## Holmlid

Papers by Leif Holmlid.

• Ultradense protium p(0) and deuterium D(0) and their relation to ordinary Rydberg matter: a review
Leif Holmlid and Sindre Zeiner-Gundersen 2019 Phys. Scr. 94 075005 —  Discussion

Patents

## Schedule

Subpage of ICCF-22

p# are links to the relevant page in the Book of Abstracts. However, the names link to subpages here for each presenter, for speed of load.

##### Monday 9 September 2019

08:30 Collis Opening Address / video
09:00 McKubre Thirty Years On. p25 / video
09:30 Nagel Comparison of the Theoretical Results of Kálmán and Keszthelyi with LENR Experimental Results p39 / video
10:00 Vysotskii V Distant behind-screen generation, X-Ray stimulation and LENR action of undamped heat waves p69 / video

Moderator: Steve Katinsky
11:00 Rothwell Increased Excess Heat from Palladium Deposited on Nickel p47 / video
11:30 Grimshaw LENR Research Documentation Initiative: Progress in Methods and Participants p11 / video
12:00 Ruer How LENR can change the World p23 / video
12:30 Bannister The limits to growth: the intersection of energy and economics. p26 / video

Moderator: Nataliya Famina
14:30 Celani Progress understanding LENR-AHE effects, using thin, long Constantan wires p42 / video
15:00 Ruer Basics of air flow calorimetry p58 / video
15:30 Greenyer Nickel-hydrogen heat generator continuously working for 7 months p76 / video

Moderator: Yasuhiro Iwamura
16:30 Takahashi Latest Progress in Research on AHE and Circumstantial Nuclear Evidence by Interaction of Nano-Metal and H(D)-Gas p9 / video
17:00 Kasagi Possible radiation from thin film metal surface with anomalous excess heat: Can we observe hot spots or Bremsstrahlung? p10 / video
17:30 Dubinko Nuclear Fusion of Hydrogen Isotopes Induced by the Phason Flips in Pd and Ni Nanoclusters p13 / video

##### Tuesday 10 September

Moderator: Michael McKubre
08:00 Hagelstein Recent Progress on Phonon Coupling Models p31 / video
08:30 Kovacs The Zitterbewegung Orbit of Electrons p48 / video
09:00 Konagaya Development of weak cold-fusion engine (Fusine) assisted by molecular chemical reaction: p15 / video
09:30 Kobayashi Quasi-stability theory with multi-dimensional Taylor expansion: revealing transmutation of atoms in cold fusion p19 / video
10:00 Konagaya Supercomputer simulation and experiment clarifying the maximum level of focusing compression due to pulsed supermulti-jets colliding: in weak cold-fusion engine (Fusine) p14 / video

11:00 Rusetskii Investigation LENR Processes in Condensed Matter on the HELIS Setup – Overview and Prospects p20 / video
11:30 Carpinteri Earthquake neutrons and Earth-Crust LENR: From seismic precursors to Geochemistry evolution p24 / video
12:00 Metzler Observations of delocalized gamma emission from Co-57/Fe-57 samples during application of mechanical stress p32 / video
12:30 Forbes Initial report on low-energy ion beam experiments with various metal targets p33 / video

##### Wednesday 11 September

Moderator: Jacques Ruer
08:00 Nagel The LENRIA Experiment and Analysis Program (LEAP) p38 / video
08:30 Paillet Highly relativistic deep electrons and the Dirac equation p86 / video
09:00 Garai Physical Model for Lattice Assisted Nuclear Reactions p28 / video
09:30 Jaitner Condensed Plasmoids – The Nuclear Active Environment in LENR p45 / video
10:00 Fredericks Elliptical tracks: evidence for superluminal electrons? p84 / video

Moderator: Fran Tanzella
11:00 Swartz Pulsing Sideband at 327.37 MHz May Herald Movements within an Active Loaded PdD Lattice p83 / video
11:30 Huang BJ Excess Energy from a Vapor Compression System p75 / video
12:00 Stankovic Nuclear Transmutation with Carbon and Oxyhydrogen Plasma p43 / video
12:30 Uchikoshi Laser Condensed-Matter Fusion Experiments p35 / video

Moderator: Florian Mezler
16:30 Klimov Power Balance in Water Plasma Reactor p50 / video
17:00 Vysotskii V (a) Periodic structure of Fe-Mn geology crusts with isotopic anomalies of self-controlled global biostimulated isotope transmutation in oceans and lakes (b) The possible role of LENR in dentistry p68 / video

##### Thursday 12 September

Moderator: Mathieu Valat
08:00 Kaal Nuclear Transmutation and Mass Defect explained with the Structured Atom Model (SAM) p62 / video
08:30 Bowen The Electromagnetic Considerations of the Nuclear Force p87 / video
09:00 Hatt Cold Nuclear Transmutations Light Atomic Nuclei Binding Energy p55 / video
09:30 Collis An Empirical Global Calculator of Atomic Masses p74 / video
10:00 Vysotskii V Anomalous LENR effects and its justification based on the method of coherent correlated states p65 / video

Moderator: David Nagel
11:00 Tanzella Mass Flow Calorimetry in Brillouin’s Reactor p41 / video
11:30 Roggeri Opportunities and aid from the European community for the development of scientific cooperation projects p40 / video
12:00 Mastromatteo LENR evidences experimenting with hydrogen and deuterium loading in thin palladium films p21 / video
12:30 Iwamura Excess Energy Generation using a Nano-sized Multilayer Metal Composite and Hydrogen Gas p54 / video

