of dental X-ray films placed outside the cells suggests the emission of radiation. Control experiments performed in exactly the same way but using H2O + LiOH in place of D2O + LiOD gave no evidence of helium, excess power or radiation.

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2679. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and J.J. Lagowski, Anomalous effects involving excess power, radiation, and helium production during D2O electrolysis using palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 478.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Lagowski, J. J.
Keywords: heat+ He electrolysis Pd D2O diffusion, pyrex

2680. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush, Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated Palladium. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 156.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: heat He Pd, D2O, electrolysis

2681. Miles, M., B.F. Bush, and D.E. Stilwell, Calorimetric principles and problems in measurements of excess power during Pd-D2O electrolysis. J. Phys. Chem., 1994. 98: p. 1948.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F., Stilwell, D. E.
Keywords: heat, method, critique, Lewis

2682. Miles, M. The Extraction of Information From an Integrating Open Calorimeter in Fleischmann-Pons Effect Experiments. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: D2O, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, ICCF-5

Our first 5 months of investigating the Fleischmann-Pons effect in 1989 experiments produced no significant excess enthalpy. The November 1989 report of the Energy Research Advisory Board to the U.S. Department of Energy listed China Lake with MIT, Cal tech, Harwell, and other laboratories as one of the groups

    not

observing excess heat. Later experiments using palladium from another source (Johnson-Matthey), however, produced up to 30% excess power and 1,400 kJ of excess enthalpy. This amount of excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by any chemical reaction. Numerous experiments have shown that there is no recombination of the D2 and O2 electrolysis gases when fully-submerged palladium cathodes are used. Recombination can occur when palladium particles are exposed to the gas phase. In this case, our experiments prove that this recombination can be readily detected and easily corrected. In general, only about 20% of our experiments have produced measurable amounts of excess enthalpy. The cathode material used is apparently a major factor since successful experiments cluster around Johnson-Matthey supplied palladium.

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2683. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems, Final Report. 1996, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, 4He

Excess power was measured in 28 out of 94 electrochemical experiments conducted using palladium or palladium-alloy cathodes in heavy water. Reproducibility continues to be the major problem in this controversial research area. Based on our experiments, this lack of reproducibility stems from unknown variables in the palladium metal. The best reproducibility for excess power was obtained using palladium-boron materials supplied by the Naval Research Laboratory. Our basic isoperibolic calorimeters were capable of measuring excess power with a sensitivity of ѱ% of the input power or Ѳ0 mW, whichever was larger. Calorimeters that are capable of detecting excess power levels of 1 watt per cubic centimeter of palladium are essential for research in this field. Results from our laboratory indicate that helium-4 is the missing nuclear product accompanying the excess heat. Thirty out of 33 experiments showed a correlation between either excess power and helium production or no excess power and no excess helium. The collection of the electrolysis gases in both glass and metal flasks place the helium production rate at 10^11 to 10^12 atoms per second per watt of excess power. This is the correct magnitude for typical deuteron fusion reactions that yield helium-4 as a product. Anomalous radiation was defected in some experiments by the use of X-ray films, Geiger-Mueller counters, and by the use of sodium iodide detectors. There was never any significant production of tritium in any of our experiments.

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2684. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson, Electrochemical insertion of hydrogen into metals and alloys. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5 & 6): p. 68.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, deloading, boron

Several types of calorimetric cell designs were used in attempts to measure excess enthalpy during the electrolysis of LiOD/D2O using palladium cathodes. Control experiments were run by using light water in place of D2O or by using platinum cathodes in place of palladium. Initial experiments using thin palladium cathodes of an unknown purity gave no significant differences between the Pd/D2O cells and the controls. For example, the ratio of heat out to Joule heat in was 1.00 Ѱ.04 for one study and 1.065 Ѱ.04 for another study in LiOD/D2O compared to 1.075 Ѱ.07 in LiOH/H2O. The use of a much thicker palladium rod (99.96%, d = 0.635 cm) from Johnson Matthey, however, resulted in calorimetric evidence for excess enthalpy in five out of six cells. The excess rate of heating averaged 0.39 W/cm^3 over a 9-day period in one experiment. The total excess enthalpy observed was 110,000 J. This excess enthalpy is difficult to explain by chemical reactions. Similar experiments conducted in H2O did not produce significant amounts of excess enthalpy. Possible experimental errors in these calorimetric studies are being investigated.

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2685. Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Electrochemical loading of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium and palladium-boron alloys. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: loading, Pd, electrolysis, heat+, D2O, Pd-B, ICCF-6

Excess power production and other anomalous effects have been observed during the electrolysis of heavy water using palladium and palladium-boron alloys as the cathode materials. This study focused on hydrogen and deuterium loading into palladium and palladium-boron alloys. Improved calorimetry provided for the detection of the exothermic heat of absorption of deuterium into palladium and palladium-alloy cathodes. The addition of boron to palladium does not significantly affect the initial loading rate but slows further loading to higher levels. The presence of boron in the palladium significantly slows the rate of the deloading process. Cracks or other surface defects prevent high loading levels of hydrogen or deuterium into palladium or palladium-boron alloys.

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2686. Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Heat and Helium Measurements Using Palladium and Palladium Alloys in Heavy Water. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: heat+ Helium electrolysis D2O Pd ICCF-6

2687. Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson. Improved, Open Cell, Heat Conduction, Isoperibolic Calorimetry. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Johnson, K. B.
Keywords: method, isoperibolic, heat+, ICCF-6

2688. Miles, M., Electrochemical calorimetric studies of palladium and palladium alloys in heavy water. 1998: Sapporo, Japan.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat, electrolysis, D2O, Pd, tritium,

2689. Miles, M. and B.F. Bush. Radiation Measurements at China Lake:Real or Artifacts? in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Bush, B. F.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2O, heat, ICCF-7

Anomalously high radiation counts were observed using several different Geiger-Mueller (GM) detectors as well as sodium iodide (NaI) detectors during electrolysis experiments with palladium cathodes in heavy water. These high radiation counts were often observed in co-deposition experiments where palladium metal is deposited from a D2O solution onto a copper cathode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. The anomalous radiation counts reached values as high as 73 sigma above normal background counts. The anomalous radiation would appear within a few hours in the co-deposition experiments where the palladium is loaded with deuterium as it deposits from solution. In contrast, the appearance of anomalous radiation required days of electrolysis for the palladium rods that load much slower. The real or artifact question stems mainly from the fact that two similar GM detectors often gave different results in monitoring the excess radiation. A few experiments, nevertheless, gave simultaneous anomalous effects from two different radiation detectors.

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2690. Miles, M., Reply to ‘Examination of claims of Miles et al. in Pons-Fleischmann-type cold fusion experiments’. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3642.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: critique, Jones Miles

2691. Miles, M., Reply to ‘An assessment of claims of excess heat in cold fusion calorimetry’. J. Phys. Chem. B, 1998. 102: p. 3648.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Miles, critique, Jones

2692. Miles, M. Production of helium in the cold. in 18th Annual Meeting of the Society for Scientific Exploration. 1999. Albuquerque, NM.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: He heat, Pd, electrolysis D2O

2693. Miles, M. Calorimetric Studies of Palladium Alloy Cathodes Using Fleischmann-Pons Dewar Type Cells. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, Pd-B, Pd-Ce-B, Pd-Ce, critique, ICCF-8

My first three experiments conducted at NHE using the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) Dewar type cells investigated the Pd-Ce-B, Pd-B, and Pd-Ce alloy cathodes. Significant excess power was produced from the cells using the Pd-B and Pd-Ce alloy cathodes. The Pd-Ce-B alloy, in contrast, showed no measureable excess power effects. Previous experiments at China Lake using similar Pd-B alloy cathodes prepared by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) produced excess heat in seven out of eight experiments. The same Pd-Ce cathode that was used at NHE also produced significant excess power in previous experiments at China Lake. Due to the controversy over methods of data analysis for the F-P cells (see ICCF-5 Proceedings, 1995, pp. 105-115), I developed my own methods while at NHE. As I refined my methods for evaluating the calorimetric measurements, they approached more closely the methods outlined by Fleischmann and Pons in their Icarus Systems handbooks available at NHE. The method previously developed by NHE for the analysis of the F-P cells showed no excess heat for any of these same three experiments. The major problem with the NHE method is that a single calibration was used in determining the effective radiative heat transfer coefficient for the cell. An incorrect heat transfer coefficient can readily confuse the excess heat effect with the calorimetric error for the system. Calorimetric results for the same experiment using the NHE method, my method, and the F-P method for data analysis are compared. The fact that the alternative NHE method showed no excess heat for F-P cells illustrates the problem in transferring calorimetric methods from one laboratory to another. The second laboratory often fails to follow directions and makes changes that compromise the calorimetry. Similar problems were encountered in the attempt to transfer the China Lake calorimetry to NRL, hence excess heat was not observed.

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2694. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann. “Case Studies” of Two Experiments Carried Out With the ICARUS Systems. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: heat, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, method, critique, ICCF-8

The publication of the Final Report of the New Hydrogen Energy (N.H.E.) Group on their investigations of the Pd/D systems (1) prompts us to analyse a number of experiments carried out with the ICARUS Systems (2), (3). As the reproducibility of such experiments remains low, our analyses rely on a series of “Case Studies” which use appropriate parts of the methodologies developed for these systems (2), (3) (see) also (4), (5), (6), (7), (8).In this paper we present selected parts of such “Case Studies for two experiments carried out in the N.H.E. Laboratories; full details will be given elsewhere (9). The first experiment, designated as FP2 – 9506203 – 5561 used a 2 mm diameter × 12.5 mm length Pd cathode supplied by the IMRA-Materials Laboratory; the second FP2-97120402-M7C2, was carried out by one of us (M.H.M.) also in the N.H.E. Laboratories. This experiment used a 4.75 mm diameter × 20.1 mm length Pd – 0.5%B cathode (prepared by M.A.I. in the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.). Contrary to the conclusions reached in the N.H.E. report (1) we find that these experiments show “Heat-after-Death” and excess enthalpy generation at temperatures close to the boiling points of the electrolytes. The experiment using the Pd-B cathode also shows excess enthalpy generation in other temperature regions as well as the very early development of “positive feedback” (compare (10), (11), (12)). Such “positive feedback” complicates the analyses of the experiments. The “Case Studies” of these experiments also lead to the identification of errors in the execution and analyses of the experiments carried out by the N.H.E. Group.

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2695. Miles, M., Report on Calorimetric Studies at the NHE Laboratory in Sapporo, Japan. Infinite Energy, 2000. 5(30): p. 22.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

Experiments using China Lake type calorimetric cells produced excess power in three out of three experiments and no excess power in three control studies.  A detailed analysis is presented for two experiments using the China Lake cells.  Anomalous thermistor signals in Cell A suggest the emission of electromagnetic radiation from the active palladium cathode.  Experiments in Fleischmann-Pons type calorimetric cells produced excess power in six out of eight experiments.  These studies involved palladium alloy cathodes, co-deposition of palladium and deuterium from the solution, and electromigration using thin palladium wires.

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2696. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Excess heat and helium production in the palladium-boron system. Trans. Amer. Nucl. Soc., 2000. 83(371): p. 72.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

2697. Miles, M., Calorimetric studies of Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis cells. J. Electroanal. Chem., 2000. 482: p. 56.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, heat+, Pd, method

New experiments in sensitive calorimeters displayed the characteristics of the excess power effect during seven different occasions. These measurements clearly show the anomalous increase in the cell temperature despite the steadily decreasing electrical input power during Pd/D2O+LiOD/Pt electrolysis. This strange behavior can be modeled by the use of an anomalous excess power term in the calorimetric equations. Two thermistors used in each calorimetric cell always show nearly identical temperature changes, thus errors due to temperature gradients within the cell are unlikely. The onset of the excess power apparently develops in a gradual manner. There were never any large, abrupt increases in the excess power. The addition of D2O with its sudden cooling of the cell generally dissipated the excess power effect. No clear triggering events for the excess power could be identified. Possible chemical explanations for the excess power are discussed. Normal behavior was always observed for a similar experiment conducted as a control.

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2698. Miles, M., M. Fleischmann, and M.A. Imam, Calorimetric Analysis of a Heavy Water Electrolysis Experiment Using a Pd-B Alloy Cathode. 2001, Naval Research Laboratory: Washington. p. 155.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, D2O, Pd-B, electrolysis, critique

A Pd-B alloy prepared at NRL was studied at both China Lake (NAWCWD) and at NHE in Japan and was found to produce excess energy both times.

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2699. Miles, M., M.A. Imam, and M. Fleischmann, Calorimetric analysis of a heavy water electrolysis experiment using a Pd-B alloy cathode. Proc. Electrochem. Soc., 2001. 2001-23: p. 194.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Imam, M. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Experimental, electrolysis, Pd alloy, heat, res+

2700. Miles, M., et al. The Elevation of Boiling Points in H2O and D2O Electrolytes. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University.: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Arman, H. D., Carrick, J. D., Gren, C. K., Haggerty, K. A., Kim, H. Y., Ky, A. G., Markham, J. E., Meeks, C. F., Noga, D. E.
Keywords: Pd,, D2O,, electrolysis,, heat,, boiling point,, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT The excess enthalpy effect in cold fusion experiments for Pd/D2O + LiOD systems is subject to positive feedback, i.e., increasing the cell temperature increases the excess enthalpy. Therefore, the largest excess enthalpy effects are often observed near or at the boiling point corresponding to that of the electrolyte solution in the cell. The exact boiling temperatures at different electrolyte concentrations are needed for cold fusion experiments. These studies of LiOH in H2O and LiOD in D2O both show boiling point elevations at higher concentrations that are significantly lower than theoretical calculations based on ideal solutions. Activity coefficients of LiOD in D2O at the boiling point of D2O (101.42у) are also reported. These boiling point measurements suggest a purity problem with heavy water samples that may contribute to the reproducibility problem for excess enthalpy.

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2701. Miles, M., et al. Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-deposition. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Szpak, S., Mosier-Boss, P. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Pd co-deposition, heat electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-9

ABSTRACT The thermal behavior of a polarized Pd+D electrode prepared by the co-deposition technique and serving as the cathode in the Fleischmann-Pons (F/P) Dewar-type electrochemical cell/calorimeter was investigated at the NHE Laboratory in Sapporo, Japan. These measurements show that (i) excess enthalpy is generated during and after the completion of the co-deposition process, (ii) rates of excess enthalpy generation are somewhat higher than when Pd wires or other forms of Pd electrodes are used and (iii) positive feedback and heat-after-death effects were present in this system.

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2702. Miles, M. Correlation Of Excess Enthalpy And Helium-4 Production: A Review. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Review

Three different sets of experiments conducted in the Navy Laboratory (NAWCWD) at China Lake, California (1990-1994) clearly established that helium-4 is the main fusion product in the Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis system.  A correlation between excess enthalpy and excess helium-4 was measured in 18 out of 21 experiments.  The observation of no excess enthalpy was correlated with no excess helium-4 in 12 out of 12 experiments.  Thus 30 out of 33 experiments agree with the hypothesis that the excess enthalpy produced in cold fusion studies is correlated with helium-4 production:  D + D –> 4He + 23.8 MeV.  Furthermore, the measured rate of helium-4 production was always in the appropriate range of 10^10 to 10^12 atoms per second per watt of excess power.

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2703. Miles, M. Fluidized Bed Experiments Using Platinum And Palladium Particles In Heavy Water. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Excess heat, fluidized bed

These experiments were designed to give the dynamic electrolysis conditions of fluidized beds by the use of small palladium particles.  Both direct current electrolysis and pulse power electrolysis methods were used in this study.  The excess power observed was 90 mW for direct current electrolysis in D2O + 0.1 M LiOD (I=0.300 to 0.400 A).  For pulse electrolysis (pulse width 1.0 ms, pulse frequency 5 KHZ, peak voltage 98 V), the excess power increased to 250 mW.  No excess power was observed for similar experiments using platinum particles in D2O + 0.1 M LiOD.

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2704. Miles, M., NEDO Final Report – Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies Of Palladium And Palladium Alloys In Heavy Water. 2004, University of La Verne.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

The main feature of the Fleischmann-Pons effect is excess heat production.  My experiments designed to measure excess heat focused on the use of two types of isoperibolic calorimeters.  Cells A and B transfer heat mainly by conduction while the three Fleischmann-Pons type cells transfer heat mainly by radiation.  The first set of experiments in cells A and B used palladium cathodes.  Small levels of excess power were observed in Cell A but none in Cell B.  This result is in agreement with previous experiments at China Lake, California using the same two palladium cathodes.  There were also periods of unusual fluctuations in the temperature readings in Cell A for the thermistor closest to the cathode that persisted for several weeks.  These sudden temperature increases occurred during the same time period as when the excess heat was observed.  The switching of these experiments to pulse electrolysis also produced an excess heat effect in Cell A but not in Cell B.

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2705. Miles, M. Simultaneous Excess Power and Anomalous Radiation (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2005. Los Angeles.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: heat,

2706. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Precision and Accuracy of Cold Fusion Calorimetry (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

The cold fusion controversy centers on the precision and accuracy of the calorimetric systems used to measure excess enthalpy generation. For open, isoperibolic calorimetric systems, there is no true steady state during D2O+LiOD electrolysis.  Exact calorimetric measurements, therefore, require modeling by a differential equation that accounts for all heat flow pathways into and out of the calorimetric systems. The improper use and misunderstanding of this differential equation is a major source of confusion concerning cold fusion calorimetric measurements.

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2707. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Excess heat

Important advantages exist for selecting a Dewar type isoperibolic calorimeter for measurements of anomalous excess enthalpy produced by the Fleischmann-Pons Effect (FPE). These advantages include a wide dynamic range for both the cell temperature and cell input power, direct visual observations inside the cell during calorimetric experiments, relative low cost, self-purification of the system, the safety of an open system, and heat transfer mainly by electromagnetic radiation.  Various generations of this calorimetry are described along with the mathematical modeling.  The use of control or “blank” experiments, such as replacing palladium by platinum, show that anomalous excess power is measurable to within Ѱ.1 mW using this electrochemical calorimetry.  The application of this Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry at other laboratories such as NHE (Japan), Grenoble (France) and Harwell (U.K.) is discussed.  Variations of isoperibolic calorimetry used by China Lake, Caltech, and M.I.T. are also examined where the main heat transfer pathway is by conduction.  An improved version of the China Lake isoperibolic calorimeter is capable of measuring the small excess power (6.5 mW) produced at the beginning of an experiment by the exothermic absorption of deuterium into palladium.

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2708. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Twenty Year Review of Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: review,

2709. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann, Accuracy of Isoperibolic Calorimetry Used in a Cold Fusion Control Experiment, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 153-171.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

2710. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. New approaches to isoperibolic calorimetry (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method

Desired Features of Isoperibolic Calorimeters * Simple Construction / Low Costs * Wide Dynamic Range   – Cell Temperature (20у –> Boiling)   – Cell Input Power (0 –> 10 Watts) * Required kc= 0.13 W/K or kR= 0.83 x 10-9W/K^4 * Self-Purifying (H Removed Preferentially to D) * Inherent Safety (D2, O2 Exit Cell) * Direct Visual Observation Inside Cell (Dewar Cell) * High Accuracy (ѱ mW, Ѱ.1%) * Heat Transfer Mainly By Conduction or Radiation * Stable Cell Constants Independent of Electrolyte Level

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2711. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. New approaches to isoperibolic calorimetry. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords:

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2712. Miles, M. Investigations of co-deposition systems. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

Electrochemical studies of co-deposition show that the palladium deposited onto a copper substrate produces very high capacitance values (370 Farads/g) equal to those of supercapacitor materials. This large electrode capacitance causes a collapsing and tilting of the cyclic voltammograms that approaches Ohm’s Law behavior. Results for the electrochemistry, chemistry, and calorimetry of the 0.025 M PdCl2+0.15 M NH4Cl+0.15 M NH4OH system and its deuterium analog are reported.

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2713. Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann, Measurements of Excess Power Effects In Pd/D2O Systems Using a New Isoperibolic Calorimeter. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 45-55.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: Co-deposition, Electrolysis, Heat capacity, Heat conduction, Nitrates, Shuttle reactions, Temperature, Thermistors

Relatively inexpensive isoperibolic calorimeters have been designed and constructed with the goal of obtaining a constant heat transfer coefficient that is insensitive to normal changes in the electrolyte level during electrolysis. Four prototypes were constructed from copper tubing and used different insulating materials. Preliminary tests on two of these new calorimeters show excellent stability for the cell temperature measurements, stable heat transfer coefficients during electrolysis, and precise power measurements. Initial applications include nitrate electrolytes and co-deposition systems. There was no evidence for any shuttle reactions in these experiments.

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2714. Miles, M., Investigations of Possible Shuttle Reactions in Co-deposition Systems. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Ammonia, Calorimetry, Electrochemistry, Excess Power, Palladium

Experiments in the 0.025 M PdCl2 + 0.15 M ND4Cl + 0.15 M ND4OD/D2O co-deposition system produced anomalous excess power in three out of three prior experiments in Japan. Completely new experiments have produced even larger excess power effects for this deuterated co-deposition system. The largest excess power effect in D2O produced 1.7Wor about 13 W/g of palladium (160 W/cm3). These large excess power effects were absent in extensive studies of H2O controls. Excess power was also absent in various experiments involving the co-deposition of ruthenium (Ru), rhenium (Re), and nickel (Ni) in both H2O and D2O ammonia solutions. The statistical analysis of all 18 co-deposition experiments yields a probability of greater than 99.9989 % that the co-deposition excess power effect requires both palladium metal and D2O. Shuttle reactions have been proposed to explain the reproducible excess power effect in this ammonia co-deposition system. However, various electrochemical studies show no evidence for any shuttle reactions in this ammonia system. Nevertheless, the initial chemistry for the Pd system is complex leading to large pH changes, chlorine (Cl2) evolution, and the formation of nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) during the first few days. However, the large excess power effects are observed later in the experiments after this chemistry is completed. A better understanding of the chemistry should be helpful in the reproduction of anomalous excess power in co-deposition systems.

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2715. Miles, M. and P.L. Hagelstein, New analysis of MIT Calorimetric Errors. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 8.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Hagelstein, P. L.
Keywords: Accuracy, Heat, Insulation, Temperature,Work

Accurate isoperibolic calorimetry requires a well-defined heat transfer pathway from the calorimetric cell to a constant temperature water bath. The MIT isoperibolic calorimetric results published in 1990 had a major impact in convincing scientists, as well as US Patent officials, that the anomalous excess enthalpy reported in 1989 by Fleischmann and Pons in Pd/D systems was due to various calorimetric errors. Additional information about the MIT calorimetry has allowed a more detailed analysis. The major new finding is that the walls of the MIT calorimetric cell were so well insulated with glass wool (2.55 cm thickness) that the major heat transfer pathway was out of the cell top into the room air rather from the cell into the constant temperature water bath. This helps to explain the reported sensitivity of 40mWfor the MIT calorimetry versus the sensitivity of 0.1mWachieved for the Fleischmann-Pons Dewar calorimetry. The evaluation of calorimetric designs, accuracy of temperature measurements, electrolyte level effects, calorimetric equations, and data analysis methods leads to the clear conclusion that the Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry was far superior to that of MIT. Therefore, the results of the MIT calorimetry cannot be used as a refutation of the Fleischmann-Pons experiments.