Moderator: Fabrice Davide
14:30 Klimov Review of the Proceedings of the 25th Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements and Ball Lightning p51 / video
15:00 Albertini 228Th, 63Ni, 57Co: 3 anomalous decays suggesting the feasibility of radionuclide neutralization p59 / video
15:30 Klimova Thermal Energy Release in a Swirl Heterogeneous Reactor at Pulsed Repetitive Electrical Discharge p52 / video

Moderator: Jean Luc Paillet
16:30 Vysotskii M Formation, evolution, collapse and application of correlated packets in LENR experiments p66 / video
17:00 Swartz Superhyperfine Structure of the Deuteron Line Emission from Active ZrO2PdD Heralds an FCC Vacancy p80 / video
17:30 Bowen Primary and Secondary Reactions in a LENR with a Li Electrolyte Solution p53 / video

##### Friday 13 September

Moderator: Dan Szumski
08:00 Alexandrov Cold nuclear fusion in lithium compound alloy p73 / video
08:30 Seccombe Phonon Assisted Nuclear Fusion Mode p34 / video
09:00 Swartz Atomic Deuterium in Active LANR Systems Produces 327.37 MHz Superhyperfine RF Maser Emission p81 / video
09:30 Huang C Temperature Dependence of Maximum Excess Power in 3 New Experiments (Letts, Parkhomov, & Mizuno) p60 / video
10:00 Swartz Buoyant heat transport can produce unreliable estimates of heat generation p82 / video

Moderator: William Collis
11:00 Ruer Experimental setup to detect hydrinos p22 / video

## ICCF-22

ICCF-22 was held in Assisi, Italy, from September 8–13, 2019.

• Schedule (with links to abstracts and videos)
• Posters
• Abstracts

## v29

Subpage of JCMNS
JOURNAL OF CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

Proceedings of the 21st International Conference
on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, Lory
Student Center, Colorado State University in
Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, June 03–08, 2018

source page: https://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/BiberianJPjcondensedzb.pdf  pp.,    MB. All pages hosted here have been compressed, see the source for full resolution if needed (or we have a copy).  All files may have undiscovered errors. Please note any problems or desired creation of a discussion page in comments.

Videos of presentations are available (including some where no paper is in the proceedings). See  iccf-21/videos/ . * after a listing indicates a video.

J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 29 (2019) 1–547

CONTENTS

## v28

Subpage of JCMNS

JOURNAL OF CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

Volume 28, February 2019

Proceedings of the International Conference on the Application of Microorganisms for the Radioactive Waste Treatment
Busan, South Korea, May 2018

 RESEARCH ARTICLES An Experiment in Reducing the Radioactivity of Radionuclide (137Cs) with Multi-component Microorganisms of 10 Strains Kyu-Jin Yum, Jong Man Lee, GunWoong Bahng and Shanghi Rhee 1 “Biological Transmutation” of Stable and Radioactive Isotopes in Growing Biological Systems Vladimir Vysotskii and Alla Kornilova 7 Biological Transmutations Jean-Paul Biberian 21 Nuclear Transmutations and Stabilization of Unstable Nuclei in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon Hideo Kozima 28 EXTENDED ABSTRACT Thermodynamic Prediction for Novel Environmental Biotechnologies of Radioactive Waste Water Purification Oleksandr Tashyrev, Vira Govorukha, Nadiia Matvieieva and Olesia Havryliuk 50 Novel Biotechnologies for Purification of Radioactive Waste Water Vira Govorukha, Oleksandr Tashyrev and Valery Shevel 53

## Ignorance is bliss

There is at least one physicist arguing that LENR research is is unethical because (1) LENR does not exist, and (2) if it is possible, it would be far too dangerous to allow.

This came to my attention because of an article in IEEE Spectrum, Scientists in the U.S. and Japan Get Serious About Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions

I wrote a critique of that article, here.

Energy is important to humanity, to our survival. We are already using dangerous technologies, and the deadly endeavor is science itself, because knowledge is power, and if power is unrestrained, it is used to deadly effect. That problem is a human social problem, not specifically a scientific one, but one principle is clear to me, ignorance is not the solution. Trusting and maintaining the status quo is not the solution (nor is blowing it up, smashing it). Behind these critiques is ignorance. The idea that LENR is dangerous (more than the possibility of an experiment melting down, or a chemical explosion which already killed Andrew Riley, or researchers being poisoned by nickel nanopowder, which is dangerous stuff) is rooted in ignorance of what LENR is. Because it is “nuclear,” it is immediately associated with the fast reactions of fission, which can maintain high power density even when the material becomes a plasma.

LENR is more generally a part of the field of CMNS, Condensed Matter Nuclear Science. This is about nuclear phenomena in condensed matter, i.e., matter below plasma temperature, matter with bound electrons, not the raw nuclei of a hot plasma. I have seen no evidence of LENR under plasma conditions, not depending on the patterned structures of the solid state. That sets up an intrinsic limit to LENR power generation.

We do not have a solid understanding of the mechanisms of LENR. It was called “cold fusion,” popularly, but that immediately brings up an association with the known fusion reaction possible with the material used in the original work, d-d fusion. Until we know what is actually happening in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment (contrary to fundamentally ignorant claims, the anomalous heat reported by them  has been widely confirmed, this is not actually controversial any more among those familiar with the research), we cannot rule anything out entirely, but it is very, very unlikely that the FP Heat Effect is caused by d-d fusion, and this was obvious from the beginning, including to F&P.