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2716. Miles, M., Co-Deposition of Palladium and other Transition Metals in H2O and D2O Solutions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: calorimetry heat, nickel

The co-deposition of palladium, ruthenium, rhenium, nickel, and iridium were investigated in H2O and D2O ammonia systems (NH4Cl / NH3). Significant amounts of excess power were observed only in the deuterated Pd / D2O system. There was no excess power observed for the co-deposition of ruthenium, rhenium or nickel in any H2O or D2O experiment.

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2717. Miles, M., Examples of Isoperibolic Calorimetry in the Cold Fusion Controversy. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Calorimeter, method, Caltech, Harwell, MIT, Power

The Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry developed by Fleischmann and Pons can achieve an accuracy of Ѱ.1 mW. This accuracy requires the use of seven power terms to adequately describe the rate of enthalpy flowing into and out of the calorimetric system. The isoperibolic calorimetry reported by Caltech, MIT, and Harwell neglected important power terms leading to large errors.

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2718. Miles, M., Thermodynamic and Kinetic Observations Concerning the D + D Fusion Reaction for the Pd/D System. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 16.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

Activation energy, Diffusion, Double layer, Eyring rate theory, Fusion reaction zones, Helium

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2719. Miles, M., Introduction To “A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems” (published in 1996). 2016: Washington.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Review

Two U.S. Navy laboratories reported important cold fusion results in 1991 at ICCF-2 in Como, Italy. Stan Szpak and Pam Boss reported studies involving co-deposition, and this author, along with Ben Bush, reported correlations at China Lake between the excess heat effect and helium-4 production. In January 1992, a Navy program began that was funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and involved NCCOSC-NRaD in San Diego (now SPAWAR), NAWC in China Lake, and NRL inWashington, D.C. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is recognized worldwide as a top research facility, and a major publication from NRL on positive cold fusion results would have been a game-changer for this field in 1992 and equivalent to the CalTech, Harwell and MIT negative cold fusion publications in 1989. Even today, a publication in a major scientific journal from NRL supporting cold fusion would likely have a dramatic effect on the acceptance of this new science.

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2720. Miles, M. The Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetric Methods And Equations (PowerPoint slides). in Satellite Symposium of the 20th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2016. Xiamen, China.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords:

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2721. Miles, M. and R. Cantwell, Data from Melvin Miles’ July 2016 experiment. 2016.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M., Cantwell, R.
Keywords:

A document linking a spreadsheet and two papers describing Melvin Miles’ July 2016 experiment.

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2722. Miles, M., Excerpts from Martin Fleischmann Letters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Calorimetry, Cell temperature, Critics, Excess enthalpy, Helium

There were many letters exchanged between Martin Fleischmann and this author that reveal Fleischmann’s scientific thoughts about various cold fusion topics. These topics included possible critical factors for excess enthalpy effects in the palladium/deuterium system, errors in the CalTech, MIT and Harwell calorimetry, helium-4 production, critics such as Morrison, Taubes and Jones, and the advantages of using integrated forms of the calorimetric equations. Furthermore, Fleischmann mathematically shows that there is never a true steady state in the cell temperature for an open isoperibolic calorimetric system because both the cell heat transfer coefficient and the heat capacity of the cell change with time. Therefore, an important power term involving the change of the cell temperature with time has often been neglected by various groups using isoperibolic calorimetry. This power term is especially important when there are large changes in the cell temperature with time such as when the cell is first turned on.

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2723. Miles, M., The Fleischmann-Pons Calorimetric Methods, Equations and New Applications. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 1-14.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: Cell cooling, Cell heating, Deuterium oxide, Differential equations, Excess power, Lower bound method, Palladium

The Fleischmann-Pons Dewar isoperibolic calorimetry remains the most accurate system for measuring excess power in cold fusion experiments. The use of mathematical modelling and numerical integration of the experiment data, along with appropriate averaging methods, can achieve a calorimetric accuracy of 0.1 mW. The Fleischmann-Pons “Lower Bound Method” can be used to determine the heat-transfer co-efficient during an experiment and yields accurate results. Important information can be obtained from time periods where the cell is first turned on and when the cell is shut off. Periods of large cell temperature changes are accurately modelled by the differential equations. These Fleischmann-Pons calorimetric methods and equations are applied to a new experiment where excess power is produced in the Pd/D2O + 0.1 M KNO3 systems. A heat conduction calorimeter was used in this study, but the same methods and equations apply.

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2724. Miles, M. Excess power measurements for palladium-boron cathodes (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Miles, M.
All Authors: Miles, M.
Keywords: excess heat, palladium, boron

One of the major goals of the U.S. Navy cold fusion program (1992-1995) was to produce our own palladium cathode materials at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). However, none of these Navy palladium metals and alloys were successful in producing the Fleischmann-Pons (F-P) excess power effect during the first two years. This all changed with the NRL preparation of palladium-boron (Pd-B) alloy cathodes in 1994. Seven out of eight experiments using these NRL Pd-B cathodes produced significant excess power in calorimetric studies at the Navy laboratory at China Lake, California (C/L). The one failure was related to a folded over metal region which acted as a long crack on the electrode surface. This success with Pd-B alloys made by NRL came too late to prevent the closure of the U.S. Navy cold fusion program in 1995, but these results are documented in a Navy report.

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2725. Miley, G.H., O. Barnouin, and B. Temple. Detection of Reaction Products Induced in Plasma Focus Electrodes. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Barnouin, O., Temple, B.
Keywords: ion implantation, gas discharge, method

2726. Miley, G.H., M. Ragheb, and H. Hora. On Aspects of Nuclear Products. in The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion. 1990. University of Utah Research Park, Salt Lake City, Utah: National Cold Fusion Institute.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Ragheb, M., Hora, H.
Keywords: theory, nuclear Reaction, energy, ICCF-1

2727. Miley, G.H., Book Review: Cold Fusion,The Making of a Scientific Controversy by F. D. Peat. Fusion Technol., 1990. 17: p. 730.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: history, Book Review

2728. Miley, G.H., et al. Multilayer Thin Film Electrodes for Cold Fusion. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Patel, J. U., Javedani, J., Hora, H., Kelly, J. C., Tompkins, J.
Keywords: theory, thin Film, ICCF-3

The application of the ” swimming electron layer” theory to the design of multilayer electrodes is discussed. A key advantage of this approach is that the enhanced reaction rate at interfaces between select metals results in a high power density throughout the volume of the electrode.Design criteria and fabrication techniques devised for the multilayer thin films are discussed. Initial experiments using a dense plasma focus (DPF) for loading these targets are described along with the design of an electrolytic cell intended to test scaling to high powers.

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2729. Miley, G.H. Comments About Nuclear Reaction Products. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, energy, nuclear reaction, review, ICCF-4

2730. Miley, G.H., et al. Energy Amplifier with Multilayer Thin Film Electrodes. in International Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. 1994. Belarusian State University, Minsk, Belarus: Fusion Information Center, Salt Lake City.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Batyrbekov, E. G., Hora, H., Patel, J. U., Tompkins, J., Zich, R. K.
Keywords: titanium, Pd, layer, heat+ method

2731. Miley, G.H., et al., Electrolytic Cell with Multilayer Thin-Film Electrodes. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 313.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Batyrbekov, E. G., Zich, R. L.
Keywords: thin layer, electrolysis, D2O

2732. Miley, G.H. and J.A. Patterson, Nuclear transmutations in thin-film nickel coatings undergoing electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 5.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Patterson, J. A.
Keywords: transmutation, Ni, H2O, electrolysis

Experiments using 1-mm plastic and glass microspheres coated with single and multilayers of thin films of various metals such as palladium and nickel, used in a packed-bed electrolytic cell (Patterson Power Cell ™ configuration), have apparently produced a variety of nuclear reaction products. The analysis of a run with 650-Å film of Ni is presented here. Following a two-week electrolytic run, the Ni film was found to contain Fe, Ag, Cu, Mg, and Cr, in concentrations exceeding 2 atom % each, plus a number of additional trace elements. These elements were at the most, only present in the initial film and the electrolyte plus other accessible cell components in much smaller amounts. That fact, combined with other data, such as deviations from natural isotope abundances, seemingly eliminates the alternate explanation of impurities concentrating in the film.

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2733. Miley, G.H., et al. Quantitative observations of transmutation products occuring in thin-film coated microspheres during electrolysis. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Narne, G., Williams, M. J., Patterson, J. A., Nix, J., Cravens, D., Hora, H.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd, ICCF-6

2734. Miley, G.H., Possible Evidence of Anomalous Energy Effects in H/D-Loaded Solids-Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRS). J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 6.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: transmutation,, heat,, H2O

2735. Miley, G.H. Product Characteristics and Energetics in Thin-Film Electrolysis Experiments. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, theory, ICCF-7

2736. Miley, G.H. Emerging physics for a breakthrough thin-film electrolytic power unit. in Space Technol. Applic. Int. Forum. 1999.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: critique, review, heat+, transmutation, Ni, H2O, Pd

2737. Miley, G.H. On the Reaction Product and Heat Correlation for LENRs. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: theory, H2O, transmutation, heat+, Ni, ICCF-8

Abstract“Low Energy Nuclear Reactions”, or LENRs, typically involve electrolytes containing light water along with electrodes made of metals such as Ni, Ti and Pd.  In these experiments a variety of reaction products (isotopes), with masses both higher and lower than that of the host electrode material, have been observed at the University of Illinois (U of IL). Related results, often termed “transmutation” studies, have been reported by other researchers.  These observations suggest that proton-metal initiated reactions occur in such LENR cells. This paper discusses evidence that the production of these reaction products is correlated with the excess heat also frequently observed in LENR cells. Such a correlation for LENR reactions would be equivalent, in principle, to the correlation of He-4 with excess heat that is reported for heavy water-Pd experiments where a D-D reaction is postulated.

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2738. Miley, G.H., et al. Advances in Thin-Film Electrode Experiments. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Selvaggi, G., Tate, A., Okuniewski, M., Williams, M. J., Chicea, D., Horn, H., Kelly, J.
Keywords: layer, Pd, Ni, H2O, heat+, ICCF-8

2739. Miley, G.H., Some personal reflections on scientific ethics and the cold fusion ‘episode’. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 121.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: history

This note was prepared in response to Dr. Scott Chubb’s invitation to discuss issues concerning ethics in scientific research that I may have observed during the hectic period following the public announcement of “Cold Fusion” (CF) by Drs. Pons and Fleischmann in 1989. I would like to preface this note with some reflections on select “events” I was personally involved in as editor of Fusion Technology (FT) and as one of the early researchers in CF (who has persistently kept going!). Then I will discuss several ethical “issues” relating to scientific conduct from my viewpoint as an editor and researcher in the field.

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2740. Miley, G.H., et al. Progress in Development of a Low Energy Reaction Cell for Distributed Power Applications. in 10th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. 2002. Arlington, Virginia, USA: ASME.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Castano, C. H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Luo, N.
Keywords: heat, thin film, nickel, palladium

2741. Miley, G.H., et al. Progress in thin-film LENR research at the University of Illinois. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Kim, S-O., Luo, N., Castano, C. H., Woo, T.
Keywords: ICCF-9, thin-film, heat, charged particle, x-ray

The research described here includes work on fabrication techniques for reproducible thin-film electrodes. Runs with these electrodes in a newly fabricated high sensitivity calorimetry bank is shown to provide added support for earlier excess heat production observed with ultra-high proton loadings in thin film electrodes. In addition, new in-situ radiation emission studies have discovered MeV alpha-proton emission, supporting earlier reaction product evidence of the nuclear origin of the excess heat. Recent experiments and lattice simulation studies have provided added insight into highly loaded thin film phenomena, including possible H- effects associated with anomalous resistivity effects at ultra-high loadings. . . .

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2742. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Review Of Transmutation Reactions In Solids. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation

Transmutation reactions in highly loaded hydrides have been reported by a number of research groups. These studies are briefly summarized with emphasis on common systematics and key “signatures”. Transmutations divide into two types: heavy intermediate compound nucleus reactions yielding an array of products with a large spectrum of masses; direct reactions between H/D and the electrode metal or impurity atoms yielding isolated “single” products. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the products and the ability to overcome the extremely large Columbic repulsion of the high-Z elements involved.  Here we briefly consider a model involving orbital mixing and virtual neutron formation associated with charge accumulation and hydrogen/deuteron flow at highly loaded interfaces.

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2743. Miley, G.H., et al. Intense non-linear soft x-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Helgeston, W., Hora, H., Luo, N., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Smith, R.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment

Radiation emission from Low Energy Nuclear Radiation (LENR) electrodes (both charged-particle and x-rays) represents an important feature of LENR in general. Here, calibration, measurement techniques, and soft x-ray emission results from deuterium bombardment of a Pd target (cathode) placed in a pulsed deuterium glow discharge (PGD) are described. An x-ray intensity of 13.4 mW/cm^2 and a dose of 3.3 μJ/cm^2 were calculated over a 0.5 ms pulse time from AXUV photodiode radiation detector measurements. A most striking feature is that x-ray energies > 600 V are observed with a discharge voltage only about half of that value. To further investigate this phenomenon, emission during room temperature D-desorption from electrolytically loaded Pd:Dx cathodes was also studied. The x-ray emission energy observed was quite similar to the PGD case. However, the intensity in this case was almost 13 orders of magnitude lower due to the much lower deuterium fluxes involved.

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2744. Miley, G.H., et al. Intense non-linear soft x-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardment (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Helgeston, W., Hora, H., Luo, N., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Smith, R.
Keywords: x-ray, Pd, D2, H2, ion bombardment

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same title.

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2745. Miley, G.H., et al. On Aspects of Complex Nuclei in LENR Relative to Transmutation Reactions and X-ray Emission from Localized Clusters. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Lipson, A. G., Yang, Y., Romer, M., Hora, H.
Keywords: theory

2746. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Overview of Light Water/Hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation, excess heat, light water

PowerPoint slides for the paper of the same name.

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2747. Miley, G.H. and P. Shrestha. Overview of Light Water/Hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, P.
Keywords: transmutation, excess heat, light water

This paper reviews light water and hydrogen-based Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) including the different methodologies used to study these reactions and the results obtained. Reports of excess heat production, transmutation reactions and nuclear radiation emission are cited. An aim of this review is to present a summary of the present status of light water LENR research and provide some insight into where this research is heading.

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2748. Miley, G.H., G. Narne, and T. Woo, Use of combined NAA and SIMS analyses for impurity level isotope detection. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 2005. 263(3): p. 691-696.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Narne, G., Woo, T.
Keywords: mass spectrometer, method

2749. Miley, G.H. Preparata Medal Lecture – A Tribute to Giuliano Preparata, a TRUE Pioneer in Cold Fusion Theory. in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: review, history,

2750. Miley, G.H., et al. Cluster Reactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs). in Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. 2007. Sicily, Italy.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Leon, H., Shrestha, J.
Keywords: theory,

2751. Miley, G.H., et al. Future Power Generation by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes (PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Lipson, A. G., Luo, N., Shrestha, J.
Keywords: Neutron

PowerPoint slides from the ACS 233rd Annual Meeting, Chicago, Il March 29, 2007

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2752. Miley, G.H. Summary of the Transmutation Workshop held in association with ICCF-14. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: review,

2753. Miley, G.H., H. Hora, and X. Yang. Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Yang, X.
Keywords: theory

In this paper we first point out evidence for condensed matter cluster formation based on thin-film electrolysis. Next, measurements of superconductivity in condensed matter deuterium “clusters” in dislocation sites loaded-deloaded palladium thin films are briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of techniques under study to increase the number of such sites per unit volume of the electrodes. Estimates for resulting “cluster reaction” rates — flow enhanced Pycnonuclear fusion are given. If successful, this approach offers a “Roadmap” for future power unit based on thin films and clusters.

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2754. Miley, G.H. and J. Shrestha, Transmutation Reactions and Associated Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Effects in Solids, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 173-218.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Shrestha, J.
Keywords:

2755. Miley, G.H., A Fascinating Review of the Emerging Science of LENRs. 21st Century Sci. & Technol., 2008. 61.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Review

World Scientific’s advertisement for this book explains that, “One of the most important discoveries of this century — cold fusion — was summarily rejected by science and the media before sufficient evidence had been accumulated to make a rational judgment possible. Enough evidence is now available to show that this rejection was wrong and that the discovery of a new source of clean energy may help solve some serious problems currently facing mankind. The book catalogues and evaluates this evidence and shows why the initial reaction was driven more by self-interest than fact.”

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2756. Miley, G.H., et al., Radiochemical Comparisons on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Uranium, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 235-252.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Hora, H., Philberth, K., Lipson, A., Shrestha, P. J.
Keywords:

2757. Miley, G.H., et al. Clusters with Picometer Distance of Deuterons and LENR (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H., Andersson, L., Holmlid, L., Lipson, A.
Keywords: Theory

The probability of pm-Ms reactions for low energy nuclear reactions LENR and the semiempirical derivation of 2 pm deuteron screening on palladium with a reduction factor 14 in Coulomb repulsion compared with a usual plasma factor 5 was confirmed later by direct experiments. Generation of 2pm distance clusters of about 150 deuterons based on this screening and possibly by a Casimir force permitted understanding of compound reactions as measured with the 155 nucleon minimum measured at LENR. These kinds of deuteron clusters were directly measured by SQUID. Based on screening and comparable values of a Wigner-Seitz radius for very dense deuteron clusters of stable Rydberg matter in defects of iron oxide with measured 2.3 pm nuclear distance is another access which may lead to an understanding of the LENR processes.

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2758. Miley, G.H., X. Yang, and H. Hora. Bose-Einstein type D-cluster Electrode Development. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H.
Keywords:

Our recent research has developed a technique for imbedding ultra high density deuterium “clusters” (D cluster) in Palladium (Pd) thin film. Experiments have shown that in Pd these condensed matter state clusters approach metallic conditions, exhibiting super conducting properties. Using Temperature Programmed Desorption TPD system, the local concentration of hydrogen in the dislocation core is found to be [H]/[Pd]~1.8. At near 70 ºK Pd foil with abundant D clusters also show class II superconductivity, indicating the trapped hydrogen condensed into a metallic-like phase. Room temperature cluster formation is found to be adequate for the desired “nuclear reactive” sites. By careful calculation and experimentation, it is found the D cluster has a Bose Einstein Condensation state when a high deuteron diffusion flux is triggered. The resulting momentum transfer initiates reactions. The trigger can be electrochemical, giving LENR reactions. Thus this configuration can provide a small LENR power cell. Currently, we are searching for new methods to improve the volume density of dislocations. These methods mainly involve modifying Pd thin film with multi-layer structure.

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2759. Miley, G.H., X. Yang, and H. Hora, Ultra-High Density Deuteron-cluster Electrode for Low-energy Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 256-268.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Hora, H.
Keywords: Deuterium cluster, Electrolysis, Glow discharge, Laser triggering, Low-energy nuclear reaction, Rydberg matter

This paper reviews new and previous theoretical and experimental studies of the possibility of nuclear events in clusters created in multilayer thin film electrodes, including the correlation between excess heat, transmutations, and the cluster theory that predicts it. As a result of this added understanding of cluster reactions, a new class of electrodes is under study. These electrodes are designed to enhance cluster formation and subsequent reactions. Two approaches are under development. The first employs improved loading-unloading techniques, intended to obtain a higher volumetric density of sites favoring cluster formation. The second is designed to achieve Rydberg Matters. Various methods of exciting (triggering) cluster reactions are also discussed. Based on these insights, the design of Low-energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) power cells is proposed. While still in the research stage, this approach promises ultimate development of “green” nuclear powered “batteries” offering remarkable energy densities well beyond present technology.

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2760. Miley, G.H. LENR Reactions Using Clusters (PowerPoint slides). in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H.
Keywords: Theory

Our previous experimental results have demonstrated the formation of ultra high-density hydrogen/deuterium nanoclusters with 10E24 atom/cm^3 in metal defects. Both experimental and theoretical studies have demonstrated that due to the close distance between ions in the cluster, they can easily be induced to undergo intense nuclear reactions among themselves and some neighboring lattice atoms. In view of their multi-body nature, such reactions are termed Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs) — a terminology generally accepted by workers in the cold fusion field. Since the interacting ions have little momentum, the compound nucleus formed in these reactions is near the ground state so few energetic particles are emitted from it’s decay. Triggering excess heat generation, thus nuclear reactions in LENR experiments has been accomplished in various ways, all involving the loading of protons or deuterons into a solid metal or alloy material.

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2761. Miley, G.H., et al., Use of D/H Clusters in LENR and Recent Results from Gas Loaded Nanoparticle-Type Clusters. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 411-421.

First Author: Miley, G. H.
All Authors: Miley, G. H., Yang, X., Kim, K-J., Hora, H.
Keywords: Gas-loading system, Low-energy nuclear reaction, Nanoparticles

Anomalous heat, attributed to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs), is obtained by pressurizing metal alloy nanoparticles with deuterium gas. The reactions are enhanced by creation of ultra high density deuterium clusters in the nanoparticles. Experiments comparing various nanoparticles and plans for a proof-of-principle unit are presented.

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2762. Miljanic, S., et al., An attempt to replicate cold fusion claims. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 340.

First Author: Miljanic, S.
All Authors: Miljanic, S., Jevtic, N., Pesic, S., Ninkovic, M., Nikolic, D., Josipovic, M., Petkovska, L. J., Bacic, S.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron, tritium, CR-39, D2, titanium

2763. Miller, R.J., T.O. Brun, and C.B. Satterthwaite, Magnetic Susceptibility of Pd-H and Pd-D at Temperatures Between 6 and 150 K. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1978. 18: p. 5054.