It is d-d fusion which is so ridiculously impossible. So, then, are all “low energy nuclear reactions” impossible? Any sophisticated physicist would not fall for that sucker-bait question, but, in fact, many have and many still do. Here is a nice paradox: it is impossible to prove that an unknown reaction is impossible. So what does the impossibility claim boil down to?

“I have seen no evidence ….” and then, if the pseudoskeptic rants on, all asserted evidence is dismissed as wrong, deceptive, irrelevant, or worse (i.e, the data reported in peer-reviewed papers was fraudulent, deliberately faked, etc.)

There is a great deal of evidence, and when it is reviewed with any care, the possibility of LENR has always remained on the table. I could (and often do) make stronger claims than that. For example, I assert that the FP Heat Effect is caused by the conversion of deuterium to helium, and the evidence for that is strong enough to secure a conviction in a criminal trial, far beyond that necessary for a civil decision, though my lawyer friends always point out that we can never be sure until it happens. The common, run-of-the-mill pseudoskeptics never bother to actually look at all the evidence, merely whatever they select as confirming what they believe.

“Pseudoskepticism’ is belief disguised as skepticism, hence “pseudo.” Genuine skeptics will not forget to be skeptical of their own ideas. They will be precise in distinguishing between fact (which is fundamental to science) and interpretation (which is not reality, but an attempt at a map of reality).

This immediate affair has created many examples to look at. I will continue below, and comment on posts here is always welcome, and I keep it open indefinitely. A genuine study may take years to mature, consensus may take years to form. “Pages” do not yet have automatic open comment, editors here must explicitly enable it, and sometimes forget. Ask for opening of comment through a comment on any page that has it enabled. An editor will clean it up and, I assume, enable the comments. (That is, provide a link to the original page, and we can also move comments).

This conversation is important, the future of humanity is at stake. Continue reading “Ignorance is bliss”

## Abstracts

Subpage of SAV
This page shows citations and abstracts for all papers found relevant or cited in papers on
Super-Abundant Vacancies
List of Links to Abstract Anchors

(to skip the list, use one of these links:)
Before 1990
1990 -1999
2000-2009
2010-

1956 Ames: The resistivity-temperature-concentration relationship in β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys
1960 Schindler: Low temperature dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of palladium and palladium nickel alloys containing absorbed hydrogen (No abstract, but see refs)
1960 Simmons: Measurements of Equilibrium Vacancy Concentrations in Aluminum
1965 Ferguson:  Neutron diffraction study of temperature-dependent properties of Palladium containing absorbed hydrogen
1965 Smith: Anomalous Electrical Resistivity of Palladium-Deuterium System Between 4.2° and 300° K
1968 Bambakidis:  Electrical resistivity as a function of deuterium concentration in palladium
1968 MuellerMetal Hydrides
1980 Semiletov:  Electron-Diffraction Studies of a Tetragonal Hydride PdH1 (No abstract)
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System : A survey of hydride formation and the effects of hydrogen contained within the metal lattices
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part II of a Survey of Features
1982 Lewis:  The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part III: Alloy Systems and Hydrogen Permeation
1984 Blaschko: Structural features occurring in PdDx within the 50 K anomaly region
1985 ASMMetallography and Microstructures
1988 Baba: The Transition of the hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered structure of Pd3Mn to the Ag3Mg structure
1989 Shirai: Positron Annihilation (No abstract)
1990 Srinivasan: Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples
1990 Baranowski: Search for “cold-fusion” in some Me–D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium
1991 Storms: The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium
1991 Noh: Hydrogen-induced metal atom mobility in palladium-rhodium alloys
1991 Okamoto: Thermodynamically Improbable Phase Diagrams
1991 Will: Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of Pd with deuterium
1992 Noh: An Illustration of phase diagram determination using H-induced lattice mobility