First Author: Miller, R. J.
All Authors: Miller, R. J., Brun, T. O., Satterthwaite, C .B.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, magnetic Susceptibility, PdH, PdD

2764. Mills, R.L. and J.J. Farrell, A New Atomic Theory. 1990.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Farrell, J. J.
Keywords: theory

2765. Mills, R.L. and P. Kneizys, Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion. Fusion Technol., 1991. 20: p. 65.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Kneizys, P.
Keywords: theory, hydrino, Ni, H2O, heat, Pd, D2O

2766. Mills, R.L., Reply to ‘Comments on “Excess heat production by the electrolysis of an aqueous potassium carbonate electrolyte and the implications for cold fusion”‘. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 96.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: critique, Mayer

2767. Mills, R.L., W.R. Good, and R.M. Shaubach, Dihydrino molecule identification. Fusion Technol., 1994. 25: p. 103.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R., Shaubach, R. M.
Keywords: theory, hydrino

2768. Mills, R.L. and W.R. Good, Fractional quantum energy levels of hydrogen. Fusion Technol., 1995. 28: p. 1697.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, hydrino, x-ray, Ni, H2O, surface analysis

2769. Mills, R.L., Comments on ‘Interaction of palladium/hydrogen and palladium/deuterium to measure the excess energy per atom for each isotope’. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 384.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: Polemic, critique, Dufour, hydrino, hydrex

2770. Mills, R.L. and W.R. Good, various papers. 1999: Blacklight Power.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Good, W. R.
Keywords: theory, hydrino,

2771. Mills, R.L., Lower-energy hydrogen methods and structures. 2000: US 6,024,935.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: hydrino, theory, patent,

2772. Mills, R.L., Novel Hydrogen Compounds from a Potassium Carbonate Electrolytic Cell. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 157.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: H2O. electrolysis hydrino

2773. Mills, R.L., et al., Identification of compounds containing novel hydride ions by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2001. 26: p. 965.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Dhandapani, B., Nansteel, M., He, J., Voigt, A.
Keywords: hydrino NMR preparation

2774. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, Spectral Emission of Fractional Quantum Energy Levels of Atomic Hydrogen from a Helium-Hydrogen Plasma and the Implications for Dark Matter. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 301.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: hydrino,, Mills,, theory

2775. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, Vibrational Spectral Emission of Fractional-Principal-Quantum-Energy-Level Hydrogen Molecule Ion. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 533.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: hydrino,, Mills,, theory

2776. Mills, R.L. and P. Ray, The Grand Unified Theory of Classical Quantum Mechanics. J. Hydrogen Eng., 2002. 27: p. 565.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P.
Keywords: theory,, Mills,, hydrino

2777. Mills, R.L., et al., Comparison of excessive Balmer alpha line broadening of glow discharge and microwave hydrogen plasmas with certain catalysts. J. Appl.Phys., 2002. 92: p. 7008.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L., Ray, P. C., Dhandapani, B., Mayo, R. M., He, J.
Keywords: Experimental, hydrinos, plasma emissions, res+

2778. Mills, R.L., Author’s Response to a Letter to the Editor. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 2003. 28: p. 359.

First Author: Mills, R. L.
All Authors: Mills, R. L.
Keywords: Polemic

2779. Milton, R., Forbidden science. Suppressed research that could change our lives. 1994, London: Fourth Estate.

First Author: Milton, R.
All Authors: Milton, R.
Keywords: history,

2780. Minari, T., et al. Experiments on Condensed Matter Nuclear Events in Kobe University. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Minari, T.
All Authors: Minari, T., Nishio, R., Taniike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: deuteron beam

We review three kinds of experimental work underway in our laboratory to investigate nuclear events in solid or liquid materials. The largest effort has been given to experiments to confirm the 7Li(d,n2a) reaction rate enhancement reaching 10^15 in liquid lithium which was reported by H. Ikegami et al. [4] Li liquid droplets are formed as targets, and to keep them as pure as possible, we built a liquid Li loop. Thus far, in all cases of irradiation at the temperature from 520 to 570 K with 10 – 24 keV deuterons, we have not been able to reproduce the Ikegami enhancement for the 7Li(d,n2a) reaction.

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2781. Minato, J., et al. Materials/Surface Aspects of Hydrogen/Deuterium Loading into Pd Cathode. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monac: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Minato, J.
All Authors: Minato, J., Nakata, T., Denzumi, S., Yamamoto, Y., Takahashi, A., Aida, H., Tsuchida, Y., Akita, H., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: loading, Pd, D2O, Pd-Rh, resistivity, D/Pd, electrolysis, ICCF-5

Electrolytic hydrogen and deuterium loading into Pd and Pd-Rh alloys have been investigated applying various modes of surface modification: thiourea on Pd and Pd-Rh, Pd black on Pd and Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh deposit on Pd. From these systematic data role of the bulk and surface properties of the cathode in determining the maximum loading has been discussed. The cathode loading is improved for Pd and Pd-Rh with a surface modified by thiourea and Pd modified by Pd-Rh deposit, while reduction of the cathode loading was observed when the surface of the Pd-Rh alloy cathode was modified by P d -black. These results show clearly importance of controlling the surface catalytic property of the cathode in controlling and improving the maximum cathode loading. It has been found that DlP d > 0 . 95 can be achieved reproducibly in electrolyte solutions containing thiourea at high concentrations. However, electrolysis in solutions containing thiourea can be conducted successfully only when the anode and cathode are separated by an ion exchange membrane in order to avoid theconsumption of thiourea by anodic oxidation at the anode.

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2782. Mintmire, J.W., et al., Chemical forces associated with deuterium confinement in palladium. Phys. Lett. A, 1989. 138(1,2): p. 51.

First Author: Mintmire, J. W.
All Authors: Mintmire, J. W., Dunlap, B. I., Brenner, D. W., Mowrey, R. C., Ladouceur, H. D., Schmidt, P. P., White, C. T., O’Grady, W. E.
Keywords: theory, distance

2783. Miskelly, G.M., et al., Analysis of the published calorimetric evidence for electrochemical fusion of deuterium in palladium. Science, 1989. 246: p. 793.

First Author: Miskelly, G. M.
All Authors: Miskelly, G. M., Heben, M. J., Kumar, A., Penner, R. M., Sailor, M. J., Lewis, N. S.
Keywords: review, critique, Fleischmann

2784. Mitsuishi, N., T. Yuki, and I. Ichihara, Characteristics of the Permeation of Hydrogen-Inlet Gas Mixtures Through a Palladium Alloy Tube Wall. J. Less-Common Met., 1983. 89: p. 415.

First Author: Mitsuishi, N.
All Authors: Mitsuishi, N., Yuki, T., Ichihara, I.
Keywords: PdH, diffusion, Pd-Ag

2785. Miura, H. Study On Formation Of Tetrahedral Or Octahedral Symmetric Condensation By Hopping Of Alkali Or Alkaline-Earth Metal. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miura, H.
All Authors: Miura, H.
Keywords: theory

Formation of tetrahedral or octahedral condensation related to the experiments on electrolysis or deuterium permeation was studied.  We obtained the scenario about the formation that alkali or alkaline-earth metal ions infiltrating into the host metal made cavities there when they hopped onto the other sites of the crystal lattice of it, then through squeezing of H+/D+ ions in the cavity tetrahedral or octahedral condensation of protons/deuterons is caused.

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2786. Miura, H. Study On Formation Of Tetrahedral Or Octahedral Symmetric Condensation By Hopping Of Alkali Or Alkaline-Earth Metal (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Miura, H.
All Authors: Miura, H.
Keywords: theory

2787. Miyake, M., et al. Absorption and Desorption Behavior of Hydrogen by Neutron Irradiated Titanium. in 2nd Topical Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. 1981. Seattle.

First Author: Miyake, M.
All Authors: Miyake, M., Hirooka, Y., Shinmura, H., Yamanaka, S., Sano, T., Higashiguchi, Y.
Keywords: H2, titanium, loading

2788. Miyamaru, H. and A. Takahashi. Periodically Current-Controlled Electrolysis of D2O/Pd System for Excess Heat Production. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miyamaru, H.
All Authors: Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat, electrolysis, Tanaka, ICCF-3

For the purpose of clarifying the correlation between current density and excess heat production in the D2O/Pd electrolysis, a new measurement system with an open type calorimeter was constructed. And electrolysis cell was specially designed and applied current was changed every few hours. Some palladium plates were electrolyzed with various current densities. A slight excess heat was observed during step-up mode electrolysis of the palladium plate called the first batch. No excess heat was observed with other palladium plates. Though the relation between applied current patterns and excess heat level was not clear, this study suggests that palladium material feature has an important role in excess heat production.

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2789. Miyamaru, H., et al. Search for Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miyamaru, H.
All Authors: Miyamaru, H., Chimi, Y., Inokuchi, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, Helium, hardness loading ICCF-4 electrolysis

2790. Miyamoto, S., et al. Measurement of Protons and Observation of the Change of Electrolysis Parameters in the Galvanostatic Electrolysis of the 0.1M-LiOD/D2O Solution. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Miyamoto, S.
All Authors: Miyamoto, S., Sueki, K., Iwai, H., Fujii, M., Shirakawa, T., Miura, H., Watanabe, T., Toriumi, H., Uehara, T., Nakamitsu, Y., Chiba, M., Hirose, T., Nakahara, H.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, particle emission, layer, ICCF-2, electrolysis

In order to confirm the cold fusion phenomenon, measurements of protons in the galvanostatic electrolysis of the 0.1M-LiOD/D2O solution have been carried out. The upper limits of fusion rates was deduced to be 1.35×10^-24 fusion/d-d/sec with an assumption of the atomic ratio D/Pd of unity. No charge particles predicted by Takahashi for d-d-d fusions were observed. The Li content of the electrolyte was measured by ICP-AES after the electrolysis and found to be appreciably reduced in the electrolyte; the rest being found mostly in the 0.5%-Pd alumina catalyst used for recombination of D2 and O2 and partly in the Pd cathode.

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2791. Miyamoto, S., et al. Movement of Li During Electrolysis of 0.1M-LiOD/D2O Solution. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Miyamoto, S.
All Authors: Miyamoto, S., Sueki, K., Kobayashi, K., Fujii, M., Chiba, M., Nakahara, H., Shirakawa, T., Kobayashi, T., Yanokura, M., Aratani, M.
Keywords: Pd, Li, D2O, analysis, surface, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2792. Miyamoto, M., et al. Deuterium ion beam irradiation of palladium under in situ control of deuterium density. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Miyamoto, M.
All Authors: Miyamoto, M., Awa, Y., Kubota, N., Tamiike, A., Furuyama, Y., Kitamura, A.
Keywords: ICCF-9, ion beam, D2, Pd, implanation, Au, charged particle

2793. Miyoshi, Y., et al., Effect of Forced Oxidation on Hydrogen Isotope Absorption/Adsorption Characteristics of Pd-Ni-Zr Oxide Compounds. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 46-62.

First Author: Miyoshi, Y.
All Authors: Miyoshi, Y., Sakoh, H., Taniike, A., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: Anomalous heat, Deuterium absorption, Differential heat of hydrogen uptake, Forced oxidation, Isotope effect

Deuterium and protium gas absorption/adsorption by 0.1-μm! Pd powder (PP), Pd-black (PB), Pd nano-particles (“10nm!) admixed with ZrO2 (PZ) and Pd·Ni binary nano-particles (“2 nm!) dispersed in ZrO2 holder-flakes (PNZ2B) has been examined. For the PP, the PB and the PZ samples, both the deoxidized samples and those reused without baking process showed essentially the same values of the loading ratio D(H)/Pd, the specific output energy E1 and the hydridation energy QD(H) which are consistent with the published values for bulky samples. For the as-received and oxidized samples both D(H)/Pd and E1 are increasing functions of fineness of the Pd surface, and exceeds 2.0 and 1.5 eV/atom-Pd, respectively, for the PZ sample, giving the hydridation energy larger than the published value of the surface adsorption energy of 0.5 eV for bulky Pd samples. A rather large isotope effect in the differential heat of sorption, “D(H), has sometimes been observed in the 1a-phase characteristic of the oxygen-treated samples. The Pd0.04Ni0.29Zr0.67 oxide composite sample, PNZ2B, has unique properties: Both D(H)/[Pd·Ni] # 3.0 and E1 # 1.4 eV/atom- [Pd·Ni] for the as-received, the oxidized and deoxidized sample runs are very large, while QD(H) = 0.50Ѡ0.1 eV/atom-D(H) for all cases is modest. It is inferred that the Pd atoms act as a catalyst for the hydrogen isotope absorption/adsorption of Ni at room temperature. From the fact that the No. 2 run after the forced deoxidation has essentially the same values of the absorption parameters as those of the No. 1 and No. 3 runs, it is inferred that the surface adsorption potential is made shallower in the PNZ2B sample than in Pd-based samples. The ratio “D/”H is sometimes greater than 1.5, which appears to be suggesting the existence of heat component of nuclear origin.

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2794. Mizuno, T., T. Akimoto, and N. Sato, Neutron evolution from annealed palladium cathode in LiOD-D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1989. 57: p. 742.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Sato, N.
Keywords: electrolysis, Pd, D2O, neutron

2795. Mizuno, T., et al., Tritium evolution during cathode polarization of palladium electrode in D2O solution. Denki Kagaku, 1991. 59: p. 798 (in Japanese).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Sato, N.
Keywords: tritium, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

2796. Mizuno, T., et al. Cold Fusion Reaction Products and Behavior of Deuterium Absorption in Pd Electrode. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, Current Density, D/Pd, loading, ICCF-3

Excess heat generation from Pd electrode during cathodic polarization in D2O LiOD solution was investigated as a function of D/Pd loading ratio. The excess heat was observed when a Pd sample was filled with deuterium in D/Pd ~0.90 by cathodic charging. The excess heat increased with D/Pd in an exponential manner: the heat was of the order of magnitude of 0.1 Watt/cm^2 at D/PD ~1.0.

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2797. Mizuno, T., et al., Diffusion rate of deuterium in Pd during cathodic charging. Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1992. 60: p. 405 (Japanese, with English abstract).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, diffusion, loading, phase diagram gamma phase

2798. Mizuno, T., et al. Anomalous Heat Evolution from SrCeO3-Type Proton Conductors during Absorption/Desorption in Alternate Electric Field. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Enyo, M., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K.
Keywords: SrCeO3, D2, Proton Conductor, heat+, ICCF-4

2799. Mizuno, T., et al., Formation of 197Pt radioisotopes in solid state electrolyte treated by high temperature electrolysis in D2 gas. Infinite Energy, 1995. 1(4): p. 9.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Inoda, K., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation proton conductor gamma emission radioactivity, D2

2800. Mizuno, T., Analysis of Elements for Solid State Electrolyte in Deuterium Atmosphere during Applied Field. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 79.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation,, proton conductor,, D2

A proton conductor, the solid state electrolyte, made from oxide of strontium, cerium, niobium and yttrium can be charged in a hot D2 gas atmosphere to produce excess heat. Anomalous heat evolution was observed for 12 in 80 cases of the samples charged by alternating current for 5 to 45 Volts at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700(C. Several kinds of alkali metals, Ca, Mg, Bismuth, Lantanides and Aluminum were locally segregated and distributed around the melted and swelled parts of the samples that generated an excess heat.

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2801. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo, Isotopic changes of the reaction products induced by cathodic electrolysis in Pd. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 31.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis

It was confirmed by several analytic methods that reaction products with mass numbers ranging from 6 to 220 are deposited on palladium cathodes subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, high temperature, and high current density for one month. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Isotopic distributions for the produced elements were radically different from the natural ones.

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2802. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and M. Enyo, Anomalous Isotopic Distribution in Palladium Cathode After Electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(2): p. 37.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis,, transmutation,, Pd

2803. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous heat evolution from a solid-state electrolyte under alternating current in high-temperature D2 gas. Fusion Technol., 1996. 29: p. 385.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K.
Keywords: metal oxide D2, heat+, proton conductor, solid electrolyte

A coin-shaped proton conductor made from metal oxides of strontium and cerium can be charged in a hot D2 gas atmosphere to produce excess heat. Anomalous heat evolution was observed from the proton conductors charged with alternating current at 5 to 45 V at temperatures ranging from 400 to 700у. The anomalous heat produced temperature increases as much as 50у. Excess heat was estimated as a few watts in most cases, totaling up to several kilojoules.

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2804. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous isotopic distribution of elements deposited on palladium induced by cathodic electrolysis. Denki Kagaku oyobi Kogyo Butsuri Kagaku, 1996. 64: p. 1160 (in Japanese).

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Kurokawa, K., Akimoto, T., Kitaichi, M., Inoda, K., Azumi, K., Shimokawa, S., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, electrolysis, surface analysis, Pd

It was confirmed by several analytic methods that reaction products with mass number ranging from 20 to 28, 46 to 54, and 72 to 82 are produced in palladium cathodes subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, high temperature, and high current density for one month. Isotopic distributions were radically different from the natural ones.

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2805. Mizuno, T., et al., Anomalous gamma peak evolution from SrCe solid state electrolyte charged in D2 gas. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1997. 22: p. 23.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Inoda, K., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Kitaichi, M., Kurokawa, K., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: proton conductor D2, gamma emission transmutation

2806. Mizuno, T., Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion. 1998, Concord, NH: Infinite Energy Press.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation history

The announcement of cold fusion in March 1989 at the University of Utah was greeted with worldwide hysteria. Drs. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons had claimed that an electrochemical cell with heavy water electrolyte and a palladium cathode put out so much excess energy that the mysterious phenomenon had to be nuclear, and was probably a process related to nuclear fusion. Newspapers and magazines said it might be a major scientific discovery with the potential to end the energy crisis and revolutionize society. For a few heady weeks the public took it seriously and waited anxiously for laboratories to replicate the results. Many scientists quickly took sides for or against cold fusion – mostly against. Then, by the end of the summer of 1989 the official word came, in an authoritative report written by a select panel of experts under the auspices of the Department of Energy: cold fusion was a bust. It did not exist. It was an experimental error. It could not be reproduced. Nearly every scientific journal, magazine and newspaper on earth reported this, and cold fusion abruptly dropped out of the headlines. The story, it seemed, was over. Actually, it had barely begun. Only a few thousand electrochemists in the world were qualified to do the experiments, and most of them were too busy or not interested in trying. In that autumn as public interest faded and the U.S. Department of Energy pronounced a death sentence, a small number of experienced scientists prepared serious, full-scale experiments. One of them was Tadahiko Mizuno, an assistant professor who had been doing similar electrochemical experiments for more than twenty years.

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2807. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and T. Akimoto. Probability of Neutron and Heat Emission from Pt Electrode Induced by Discharge in Alkaline Solution. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T.
Keywords: neutron, heat+, plasma discharge, Pt, ICCF-7

2808. Mizuno, T. and T. Ohmori, Neutron and Heat Generation Induced by Electric Discharge. J. New Energy, 1998. 3(1): p. 33.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T.
Keywords: neutron,, heat,, gas discharge

2809. Mizuno, T., et al., Confirmation of the changes of isotopic distribution for the elements on palladium cathode after strong electrolysis in D2O solutions. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 45.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, transmutation Xe

2810. Mizuno, T. Experimental Confirmation of the Nuclear Reaction at Low Energy Caused by Electrolysis in the Electrolyte. in Proceedings for the Symposium on Advanced Research in Energy Technology 2000. 2000. Hokkaido University.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation electrolysis Pd D2O

Section 1.  Confirmation with a palladium electrode in the heavy water electrolyte.1.1 SummaryMany elements on Pd electrodes were confirmed by several analytic methods; reaction products with the mass number up to 208 are deposited on palladium cathodes, which were subjected to electrolysis in a heavy water solution at high pressure, temperature, and current density for prolonged time. These masses were composed of many elements ranging from hydrogen to lead. Extraordinary changes of their isotopic distributions in the produced elements were observed; these were radically different from the ones found in nature. Essentially the same phenomenon was confirmed eight times with high reproducibility at high cathodic current density, above 0.2 A/cm^2. All the possibilities of contamination had been carefully eliminated by several pretreatments for the sample and electrolysis system. . . .

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2811. Mizuno, T., et al. Confirmation of Heat Generation and Anomalous Element Caused by Plasma Electrolysis in the Liquid. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Azumi, K., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: plasma discharge, heat, transmutation, ICCF-8

Plasma was formed on the electrode surface in a liquid electrolyte when a metal cathode was polarized in high voltage electrolysis in the solution. During the plasma electrolysis large amounts of heat are sometimes generated. The heat can exceed input substantially, in some cases by up to 200 percent of input power. At the same time, anomalous elements are detected in the electrolyte and on the electrode surface. Based on the heat and the product, we hypothesize a nuclear reaction can be induced by photon activation on the cathode element.

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2812. Mizuno, T., et al., Production of Heat During Plasma Electrolysis. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2000. 39: p. 6055.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: heat+, plasma discharge, H2O

Plasma was formed on the surface of an electrode in a liquid solution when metal cathodes underwent high-voltage electrolysis. A real-time heat calibration system was designed for detecting the amount of heat generated during plasma electrolysis. The measured heat exceeded the input power substantially, and in some cases 200% of the input power. The heat generation process depended on the conditions for electrolysis. There was no excess heat at the beginning of plasma electrolysis. However, after plasma electrolysis for a long time, a large amount of heat was generated. The reproducibility would be 100% if all factors such as temperature, voltage and duration were optimized. Based on the heat and the products, we hypothesize that some unique reaction occurs on the cathode surface. This reaction may not occur at energy levels available during electrochemical electrolysis.

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2813. Mizuno, T., et al., Neutron Evolution from a Palladium Electrode by Alternate Absorption Treatment of Deuterium and Hydrogen. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2001. 40(9A/B): p. L989-L991.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Takahashi, A., Yamada, H., Numata, H.
Keywords: neutron, electrolysis, D2O H2O

We observed neutron emissions from palladium after it absorbed deuterium from heavy water followed by hydrogen from light water. The neutron count, the duration of the release and the time of the release after electrolysis was initiated all fluctuated considerably. Neutron emissions were observed in five out of ten test cases. In all previous experiments reported, only heavy water was used, and light water was absorbed only in accidental contamination. Compared to these deuterium results, the neutron count is orders of magnitude higher, and reproducibility is much improved.

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2814. Mizuno, T., et al. Relation Between Neutron Evolution and Deuterium Permeation With a Palladium Electrode. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Beijing, China: Tsinghua University: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: neutron Pd electrolysis D2O H2O, ICCF-9

Abstract We observed neutron emissions from palladium after it absorbed deuterium from heavy water followed by hydrogen from light water. The neutron count, the duration of the release and the time of the release after electrolysis was initiated all fluctuated considerably. Neutron emissions were observed in five out of ten test cases. In all previous experiments reported, only heavy water was used, and light water was absorbed only in accidental contamination. Compared to these deuterium results, the neutron count is orders of magnitude higher, and reproducibility is much improved.

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2815. Mizuno, T., T. Akimoto, and T. Ohmori. Confirmation of anomalous hydrogen generation by plasma electrolysis. in 4th Meeting of Japan CF Research Society. 2003. Iwate, Japan: Iwate University.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Ohmori, T.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, hydrogen generation, current efficiency, heat

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas is usually obtained by the electrolysis. Pyrolysis decomposition of water occurs at high temperatures, starting at ~3000ºC. As we have already reported, anomalous hydrogen is sometimes generated during plasma electrolysis. Excess hydrogen usually appears once certain difficult conditions during high temperature glow discharge electrolysis are met. Here, we show that anomalous amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gas are generated during plasma electrolysis excess gas generation, presumably from pyrolysis. This is indirect proof that exceptionally high temperatures have been achieved. (Direct measurement of the reaction temperature has proved difficult.) Continuous generation of hydrogen above levels predicted by Faraday’s law is observed when temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface meet certain conditions. Although only a few observations of excess hydrogen gas production have been made, production is sometimes 80 times higher than normal Faradic electrolysis gas production.

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2816. Mizuno, T., T. Ohmori, and T. Akimoto. Generation of Heat and Products During Plasma Electrolysis. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Ohmori, T., Akimoto, T.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, pyrolysis, hydrogen generation, current efficiency

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult to achieve in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas can be usually obtained by electrolysis and a pyrolysis reaction at high temperatures above 3700 degrees Celsius. However, as we have alreadyreported, anomalous heat generation during plasma electrolysis is relatively easy to obtain under the right simultaneous conditions of high temperature and electrolysis. In this paper we discuss the anomalous amount of hydrogen and oxygen gas generated during plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen in amounts exceeding Faraday’s law is continuously observed when the conditions such as temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface are suitable. Non-Faradic generation of hydrogen gas is sometimes 80 times higher than the gas from normal electrolysis. Excess hydrogen has proved difficult to replicate by other laboratories, although we are able to reproduce it regularly.

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2817. Mizuno, T., et al. Neutron emission from D2 gas in magnetic fields under low temperature. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Takahashi, A., Celani, F.
Keywords: neutron

SummaryWe observed neutron emissions from pure deuterium gas after it was cooled in liquid nitrogen and placed in a magnetic field. Neutron emissions were observed in ten out of ten test cases. Neutron burst of 5.5 c/s were 1000 times higher than the background counts. These bursts occurred one or two times within a 300 second interval. The total neutron emission can be estimated from the counting efficiency, and it was 104 ~ 105 c/s. The reaction appears to be highly reproducible, reliably generating high neutron emissions. We conclude that the models proposed heretofore based upon d-d reactions are inadequate to explain the present results, which must involve magnetic field nuclear reactions.

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2818. Mizuno, T., et al. Generation of Heat and Products During Plasma Electrolysis. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Chung, D., Sesftel, F., Aoki, Y.
Keywords: plasma electrolysis, glow discharge, hydrogen generation, transmutation

Direct decomposition of water is very difficult in normal conditions. Hydrogen gas can be usually obtained by electrolysis or by a pyrolysis reaction at high temperatures, starting at approximately 3700ºC. However, as we have already reported, anomalous heat generation can occur during plasma electrolysis, and this process makes it rather easy to achieve both electrolysis and pyrolysis simultaneously. In this paper we describe anomalous amounts of hydrogen and oxygen gas generated during plasma electrolysis. The generation of hydrogen far in excess of amounts predicted by Faraday’s law is continuously observed when conditions such as temperature, current density, input voltage and electrode surface are suitable. Non-Faraday generation of hydrogen gas sometimes produces more than 80 times as much hydrogen as normal electrolysis does. Unfortunately there have been few claimed replications of excess hydrogen, even in rare cases in which excess heat is claimed. In most cases, no excess heat or hydrogen is observed. The reaction products found after electrolysis were different after excess heat generation.

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2819. Mizuno, T. and Y. Toriyabe. Anomalous energy generation during conventional electrolysis. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Toriyabe, Y.
Keywords: Excess heat, calorimeter

We experienced an explosive energy release during a conventional electrolysis experiment. The cell was a 1000 cc Pyrex glass vessel that has been in use for 5 years. It contained 700 cc of 0.2 M K2CO3 electrolyte; a platinum mesh anode; and a tungsten cathode wire 1.5 mm in diameter, 29 cm long, with 3 cm exposed to the electrolyte. The estimated heat out was 800 times higher than input power, based on the data recorded up to the moment of the event. There were many elements deposited on the electrode surface. The major elements were Ca and S and the total mol was roughly estimated as 10^-6.

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2820. Mizuno, T., et al., Hydrogen Evolution by Plasma Electrolysis in Aqueous Solution. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. A, 2005. 44(1A): p. 396-401.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Akimoto, T., Azumi, K., Ohmori, T., Aoki, Y., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: glow discharge, calorimetry, excess hydrogen

Hydrogen has recently attracted attention as a possible solution to environmental and energy problems. If hydrogen should be considered an energy storage medium rather than a natural resource. However, free hydrogen does not exist on earth. Many techniques for obtaining hydrogen have been proposed. It can be reformulated from conventional hydrocarbon fuels, or obtained directly from water by electrolysis or high-temperature pyrolysis with a heat source such as a nuclear reactor. However, the efficiencies of these methods are low. The direct heating of water to sufficiently high temperatures for sustaining pyrolysis is very difficult. Pyrolysis occurs when the temperature exceeds 4000ºC. Thus plasma electrolysis may be a better alternative, it is not only easier to achieve than direct heating, but also appears to produce more hydrogen than ordinary electrolysis, as predicted by Faraday’s laws, which is indirect evidence that it produces very high temperatures. We also observed large amounts of free oxygen generated at the cathode, which is further evidence of direct decomposition, rather than electrolytic decomposition. To achieve the continuous generation of hydrogen with efficiencies exceeding Faraday efficiency, it is necessary to control the surface conditions of the electrode, plasma electrolysis temperature, current density and input voltage. The minimum input voltage required induce the plasma state depends on the density and temperature of the solution, it was estimated as 120V in this study. The lowest electrolyte temperature at which plasma forms is ~75ºC. We have observed as much as 80 times more hydrogen generated by plasma electrolysis than by conventional electrolysis at 300 V.

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2821. Mizuno, T., Jyouon kakuyuugou purojekuto (cold fusion project). 2006: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Review

An e-book in Japanese reviewing the field. Describes Mizuno’s own research, as well as projects at Osaka University, NTT, Iwate University, Nagoya University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

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2822. Mizuno, T., Transmutation Reactions in Condensed Matter, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 271-294.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords:

2823. Mizuno, T. and S. Sawada. Anomalous Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Carbon (Phenanthrene). in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Sawada, S.
Keywords: heat

When phenanthrene (a heavy oil fraction) is subjected to high pressure and heat in a reactor with a metal catalyzer, it produces a markedly anomalous reaction. It produces excess heat and weak radiation, specifically x-rays and gamma-rays. Furthermore, after the reaction finishes, mass spectroscopy reveals what appears to be 13C. It is very difficult to explain the total energy generation as a conventional chemical reaction. After the experiment, almost all phenanthrene and hydrogen gas remains in the same condition they were initially. There are few reaction products such as other chemical compounds. However, the formation enthalpies for these compounds are all negative. The heat generation sometimes reaches 0.1 kW and has continued for several hours. There is a reasonably significant correspondence between the heat generation and the gamma emission. We have confirmed the same result with high reproducibility by controlling temperature and pressure.

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2824. Mizuno, T. Confirmation of Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Oil (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Excess heat

We have confirmed unusual reaction when heavy oil is heated in high pressure hydrogen gas with a metal catalyzer. Excess heat and weak radiation that assumed to be x-rays and gamma-rays were observed. After the test, almost of the sample and hydrogen gas remains in the same condition they were initially. There are reaction products such as other chemical compounds. However, the formation enthalpies for these compounds are estimated as endothermic. The heat generation sometimes reaches 0.1kW and has continued for several hours. There is a reasonably significant correspondence between the heat generation and the radiation emission. We have confirmed the same result with high reproducibility by controlling temperature and pressure. The anomalous energy generation cannot be the product of a conventional chemical reaction for the following reasons: At these temperatures, hydrogenation reactions are endothermic, not exothermic. The total heat release far exceeded any known chemical reaction with this mass of reactants. There is virtually no chemical fuel in the cell. There were few chemical reaction products. The components and chemical species in the cell including oil and hydrogen gas remained essentially as they were when experiment began, except that the platinum screen was coated with carbon. The emissions are thought that had been generated from some nuclear reaction. The reaction is reliably triggered by raising temperatures above the threshold temperature of ~530у and the hydrogen pressures above 60 atm. It can be quenched by lowering the temperature inside the cell below ~500у. When the necessary conditions are achieved, generation of heat is observed with high reproducibility. However, the amount of heat generated is not stable. Only a small amount of reactant is consumed during the experiment, presumably by conventional chemical reactions. We conclude the following: Anomalous heat generation was confirmed during heating of sample in high pressure H2 gas. Sporadic emission was confirmed during high temperature experiment. A weak correlation was observed between heat and the emissions.

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2825. Mizuno, T. Confirmation of Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Oil. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords:

The study was devoted to replicating and controlling that excess heat effect during hydrogenation of hydrocarbon. The reactant is phenanthrene, a heavy oil fraction, which is reacted with H2 gas of high pressure and high temperature in the presence of a metal catalyst. This results in the production of excess heat and radiation. After the reaction, an analysis of residual gas reveals a variety of hydrocarbons, but it seems unlikely that these products can explain the excess heat. Most of them form endothermically, and furthermore heat production reached 60 W. Overall heat production exceeded any conceivable chemical reaction by two orders of magnitude.

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2826. Mizuno, T., Heat and Radiation Generation during Hydrogenation of CH Compound. J. Environ. Sci. Eng., 2011. 5(8): p. 1017.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Heat

Abstract: Securing new sources of energy has become a major concern, because fossil fuels are expected to be depleted within several decades. In some of the major wars of the 20th century, control of oil was either a proximate cause or a decisive factor in the outcome. Especially in Japan and Germany, a great deal of research was devoted to making liquid fuels from coal. In one such experiment, a large amount of excess heat was observed. The present study was devoted to replicating and controlling that excess heat effect. The reactant is phenanthrene, a heavy oil fraction, which is subjected to high pressure and high heat in the presence of a metal catalyst. This results in the production of excess heat and strong penetrating electromagnetic radiation. After the reaction, an analysis of residual gas reveals a variety of hydrocarbons, but it seems unlikely that these products can explain the excess heat. Most of them form endothermically, and furthermore heat production reached 60 W. Overall heat production exceeded any conceivable chemical reaction by two orders of magnitude.

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2827. Mizuno, T. Method of controlling a chemically-induced nuclear reaction in metal nanoparticles. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

A nuclear reaction can occur when metal nanoparticles are exposed to hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. When hydrogen isotopes (light hydrogen and deuterium) enter the nanoparticles and are exposed to electron irradiation, the hydrogen reacts inside the lattice, producing energy. The reaction also produces neutrons, gamma rays and transmutations. Normally, electron irradiation does not produce anomalous heat or radiation. A reaction occurs when hydrogen acts as a heavy fermion (a heavy electron) inside metal nanoparticles below a certain particle size, allowing protons or deuterons to approach one another closely.

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2828. Mizuno, T. and J. Rothwell. Poster for ‘Method of controlling a chemically-induced nuclear reaction in metal nanoparticles’. in ICCF18 Conference. 2013. University of Missouri.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: nano-particles, excess heat

Excess heat is observed when nanoparticles of nickel or palladium undergo glow discharge electrolysis in hydrogen or deuterium gas. After glow discharge ends, when additional gas is admitted to the cell, another burst of heat is sometimes observed.This method produces nanoparticles by bombarding the electrodes with electrons during ~30 hours of glow discharge. The nanoparticles are created in situ in electrodes. The electrodes have already been cleaned and purified, and they are kept in a high-purity gas environment, so the nanoparticles have little contamination on the surface and they are highly absorbent. With other methods, the nanoparticle material is fabricated elsewhere and exposed to air and contamination before being placed in the cell.

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2829. Mizuno, T., Method of Controlling a Chemically Induced Nuclear Reaction in Metal Nanoparticles. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13: p. 422-431.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Gas loading, Heat, Nanoparticles

A nuclear reaction can occur when metal nanoparticles are exposed to hydrogen isotopes in the gas phase. When hydrogen isotopes (light hydrogen and deuterium) enter the nanoparticles and are exposed to electron irradiation, the hydrogen reacts inside the lattice, producing energy. The reaction also produces neutrons, gamma rays and transmutations. Protons and heavy electrons take part in the reaction. The method of control and the experimental results are reported here.

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2830. Mizuno, T., PREPRINT Observation of excess heat by activated metal and deuterium gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Ni metal, surface activation, deuterium gas, heat generation

Reports of heat-generating cold fusion reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system have been increasing. The reactions mainly involve nickel with other additive elements. The authors of these reports emphasized the importance of an extremely clean system in the electrolytic tests in which excess heat was generated. Therefore, we attempted to detect excess heat after reducing impurities to a minimum by cleaning the electrode carefully and then fabricating nanoparticles in situ in our test system, without ever exposing them to air. As a result, energy far exceeding input was continuously obtained. In the best results obtained thus far, the output thermal energy is double the input electrical energy, amounting to several hundred watts. The generated thermal energy follows an exponential temperature function. When the reactor temperature is 300у, the generated energy is 1 kW. An increase of the temperature is expected to greatly increase the output energy.We have recently improved the preparation of the electrode material. This enhanced reproducibility and increased excess heat. The new methods are described in an appendix.

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2831. Mizuno, T., Observation of excess heat by activated metal and deuterium gas. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 25: p. 1-25.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Ni metal, surface activation, deuterium gas, heat generation

Reports of heat-generating cold fusion reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system have been increasing. The reactions mainly involve nickel with other additive elements. The authors of these reports emphasized the importance of an extremely clean system in the electrolytic tests in which excess heat was generated. Therefore, we attempted to detect excess heat after reducing impurities to a minimum by cleaning the electrode carefully and then fabricating nanoparticles in situ in our test system, without ever exposing them to air. As a result, energy far exceeding input was continuously obtained. In the best results obtained thus far, the output thermal energy is double the input electrical energy, amounting to several hundred watts. The generated thermal energy follows an exponential temperature function. When the reactor temperature is 300у, the generated energy is 1 kW. An increase of the temperature is expected to greatly increase the output energy.We have recently improved the preparation of the electrode material. This enhanced reproducibility and increased excess heat. The new methods are described in an appendix.

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2832. Mizuno, T. and J. Rothwell. Excess heat generation by simple treatment of reaction metal in hydrogen gas (PowerPoint slides). in The 21st International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science ICCF-21. 2018. Fort Collins, CO.

First Author: Mizuno, T.
All Authors: Mizuno, T., Rothwell, J.
Keywords: Excess heat

Reports of heat generation of reactions in the nickel-hydrogen system recently are increasing. These reactions mainly occurred with nickel together with other additive elements and hydrogen gas. We carefully cleaned the reactants and reactor and then processed in situ in the test system without exposure to air and have detected the excess heat. In these test, the thermal energy greatly exceeding the input and was continued for long time. In the best results so far, the output heat energy is twice of the input electric energy and can be lasted for several month. For example, when the input was 500 W, the excess heat can be continued for several hundred watts. It was found that the rise in temperature can be increased the output energy. We recently improved the method of preparing reactive materials and heat generation technic. This makes easier to obtain the excess heat. Here, we report the results of the new method for reactant preparation and results.

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2833. Mo, W., et al. Search for Precursor and Charged Particles in “Cold Fusion”. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Mo, W.
All Authors: Mo, W., Liu, Y. S., Zhou, L. Y., Dong, S. Y., Wang, K. L., Wang, S. C., Li, X. Z.
Keywords: Pd, titanium, D2, particle emission ICCF-2

2834. Mo, D.W., et al. Real Time Measurements of the Energetic Charged Particles and the Loading Ratio (D/Pd). in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Mo, D. W.
All Authors: Mo, D. W., Zhang, L., Chen, B. X., Liu, Y. S., Doing, S. Y., Yao, M. Y., Zhou, L. Y., Huang, H. G., Li, X. Z., Shen, X. D., Wang, S. C., Kang, T. S., Huang, N. Z.
Keywords: Pd, D2, particle emission, resistivity, ICCF-3

A loading D2 gas system was built, which can measure the gas pressure, the temperature, the loading ratio, the charged particles and bursts, in real-time. The charged particles and burst was searched and the reproducible condition was found preliminary.

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2835. Mo, D.W., et al. The Evidence of Nuclear Transmutation Phenomeno in Pd-H System Using NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Mo, D. W.
All Authors: Mo, D. W., Cai, Q. S., Wang, L. M., Wang, S. Z.
Keywords: transmutation, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-7

2836. Moagar-Poladian, G. A Possible Mechanism For Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Moagar-Poladian, G.
All Authors: Moagar-Poladian, G.
Keywords: theory

We describe a mechanism for cold fusion that is able to explain how two hydrogen ions may come close enough so as to fusion as well as many of the different and independent experimental observations made during years of experiments. We present the mechanism, its weak points, the way it explains the respective phenomena and suggest some experiments that may validate further the model described by us.

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2837. Moagar-Poladian, G. A Possible Mechanism For Cold Fusion. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Moagar-Poladian, G.
All Authors: Moagar-Poladian, G.
Keywords:

We describe a mechanism for cold fusion that is able to explain how two hydrogen ions may come close enough so as to fusion as well as many of the different and independent experimental observations made during years of experiments. We present the mechanism, its weak points, the way it explains the respective phenomena and suggest some experiments that may validate further the model described by us.

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2838. Moffatt, W.G., Pd-Li Phase Diagram. 1978: General Electric.

First Author: Moffatt, W. G.
All Authors: Moffatt, W. G.
Keywords: Pd, Li, Phase Dagram,

2839. Moir, R.W., Application of Muon-Catalyzed Fusion in Metal Hydrides For Isotope Production. 1989: Los Alamod.

First Author: Moir, R. W.
All Authors: Moir, R. W.
Keywords: theory,

2840. Moizhes, B.Y., Formation of a compact D2 molecule in interstitial sites – a possible explanation for cold nuclear fusion. Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett., 1991. 17: p. 540.

First Author: Moizhes, B. Ya.
All Authors: Moizhes, B. Ya.
Keywords: theory, structure, D2, dimer, gamma phase

2841. Montereali, R., et al. A Novel LiF-Based Detector For X-Ray Imaging In Hydrogen Loaded Ni Films Under Laser Irradiation. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Marolo, T., Vincenti, M., Sarto, F., Sibilia, C., Castagna, E., Violante, V.
Keywords: x-ray detection

A novel soft X-ray imaging film detector, based on optically stimulated luminescence of active color centers in lithium fluoride, LiF, has been used to obtain the image of radiation emitted from a nickel film hydride loaded by electrolysis, under light coupling with an He-Ne laser.

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2842. Montereali, R., et al. Lithium Fluoride X-Ray Imaging Film Detectors for Condensed Matter Nuclear Measurements (PowerPoint slides). in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Bonfigli, F., Castagna, E., Sarto, F., Vincenti, M., Violante, V.
Keywords: x-ray detection

Lithium Fluoride, LiF, is a radiation sensitive alkali halide material well known as dosimeter and as active medium in light-emitting devices and lasers. Point defects can be produced in LiF crystals and films by different kinds of radiation. Some of these electronic defects, known as colour centres, are optically active, with broad absorption and emission bands in the visible spectral range. Novel thin-film imaging detectors for soft X-rays, based on photoluminescence from aggregate colour centres in LiF, have been proposed and are currently under development, successfully extending their operation also in the hard X-ray region, up to 10 keV. Recently their use was proposed and preliminarily tested to obtain the image of radiation emitted from a nickel film hydride loaded by electrolysis, under light coupling with an He-Ne laser.

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2843. Montereali, R., et al. Lithium Fluoride X-ray Imaging Film Detectors for Condensed Matter Nuclear Measurements. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Montereali, R.
All Authors: Montereali, R., Almaviva, S., Castagna, E., Bonfigli, F., Vincenti, M.
Keywords:

A novel thin-film imaging detector for X-rays, based on photoluminescence from aggregate color centers in lithium fluoride, has been proposed and tested. The detector consists in a radiation-sensitive thin film of lithium fluoride thermally evaporated on a glass substrate. The morphological properties of the lithium fluoride thin films, which influence the detector performances, have been investigated.

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2844. Montgomery, J.R., et al. Correlated Nuclear and Thermal Measurements in D/Pd and H/Pd Systems. in Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium/Solid Systems, “AIP Conference Proceedings 228”. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York.

First Author: Montgomery, J. R.
All Authors: Montgomery, J. R., Jeffery, R., Amiri, F., Adams, J.
Keywords: Pd, D, neutron

2845. Monti, R.A., Low energy nuclear reactions: Experimental evidence for the alpha extended model of the atom. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 131.

First Author: Monti, R. A.
All Authors: Monti, R. A.
Keywords: transmutation, theory

2846. Monti, R.A. Nuclear Transmutation Processes of Lead, Silver, Thorium, Uranium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Monti, R. A.
All Authors: Monti, R. A.
Keywords: transmutation, arc, H2O, ICCF-7

2847. Moon, D., A Cold Fusion Theory. 1993.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: theory

2848. Moon, D., Addendum to “Mechanisms of a disobedient science”. Infinite Energy, 1996. 1(5/6): p. 89.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: Theory dineutron

2849. Moon, D., Review of a cold fusion theory: Mechanisms of a disobedient science. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(28): p. 33.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords: theory review dineutron

2850. Moon, D. The Nucleovoltaic Cell. in Eleventh International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2004. Marseille, France.

First Author: Moon, D.
All Authors: Moon, D.
Keywords:

Described in this paper is a cold fusion device that is conceptually designed to convert the energy release, from deuteron-deuteron fusion, directly to electricity at an efficiency worthy of commercial development. The working element is an N-type semiconductor which has been coated with a thin film (a few hundred angstroms) of hydrogen-active metal, for example palladium, and which is joined to a P-type semiconductor at the

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2851. Moore, G.A. and D.P. Smith, The Occlusion and Diffusion of Hydrogen in Metals. A. Metallographic Study of Nickel-Hydrogen. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1937. LXXI: p. 545.

First Author: Moore, G. A.
All Authors: Moore, G. A., Smith, D. P.
Keywords: Ni, H2, Phase Diagram, metallography

2852. Moore, A., The Comportment of Palladium-Hydrogen System Toward Alternating Electric Current. Trans. Electrochem. Soc., 1939. LXXV: p. 237.

First Author: Moore, A.
All Authors: Moore, A.
Keywords: Excess Volume, Pd, H2, dimension, PdH

2853. Morgan, J.D. and H.J. Monkhurst, Simple model for accurate calculation of Coulomb-barrier penetration factors in molecular fusion rates. Phys. Rev. A: At. Mol. Opt. Phys., 1990. 42(9): p. 5175.

First Author: Morgan, J. D.
All Authors: Morgan, J. D., Monkhurst, H. J.
Keywords: theory, Born-Oppenheimer, distance

2854. Morgan, J.D., Comment on: Deuterium nuclear fusion at room temperature: a pertinent inequality on barrier penetration. J. Chem. Phys., 1990. 93: p. 6115.

First Author: Morgan, J. D.
All Authors: Morgan, J. D.
Keywords: theory, critique, Rosen

2855. Morioka, S., Nuclear fusion triggered by positron annihilation at vacancies in deuterated metals. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107A: p. 2755.

First Author: Morioka, S.
All Authors: Morioka, S.
Keywords: Theory, positron annihilation

2856. Morrey, J.R., et al., Measurements of helium in electrolyzed palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 659.

First Author: Morrey, J. R.
All Authors: Morrey, J. R., Caffee, M. W., Farrar IV, H., Hoffman, N. J., Hudson, G. B., Jones, R. H., Kurz, M. D., Lupton, J., Oliver, B. M., Ruiz, B. V., Wacker, J. F., van Veen, A.
Keywords: helium Pd review

2857. Morrison, D.R.O., A view from CERN. Physics World, 1989. 2: p. 17.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: critique, review

2858. Morrison, D.R.O., The Rise And Decline of Cold Fusion. Physics World, 1990: p. 35.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review, critque, history

2859. Morrison, D.R.O. Review of Cold Fusion. in 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf. 1990. Honolulu, HI: Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 2540 Dole St., Holmes Hall 246, Honolulu, HI 96822.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: history

Experimental results on Cold Fusion are reviewed. Most experiments find no effect and the upper limits are appreciably lower than the positive effects claimed in some experiments. It is concluded that (a) there is no excess heat production, (b) the balance of evidence is strongly against fusion products. A curious Regionalisation of Results is observed where only negative results are found in some parts of the world and only positive results in other pans. Further the ratio of positive to negative results varies with time. Previous studies of Palladium indicate that fusion should not occur inside the metal. Cold Fusion is best explained as an example of Pathological Science.