1993 FukaiEvidence of copious vacancy formation in Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure
1993 Fukai: in Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials (Probable citation error) (No abstract)
1993 Fukai: Some High-Pressure Experiments on the Fe — H System
1993 Oriani: The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals
1994 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures
1994 Balasubramaniam: Mechanism of hydrogen induced ordering in Pd3Mn
1994 Oates: On the Copious Formation of Vacancies in Metals
1994 Manchester: The H-Pd (hydrogen-palladium) System
1995 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in metal hydrides at high temperatures
1995 Felici: In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium 380 electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction
1995 Osono: Agglomeration of hydrogen-induced vacancies in nickel
1995 Nakamura: High-pressure studies of high-concentration phases of the TiH system
1995 Oates: On the formation and ordering of superabundant vacancies in palladium due to hydrogen absorption
1995 Lewis: The palladium-hydrogen system: Structures near phase transition and critical points
1996 Watanabe, Superabundant vacancies and enhanced diffusion in Pd-Rh alloys under high hydrogen pressures
1996 Gavriljuk: Hydrogen-induced equilibrium vacancies in FCC iron-base alloys
1997 Birnbaum: Hydrogen in aluminum
1997 Fukai: Superabundant Vacancy Formation and Its Consequences in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys
1998 Skelton: In situ monitoring of crystallographic changes in Pd induced by diffusion of D
1998 Hayashi: Hydrogen-Induced Enhancement of Interdiffusion in Cu–Ni Diffusion Couples
1998 Staker: The Uranium – Vanadium equilibrium phase diagram
1999 dos Santos:  A high pressure investigation of Pd and the Pd–H  system
1999 Buckley: Calculation of the radial distribution function of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system
2000 Fukai:  Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd–H alloys
2000 Eliaz: Hydrogen-assisted processing of materials
2000 Tripodi: Temperature coefficient of resistivity at compositions approaching PdH
2001 Fukai: Superabundant vacancy formation in Ni–H alloys
2001 Miraglia: Investigation of the vacancy ordered phases in the Pd–H system
2001 Fukai: Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies and Diffusion Enhancement in Some FCC Metals
2001 Klechkovskaya: Electron diffraction structure analysis—from Vainshtein to our days
2001 Nagumo: Hydrogen thermal desorption relevant to delayed-fracture susceptibility of high-strength steels
2001 Miraglia: Investigation of the vacancy-ordered phases in the Pd–H system
2002 Fukai: Phase Diagram and Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Cr-H Alloys
2002 Shirai: Positron annihilation study of lattice defects induced by hydrogen absorption in some hydrogen storage materials
2002 Chalermkarnnon: Excess Vacancies Induced by Disorder-Order Phase Transformation in Ni3Fe
2003 Santos: Analysis of the nanopores produced in nickel and palladium by high hydrogen pressure
2003 Tateyama: Stability and clusterization of hydrogen–vacancy complexes in α-Fe: An ab initio study
2003 Fukai: Formation of superabundant vacancies in M–H alloys and some of its consequences: a review
2003 Fukai, Superabundant vacancy–hydrogen clusters in electrodeposited Ni and Cu
2003 Fukai: The phase diagram and superabundant vacancy formation in Fe–H alloys under high hydrogen pressures
2003 Fukai: Superabundant Vacancies Formed in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys
2003 Pitt: Tetrahedral occupancy in the Pd-D system observed by in situ neutron powder diffraction
2004 Cizek: Hydrogen-induced defects in bulk niobium
2004 Koike: Superabundant vacancy formation in Nb–H alloys; resistometric studies
2004 Kyoi: A novel  magnesium–vanadium hydride synthesized by a gigapascal-high-pressure technique
2004 Tavares: Evidence for a superstructure in hydrogen-implanted palladium
2004 Araki: Phase Diagram of Hydrogen in Palladium
2004 Nagumo: Hydrogen related failure of steels – a new aspect
2004 Tripodi: Magnetic and transport properties of PdH: intriguing superconductive observations
2005 FukaiThe Metal–Hydrogen System: Basic Bulk Properties
2005 Harada: A relation between the vacancy concentration and hydrogen concentration in the Ni–H, Co–H and Pd–H systems
2005 Fukai: The structure and phase diagram of M–H systems at high chemical potentials—High pressure and electrochemical synthesis
2005 Iida: Enhanced diffusion of Nb in Nb–H alloys by hydrogen-induced vacancies
2005 Tanguy: Superabundant vacancies in a metal-hydrogen system:  Monte Carlo simulations
2005 Zhang: First-Principles Study of Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Metal Hydrides
2006 Sakaki: The effect of hydrogenated phase transformation on hydrogen-related vacancy formation in Pd1−xAgx alloy
2006 Sakaki: The effect of hydrogen on vacancy generation in iron by plastic deformation
2007 Fukai: Formation mechanism of defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies
2007 Fukai: (Citation error, see Harada2007)
2007 Harada: The defect structure with superabundant vacancies to be formed from fcc binary metal hydrides: Experiments and simulations
2007 Fukai: Formation of Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Electroplated Nickel-Iron Alloy Films
2007 Eriksson: Resistivity changes in Cr/V(0 0 1) superlattices during hydrogen absorption
2008 Kala: Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers
2008 Mukaibo: Heat Treatment for the Stabilization of Hydrogen and Vacancies
in Electrodeposited Ni-Fe Alloy Films
2009 Vekilova: First-principles study of vacancy–hydrogen interaction in Pd
2009 Wen: Hydrogen-enhanced dislocation activity and vacancy formation during nanoindentation of nickel
2009 Sugimoto: Migration mechanism in defect metal hydrides containing
superabundant vacancies
2009 Shackelford: Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers
2009 Tripodi: The effect of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles on palladium physical properties
2009 Tripodi: The effect of hydrogen stoichiometry on palladium strain and resistivity
2009 Degtyareva Electronic origin of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride
under high hydrogen pressures
2010 Yagodzinskyy: Effect of hydrogen on plastic strain localization in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel
2010 Richmond: Evidence for hydrogen induced vacancies in Plutonium metal.
2011 Isaeva: Dynamic stability of palladium hydride: An ab initio study
2011 Chen: On the formation of vacancies in α-ferrite of a heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire
2011 Fukumuro: Influence of hydrogen on room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films: thermal desorption spectroscopy
2011 Zaginaichenko: The structural vacancies in palladium hydride. Phase diagram
2011 Khalid: Hydrogen-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO single crystals investigated by magnetotransport
2011 Fukai: Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Metals: Implication for Electrodeposition
2012 Knies: In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1
2012 Azofeifa:Temperature- and hydrogen-induced changes in the optical properties of Pd capped V thin films
2012 Carat: An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) by Edmund Storms
2013 Hisanaga: Hydrogen in Platinum Films Electrodeposited from Dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution
2013 Fukumuro: Hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films
2013 Yabuuchi: Effect of Hydrogen on Vacancy Formation in Sputtered Cu Films Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy
2013 Nagel: Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials
2014 Supryadkina, Ab Initio Study of the Formation of Vacancy and Hydrogen–Vacancy Complexes in Palladium and Its Hydride
2014 Tsirlin: Comment on the article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’
2014 Nazarov: Ab initio study of H-vacancy interactions in fcc metals: Implications for the formation of superabundant vacancies
2014 Houari:  Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides
2014 Liu:  Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries
2015 Wulff: Formation of palladium hydrides in low temperature Ar/H2-plasma
2015 Fukada: In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C
2015 Robertson: Hydrogen Embrittlement Understood
2016 Fukada: Multiple phase separation of super-abundant-vacancies in Pd hydrides by all solid-state electrolysis in moderate temperatures around 300 °C
2017 Bukonte: Thermodynamics of impurity-enhanced vacancy formation in metals
2017 Paolone: Hydrogen and deuterium solubility in commercial Pd–Ag alloys for hydrogen purification
2017 Sugimoto: Hydrogen-induced superabundant vacancy formation by electrochemical methods in bcc Fe: Monte Carlo simulation
2018 Staker: Coupled Calorimetry and Resistivity Measurements, in Conjunction with an Emended and More Complete Phase Diagram of the Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen System