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2860. Morrison, D.R.O., Review of cold fusion. Sov. Phys. Usp., 1991. 34: p. 1055.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review

2861. Morrison, D.R.O., Review of Progress in Cold Fusion. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 48.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: review, history, critique

2862. Morrison, D.R.O., Comments on claims of excess enthalpy by Fleischmann and Pons using simple cells made to boil. Phys. Lett. A, 1994. 185: p. 498.

First Author: Morrison, D. R. O.
All Authors: Morrison, D. R. O.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

2863. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Metal Hydrogen System: Interphase Participation in H-Transport. 1995, Naval Control, Command and Ocean Surveillance Center, RDT&E Division.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S.
Keywords: hydride, hydrogen transport

This paper is available as a single file (below), and it is included in:Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss, Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D System. 1995, Office of Naval Research.The metal/hydrogen system is a key element in the construction of ecologically preferred energy conversion/storage devices. Although reduced to practice decades ago, its effectiveness requires further examination of a number of issues, among them the role that the electrode/electrolyte interphase plays during the charging/discharging processes. In this communication the following topics are considered: Thermodynamics and kinetics of the structure of the interphase, the identity and components of the driving force(s) for the absorption/desorption of hydrogen, and the discussion of the applicable transport equation. Agreement between theoretical results and observed behavior is illustrated and selected design approaches affecting cell performance are explored.

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2864. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and S. Szpak, The Pd/(n)H system: transport processes and development of thermal instabilities. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1999. 112: p. 577.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S.
Keywords: Theory, hot spot, electrolysis, Pd, D2O

Summary. — Surface temperature distribution associated with excess enthalpy production during the codeposition process is presented. The interpretation is sought via the multilayer concept of the electrode/electrolyte interphase. The effect of gas evolution on activities within the interphase is considered.

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2865. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System (1), ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 1 A Decade of Research at Navy Laboratories. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Chubb, S. R., Fleischmann, M., Imam, M. A., Miles, M., Szpak, S.
Keywords:

Twelve years have passed since the announcement on 23 March 1989 by professors Fleischmann and Pons that the generation of excess enthalpy occurs in electrochemical cells when palladium electrodes, immersed in D2O + LiOH electrolyte, are negatively polarized. The announcement, which came to be known as “Cold Fusion,” caused frenzied excitement. In both the scientific and news communities, fax machines were used to pass along fragments of rumor and “facts.” (Yes, this was before wide spread use of the internet. One can only imagine what would happen now.) Companies and individuals rushed to file patents on yet to be proven ideas in hopes of winning the grand prize. Unfortunately, the phenomenon described by Fleischmann and Pons was far from being understood and even factors necessary for repeatability of the experiments were unknown. Over the next few months, the scientific community became divided into the “believers” and the “skeptics.” The “believers” reported the results of their work with enthusiasm that at times overstated the significance of their results. On the other hand, many “skeptics” rejected the anomalous behavior of the polarized Pd/D system as a matter of conviction, i.e., without analyzing the presented material and always asking “where are the neutrons?” Funding for research quickly dried up as anything related to “Cold Fusion” was portrayed as a hoax and not worthy of funding. The term “Cold Fusion” took on a new definition much as the Ford Edsel had done years earlier. Dr. Frank E. Gordon, Head, Navigation and Applied Sciences Department, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego

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2866. Mosier-Boss, P.A. and M. Fleischmann, Thermal and Nuclear Aspects of the Pd/D2O System (2), ed. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss. Vol. 2. Simulation of the Electrochemical Cell (ICARUS) Calorimetry. 2002: SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego, U.S. Navy.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Fleischmann, M.
Keywords: calorimeter, method

FOREWORD The calorimetry of any electrochemical cell involves two types of activities: data collection and data evaluation. The required data are the cell potential-time and cell temperature-time series. The evaluation is based on conservation laws subject to constraints dictated by cell design and the adapted experimental procedure. Volume 2 of this report deals with the modeling and simulation of the Dewar-type calorimeter. It was written by Professor Fleischmann to provide an authoritative discussion of the calorimetry of electrochemical cells. The emphasis is on the interpretation of data and the accuracy of the determination of the excess enthalpy generation via the appropriate selection of heat transfer coefficients. The discussion of the calorimetry of the Dewar-type cells is presented in the form of technical report for a number of reasons, among them: (i) its length would likely prohibit publication in topical journals, (ii) to clarify misunderstandings regarding the principles of calorimetry as applied to electrochemical cell in general and to the cell employed by Fleischmann and his collaborators, in particular. S. Szpak and P.A. Mosier-Boss, eds.

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2867. Mosier-Boss, P.A., S. Szpak, and F. Gordon. Production of High Energy Particles Using the Pd/D Co-Deposition Process (PowerPoint slides). in APS March Meeting. 2007. Denver, CO.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F.
Keywords: sonofusion

PowerPoint slides from the American Physical Society March 2007 conference.

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2868. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al. Pd/D Co-Deposition: Excess Power Generation and Its Origin (paper and PowerPoint slides). in 233rd ACS National Meeting. 2007. Chicago, IL.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L., Phillips, G.
Keywords: Neutron

Early Pd/D co-deposition experiments demonstrated excess enthalpy, formation of hot spots, emission of low intensity radiation, and production of tritium.Excess enthalpy is generated by highly energetic fast reactions that resemble “mini-explosions”. This view is supported by IR imaging (hot spots) and by the response of the pressure/temperature sensitive substrates (piezoelectric material) onto which the Pd/D films are co-deposited.An external electric/magnetic field changes the shape of the individual globules of the “cauliflower” structure of the Pd/D co-deposited material.New elements are observed that are associated with the morphological features formed by the action of the external E/B fields.Using CR-39 detectors, tracks are obtained that are consistent with both nuclear charged particles and neutron knock-on tracks.

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2869. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Use of CR-39 in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2007. 40: p. 293-303.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

The use of CR-39, a solid state nuclear track detector, to detect the emission of energetic charged particles during Pd/D co-deposition is demonstrated. The pits observed in the CR-39 are attributed to the Pd/D cathode and are not due to radionuclide contamination in the cell components; nor to the impingement of D2 bubbles on the surface of the CR-39; nor to chemical attack by D2, O2, or Cl2. The features (i.e., optical contrast, shape, and bright spot in the center of the pit) of the pits generated during Pd/D co-deposition are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin.

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2870. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Detection of Energetic Particles and Neutrons Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition, in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook. 2008, American Chemical Society: Washington, DC. p. 311-334.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords:

2871. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Reply to Comment on ‘The Use of CR-39 in Pd/D Co-deposition Experiments’: A Response to Kowalski. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2008. 44: p. 287-290.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

Earlier we reported, in this journal, that the pits generated in CR-39 detectors during Pd/D co-deposition experiments are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin. Recently, that interpretation has been challenged. In this communication, additional experimental data and further analysis of our earlier results are provided that support our original conclusions.

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2872. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Triple tracks in CR-39 as the result of Pdâ€â€ŢD Co-deposition: evidence of energetic neutrons. Naturwiss., 2008. doi:10.1007/s00114-008-0449-x(96): p. 135-142.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2873. Mosier-Boss, P.A., F. Gordon, and L. Forsley, Characterization of Energetic Particles Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition for Use in a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), in Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2. 2009, American Chemical Society: Washington DC. p. 119-135.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords:

Earlier we reported that the pits generated in CR-39 detectors during Pd/D co-deposition experiments are consistent with those observed for pits that are of a nuclear origin. Spacer experiments and track modeling have been done to characterize the properties of the particles that generated the tracks in the CR-39 detectors. The effect of water on the energetics of the particles and their resultant tracks is discussed.

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2874. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Characterization of tracks in CR-39 detectors obtained as a result of Pd/D Co-deposition. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2009. 46.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2875. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and F. Gordon, Comments on Co-deposition Electrolysis Results: A Response to Kowalski. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2010. 3: p. 4-8.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F.
Keywords: CR-39, Pd/D co-deposition

In 2009, it was reported that the tracks observed on the front surface of CR-39 detectors as a result of co-deposition were due to 0.45-0.97 MeV protons, 0.55-1.25 MeV tritons, 1.40-3.15 MeV 3He, and/or 1.45-3.30 MeV alphas. Recently those conclusions have been challenged. In this communication, additional experimental data and further analysis of our earlier results are provided that support our original conclusions.

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2876. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Comparison of Pd/D co-deposition and DT neutron generated triple tracks observed in CR-39 detectors. Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys., 2010. 51.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Szpak, S., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: cr-39, particle emission

2877. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Review of TwentyYears of LENR Research Using Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 173-187.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Dea, J., Gordon, F., Forsley, L., Miles, M.
Keywords: Nuclear products, Pd/D co-deposition

In the Pd/D co-deposition process, working and counter electrodes are immersed in a solution of palladium chloride and lithium chloride in deuterated water. Palladium is then electrochemically reduced onto the surface of the working electrode in the presence of evolving deuterium gas. Electrodes prepared by Pd/D co-deposition exhibit highly expanded surfaces consisting of small spherical nodules. Because of this high surface area and electroplating in the presence of deuterium gas, the incubation time to achieve high D/Pd loadings necessary to initiate LENR is orders of magnitude less than required for bulk electrodes. Besides heat, the following nuclear emanations have been detected using Pd/D co-deposition: X-ray emission, tritium production, transmutation, and particle emission. Experimental details and results obtained over a twenty year period of research are discussed.

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2878. Mosier-Boss, P.A., F. Gordon, and L. Forsley, Characterization of Neutrons Emitted during Pd/D Co-deposition. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 13-23.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Gordon, F., Forsley, L.
Keywords: Co-deposition, CR-39 detectors, Heterostructures, Photomicrographs, Triple tracks

Experiments using CR-39 detectors have shown that energetic particles and neutrons are emitted during Pd/D co-deposition. Using 6 μm Mylar between the CR-39 and the cathode, it has been shown that the majority of the tracks formed have energies on the order of 1-3 MeV. This conclusion was supported by computer analysis of the pits using the ‘Track_Test’ program developed by Nikezic and Yu. In this communication, additional analysis of the detectors will be discussed. In particular, it will be shown that the size distribution of the neutron-generated tracks on the back side of the CR-39 detectors are consistent with the occurrence of DD and DT fusion reactions. This is supported by the presence of triple tracks in the CR-39 as well as the energies of the charged particles as determined in the Mylar experiments.

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2879. Mosier-Boss, P.A., A Review on Nuclear Products Generated During Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 135-148.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Charged particles, Helium-4, Neutrons, Transmutation, X- and gamma rays

Given the response to the Fleischmann-Pons news conference in 1989, it became clear to many researchers in the field that excess heat was not convincing enough evidence to prove that nuclear processes were occurring inside a metal lattice. Skeptics attributed the excess heat to recombination of deuterium and oxygen gases and/or poor calorimetry, despite the fact that control experiments showed that this was not the case. Consequently, a number of researchers redirected their efforts from measuring heat to looking for nuclear products such as neutrons, charged particles, X- and gamma rays, and transmutation. The results of these efforts are discussed in this communication.

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2880. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and F. Gordon, How the Flawed Journal Review Process Impedes Paradigm Shifting Discoveries. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 12.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F.
Keywords: Discovery, Flawed journal review, Nuclear diagnostics, Review process, Scientific breakthrough, Scientific policy

The purpose of scientific journals is to review papers for scientific validity and to disseminate new theoretical and experimental results. This requires that the editors and reviewers be impartial. Our attempt to publish novel experimental results in a renowned physics journal shows that in some cases editors and reviewers are not impartial; they are biased and closed-minded. Although our subject matter was technical, its rejection was not: it was emotionally charged. It was an agenda-laden rejection of legitimate experiments that were conducted in US DoD and DoE laboratories. This paper describes the ?awed journal review process, detailing our own case and citing others. Such behavior on the part of editors and reviewers has a stifling effect on innovation and the diffusion of knowledge.

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2881. Mosier-Boss, P.A., It is not Low Energy — But it is Nuclear. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: CR-39, Energetic particles, Pd/D co-deposition, Transmutation

In this communication, CR-39 track results obtained as a result of Pd/D co-deposition are discussed and criticisms of those results are addressed. Implications of the CR-39 results with reports of transmutation are explored.

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2882. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and P. McDaniel, The Use of CR-39 Detectors in LENR Experiments 29. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 14.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., McDaniel, P.
Keywords: Charged particles, CR-39, Neutrons, Real-time electronic detectors

In this communication, the use of CR-39 detectors to detect energetic charged particles and neutrons in LENR experiments is discussed. The main advantages of these detectors over real-time electronic detectors are its integration capability and its ability to speciate energetic particles. Unlike real-time detectors, CR-39 can be placed in close proximity to the cathode and can be used for both electrolysis experiments and gas loading. These advantages of CR-39 detectors over real time, electronic detectors are particularly important when energetic particle emissions occur either sporadically in bursts or at a low flux.

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2883. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Use of CR-39 detectors to determine the branching ratio in Pd/D co-deposition. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Roussetski, A. S., Lipson, A., Tanzella, F. L., Saunin, E. I., McKubre, M. C. H., Earle, B., Zhou, D.
Keywords:

2884. Mosier-Boss, P.A., et al., Condensed matter nuclear reaction products observed in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., Gordon, F., Letts, D., Cravens, D., Miles, M., Swartz, M. R., Dash, J., Tanzella, F. L., Hagelstein, P. L., McKubre, M. C. H., Bao, J.
Keywords:

2885. Mosier-Boss, P.A., Introduction To “A Summary of NRL Research on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Palladium Electrochemical Systems” (published in 1996). 2016: Washington.

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
Keywords: Review

In January 1992, NRL began an ONR-funded project to replicate experimental procedures provided by NAWC and NRaD (now SSC-Pac) to verify the results. At ICCF-2, Stan Szpak reported that thermometry showed that the heat source in Pd/D co-deposition was the cathode (this was later verified using infrared imagery), the emission of X-rays using photographic film, and tritium production. In the thermometry measurements done at NRaD, a large diameter cell was used and the anode and cathode were completely immersed in the electrolyte.

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2886. Mosier-Boss, P.A., L. Forsley, and P. McDaniel, Investigation of Nano Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter, Final Report. 2016, Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

First Author: Mosier-Boss, P. A.
All Authors: Mosier-Boss, P. A., Forsley, L., McDaniel, P.
Keywords: Co-deposition, heat

On March 23, 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, professors of chemistry at the University of Utah, held a press conference to announce the results of electrochemical experiments that produced more heat than could be accounted for by chemical means. They speculated that the heat had a nuclear origin. The experiments were quickly dubbed “Cold Fusion” by the news media. The physics community noted that Fleischmann and Pons had not published their results in any journal prior to their announcement, there had been no reports of any replications of the effect, there was no mention of the generation of any nuclear ash, and that the reported results did not match theory. Despite these perceived irregularities scientists, worldwide, went into their laboratories to replicate the Fleischmann-Pons results. A few scientists succeeded but a great many more failed. It is now known that those failures were due to the fact that the experimental conditions necessary to achieve the effect, i.e., high D loading and high D flux inside the Pd lattice, had not been achieved. Ultimately, the lack of replication by others and the fact that Fleischmann and Pons were not able to defend their original claims caused most scientists to lose interest.

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2887. Mueller, D. and L.R. Grisham, Nuclear reactions products that would appear if substantial cold fusion occurred. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 379.

First Author: Mueller, D.
All Authors: Mueller, D., Grisham, L. R.
Keywords: theory, nuclear reaction, energy, review

2888. Muguet, F.F. and M.P. Bassez-Muguet, Ab initio computations of one and two hydrogen or deuterium atoms in the palladium tetrahedral site. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(4): p. 383.

First Author: Muguet, F. F.
All Authors: Muguet, F. F., Bassez-Muguet, M. P.
Keywords: theory, tetrahedral, structure, PdD, distance

2889. Mukherjee, D. and A. Wordsworth, Stress relieving of palladium foils, controls its electro-catalytic properties. Tool & Alloy Steels, 1994: p. 323.

First Author: Mukherjee, D.
All Authors: Mukherjee, D., Wordsworth, A.
Keywords: Pd, OCV, corrosion, electrolysis, loading

2890. Mukhopadhyay, R., et al., Real time deuterium loading investigation in palladium using neutron diffraction. Solid State Commun., 1990. 75: p. 359.

First Author: Mukhopadhyay, R.
All Authors: Mukhopadhyay, R., Dasannacharya, B. A., Nandan, D., Singh, A. J., Iyer, R. M.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, D2O, phase diagram, lattice parameter, diffusion

2891. Muller, W. and F. Besenbacher, A Note on the 3He+D Nuclear-Reaction Cross Section. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A, 1980. 168: p. 111.

First Author: Muller, W.
All Authors: Muller, W., Besenbacher, F.
Keywords: D2, fusion, Cross Section, branching ratio

2892. Murase, A., et al., TOF-SIMS Investigation on Nuclear Transmutation from Sr to Mo with Deuterium Permeation through Multi-layered Pd/CaO. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2012. 6: p. 34-43.

First Author: Murase, A.
All Authors: Murase, A., Takahashi, A., Hibi, S., Hioki, T., Motohiro, T., Kasagi, J.
Keywords: Deuterium permeation, Pd/CaO multilayer, Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, Transmutation, X-ray, photoelectron spectroscopy

The selective nuclear transmutation from 88Sr to 96Mo reported by Iwamura et al. was investigated replacing electrochemical deposition with ion implantation for seeding 88Sr+ and replacing a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a time of flight mass spectrometer for secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) for analysis of possible transmuted products. At the surface of the Sr implanted Pd/CaO multilayer foil, Mo was clearly detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after deuterium gas permeation. After the D2 permeation, the sample was heat treated in the air to remove S which condensed at the surface during the permeation. After the successful removal of S, Mo could be clearly detected by XPS on the surface of the 88Sr+ implanted Pd/CaO multilayer foil. The isotopic abundance ratio of the surface Mo measured by TOF-SIMS was similar to that of natural Mo. However, after the removal of the outermost surface layer with ion sputtering, the observed isotopic abundance ratio of Mo changed from that of natural Mo with an isolatedly strong peak at a mass close to 96Mo. This result duly suggests that the transmutation from 88Sr to 96Mo had took place, although the peak of m/z = 96 might be also assigned to GaAl+, Ca2O+ or CaFe+, beside 96Mo+. By further analyses of the TOF-SIMS data from the viewpoint of accurate masses, depth profiles and isotopic abundances, it was clarified that the peak of m/z = 96 was assigned to Ca2O+ originated from Pd/CaO multilayer.

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2893. Muromtsev, V., V. Platonov, and I. Savvatimova. Neutrino-Dineutron Reactions (Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Induced By D2 Gas Permeation Through Pd Complexes. Y. Iwamura Effect). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Muromtsev, V.
All Authors: Muromtsev, V., Platonov, V., Savvatimova, I.
Keywords: transmutation

Anomalous elemental changes have been observed on the Pd complexes after D2 gas permeation. This effect — effect Y. Iwamura — belongs to a new category of nuclear reactions. The effect of Y. Iwamura can stimulate development of physics of electromagnetic interaction neutrino including physics of relic neutrino and physics of the dineutrons. It is possible to suggest that low-energy neutrino and even relic neutrino can initiate effect of transmutation in special cases. The suggested hypothesis application about new class ν− nuclear reaction existence can be useful for the problems: alternative energetic, radioactive isotopes reducing and rare isotopes production.

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2894. Murr, L.E., Palladium metallurgy and cold fusion: some remarks. Scr. Metallurg. Mater., 1990. 24: p. 783.

First Author: Murr, L. E.
All Authors: Murr, L. E.
Keywords: discussion, Pd, metallography

2895. Murthy, T.S., et al., Tritium Analysis of Samples Obtained from Various Electrolysis Experiments at BARC, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 9.

First Author: Murthy, T. S.
All Authors: Murthy, T. S., Iyengar, T. S., Sen, B. K., Joseph, T. B.
Keywords: tritium

The report summarises the methodology and techniques adopted for the determination of tritium content in various samples obtained during the initial sets of experiments conducted at Trombay in connection with studies on the feasibility of ‘Cold Fusion’.The analyses were carried out at the Isotope Division and Health Physics Division.

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2896. Musket, G., Effects of Contamination on the Interaction of H Gas with Pd : A Review. J. Less-Common Met., 1976. 45: p. 173.

First Author: Musket, G.
All Authors: Musket, G.
Keywords: Pd, H, contamination, review, cleaning, method, PdO

2897. Myers, S.M., et al., Ion-Beam Studies of Hydrogen-Metal Interactions. J. Nucl. Mater., 1989. 165: p. 9.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Richards, P. M., Wampler, W. R., Besenbacher, F.
Keywords: review, ion implantation

2898. Myers, S.M., et al., Search for Cold Fusion in Superstoichiometric Palladium Deuteride Using Ion Implantation. J. Fusion Energy, 1990. 9(3): p. 263.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Follstaedt, D. M., Schirber, J. E., Richards, P. M.
Keywords: Pd, Zr, titanium, D2, implantion, negative

2899. Myers, S.M., et al., Superstoichiometry, accelerated diffusion, and nuclear reactions in deuterium-implanted palladium. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1991. 43: p. 9503.

First Author: Myers, S. M.
All Authors: Myers, S. M., Richards, P. M., Follstaedt, D. M., Schirber, J. E.
Keywords: Pd, ion implanation, ion bombardment, neutron, loading, diffusion

2900. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. III. The Thermodynamic Study of Pd2H Between 15 and 303Ã… K. Evidence for the Tetragonal PdH4 Structure in Palladium Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3627.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Heat Capacity, pressure, Phase Diagram, PdH4

2901. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. I. The Thermodynamic Properties of Pd2H Between 273 and 345 K. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3619.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, thermodynamic, pressure PdH

2902. Nace, D.M. and J.G. Aston, Palladium Hydride. III. The Thermodynamic Study of Pd2H Between 15 and 303 K. Evidence for the Tetragonal PdH4 Structure in Palladium Hydride. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1957. 79: p. 3627.

First Author: Nace, D. M.
All Authors: Nace, D. M., Aston, J. G.
Keywords: Pd, H2, Heat Capacity, pressure, Phase Diagram, PdH4

2903. Nagasaki, T., R. Yamada, and H. Ohno, Ion-driven Permeation and Surface Recombination Coefficients of Deuterium for Silver. J. Nucl. Mater., 1992. 195: p. 324.

First Author: Nagasaki, T.
All Authors: Nagasaki, T., Yamada, R., Ohno, H.
Keywords: D2, Ag, recombination, Cu, D2, O2

2904. Nagel, D.J., The status of ‘cold fusion’. Radiat. Phys. Chem., 1998. 51: p. 653.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review

2905. Nagel, D.J., Fusion Physics and Philosophy. Accountability Res., 2000. 8: p. 137.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: history

INTRODUCTIONThe advancement of science and technology normally occurs through evolutionary research and development. These activities and their fruits, knowledge and capabilities, might be very interesting and useful, but they normally do not challenge our overall view of the world. When something revolutionary comes to light, the potential paradigm shift, then we are forced to examine both our knowledge and our beliefs, which are intertwined. The topic called “cold fusion” caused reexamination of the physics of nuclear reactions and some aspects of the philosophy of science. We will consider these factors after a brief introductory survey of the complex experiments and results reported in the field, and the motivations for continued attention. “Cold fusion” is used here as an accepted label for the arena of interest, and not a statement about whatever processes might be involved.

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2906. Nagel, D.J. and M.A. Imam. Energetics Of Defects And Strains In Palladium. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Imam, M. A.
Keywords: fractofusion, metalurgy

Pd employed as cathodes in cold fusion experiments contains various defects, each of which has an associated energy.  In principle, some of the energy in Pd due to defects that exist before a cold fusion experiment could be released as apparent excess heat during the experiment.  Energy densities were computed for high concentrations of vacancies, impurities (both substitutional and interstitial atoms), dislocations and grain boundaries, as well as for strains.  It is concluded that pre-existing defects and strains cannot account for the energies released during cold fusion experiments.  Nonetheless, defects may play other supporting or central roles in cold fusion.

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2907. Nagel, D.J., Program Strategy for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2006(69).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

2908. Nagel, D.J. Powers, Materials and Radiations from Low Energy Nuclear Reactions on Surfaces. in The 13th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2007. Sochi, Russia.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: materials, electrode surface morphology

Nuclear reactions that occur at low kinetic energies produce thermal energy at some rate (powers), nuclear reaction products (materials) and, in some cases, energetic photons or particles (radiations). Experimental evidence indicates that low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) occur on or very near to the surfaces of solid lattices. The rates of such reactions depend on the total area of the lattices in an LENR experiment, the fraction of that area which is active and the number of reactions per area per second. The powers further depend on the energy per reaction. The production rates of materials are related to the masses of the reaction products. And, the fluxes of radiations depend on the fraction of the reactions that produce energetic quanta. These factors are examined in this paper. A simple, but useful graphical method to relate surface areas to output nuclear powers is presented. It is used to make the first estimate of the active fraction of a surface in LENR experiments. Optimization of power outputs from LENR experiments is discussed in relation to the various factors cited above and to past work. The several intersections between LENR and both nano-science and nanotechnology are examined. A new engineering discipline will be required to turn the current science of LENR into practical sources of energy, materials and maybe radiations.

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2909. Nagel, D.J. The Case for LENR At or Near Surfaces: More Experimental Evidence (PowerPoint slides). in American Physical Society Meeting. 2008. New Orleans.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: theory

Introduction and AgendaThere is much experimental evidence, which indicates that LENR occur on surfaces of solid materials.Simple equations relate the reaction rates to the surface area, the active fraction & the number of reactions per active area per second.The equations are used to compute energy production rates (power) and the production rates for  nuclear ash or energetic radiations.This talk provides numerical and graphical means to compute power production at surfaces in LENR experiments.

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2910. Nagel, D.J., The Intersection of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions with Nanometer-Scale Science, Technology and Engineering. Infinite Energy, 2008(79).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: nano-particles

1. Introduction to NanotechnologyThe ability to make things out of molecules and atoms is something of a last frontier. They are the smallest neutral building blocks that can be joined to make materials and structures. Nuclei and sub-nuclear quanta are smaller, but they cannot be made into stable materials and structures. Just as things on the micrometer scale are a thousand times smaller than the visible millimeter scale, nanometer-scale items are another thousand times smaller than the micrometer scale. These relationships are illustrated in Figure 1.

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2911. Nagel, D.J., Scientific Overview of ICCF15. Infinite Energy, 2009(88): p. 21.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

The research topic which was first and poorly called “cold fusion” has been of international interest since its beginning in 1989. Hence, a series of International Conferences on Cold Fusion (ICCF) has been held on three continents during the past two decades. In recent years, the topic has come to be viewed as part of the larger field of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science; therefore conferences during the last few years have been called the International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science even though the moniker of ICCF has been maintained. At present, the key reactions are often called Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), with the main scientific website on the topic being www.lenr.org. But there remains confusion not only about what to call the field, but about the several scientific riddles at the heart of the field.

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2912. Nagel, D.J., Questions and Answers About Lattice-Enabled Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2009(84).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

Asking questions is basic to many human functions. Without questions, the learning process in schools and universities would be vastly more difficult and less effective. FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) are a standard part of many websites now. The posing of questions is also an activity fundamental to diverse planning activities, ranging from the formulation of programs to the design of cities. And, questions, commonly driven by “mere” curiosity, are the driving force behind science. So, one can ask: what questions are applicable to the field of low energy, or alternatively, lattice-enabled nuclear reactions (LENR)? That is one of the motivations behind this compilation of some questions, which are asked because they seem significant. The answers are largely the opinions of this author.

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2913. Nagel, D.J., T. Mizuno, and D. Letts. Diurnal Variations in LENR Experiments. in 15th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2009. Rome, Italy: ENEA.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Mizuno, T., Letts, D.
Keywords:

Two very different LENR experiments exhibited daily variations in their characteristics or outputs. Comparison of the variations for the experiments forces the conclusion that the measured variations are artifactual. That is, they are not due to the influence of an external diurnal mechanism such as cosmic rays. However, the causes of the observed variations are not understood. Such understanding is important for the conduct of robust LENR experiments to obtain credible data. It is also critical to the reliable operation of eventual LENR power sources.

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2914. Nagel, D.J., et al., eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-14). Vol. 1. 2010.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R., Chubb, S. R., Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

As a result of the empirical knowledge now in hand, it is not unreasonable to imagine safe and green sources of nuclear power for homes, free of carbon emissions, which also will relieve stress on the power grid, because they might be small and distributed. LENR could be the basis for portable nuclear power sources, maybe even batteries. The production of clean drinking water by desalination or by purification of polluted river waters is one of the many, and perhaps the most attractive potential applications of LENR. The world health implications of clean water would be momentous. Those of us who work on the Fleischmann-Pons Effect find it an exciting and challenging field of research with remarkable practical potential. As a scientific effect, it is already historic. It remains to be seen if it will turn out to be a “game changing” practical source of energy. The field is indeed EXCITING NEW SCIENCE and it offers POTENTIAL CLEAN ENERGY.

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2915. Nagel, D.J., et al., eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-14). Vol. 2. 2010.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Melich, M. E., Johnson, R., Chubb, S. R., Rothwell, J.
Keywords:

Proceedings continued from Volume 1.

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2916. Nagel, D.J., Check List for LENR Validation Experiments. 2011, LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: heat

Focardi and Rossi demonstrated a boiler device on 14 January 2011, which converted water at about 13у to steam at 101у. It was said to involve nuclear reactions between nickel built into the device and input hydrogen gas. An electrical heater in the device consumed about 1000 W at startup. Later, once the reactions started and provided heat, the input power was reduced to about 400 W. Consumption of hydrogen gas was essentially negligible.

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2917. Nagel, D.J., Hot and Cold Fusion for Energy Generation. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 4: p. 1-16.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Condensed matter nuclear science, Fusion energy generation, Hot fusion, Low-energy nuclear reactions, Nuclear energy generation

Sixty years of research on hot fusion have cost more than $ 20 B. Only one of the dozens of experiments has barely reached breakeven, the point at which the energy produced is equal to the energy spent for its production. Twenty years of work on “cold fusion” cost less than $ 0.2 B. Energy amplifications exceeding 10 for the palladium-deuterium system, and more than 100 for the nickel-hydrogen system, have been reported, but not verified. Hot fusion is understood and may result in large power plants in several decades. “Cold fusion”, now called Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), remains a scientific mystery. If adequately funded, LENR could lead to safe, non-radioactive, green, small, distributed nuclear energy sources in less than two or three decades, well before hot fusion can produce commercial power.

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2918. Nagel, D.J., Potential Advantages and Impacts of LENR Generators of Thermal and Electrical Power and Energy. Infinite Energy, 2012(103): p. 11.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: review

Many lists give the possible performance and implications of systems which use LENR for generation of thermal or electrical power. They mostly reside at various places on the internet. This paper brings together in one location and in written form the separate, though often related, items from the lists of possible positive features and future importance of LENR generators of power and energy. Some comments are provided on each of the putative advantages and impacts in the following pages.

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2919. Nagel, D.J. Challenges, Attractions and Possible Impacts of Commercial Generators Based on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. in International Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Symposium, ILENRS-12. 2012. The College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23185.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Commercialization

This file includes a paper and PowerPoint slides.Commercialization of LENR sources of power and energy has several challenges.  But, if they are overcome, attractive potential advantages and important impacts should follow.  These challenges, attractions and possible impacts are cited and discussed.  The next few years might reveal which of these factors are realistic.

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2920. Nagel, D.J., Scientific and Commercial Overview of ICCF18. Infinite Energy, 2013(112).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review, ICCF conference

ICCF is short for the International Conference on Cold Fusion. That abbreviation was first used for the third conference in the series in 1992. In 2002, the proceedings of ICCF9 were called Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS). Since then, some of the conferences have also borne that title. ICCF18 retained the historical label and numbering system, but employed a new conference title: “Applying the Scientific Method to Understanding Anomalous Heat Effects: Opportunities and Challenges.” This conference title emphasized an operational aspect of the research, rather than a name for the field. The focus on scientific methodology and understanding is entirely appropriate at this stage in development of the field. The science remains a vexing and challenging endeavor spanning several disciplines.

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2921. Nagel, D.J., Comments on Storms’ Ideas About the Location and Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Infinite Energy, 2013(108).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: theory, critique

Character and Role of TheoryStorms’ view of where and how low energy nuclear reactions (LENR) occur has been called a theory, so we begin with an examination of the character of a scientific theory. A compact summary about theory in any science is available in Wikipedia: “A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a bodyof facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Scientists create scientific theories from hypotheses that have been corroborated through the scientific method, then gather evidence to test their accuracy. As with all forms of scientific knowledge, scientific theories. . .aim for predictive and explanatory force.”

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2922. Nagel, D.J., Characteristics and Energetics of Craters in LENR Experimental Materials. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 10: p. 1-14.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Cathode materials, Craters, Low-energy nuclear reactions, LENR, Transmutations

Small craters have been observed frequently in the surfaces of cathodes from electrochemical LENR experiments. They are generally 1â€â€Ţ100µm in size. The craters vary widely in shape and areal distribution. Two methods were used to determine the energies needed to produce such craters. The resulting energies range from nJ to mJ, depending on the crater size. If craters are caused by LENR, then many nearly simultaneous MeV-level energy releases would have to occur in a very small volume. There are numerous open basic questions regarding the formation and characteristics of craters in LENR cathodes. It remains to be seen if craters will be helpful in understanding the origin and nature of LENR. But already, the existence and features of craters seriously challenge theories that seek to understand LENR.

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2923. Nagel, D.J., Questions About Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions: Mechanisms and Materials. Infinite Energy, 2014(118).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Theory

Abstract — Questions serve to focus discussions of research problems and engineering challenges. This is the first of three papers, which will pose and address technical questions about Lattice Enabled Nuclear Reactions (LENR). It deals with theoretical mechanisms and key materials in LENR experiments and potential power generators.

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2924. Nagel, D.J. and M. Srinivasan, Evidence from LENR Experiments for Bursts of Heat, Sound, EM Radiation and Particles and for Micro-explosions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2014. 13.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Srinivasan, M.
Keywords: Energy bursts, Low energy nuclear reactions, Micro-explosions, Power bursts

We examined published evidence for power production by LENR, which occurred too fast to be captured by calorimeters. That evidence includes observations of craters in materials, measurements of sound emission, recordings of radio-frequency, infrared and X-ray emissions, measurements of neutrons and charged particles and micro-explosions. The energy emission times, some below 1 ms, are tabulated.

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2925. Nagel, D.J., Scientific and Commercial Overview of ICCF19. Infinite Energy, 2015(122).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Review

ICCF is the abbreviation for International Conference on Cold Fusion. It is the historic identifier of a series of conferences that started in 1990. The 19th conference had the full title of International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (CMNS). It was held from April 13 to 17, 2015 in Padua, Italy, about 40 kilometers west of Venice. This was the fourth conference in this series that was held in Italy. The General Chairman of the conference was Anthony La Gatta, who is the Founder and President of the company TSEM. He opened the conference with an interesting theme on the melding of mathematics and music. The Co-Chairmen were Michael C.H. McKubre from SRI International and Vittorio Violante of Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA).

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2926. Nagel, D.J. and R. Swanson, LENR Excess Heat may not be Entirely from Nuclear Reactions. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2015. 15.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Swanson, R.
Keywords: Energy, Low energy nuclear reactions, Mechanisms for LENR

Some theories of the mechanisms active in producing Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions (LENR) predict the formation of compact objects with binding energies and sizes intermediate between those of atoms and nuclei. The existence of compact objects remains unproven. But, if such objects exist and are formed during what are now called LENR experiments, they might release substantial energy without any nuclear reactions. Because of the small size of hypothetical compact objects, it is thought that the protons or deuterons at their centers might subsequently participate in nuclear reactions, producing more energy, transmutation products or energetic quanta. Such a two-step sequence could explain the relatively low production rates of nuclear reaction products, and also difficulties in correlating excess heat with the amounts of such products.

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2927. Nagel, D.J., Energy gains from lattice-enabled nuclear reactions. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

2928. Nagel, D.J., Lattice-enabled nuclear reactions in the nickel and hydrogen gas system. Curr. Sci., 2015. 108(4).

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords:

2929. Nagel, D.J. and A.E. Moser, High Energy Density and Power Density Events in Lattice-enabled Nuclear Reaction Experiments and Generators. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2016. 19.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J., Moser, A. E.
Keywords: Craters, Explosions, High-power, LENR, Meltdowns

The rapid release of energy from Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions is of interest for three reasons. First, it constrains and challenges theories about the mechanism(s) active in producing LENR. Next, it might heavily influence the design of heat and electrical generators based on LENR, since they have to be safe for use by a wide variety of people. Finally, there has long been interest in whether or not LENR could be used to augment existing weapons or produce to entirely new weapons. This paper first reviews reports in the literature of meltdowns or explosions that might have been caused by LENR. Then, each of the three areas cited above is examined. It is clear that reported high energy or high power events will heavily impact theories about LENR and the development of safe products. It is unclear now if LENR will be weaponized in any form. Control of the initiation of explosive LENR events is obviously necessary for that possibility.

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2930. Nagel, D.J., Evidence of Operability and Utility from Low Energy Nuclear Reaction Experiments. 2017, NUCAT Energy LLC.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Commercialization

An objective of this report is to remove doubt about measured results from Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments, even though the mechanisms that produce LENR are not fully understood. The report demonstrates that there is much reputable evidence in available technical records, which shows LENR devices are capable of producing energy. It has been demonstrated experimentally and often that chemical energies can produce nuclear reactions. Significant energy gains are possible. The “excess heat” found by Fleischmann and Pons has attractive features. They include low levels of prompt and residual radiation, and no production of green house gases. Reaction by-products, such as tritium or helium, are also generated. They can only result from nuclear reactions. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions have great practical potential.

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2931. Nagel, D.J., Expectations of LENR Theories. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2018. 26: p. 15-31.

First Author: Nagel, D. J.
All Authors: Nagel, D. J.
Keywords: Empirical observations, Heat–He correlation, LENR, Low energy nuclear reactions, Theory

The mechanisms that cause Lattice Enabled (or Low Energy) Nuclear Reactions (LENR) are still not understood, even though much is known empirically about LENR. We provide list of 24 observations from almost three decades of LENR experiments. These observations require theoretical explanations. This paper deals with two aspects of the many theories about the mechanisms. The first is the theories themselves, i.e., their characteristics and results. The few dozen available theories on LENR mechanisms are diverse and complex. Only a lengthy paper could properly summarize their essence, including all assumptions and implications. Such a thorough review of extant LENR theories would be challenging to write. Here, we merely indicate reviews and other sources of information on LENR theories. The second focus of this paper is the status of development of LENR theories, specifically, the completeness of their elaboration. It is possible to detail what is expected of LENR theorists by experimentalists, teachers, students, developers and other interested personnel. We provide and discuss ten questions for LENR theoreticians about the description (characteristics) and status (development) of their ideas. The nearly three decades of theoretical work on LENR has resulted in remarkably few well-developed theories. None of them has yet been adequately tested and widely accepted. There remains a great opportunity for some theoretician to provide the basic understanding of LENR. That understanding would enable or speed the commercialization of this new, clean, promising and much needed energy source.

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2932. Nager, U., et al., High Precision Calorimetric Apparatus for Studying Electrolysis Reactions. Rev. Sci. Instr., 1990. 61(5): p. 1504.

First Author: Nager, U.
All Authors: Nager, U., Hayden, M. E., Booth, J. L., Hardy, W. N., Whitehead, L. A., Carolan, J. F., Balzarini, D. A., Wishnow, E. H., Blake, C. C.
Keywords: calorimeter, method, apparatus, heat

2933. Naitoh, K., et al., Fundamental Experimental Tests toward Future Cold Fusion Engine Based on Point-compression due to Supermulti-jets Colliding with Pulse (Fusine). J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 236-243.

First Author: Naitoh, K.
All Authors: Naitoh, K., Tsuchiya, K., Ayukawa, K., Oyanagi, S., Kanase, T., Tsuru, K., Konagaya, R.
Keywords: Experiment, Pulse, Reactor, Simulation, Supermulti-jets colliding, Theory

Our previous reports based on theoretical considerations and supercomputer simulation showed the possibility that super multi-air jets of gases such as air or deuterium colliding with pulse (K. Naitoh, patent: 2012-519298 (2010)) lead to self-compression over 60 MPa and 2000 K at single point around the reacted center, at maximum. This may bring about a more stable occurrence of cold fusion. This approach due to supermulti-jets will also cause an insulation effect because of encasing, which will result in less heat loss from the reactor walls. Based on this, we developed three types of prototype engine reactors using the supermulti-jets colliding with pulse. In the present report, we show some fundamental experimental data for one of the three prototype engine reactors, derived now, before we plan to begin testing for cold fusion.

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2934. Nakada, M., T. Kusunoki, and M. Okamoto. Energy of the Neutrons Emitted in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakada, M.
All Authors: Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, neutron, energy, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The Low/High pulse mode electrolysis has been introduced to carry out the experimental study to clarify the dependency of the UH pulse modes operation of electrolysis on the neutron emission from the Pd cathodes. Among 6 runs of the electrolysis of VH pulse mode operations, 3 of them gave appreciable neutron emission. The neutron energy spectra were found to have the two compornents (2.45 MeV peak and a broad band in higher energy region). The intensity of the 2.45 MeV neutron is smaller than that of the higher energy.

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2935. Nakada, M., et al. A Role of Lithium for the Neutron Emission in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakada, M.
All Authors: Nakada, M., Kusunoki, T., Okamoto, M., Odawara, O.
Keywords: Li, Pd, D2O, neutron, surface analysis, electrolysis, ICCF-3

The depth profile analysis of Pd, Li, and D has been performed by means of SIMS to clarify the roles of lithium in D2O Pd electrolysis for cold fusion research. Very clear differences between the depth profiles of Li and D in the Pd electrode surfaces with the neutron emissions and without it. The depth profiles were also found to depend on the mode of the electric current employed. Based on the above findings, it is discussed that the anomalous deuterium accumulation in the surface region of the Pd with the neutron emission and attributed to the formation of Pd-Li layer in the surface region and to the low/high pulsed mode electrolysis with heavy water with LiOD.

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2936. Nakamitsu, Y., et al., Study of cold nuclear fusion with electrolysis at low-temperature range. Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. A, 1994. 107: p. 117.

First Author: Nakamitsu, Y.
All Authors: Nakamitsu, Y., Chiba, M., Fukushima, K., Hirose, T., Kubo, K., Fujii, M., Nakahara, H., Seimiya, T., Sueki, K., Katada, M., Baba, N., Kamasaki, S., Ikuta, S., Endo, K., Shirakawa, T.
Keywords: methanol, Pd, electrolysis, low temperature, neutron

2937. Nakamura, K., T. Kawase, and I. Ogura, Possibility of element transmutation by arcing in water. Kinki Daigaku Genshiryoku Kenkyusho Nenpo, 1996. 33: p. 25 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nakamura, K.
All Authors: Nakamura, K., Kawase, T., Ogura, I.
Keywords: heat, gas discharge, electrolysis, D2O

2938. Nakamura, K., Y. Kishimoto, and I. Ogura, Element Conversion by Arcing in Aqueous Solution. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(2): p. 53.

First Author: Nakamura, K.
All Authors: Nakamura, K., Kishimoto, Y., Ogura, I.
Keywords: gas discharge,, transmutation,, H2O,, plasma

2939. Nakata, T., Y. Tsuchida, and K. Kunimatsu. Absorption of Hydrogen into Palladium Foil Electrode: Effect of Thiourea. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakata, T.
All Authors: Nakata, T., Tsuchida, Y., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: thiourea, Pd, D2O, loading, overvoltage, ICCF-3

Electrolytic hydrogen absorption into Pd foil (50 μm thickness) was investigated in the absence and presence of 30 μ M thiourea (THU) in 0.5M H2SO4 and 0.4M LiOH. The amount of hydrogen absorbed under cathodic polarization was determined by integrating the ionization current of hydrogen when Pd electrode was polarized anodically.After THU addition in the acidic and alkaline solution H/Pd increased by about 8% and 5%, respectively.Further we tried absorption of deuterium into Pd foil and found a similar effect of THU to increase D/Pd only in the acidic solution.

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2940. Nakata, T., et al. Excess Heat Measurement at High Cathode Loading by Deuterium During Electrolysis of Heavy Water using Pd Cathode. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Nakata, T.
All Authors: Nakata, T., Kobayashi, M., Nagahama, M., Akita, H., Hasegawa, N., Kunimatsu, K.
Keywords: heat-, Pd, D2O, electrolysis, D/Pd, loading, Pd-Rh, ICCF-6

2941. Nakazawa, M., Urtra low-level neutron counting. Hoshasen, 1990. 16(3): p. 8 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nakazawa, M.
All Authors: Nakazawa, M.
Keywords: review, neutron, method

2942. Nakazawa, M., et al., Cold fusion and low level neutron measurements. Nihon Genshiryoku Gakkaishi, 1990. 32: p. 114 (In Japanese).

First Author: Nakazawa, M.
All Authors: Nakazawa, M., Shibata, T., Iguchi, T., Akimoto, T., Niimura, N., Oyama, Y., Aizawa, O.
Keywords: review

2943. Narayanaswamy, C.R., Observation of Anomalous Production of Si and Fe in an Arc Furnace Driven Ferro Silicon Smelting Plant at levels of Tons per day. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 244-251.