REFERENCES AND ABSTRACTS

1956 —

S. L. Ames and A. D. McQuillan, Acta Met. 4 (1956) 609.

The resistivity-temperature-concentration relationship in β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys

An attempt has been made to test the tentative conclusion reached in earlier work on the resistivity/ composition curves for β-phase titanium-niobium alloys that the extrapolated resistivity/temperature relationship for unalloyed β-titanium at temperatures below the α-β transformation temperature would have a form more to be expected from a semiconductor than from a pure metal. This has been done by means of similar studies of β-phase titanium-hydrogen alloys in which resistivity measurements were made over a temperature range of 400–904°C and at compositions up to TiH. The form of the resistivity/composition curves has precluded their direct extrapolation to zero hydrogen content except at temperatures only just below the transformation temperature, but a more detailed analysis of the experimental results has provided some basis for a not unreasonable extrapolation of the resistivity/composition isotherms at lower temperatures, and the results thus obtained agree qualitatively with those of the earlier work. The validity of the various assumptions made is discussed. The present results indicate that at 480°C, below the transformation temperature, the resistivity of β-titanium would have fallen only 2% below the value of the resistivity immediately above the transformation temperature, and not by the 40% to be expected of a normal metal.

1960 —

A. I. Schindler, R. J. Smith and E. W. Kammer,  Proceedings of the International Congress of Refrigeration, Copenhagen, August 19-26, 1959, 10th Congress, Vol. 1, p. 74, Pergamon Press, Inc., New York, 1960. May be available from University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, search for “PB 146217” Googlebooks.

Low temperature dependence of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of palladium and palladium nickel alloys containing absorbed hydrogen

1960 —

R. O. Simmons and R. W. Balluffi, Phys. Rev. 117, 52 (1960)

Measurements of the High-Temperature Electrical Resistance of Aluminum: Resistivity of Lattice Vacancies

Measurements of change in length and change in lattice parameter were made at identical temperatures on 99.995% aluminum in the temperature range 229 to 656°C. Length changes,
ΔL, were measured on an unconstrained horizontal bar sample using a rigid pair of filar micrometer microscopes. X-ray lattice parameter changes, Δa, were observed using a high-angle, back-reflection, rotating-single-crystal technique. The measurements are compared to earlier work. The relative expansions ΔL/L and Δa/a were equal within about 1:105 from 229 to 415°C. At higher temperatures additional atomic sites were found to be generated: the difference between the two expansions could be represented by 3(ΔL/L – Δa/a) = exp(2.4)exp(−0.76 ev/kT. At the melting point (660°C) the equilibrium concentration of additional sites is 3(ΔL/L−Δa/a)=9.4×10−4. This result is independent of the detailed nature of the defects, for example, the lattice relaxation or degree of association. The nature of the defects is considered and it is concluded that they are predominantly lattice vacancies; it is estimated that the divacancy contribution at the melting point may well be less than about 15%, corresponding to a divacancy binding energy ⩽ 0.25 ev. The observed formation energy agrees with the values obtained by quenching techniques and by interpretation of the high-temperature electrical resistivity of identical material by Simmons and Balluffi. The present work is the first direct measurement of formation entropy; the value is near that expected from theoretical considerations. The contribution of the thermally generated defects to other physical properties at high temperatures is considered briefly.

1965 —

G. A. Ferguson, Jr., A. I. Schindler, T. Tanaka, and T. Morita, Phys. Rev, 137 (2A) (1965) 483.

Neutron diffraction study of temperature-dependent properties of Palladium containing absorbed hydrogen

Neutron diffraction techniques have been employed to study the hydrogen-atom configuration in a single-phase sample of beta-PdH at several selected temperatures. The suggested low-temperature (T55°K) structure of this compound is one which conforms to the space group R¯3m, which differs from the high temperature (T55°K) structure [Fm 3m]. The low-temperature structure is formed by a partial migration of hydrogen atoms from octahedral to nearby tetrahedral crystallographic sites in the face-centered cubic palladium lattice. Approximate values of the root-mean-square vibrational amplitude of the hydrogen atoms have been determined to be 0.25 Å (T=293°K) and 0.17 Å (T=4.2°K). The anomalous behavior observed in measurements of the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and heat capacity of this compound is explained by the transfer of the hydrogen atoms between the lattice sites.