First Author: Narayanaswamy, C. R.
All Authors: Narayanaswamy, C. R.
Keywords: Carbon Arc, Energy balance, Fe–Si alloy, Transmutation

In the period 1978-2002, The Silcal Metallurgic Ltd., a Coimbatore (India) based company, was engaged in the production of ferro silicon alloy deploying a 12 MVA “Submerged Carbon Arc” powered smelter. During a 11-week long non-stop round the clock operation of the plant in 1995, daily feed of raw materials was: Quartz (33.4 ton), charcoal (with fixed carbon content of 13.2 ton) and scrap steel (5.1 ton) while the daily output production of Fe-Si alloy (73.5% Si) was 24.75 ton. From the total weights of Si and Fe in the input feed and assuming 100% recovery of the metals, the daily output alloy production could at best have been only 20.5 ton. However to our surprise throughout the 11-week period the total daily Fe-Si alloy (with 73.5% Si) output was consistently 24.75 ton, corresponding to a daily “anomalous” excess metal production of 4.25 ton of Fe-Si alloy. The only source of Si entering the smelter furnace was the quartz raw material and that of Fe was the scrap steel (except for minor additional amounts of Fe originating from the steel casing of the consumable Soderberg carbon electrodes). Very careful vigil of the weights of daily input feed of raw materials and output alloy drained out as also the electrical energy consumption was maintained. It was evident that roughly 20% more metal than could be accounted for from the input feed was being produced and consequently we have been obliged to come to the conclusion that anomalous quantities of Si (2.8 ton/day) and Fe (1.45 ton/day) were being synthesized during the smelting process. Discussions with researchers involved in the Cold Fusion/LENR field have suggested that a likely explanation for the anomalous metal production could be the occurrence of transmutation reactions between nuclei of C and the O stripped from the SiO2 during the chemical reduction process. It is speculated that the intense varying magnetic fields generated by the kilo-amp levels of alternating current (AC) driving the arcing between the three gigantic carbon electrodes and the carbonic hearth of the furnace, in the 2000◦C temperature environment, could have somehow catalyzed transmutation reactions to occur, very similar to the transmutations reported in laboratory scale “Carbon-Arc experiments” first revealed by George Oshawa in 1964. But the more puzzling aspect of our observations is that there was no evidence of release of the expected massive amounts of nuclear energy that should have accompanied the postulated transmutation reactions based on the atomic masses of the nuclei involved.

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2944. Narita, S., et al. Gamma Ray Detection and Surface Analysis on Palladium Electrode in DC Glow-like Discharge Experiment. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Arapi, A., Sato, N., Kato, D., Yamamura, M., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: glow discharge, radioactivity, gamma, transmutation

We performed glow-like discharge experiments using deuterated palladium cathode in deuterium atmosphere to investigate the possibility of inducing low-energy nuclear reaction. Anomalous gamma ray emissions in the 80 – 230keV region were sometimes observed. It was assumed that a nuclear reaction took place during the experiment, producing short-lived radioisotopes, and these radioisotopes emitted the gamma rays in their decay processes. Elements and their isotopic abundance on the palladium cathodes were investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to find evidence of a nuclear reaction.

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2945. Narita, S., et al. Discharge Experiment Using Pd/CaO/Pd Multi-layered Cathode. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Takahashi, D., Wagatsuma, Y., Taniguchi, S., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: glow discharge, transmutation

2946. Narita, S., et al. Discharge Experiment Using Pd/CaO/Pd Multi-layered Cathode (PowerPoint slides). in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Yamada, H., Takahashi, D., Wagatsuma, Y., Taniguchi, S., Itagaki, M.
Keywords: transmutation, glow discharge

2947. Narita, S., K. Neichi, and T. Matsumoto, Evaluation of Uncertainties in Measurement of Isotopic Abundance by Semi-quantitative Analysis with TOF-SIMS. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2013. 11: p. 93-100.

First Author: Narita, S.
All Authors: Narita, S., Neichi, K., Matsumoto, T.
Keywords: Isotopic abundance, Metal deuteride, Surface morphology, TOF-SIMS, Transmutation

In Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, an anomaly in isotopic abundances of the sample components is often considered as an evidence of a nuclear transmutation. TOF-SIMS is one of the popular tools to investigate the isotopic composition in the research, and it is known that a measured abundance possibly has a certain uncertainty due to unique effects of the device. In this study, we measured isotopic abundances for some types of metal foil samples with various surface conditions by a semi-quantitative analysis with TOF-SIMS, and evaluated the uncertainties.

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2948. Nassikas, A.A. The Cold Fusion as a Space-Time Pumping Process. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Nassikas, A. A.
All Authors: Nassikas, A. A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

2949. Nassisi, V., Incandescent Pd and Anomalous Distribution of Elements in Deuterated Samples Processed by an Excimer Laser. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 14.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V.
Keywords: laser,, Pd,, transmutation,, D2

2950. Nassisi, V., Transmutation of elements in saturated palladium hydrides by an XeCl excimer laser. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 468.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V.
Keywords: Pd, laser, D2, surface analysis, neutron, transmutation

2951. Nassisi, V. and M.L. Longo, Experimental results of transmutation of elements observed in etched palladium samples by an excimer laser. Fusion Technol., 2000. 37: p. 247.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V., Longo, M. L.
Keywords: Pd, D2, transmutation, surface analysis, transmutation, laser

2952. Nassisi, V., et al., Modification of Pd-H2 and Pd-D2 Thin Films Processed by He-Ne Laser. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2011. 5: p. 1-6.

First Author: Nassisi, V.
All Authors: Nassisi, V., Carettom, A., Manno, D., Fama, L., Buccolieri, G., A/, Buccolieri., Mastromatteo, U.
Keywords: Cold fusion, Laser, Palladium thin film, Silicon, Transmutation

In this work, we performed experiments of absorption of hydrogen and deuterium gas by Pd thin films, and we compared the behavior of these samples to unprocessed films. We also employed a continuous wave He-Ne laser to irradiate the samples inside the chamber during the treatment, in order to increase the gas absorption. Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EDX), we observed structures like spots on the surface of the treated samples. Inside the spots, elements other than Pd were found. Based on these results, we determined that gas loading is an effective way to transmute elements, and the laser action has been a very effective way to increase morphological changes in the treated samples.

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2953. Nassissi, V., Incandescent Pd and Anomalous Distribution of Elements in Deuterated Samples Processed by an Excimer Laser. J. New Energy, 1997. 2(3/4): p. 14.

First Author: Nassissi, V.
All Authors: Nassissi, V.
Keywords: laser,, Pd,, transmutation,, D2

2954. Natter, H., et al., Hydrogen in nanocrystalline palladium. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 84.

First Author: Natter, H.
All Authors: Natter, H., Wettmann, B., Heisel, B., Hempelmann, R.
Keywords: palladium black, diffusion, phase diagram, pressure, Pd-black

2955. Nayar, M.G., et al., Preliminary Results Of Cold Fusion Studies Using A Five Module High Current Electrolytic Cell, in BARC Studies in Cold Fusion, P.K. Iyengar and M. Srinivasan, Editors. 1989, Atomic Energy Commission: Bombay. p. A 2.

First Author: Nayar, M. G.
All Authors: Nayar, M. G., Mitra, S. K., Raghunathan, P., Krishnan, M. S., Malhotra, S. K., Gaonkar, D. G., Sikka, S. K., Shyam, A., Chitra, V.
Keywords: neutron, tritium, Pd,

Introduction In their first cold fusion paper Fleischmann et al. suggested that an electrolytic cell with large volume and surface area and high current density may cause fusion reactions resulting in the production of significant amounts of heat and nuclear particles. The experiments reported in this paper present the results of our early efforts to design and operate a high current modular Pd-Ni electrolytic cell and look for cold fusion reactions.

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2956. NEDO. The Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Volume 1. 1996. Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

First Author: NEDO
All Authors: NEDO
Keywords:

The 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF6) was held at Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, on October 13th – 18th 1996, with 179 participants registering from 17 countries. 43 oral presentation papers and 77 poster presentation papers were selected out of more than 160 abstracts originally submitted. The Proceedings, “PROGRESS IN NEW HYDROGEN ENERGY”, has been edited as the document of the Conference.

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2957. NEDO. The Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy, Volume 2. 1996. Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization.

First Author: NEDO
All Authors: NEDO
Keywords:

Volume 2.The 6th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF6) was held at Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, on October 13th – 18th 1996, with 179 participants registering from 17 countries. 43 oral presentation papers and 77 poster presentation papers were selected out of more than 160 abstracts originally submitted. The Proceedings, “PROGRESS IN NEW HYDROGEN ENERGY”, has been edited as the document of the Conference.

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2958. Nedospasov, A.V. and E.V. Mudetskaya, Comments on the possible nature of ‘cold fusion’ phenomena. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 121.

First Author: Nedospasov, A. V.
All Authors: Nedospasov, A. V., Mudetskaya, E. V.
Keywords: Theory, eleptino

2959. Nefedov, V.I., Cold nuclear fusion? Vestnik Akad. Nauk SSSR, 1991(1): p. 49 (in Russian).

First Author: Nefedov, V. I.
All Authors: Nefedov, V. I.
Keywords: review

2960. Neuville, S., Perspective on Low Energy Bethe Nuclear Fusion Reactor with Quantum Electronic Atomic Rearrangement of Carbon. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 23: p. 91-116.

First Author: Neuville, S.
All Authors: Neuville, S.
Keywords: Anharmonic phonon–nuclear resonance, Bethe–Weizsäcker proton CNO fusion reactor, Carbon material characterization, Synchronic phonon/proton–nucleus collision, Quantum electronic atomic rearrangement

The relatively low/medium proton/carbon collision threshold energy (1-8 keV) of the Bethe-Weizsäcker nuclear reaction cycle C, N, and O observed in low temperature carbon rich stars suggests the eventual technical feasibility of a solid-state carbon fusion reactor. H+ used as a precursor nuclear material can be implanted in solid-state carbon material. We must then consider all effects that can affect nuclear collision efficiency, including solid-state structure specificity, proton channeling and the reduction of the original proton energy with electronic interactions, before looking at the possible nuclear reactions themselves. We then have to consider the different effects and types of atomic rearrangement favoring either sp2 or sp3 sites or which influence the carbon material structure. For this purpose, we review first a recently developed theoretical approach, which might explain important aspects of this phenomenon with still high confidence up to now. These aspects include quantum electronic activation especially with H2 recombination energy release, which is different from usual chemical and metallurgical thermal atomic rearrangement with which an optimized ta-C sp3 carbon structure can be controlled. It should also be considered that carbon structure determination methodology – including the recently revised Raman theory – provide more correct and accurate results. To be falsified a study of this type of proton-carbon nuclear reactor must also take into account effects which modify the carbon nucleus structure in favor of nuclear fusion. It is suggested that anharmonic synchronic phonon-nuclear resonance may be a contributing factor. However, present failures and the limits of abstract Quantum Mechanical formalism bring little clarification on this last point, which we suggest is owing to insufficient physical description of particle wave character. In order to improve these aspects of the theory, we suggest revisiting aether theory which with further investigation and development of 3D fluid mechanics is expected to account for all QM acquired, and to be able to provide clearer physical insight into the subatomic particle wave aspects and corresponding nuclear reaction mechanism.

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2961. Nezu, S. and T. Sano. Measurement of Hydrogen Loading Ratio of Pd Electrodes Cathodically Polarized in Aqueous Solutions. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Nezu, S.
All Authors: Nezu, S., Sano, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, loading, Pd-Ag, Pd-Ce, Pd-Rh, ICCF-4, electrolysis

2962. Nicholson, J.P., A search for particle emission from a gas-loaded deuterium-palladium system in the alpha-beta phase. Fusion Technol., 1996. 30: p. 383.

First Author: Nicholson, J. P.
All Authors: Nicholson, J. P.
Keywords: Pd, D2, neutron, proton, Pd, particle emission

2963. Niedra, J.M. and I.T. Myers, Replication of the apparent excess heat effect in light water-potassium carbonate-nickel-electrolytic cell. Infinite Energy, 1996. 2(7): p. 62.

First Author: Niedra, J. M.
All Authors: Niedra, J. M., Myers, I. T.
Keywords: heat-, H2O, Ni, electrolysis, replication Mills

Replication of experiments claiming to demonstrate excess heat production in light water-Ni-K2CO3 electrolytic cells was found to produce an apparent excess heat of 11 W maximum, for 60 W electrical power into the cell. Power gains ranged from 1.06 to 1.68. The cell was operated at four different dc current levels plus one pulsed current run at 1 Hz, 10% duty cycle. The 28 liter cell used in these verification tests was on loan from a private corporation whose own tests with similar cells are documented to produce 50 W steady excess heat for a continuous period exceeding hundreds of days. The apparent excess heat can not be readily explained either in terms of nonlinearity of the cell’s thermal conductance at a low temperature differential or by thermoelectric heat pumping. However, the present data do admit efficient recombination of dissolved hydrogen-oxygen as an ordinary explanation. Calorimetry methods and heat balance calculations for the verification tests are described. Considering the large magnitude of benefit if this effect is found to be a genuine new energy source, a more thorough investigation of evolved heat in the nickel-hydrogen system in both electrolytic and gaseous loading cells remains warranted.

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2964. Nigmatulin, R.I., R.P. Taleyarkhan, and R.T. Lahey, Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation revisited. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A J. Power Eng., 2004. 218.

First Author: Nigmatulin, R. I.
All Authors: Nigmatulin, R. I., Taleyarkhan, R. P., Lahey, R. T.
Keywords: Cavitation

2965. Nigmatulin, R.I., et al., Theory of supercompression of vapor bubbles and nanoscale thermonuclear fusion. Phys. Fluids, 2005. 17.

First Author: Nigmatulin, R. I.
All Authors: Nigmatulin, R. I., Akhatov, I., Topolnikov, A., Bolotnova, R., Vakhitova, N., Lahey, R. T., Taleyarkhan, R. P.
Keywords: Sonofusion

2966. Nimtz, G. and P. Marquardt, A proposal for a lukewarm nuclear fusion. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 518.

First Author: Nimtz, G.
All Authors: Nimtz, G., Marquardt, P.
Keywords: theory

2967. Nishimiya, N., et al., Hyperstoichiometric Hydrogen Occlusion by Palladium Nanoparticles Included in NaY Zeolite. J. Alloys and Compounds, 2001. 319: p. 312.

First Author: Nishimiya, N.
All Authors: Nishimiya, N., Kishi, T., Mizushima, T., Matsumoto, A., Tsutsumi, K.
Keywords: Pd, PdH, composition, nanoparticles, PdH2

2968. Nishizawa, K., Radiation Protection Aspects of cold fusion. Hoken Butsuri, 1990. 25: p. 288 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nishizawa, K.
All Authors: Nishizawa, K.
Keywords: health

2969. Nishizawa, K., Neutron measurements in cold fusion. Hoshasen, 1991. 17(1): p. 4 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nishizawa, K.
All Authors: Nishizawa, K.
Keywords: neutron, D2, Pd, gas discharge, ion bombardment

2970. Noble, G., J. Dash, and L. McNasser. Electrolysis of Heavy Water with a Palladium and Sulfate Composite. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Noble, G.
All Authors: Noble, G., Dash, J., McNasser, L.
Keywords: electrolysis, D2O, Pd, heat+, coating, Pt, layer, ICCF-5

It appears excess heat can be produced during the electrolysis of heavy water with a palladium and sulfate composite. Experiments seem to show that when this com p osite is coated on Platinum , and used as a cathode, excess heat similar to that generated with solid Pd results.

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2971. Nohmi, T., et al. Basic Research On Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Using Pd Powders Charged With High Density Deuterium. in ICCF-14 International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2008. Washington, DC.

First Author: Nohmi, T.
All Authors: Nohmi, T., Sasaki, Y., Yamaguchi, T., Taniike, A., Kitamura, A., Takahashi, A., Seto, R., Fujita, Y.
Keywords: heat, nanoparticles

We have constructed an experimental system to replicate the phenomenon of heat and 4He generation by D2 gas absorption in nano-sized Pd powders reported by Arata, and to investigate the underlying physics. We performed calorimetry during D2 or H2 absorption with micronized powders of Si, Pd and Pd-black. With D2 , after the palladium deuteride formed, the cell produced 8.3 Ѵ.5 kJ (or 2.6 ѱ.4 kJ/g), which is somewhat larger than the systematic error of 4.0 kJ estimated from an H2 blank.

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2972. Nomura, K. and E. Akiba, Trial of nuclear fusion. Busshitsu Kogaku Gijutsu Kenkyusho Hokoku, 1994. 2(4): p. 439 (in Japanese).

First Author: Nomura, K.
All Authors: Nomura, K., Akiba, E.
Keywords: D2, titanium Pd, LaNi5 Mg2Ni, neutron, Pd Ti

2973. none, ‘New Physics’ finds a haven at the patent office. Science, 1999. 284: p. 1252.

First Author: none
All Authors: none
Keywords: history, patent

2974. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Determination of the excess energy obtained during the electrolysis of heavy water. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 364.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O

2975. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Comments on ‘measurement and analysis of neutron and gamma-ray emission rates, other fusion products, and power in electrochemical cells having palladium cathodes’. Fusion Technol., 1991. 19: p. 579.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: critique, Albagli, heat

2976. Noninski, V.C., Excess heat during the electrolysis of a light water solution of K2CO3 with a nickel cathode. Fusion Technol., 1992. 21: p. 163.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C.
Keywords: heat+, Ni, H2O, critique Mills

2977. Noninski, V.C. and C.I. Noninski, Notes on two papers claiming no evidence for the existence of excess energy during the electrolysis of 0.1M LiOD/D2O with palladium cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 23: p. 474.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Noninski, C. I.
Keywords: critique, Lewis, Albagli, heat, MIT

A problem popularly known as “cold fusion” was brought, although in an unusual way, to the attention of the scientific community. Although much discussion was (and is still) devoted to whether this effect is connected with any known nuclear reactions, the latter being widely questioned, there is no doubt that the general interest in the problem was provoked by the claim of the possibility of producing excess energy, i.e., energy surmounting the energy breakeven value. Unlike the clearly negative indications so far in terms of known nuclear processes taking place, however, careful analysis reveals that the claims in the principal negative papers published so far with respect to the existence of excess energy are in disagreement with the raw experimental data whenever such is presented in those papers. This is very surprising indeed in view of the wide publicity these negative results have been given. An example of an improper analysis of their own experimental data by the authors is Ref. 1, which we have already discussed. Other examples of inappropriate method and improper interpretation of their own experimental data are Refs. 3 and 4.

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2978. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on a possible gamma-ray emission caused by a chemical process. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 201.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, gamma emission, chemical

2979. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on claimed beta-particle emission decay. J. Sci. Expl., 1995. 9: p. 317.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, critique, Lin

2980. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, Experiments on claimed transmutation of elements caused by a chemical process. J. Sci. Expl., 1996. 10: p. 249.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: transmutation, chemical

2981. Noninski, V.C., J.L. Ciottone, and P.J. White, On an experimental curiosity that if undetected may lead to erroneous far-reaching conclusions. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 248.

First Author: Noninski, V. C.
All Authors: Noninski, V. C., Ciottone, J. L., White, P. J.
Keywords: critique, transmutation, chemical

2982. Norberg, R.E., Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Hydrogen Absorbed into Palladium Wire. Phys. Rev., 1952. 86: p. 745.

First Author: Norberg, R. E.
All Authors: Norberg, R. E.
Keywords: NMR, Pd,

2983. Norberg, R.E., Nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen absorbed into palladium wires. Phys. Rev., 1952. 86(5): p. 745.

First Author: Norberg, R. E.
All Authors: Norberg, R. E.
Keywords: Pd, H2, NMR

2984. Nordemann, D.J.R., Cold fusion and geophysics: the current situation. Mineracao Metalurgia, 1989. 53: p. 51 (in Portuguese).

First Author: Nordemann, D. J. R.
All Authors: Nordemann, D. J. R.
Keywords: review, critique

2985. Nordlander, P., et al., Multiple deuterium occupancy of vacancies in Pd and related metals. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 40: p. 1990.

First Author: Nordlander, P.
All Authors: Nordlander, P., Noerskov, J. K., Besenbacher, F., Myers, S. M.
Keywords: Pd, H, D, vacancy, theory, structure, PdD, distance

2986. Notoya, R. and M. Enyo. Excess Heat Production in Electrolysis of Potassium Carbonate Solution with Nickel Electrodes. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, K2CaO3, Ni, H2O heat electrolysis K, ICCF-3

With the aim of realizing potassium proton cold fusion, the electrolysis of light water solution of potassium carbonate was carried out by means of porous nickel cathode. The cell was called by a constant rate airstream and maintained at 20у during all the electrolysis. Typical results indicated that the excess heat production rate was proportional to the input power in the range of measurements (up to 2 W) and the excess heat observed was 3 to 4 times greater than the input power, after correction for the thermo-neutral potential.After the electrolysis, the calcium ion concentration in the electrolyte was measured by flame photo spectrometry and the increase of calcium concentration in the electrolytes due to the electrolysis was found to be 3.2 to 4.4 ppm. These amounts are comparable to the amounts of excess heat calculated within the same order of magnitude.

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2987. Notoya, R. Alkali-Hydrogen Cold Fusion Accompanied by Tritium Production on Nickel. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, tritium, overvoltage, ICCF-4 electrolysis

2988. Notoya, R., Cold fusion by electrolysis in a light water-potassium carbonate solution with a nickel electrode. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 202.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, transmutation, Ca, heat+

2989. Notoya, R., Current status of cold fusion research. Genshiryoku Kogyo, 1993. 39(9): p. 34 (in Japanese).

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: review

2990. Notoya, R., Y. Noya, and T. Ohnishi, Tritium generation and large excess heat evolution by electrolysis in light and heavy water-potassium carbonate solutions with nickel electrodes. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26: p. 179.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Noya, Y., Ohnishi, T.
Keywords: tritium, Ni, D2O, H2O, heat+, transmutation, Ca

2991. Notoya, R. Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion Caused by Electrolysis in Alkali Metallic Ions Solutions. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: H2O, electrolysis, transmutation, Ni, heat, radioactivity, ICCF-5

It was confirmed experimentally that some nuclei products of cold fusion were generated during electrolysis by use of cathodes of poorest nickel and platinum eyes platinum in light (usual) water solutions of all alkali metallic ions investigated. He also reported in the previous work that 4 ppm of calcium was detected in the electrolyte of potassium carbonate light water solution by flame photospectroscopy. The gamma ray measurement revealed the formation of 24Na during electrolysis in sodium carbonate solution. ICP mass spectra of an electrolyte of cesium sulfate solution showed several peaks of the various nuclear products in the region from 132 to 140 amu. In all electrolytes investigated, the distinct increments of tritium were measured by liquid scintillation spectroanalyzer. Simultaneously the excess heat was measured in the family open cell during electrolysis in these solutions of light or heavy water, which amounted to > 200% for the input power in potassium and cesium ion solutions. From these results we can conclude that the alkali intermetallic compounds formed as the intermediate of hydrogen evolution reaction cause many types of cold fusion with neutrons, protons, deuterium, tritium and alpha particles.

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2992. Notoya, R., Low Temperature Nuclear Change of Alkali Metallic Ions Caused by Electrolysis. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 39.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: electrolysis,

2993. Notoya, R., T. Ohnishi, and Y. Noya, Nuclear Reaction Caused by Electrolysis in Light and Heavy Water Solutions. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(4): p. 40.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Ohnishi, T., Noya, Y.
Keywords: H2O,, D2O,, electrolysis,, transmutation

2994. Notoya, R., Cold fusion arising from hydrogen evolution reaction on active metals in alkali metallic ions’ solutions. Environ. Res. Forum, 1996. 1-2: p. 127.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R.
Keywords: tritium, transmutation, gamma emission, heat, nickel, Pd theory

2995. Notoya, R., T. Ohnishi, and Y. Noya. Products of Nuclear Processes Caused by Electrolysis on Nickel and Platinum Electrodes in Solutions of Alkali-Metallic Ions. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Notoya, R.
All Authors: Notoya, R., Ohnishi, T., Noya, Y.
Keywords: transmutation Pd, nickel, electrolysis, gamma emission ICCF-7

2996. Nowicka, E. and R. Du•s, H2 dissociative adsorption on palladium hydride and titanium hydride surfaces: Evidence for weakly bound state of hydrogen adatoms. J. Alloys and Compounds, 1997. 253-254: p. 506.

First Author: Nowicka, E.
All Authors: Nowicka, E., Du•s, R.
Keywords: PdH, TiH, surface, absorption, H2

2997. NREL, Energy Overview from NREL. 2006, NREL. p. 17.

First Author: NREL
All Authors: NREL
Keywords: Review

This document has no connection to cold fusion, but it is valuable public domain information, it is no longer in print, and it does not appear to be available elsewhere on the Internet.Pages 2 – 16 are from the U.S. DoE Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy (NREL), Hydrogen Program Plan–FY 1993–FY 1997, June 1992, Appendixes A and C.Page 17 shows a graph published by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in 2001. The graph shows that most energy is lost as “rejected energy” (waste heat), especially in Electricity generation (70% waste) and Transportation (80% waste). Better technology would greatly reduce this waste. Most generators convert only 33% of the heat from burning coal or gas into electricity; advanced generators convert 40%. Most automobiles convert only 15% of the heat from gasoline into useful vehicle propulsion; hybrid and electric automobiles convert 30% or more. This graph is based on the DoE Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Review. This review is an excellent, comprehensive source of online information. See:xxxx://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/contents.html

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2998. Numata, H., et al. Neutron Emission and Surface Observation During a Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD. in Second Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, “The Science of Cold Fusion”. 1991. Como, Italy: Societa Italiana di Fisica, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Takagi, R., Ohno, I., Kawamura, K., Haruyama, S.
Keywords: Pd, neutron, D2O, metallurgy, energy, overvoltage, ICCF-2, cracks, fractofusion

2999. Numata, H. and I. Ohno. In situ potentio, resisto and dilatomic measurement of repeated hydrogen absorption in Pd electrode by electrochemical cathodic loading method. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ohno, I.
Keywords: loading, OCV, Pd, expansion, pressure, resistivity, electrolysis, D2O, ICCF-6

3000. Numata, H. and M. Fukuhara, Low-temperature elastic anomalies and heat generation of deuterated palladium. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 300.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Fukuhara, M.
Keywords: PdD, Young’s moduli, Lame parameter, Poisson ratio, Debye temperature, heat, structure

3001. Numata, H. and I. Ohno, In Situ Potentiometric, Resistance, and Dilatometric Measurements of Palladium Electrodes During Repeated Electrochemical Hydrogen Absorption. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 206.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ohno, I.
Keywords: resistance, Pd, expansion, H2, PdH, overvoltage

3002. Numata, H. and M. Ban. Magnetic Interaction Of Hypothetical Particles Moving Beneath The Electrode/Electrolyte Interface To Elucidate Evolution Mechanism Of Vortex Appeared On Pd Surface After Long-Term Evolution Of Deuterium In 0.1M LiOD. in The 12th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2005. Yokohama, Japan.

First Author: Numata, H.
All Authors: Numata, H., Ban, M.
Keywords: theory

3003. Nygren, L.A. and R.G. Leisure, Elastic Constants of a’-Phase PdHx Over the Temperature Range 4-300K. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1988. 37: p. 6482.

First Author: Nygren, L. A.
All Authors: Nygren, L. A., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: strength, elastic Constant, PDH

3004. Nygren, L.A. and R.G. Leisure, Hydrogen hopping rates and hydrogen-hydrogen interactions in PdHx. Phys. Rev. B: Mater. Phys., 1989. 11: p. 7611.

First Author: Nygren, L. A.
All Authors: Nygren, L. A., Leisure, R. G.
Keywords: Pd, H, interaction, diffusion

3005. Oates, W.A. and T.B. Flanagan, Formation of Nearly Stoichiometric Palladium-Hydrogen Systems. Nature Phys. Sci., 1971. 231: p. 19.

First Author: Oates, W. A.
All Authors: Oates, W. A., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: Pd, H2, composition, loading, method H/Pd

3006. Oates, W.A. and T.B. Flanagan, Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen in Palladium and its Alloys under Conditions of Constant Volume. J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans., 1977. 1(73): p. 993.

First Author: Oates, W. A.
All Authors: Oates, W. A., Flanagan, T. B.
Keywords: H2, Pd, PdH, thermodynamic, pressure

3007. Ochiai, K., et al. Deuteron Fusion Experiments in Metal Foils Implanted with Deutron Beams. in Sixth International Conference on Cold Fusion, Progress in New Hydrogen Energy. 1996. Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan: New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ochiai, K.
All Authors: Ochiai, K., Iida, T., Beppu, N., Maruta, K., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion implantation, Pd, D2, particle emission, ICCF-6

3008. Ochiai, K., et al. Measurement of High-Energetic Particles from Titanium Sheets Implanted with Deuterium. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ochiai, K.
All Authors: Ochiai, K., Maruta, K., Miyamaru, H., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: ion bombardment, D2, titanium, particle emission, tritium ICCF-7

3009. Ogawa, H., et al. Correlation of Excess Heat and Neutron Emission in Pd-Li-D Electrolysis. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Ogawa, H.
All Authors: Ogawa, H., Yoshida, S., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Okamoto, M.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron, electrolysis, hardness, resistance, ICCF-5

To investigate the dominant factors that allow a reproducible nuclear reaction in D-Pd systems, the initial electric resistance and the hardness of the Pd cathode have been examined for excess heat generation and the excess neutron emission in LiOD-Pd electrolysis cells. Two background (control) runs and one foreground run with the Pd cathode of high electric resistance and high hardness gave no nuclear effects, while one foreground run with low electric resistance and low hardness gave appreciable excess neutron emission and the excess heat generation. Reversed correlation was found between the two nuclear effects.

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3010. Oguro, K., Hydrogen absorbing alloys and low-temperature nuclear fusion. Zairyo, 1990. 39(437): p. 228 (in Japanese).

First Author: Oguro, K.
All Authors: Oguro, K.
Keywords: review

3011. Oh, H.K., Some observatins on the cavity of creation for cold fusion and the generation of heat. J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 1999. 94: p. 60.

First Author: Oh, H. K.
All Authors: Oh, H. K.
Keywords: Theory, pi rays

3012. Ohashi, H. and T. Morozumi, Decoding of thermal data in Fleischmann & Pons paper. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 1989. 26(7): p. 729.

First Author: Ohashi, H.
All Authors: Ohashi, H., Morozumi, T.
Keywords: critique, Fleischmann

3013. Ohmori, T., et al., Ex situ observation of electrochemically hydrogenated palladium using a scanning tunneling microscope. Chem. Lett., 1991. 1991: p. 96.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Sakamaki, K., Hashimoto, K., Fujishima, A.
Keywords: loading, Pd, H2O, surface

3014. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo. Excess Heat Production during Electrolysis of H2O on Ni, Au, Ag and Sn Electrodes in Alkaline Media. in Third International Conference on Cold Fusion, “Frontiers of Cold Fusion”. 1992. Nagoya Japan: Universal Academy Press, Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Ni, Au, Ag, Sn, H2O, heat+, transmutation, KOH, calcium, Ni, H2O, electrolysis, ICCF-3

Excess heat evolution was measured on Ni, Au, Ag and Sn in aqueous K2CO3, Na2SO4 and Li2SO4 solutions under galvanostatic electrolysis conditions. Steady evolution of excess heat in various electrode/electrolyte solutions, but not in nickel, was observed for at least several days of observation. The largest excess heat observed was 907 mW on Sn in K2SO4.

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3015. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo, Excess heat evolution during electrolysis of H2O with nickel, gold, silver, and tin cathodes. Fusion Technol., 1993. 24: p. 293.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Ni, H2O, heat, transmutation, electrolysis, Sn replication, Miles

3016. Ohmori, T. and M. Enyo, Iron Formation in Gold and Palladium Cathodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(1): p. 15.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis,, transmutation,, Fe,, Au,, Pd

Investigation of some reaction products possibly produced by electrolyzing with Au and Pd electrodes in Na2SO4, K2CO3, and KOH light water solutions was made. The electrolysis was performed for 7 days with a constant current of 1 A. After the electrolysis the elements accumulated in the electrode were analyzed by means of AES. In every case a notable amount of Fe atoms were detected together with a certain amount of excess energy evolution, being in the range of 9 x 10^15 to 1.8 x 10^16 atoms/cm^2 for Au and of 1.2 x 10^15 to 4.0 x 10^16 atoms/cm^2 for Pd. The isotopic abundance of these Fe atoms was measured by means of SIMS, which was 6.5, 77.5, and 14.5% for 54Fe, 56Fe and 57Fe, respectively, at the top surface of Au electrode, obviously different from the natural values. For Pd electrode, a considerable increase in the contents of 54Fe and 57Fe was observed.

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3017. Ohmori, T., T. Mizuno, and M. Enyo, Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the light water electrolysis on gold electrodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 90.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, layer, Au-Pt

3018. Ohmori, T., T. Mizuno, and M. Enyo, Isotopic distributions of heavy metal elements produced during the light water electrlysis on gold electrodes. J. New Energy, 1996. 1(3): p. 90.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, layer, Au-Pt

3019. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Nuclear transmutation occurring in the electrolysis on several metal electrodes. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 1997. 5: p. 37.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: Review, H2O, electrolysis, transmutation

3020. Ohmori, T., et al., Low temperature nuclear transmutation forming iron on/in gold electrode during light water electrolysis. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1997. 22: p. 459.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Minagawa, H., Enyo, M.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, electrolysis, surface analysis

3021. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in the electrolysis of lightwater – excess energy and iron production in a gold electrode. Fusion Technol., 1997. 31: p. 210.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Enyo, M., Mizuno, T., Nodasaka, Y., Minagawa, H.
Keywords: transmutation, Au, H2O, heat+, surface analysis, electrolysis

The identification of some reaction products possibly produced during the generation of excess energy is attempted. Electrolysis is performed for 7 days with a constant current intensity of 1 A. The electrolytes used are Na2SO4, K2SO4, K2CO3, and KOH. After the electrolysis, the elements in the electrode near the surface are analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis. In every case, a notable amount of iron atoms in the range of 1.0 x 10^16 to 1.8 x 10^17 atom/cm2 (true area) are detected together with the generation of a certain amount of excess energy evolution. The isotopic abundance of iron atoms, which are 6.5, 77.5, and 14.5% for 54Fe, 56Fe, and 57Fe, respectively, and are obviously different from the natural isotopic abundance, are measured at the top surface of a gold electrode by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The content of 57Fe tends to increase up to 25% in the more inner layers of the electrode.

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3022. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno. Strong Excess Energy Evolution, New Element Production, and Electromagnetic Wave and/or Neutron Emission in the Light Water Electrolysis with a Tungsten Cathode. in The Seventh International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1998. Vancouver, Canada: ENECO, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation, heat+, neutron, electrolysis, plasma discharge, H2O, ICCF-7

3023. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Excess energy evolution and transmutation. Infinite Energy, 1998. 4(20): p. 14.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation plasma, H2O heat+

3024. Ohmori, T., et al., Nuclear transmutation reaction occurring during the light water electrolysis on Pd electrode. Int. J. Soc. Mat. Eng. Resources, 1998. 6(1): p. 35.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Kurokawa, K., Enyo, M.
Keywords: Pd, H2O, electrolysis, surface analysis, transmutation

3025. Ohmori, T., et al., Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system. Fusion Technol., 1998. 33: p. 367.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T., Nodasaka, Y., Enyo, M.
Keywords: electrolysis, transmutation, Au, surface analysis, heat+

3026. Ohmori, T. and T. Mizuno, Nuclear transmutation reaction caused by light water electrolysis on tungsten cathode under incandescent conditions. Infinite Energy, 1999. 5(27): p. 34.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T., Mizuno, T.
Keywords: transmutation plasma discharge, H2O

3027. Ohmori, T., Reply to ‘Comments on ‘Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system”. Fusion Technol., 1999. 36: p. 243.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: critique, Lewis

3028. Ohmori, T., Recent development in solid state nuclear transmutation occurring by the electrolysis. Curr. Topics Electrochem., 2000. 7: p. 101.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: plasma, heat transmutation, electrolysis,

3029. Ohmori, T., Letter to the Editor: ‘Reply to ‘Comments on “Transmutation in a gold-light water electrolysis system”. Fusion Technol., 2000. 38: p. 274.

First Author: Ohmori, T.
All Authors: Ohmori, T.
Keywords: critique, Lewis

3030. Ohms, D., D. Rahner, and K. Wiesener, Kernfusion in einer Elektrolysezelle?” (“Nuclear fusion in an electrolysis cell?”). Mitteilungsblatt – Chem. Ges. DDR, 1989. 36: p. 151 (in German).

First Author: Ohms, D.
All Authors: Ohms, D., Rahner, D., Wiesener, K.
Keywords: Review, electrolysis, Pd, heat, neutron, critique, Fleischmann

3031. Ohta, T., Is cold fusion possible? A proposal of the concept of “surfusion. Hyomen Kagaku, 1989. 10(11): p. 896 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ohta, T.
All Authors: Ohta, T.
Keywords: Review

3032. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Possible Mechanisms of Coherent Multibody Fusion. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3033. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis on nuclear transmutation by MPIF/SCS method. in The 9th International Conference on Cold Fusion, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. 2002. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China: Tsinghua Univ. Press.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: transmutation, theory, fission, uranium, gold, palladium, tungsten

3034. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis Of Nuclear Transmutation Induced From Metal Plus Multibody-Fusion-Products, Reaction (PowerPoint slides). in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

ICCF-10 PowerPoint presentation.

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3035. Ohta, M. and A. Takahashi. Analysis of Nuclear Transmutation Induced from Metal Plus Multibody-Fusion-Products Reaction. in Tenth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2003. Cambridge, MA: LENR-CANR.org.

First Author: Ohta, M.
All Authors: Ohta, M., Takahashi, A.
Keywords: Theory, multibody

Nuclear transmutation is analyzed by the selective channel scission model. The fission product yields for Pd plus a or 8Be reactions are calculated as secondary reactions of the multi-body fusion. And an anomalous isotopic ratio of Fe, which is reported by many researchers, is also analyzed and the analytical result shows good consistency with experimental results.

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3036. Oka, Y., S. Koshizuka, and S. Kondo, Electrochemically induced deuterium-tritium fusion power reactor – preliminary design of a reactor system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 260.

First Author: Oka, Y.
All Authors: Oka, Y., Koshizuka, S., Kondo, S.
Keywords: method, electrolysis

3037. Oka, Y., S. Koshizuka, and S. Kondo, D2O-fueled fusion power reactor using electrochemically induced deuterium-deuterium D-Dn, D-Dp and deuterium-tritium reactions – preliminary design of a reactor system. Fusion Technol., 1989. 16: p. 263.

First Author: Oka, Y.
All Authors: Oka, Y., Koshizuka, S., Kondo, S.
Keywords: heat, method

3038. Okabe, S., Some new scientific fields related to exoelectron emission and fracto-emission. Poverkhnost, 1993(7): p. 34.

First Author: Okabe, S.
All Authors: Okabe, S.
Keywords: fractofusion, fractoemission

3039. Okamoto, H. and S. Nezu. Measurements of Hydrogen Loading Ratio of Pd Anodes Polarized in LiH-LiCl-KCl Molten Salt Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, H.
All Authors: Okamoto, H., Nezu, S.
Keywords: loading, Pd, Molten Salt, overvoltage, Fused Salt, ICCF-4

3040. Okamoto, M., et al. Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Kusunoki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron+, energy, electrolysis, ICCF-4

3041. Okamoto, M., et al. Behavior of Key Elements in Pd for the Solid State Nuclear Phenomena Occurred in Heavy Water Electrolysis. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Ogawa, H., Yoshinaga, Y., Kusunoki, T., Odawara, O.
Keywords: surface analysis, Pd, SIMS, resistance, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-4, heat

3042. Okamoto, M., et al., Excess Heat Generation, Voltage Deviation, and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems. Trans. Fusion Technol., 1994. 26(4T): p. 176.

First Author: Okamoto, M.
All Authors: Okamoto, M., Yoshinaga, Y., Aida, M., Kusunoki, T.
Keywords: Pd, D2O, heat+, neutron+, energy, electrolysis

ABSTRACT To elucidate the mechanism of the excess heat generation (EHG), the correlation of the EHG with the nuclear effects, especially the excess neutron emission (ENE), and electrochemical effects, especially the cell voltage (CV) change, is discussed based on the data obtained in a series of electrolysis of heavy water or light water in D2 (H2)O-LiOD(H)-Pd systems.

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3043. Okamoto, H., et al. Approach to Obtain Higher Deuterium Loading Ratios of Palladium Cathodes. in 5th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1995. Monte-Carlo, Monaco: IMRA Europe, Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.

First Author: Okamoto, H.
All Authors: Okamoto, H., Sano, T., Oyabe, Y., Terazawa, T., Ohi, T.
Keywords: Pd, loading, D2O, electrolysis, ICCF-5

Deuterium loading ratios in the electrolytic palladium cathodes are measured by the electric resistance method. Many kinds of palladium rod are prepared and their loading ratios are determined during our standard electrolysis procedure. Some palladium cathodes are provided with additional treatments to change surface conditions. As the results, it is found that the deuterium loading ratio is very sensitive to palladium surface conditions. For example, when a palladium sample of which surface is modified by aqua regia, the loading ratio as high as DIPd ~ 0.95 is obtained at 200 mNcm^2 of electrolytic currents, which can hardly be achieved with an ordinary palladium cathode rod.

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3044. Okoye, S., Cold Fusion, The Unlimited Energy Source: A Myth Or Reality?, in NigeriaWorld. 2005.

First Author: Okoye, S.
All Authors: Okoye, S.
Keywords:

3045. Okubo, K. and K. Umeno, Physical Model of Energy Fluctuation Divergence. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24: p. 252-257.

First Author: Okubo, K.
All Authors: Okubo, K., Umeno, K.
Keywords: Cauchy distribution, Chaos, Energy fluctuation divergence

In this paper, we propose a new classical model in which energy fluctuation diverges. In detail, for certain parameter ranges, kinetic energy diverges since the momentum obeys the Cauchy distribution. This phenomenon will be applied to the cold fusion since jumping over the potential wall is essential to cold fusion.

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3046. Okuyama, E., Mayor’s Speech, ICCF20 Conference. J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., 2017. 24.

First Author: Okuyama, E.
All Authors: Okuyama, E.
Keywords:

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3047. Olafsson, S. and L. Holmlid, Ultra-dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (PowerPoint slides), in AVS 62. 2015: San Jose, California.

First Author: Olafsson, S.
All Authors: Olafsson, S., Holmlid, L.
Keywords: Theory

1. Fusion reactions short overview2. Palladium Deuterium3. Nickel – Hydrogen4. The Ultra-dense hydrogen5. Theoretical discussion6. Summary

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3048. Olayo, M.G., et al., Absorption of deuterium in titanium plates induced by electric discharges. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 1998. 23: p. 885.

First Author: Olayo, M. G.
All Authors: Olayo, M. G., Cruz, G. J., Balderas, L., Melendez, L., Chavez, A., Valencia, R., Chavez, E., Flores, A., Lopez, R.
Keywords: D2, titanium, gas discharge, ion bombardment, neutron

3049. Oleari, L. On the Probability of Collisions of the Nuclei in H2 and D2 Molecules. in 8th International Conference on Cold Fusion. 2000. Lerici (La Spezia), Italy: Italian Physical Society, Bologna, Italy.

First Author: Oleari, L.
All Authors: Oleari, L.
Keywords: theory, ICCF-8

3050. Olemskoj, A.I. and E.A. Toropov, On the fluctuation theory of cold fusion. Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (Russ. Ed.), 1990. 35(11): p. 1619 (in Russian).

First Author: Olemskoj, A. I.
All Authors: Olemskoj, A. I., Toropov, E. A.
Keywords: theory, Anderson

3051. Oliphant, M.L., P. Harteck, and Rutherford, Transmutation Effects Observed with Heavy Hydrogen. Nature (London), 1934. 133: p. 413.

First Author: Oliphant, M. L.
All Authors: Oliphant, M. L., Harteck, P., Rutherford
Keywords: fusion, history, ion bombardment

3052. Olofsson, G., I. Wadsoe, and L. Eberson, Design and testing of a calorimeter for measurements on electrochemical reactions with gas evolution. J. Chem. Thermodyn., 1991. 23: p. 95.

First Author: Olofsson, G.
All Authors: Olofsson, G., Wadsoe, I., Eberson, L.
Keywords: heat, method

3053. Ono, H., et al., Absorption and desorption of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium. Denki Tsushin Daigaku Kiyo, 1991. 4: p. 235 (in Japanese).

First Author: Ono, H.
All Authors: Ono, H., Takahashi, S., Morisaki, H., Yazawa, K.
Keywords: Pd, electrolysis, surface analysis, D2O, H2O, neutron, gas discharge, D2

3054. Oppenheimer, J.R. and M. Phillips, Note on the Transmutation Function for Deuterons. Phys. Rev., 1935. 48: p. 500.

First Author: Oppenheimer, J. R.
All Authors: Oppenheimer, J. R., Phillips, M.
Keywords: D, fusion, theory

3055. Oriani, R.A., et al., Calorimetric measurements of excess power output during the cathodic charging of deuterium into palladium. Fusion Technol., 1990. 18: p. 652.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A., Nelson, J. C., Lee, S. K., Broadhurst, J. H.
Keywords: heat+, Pd, electrolysis, D2O, H2O, tritium, neutron

A Seebeck-effect calorimeter was used to establish that generation of energy, in excess of the electrical energy input, can occur during the electrolysis of D2O. The magnitude of the excess power is measured with respect to the electrolysis of H2O as the baseline. The excess power levels of >60 W/cm^3 palladium and excess energies of 74 kJ cannot be un­derstood in terms of recombination of D2 and O2 within the calorimeter, other chemical reactions, or a storage-and-relaxation mechanism.

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3056. Oriani, R.A. The Physical and Metallurgical Aspects of Hydrogen in Metals. in Fourth International Conference on Cold Fusion. 1993. Lahaina, Maui: Electric Power Research Institute 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94304.

First Author: Oriani, R. A.
All Authors: Oriani, R. A.
Keywords: H2, Phase Diagram, Lattice Parameter, dislocation, diffusion, review, Pd, ICCF-4

Abstract To attempt to opt