1965 —

R. J. Smith,  NASA TN D-2568 (1965). Copy available.

The electrical-resistivity data of the palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) system with an atom ratio D/Pd of approximately 0.65 contain a peak near 40° K. This peak is similar to that obtained for the palladium-hydrogen (Pd-H) system and is accounted for by octahedral-tetrahedral transitions of some of the deuterium ions in the face-centered cubic lattice of palladium. Also, the resistivity is proportional to the temperature between 110° K and room temperature, as might be expected for palladium with a filled d-band; however, this relation is nonlinear for the Pd-H system, which indicates a broader temperature range for octahedral-tetrahedral transitions by hydrogen ions.

1967 Lewis —

F. A. Lewis,  Academic Press, London (1967) pp. 7, 9, 22 and 119. Googlebooks.

[From “An Appreciation“] The book “The Palladium-Hydrogen System” was written by F. A. Lewis and published in 1967 by Academic Press (37). Palladium alloys and isotopes of hydrogen were also included in the book which has continued as a valuable reference forty years after its publication. Fred was very meticulous about citing references properly which makes this book and his many review articles valuable for searches of the literature.

1968 —

Gust Bambakidis, Robert J. Smith, and Dumas A. Otterson, NASA TN D-4970, 1968 (Copy available.)

Electrical resistivity as a function of deuterium concentration in palladium

The electrical resistivity of the palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) system was measured
to a deuterium- to palladium-atom ratio of 0.9 at temperatures of 273, 77, and 4.2 K.
The resistivity ratio p(x)/p(0) was plotted as a function of the atom ratio x at 273 and
4.2 K. A modification of Mott’s model for the resistivity of transition-metal alloys was
used to calculate the structural resistivity. A good fit to the data at 4.2 K was obtained
by assuming that the number of d-holes per Pd atom takes on the value of 0. 55 to 0.60

1968 —

W. Mueller, J Blackledge and G. Libowitz (ed), Academic Press, N. Y. (1968) pp. 69 and 82.  Googlebooks. (view of p. 69 available, not 82.) Kindle available.

Metal Hydrides

Metal Hydrides focuses on the theories of hydride formation as well as on experimental procedures involved in the formation of hydrides, the reactions that occur between hydrides and other media, and the physical and mechanical properties of the several classes of hydrides. The use of metal hydrides in the control of neutron energies is discussed, as are many other immediate or potential uses, e.g., in the production of high-purity hydrogen and in powder metallurgy.
It is hoped that this book will serve as a valuable reference to students, research professors, and industrial researchers in metal hydrides and in allied fields. Selected chapters may serve specialists in other fields as an introduction to metal hydrides. The information contained herein will also be of lasting and practical value to the metallurgist, inorganic chemist, solid-state physicist, nuclear engineer, and others working with chemical or physical processes involving metal-hydrogen systems.
We have attempted to cover completely the field of metal hydrides. D. T. Hurd, in An Introduction to the Chemistry of Hydrides, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1952, and D. P. Smith, in Hydrogen in Metals, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1948, did this adequately many years ago, but these two books are now outdated. Recent books by G. G. Libowitz (Solid State Chemistry of Binary Metal Hydrides, W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1965) and K. M. Mackay (Hydrogen Compounds of the Metallic Elements, Barnes & Noble, Inc., New York, 1966) introduce the field of metal hydrides to graduate students and nonexperts but make no attempt to be comprehensive. In addition to the published literature, we have reviewed all appropriate unclassified information from classified documents.

1980 —

Semiletov, S. A., R. V. Baranova, Yu P. Khodyrev, and R. M. Imamov.  Kristallografiya 25, no. 6 (1980): 1162-1168.

ELECTRON-DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF A TETRAGONAL HYDRIDE PDH1

No abstract found. Many papers on crystallography.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (l), 20-27 . Copy available.

The Palladium-Hydrogen System : A survey of hydride formation and the effects of hydrogen contained within the metal lattices

A very substantial amount of additional information has been published concerning hydrides of the platinum group metals over the two decades since the hydrides of palladium and palladium alloys were the subject of an earlier review article in this Journal. In addition to the many articles in the general literature, the subject matter has formed a major part of the programmes of several scientific conferences and of a number of books and monographs appearing over this period. Furthermore, silver-palladium diffusion tubes are incorporated into hydrogen generators built by Johnson Matthey, and utilised for such diverse applications as the hydrogenation of edible oils, manufacture of semiconductors, annealing of stainless steel and the cooling of power station alternators. In view of the considerable interest being shown in both theoretical and technical aspects of these systems this unusually long review is presented, and will be published in parts during the year.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (2), 70 (copy available)

The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part II of a Survey of Features

This article completes the review of the relationship between equilibrium pressure and composition, which was started in the first part of the paper, before going on to consider some other aspects of the hydrogen-palladium system.

1982 —

F. A. Lewis, Platinum Metals Rev., 1982, 26, (3), 121 (Copy available)

The Palladium-Hydrogen System: Part III: Alloy Systems and Hydrogen Permeation

Hydrogen absorption by series of palladium alloys with several other metals has now been quite extensively investigated with reference to systematic alterations of pressure-composition relationships, other related thermodynamic factors and various physical parameters. Hydrogen permeation has been an important area of both academic and technological interest with relation, for example, to effecting reductions of deformations associated with phase transitions, while retaining the high values of hydrogen solubilities and hydrogen diffusion coefficients in palladium at convenient temperatures.

1984 —

O. Blaschko, J. Less-Comm. Met., 100 (1984) 307–320

Structural features occurring in PdDx within the 50 K anomaly region

The concentration-dependent ordered states of deuterium occurring in PdDx at low temperatures are discussed in the light of recent experimental and theoretical work. The ordering processes occur within the temperature region of the known 50 K anomaly in the specific heat.

1985 —

Metals Handbook, Vol. 9, 9th ed., 1985, American Society for Metals, Metals Parks, OH (1985) p.245. Googlebooks. There are more recent editions.

Metallography and Microstructures

1988 —

K. Baba, Y. Niki, Y. Sakamoto, A. P. Craft. Ted B. Flanagan, J. Mats. Sci. Letters, November 1988, Vol. 7 Issue 11, pp 1160-1162

The transition of the hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered structure of Pd3Mn to the Ag3Mg structure

In previous papers [1, 2], we have shown that when an  initially disordered and an initially ordered alloy  (Ag3Mg-type structure) of Pd3Mn were exposed to  hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures at pH2 > 1 MPa,  they transform to an ordered LI2 structure with an  accompanying introduction of large dislocation densities. This hydrogen-induced LI2 ordered alloy, when annealed in vacuo at 778 K for 24 h, transforms to a one-dimensional long-period structure of the Ag3Mg type. The temperature range where the Ll2-type structure is stable in the absence of hydrogen was not determined.

The goal of this work is to obtain detailed information about the reverse transformation from the hydrogen-induced LI2 structure to the Ag3Mg structure, using electrical resistance measurements and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observations.

The Pd3Mn alloy was prepared from palladium (purity 99.98 wt %) and managnese  [sic, manganese] (99.99 wt %) using high-frequency induction heating under an argon atmosphere. The button was then rolled to a thickness of 100 to 140 μm. The samples used for electron microscopy were in the form of discs of 3 mm diameter which were trepanned from the foil, and for electrical resistance measurements samples were cut from the foil so that the dimensions were 2 mm x 25 mm.

The samples of the hydrogen-induced LI2-type ordered strucure used in this study were prepared  from the following two kinds of the alloy starting material: one was “initially disordered” and the other was “initially ordered” (Ag3Mg structure). The former samples were prepared by a rapid quenching from about 1190 K into ice-water, while simultaneously breaking the closed silica tubes which contained the samples wrapped in titanium foil and then sealed in vacuo. The samples of the Ag3 Mg-type structure were prepared by slow cooling in vacuo from about 1175 K to room temperature at a cooling rate of 2 K h-1. All of the samples were lightly abraded with fine emery paper and then chemically etched with a solution of 2 : 2 : 1 H2SO4 : HNO3 : H2O mixture.

1989 —

Y. Shirai, F. Nakamura, M. Takeuchi, K. Watanabe, and M. Yamaguchi, in Eighth International Conference on Positron Annihilation, edited by V. Dorikens, M. Drikens, and D. Seegers (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p. 488. Paper not found. Book available used. Not listed on World Scientific site, but the title was found on Google Scholar. No abstract.

Positron Annihilation

1990 —

M. Srinivasan, A. Shyam, T. C. Kaushik, R. K. Rout, L. V. Kulkarni, M. S. Krishnan, S. K. Malhotra, V. G. Nagvenkar, and P. K. Iyengar, , AIP Conference proceedings 228 – Anomalous nuclear effects in deuterium/solid system. 1990. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT: American Institute of Physics, New York, p 514-534. (Copy available)

Observation of tritium in gas/plasma loaded titanium samples

The observation of significant neutron yield from gas loaded titanium samples at Frascati in April 1989 opened up an alternate pathway to the investigation of anomalous nuclear phenomena in deuterium/solid systems, complimenting the electrolytic approach. Since then at least six different groups have successfully measured burst neutron emission from deuterated titanium shavings following the Frascati methodology, the special feature of which was the use of liquid nitrogen to create repeated thermal cycles resulting in the production of non‐equilibrium conditions in the deuterated samples. At Trombay several variations of the gas loading procedure have been investigated including induction heating of single machined titanium targets in a glass chamber as well as use of a plasma focusdevice for deuteriding its central titanium electrode. Stemming from earlier observations both at BARC and elsewhere that tritium yield is ≂108 times higher than neutron output in cold fusion experiments, we have channelised our efforts to the search for tritium rather than neutrons. The presence of tritium in a variety gas/plasma loaded titanium samples has been established successfully through a direct measurement of the radiations emitted as a result of tritium decay, in contradistinction to other groups who have looked for tritium in the extracted gases. In some samples we have thus observed tritium levels of over 10 MBq with a corresponding (t/d) ratio of ≳105.

1990 —

B. Baranowski, S. M. Filipek, M. Szustakowski, J. Farny, W. Woryna, . J. Less-Common Met. 158, 347-357 (1990). Britz Bara1990

Search for ‘cold fusion’ in some Me–D systems at high pressures of gaseous deuterium

Metallic palladium and nickel were treated with gaseous deuterium at 298 K to pressures of 3.1 GPa and 1.0 GPa respectively. The high concentrated deuterides did not exhibit, at long time equilibrium as well as in dynamic conditions, evidence of neutron emission nor evolution of heat due to possible “cold fusion”. The volume concentrations of deuterium definitely exceeded those achieved by electrolytic charging. Electrical resistance measurements of palladium deuteride up to 3.1 GPa of gaseous deuterium indicated a further uptake of deuterium above the estimated stoichiometry of octahedral vacancies. A partial filling up of tetrahedral vacancies probably takes place. Electrolytic charging in high pressures of gaseous deuterium did not improve the negative observations above. Thus the observations of Fleischmann and Pons are not confirmed at higher volume concentrations of deuterium in the palladium and nickel lattice as well in equilibrium as in dynamic conditions (phase transitions, high pressure electrolysis).

1991 —

Flanagan, T.B. and W.A. Oates,  Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci., 1991. 21: p. 269. Britz, P.Flan1991

In this review an attempt is made to highlight some of the important properties of the palladium-hydrogen system. (The term hydrogen will be used as a collective term when referring to all three isotopes, but otherwise the names of the specific isotopes, protium, deuterium, and tritium, will be used.) Most of the data in the literature are for the palladium-protium  system; generally the three isotopes behave similarly, however, the thermodynamic and kinetic (diffusion) behavior of the isotopes differ quantitatively and these differences are discussed below.

1991 —

E. K. Storms, C. Talcott-Storms,  Fusion Technol. 20, 246 (1991). Britz Stor1991a

The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritium

The behavior of tritium released from a contaminated palladium cathode is determined and compared with the pattern found in cells claimed to produce tritium by a cold fusion reaction. Void space is produced in palladium when it is subjected to hydrogen absorption and desorption cycles. This void space can produce channels through which hydrogen can be lost from the cathode, thereby reducing the hydrogen concentration. This effect is influenced, in part, by impurities, the shape of the electrode, the charging rate, the concentration of hydrogen achieved, and the length of time the maximum concentration is present.

1991 —

H. Noh, Ted B. Flanagan, B. Cerundolo, and A. Craft, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 25 (1991) 225-230

H-Induced atom mobility in Palladium-Rhodium alloys

[Introduction] The phase diagram for the Pd-Rh system shows a miscibility gap which has been characterized down to temperatures of ~800K [1,2]. The limiting solid solution concentrations at 800 K are Pd0.90Rh0.10 and Pd0.10Rh0.90+. Normally, when Pd-Rh alloys are prepared and cooled from temperatures above the miscibility gap to temperatures well below, the fcc solid solution alloys are metastable and show no tendency to segregate according to the phase diagram. For this reason the phase diagram has not been extended to temperatures below about 800 K. In the most recent study [2] the phase boundaries were established by electrical resistivity changes. Those authors found no evidence for two phase formation from electron microprobe analysis. From this they concluded that the scale of the spinodal decomposition which occurs upon phase segregation was too fine, <10 nm, to detect any spatial compositional variations.

There have been several investigations of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium-rhodium alloys[3,4,5]. These alloys have been found to form hydride phases and, in contrast to most other substitutional elements in palladium, rhodium does not decrease the H/M ratio of the hydride phase. The hydrogen pressure for hydride formation increases with XRh.

It is known that hydrogen can induce metal atom mobility under conditions where such mobility does not occur in the absence of hydrogen. One recent example of such H-induced lattice mobility is the ordering of disordered Pd3Mn in the presence of hydrogen at temperatures where ordering is too slow to observe in the absence of hydrogen. Using Pd-Rh alloys, whose compositions lie well within the miscibility gap, two methods will be used in an attempt to observe hydrogen-induced segregation: (i) the alloys will be exposed to 5.0 MPa of H2 at 523 K; under these conditions the alloy’s hydride phase does not form, and (ii) the alloys will be cycled through the  α →  α’ phase change where α’ is the hydride phase. The rationale for the first approach is that dissolved hydrogen might induce segregation of the homogeneous alloy into Pd- and Rh- rich regions because under these conditions the resulting alloy having Pd-enriched regions should dissolve more hydrogen than the homogeneous alloy; the rationale for the second approach is that the lattice mobility which occurs as the hydride/dilute phase interface moves through the solid might assist segregation. [“Experimental” follows]

1991 —

H. Okamoto and T. Massalski, J. Phase Equilibria, 12, No.2 (1991) p148-168. Open copy available.

Thermodynamically Improbable Phase Diagrams

Phase diagrams showing very unlikely boundaries, while not explicitly violating thermodynamic principles or phase rules, are discussed. Phase rule violations in proposed phase diagrams often become apparent when phase boundaries are extrapolated into metastable regions. In addition to phase rule violations, this article considers difficulties regarding an abrupt change of slope of a phase boundary, asymmetric or unusually pointed liquidus boundaries, location of miscibility gaps, and gas/liquid equilibria. Another frequent source of phase diagram errors concerns the initial slopes of liquidus and solidus boundaries in the very dilute regions near the pure elements. Useful and consistent prediction can be made from the application of the van’t Hoff equation for the dilute regions.

1991 —

F. G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M. C. Yang, J. R. Peterson, H. E. Bergeson, S. C. Barrowes, W. J. West and D. C. Linton, “Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of Pd with deuterium”, in Conference Proceedings  of Italian Physical Society, Vol. 33 for ‘The Science of cold fusion – Proc. of second Annual conf. on cold fusion’, edited T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, Como, Italy, 29 June – 4 July 1991, held at A. Volta Center for Sci. Culture, Villa Olmo, (1991) pp. 373-383. (Copy available)

1992 —

H. Noh, Ted B. Flanagan, M.H. Ransick, Scripta Met. et Ma., Vol. 26 (1992) 353-358.

An Illustration of phase diagram determination using H-induced lattice mobility

[Introduction] It has been recently shown that hydrogen-induced lattice mobility (HILM) can lead to ordering of a disordered alloy at temperatures where the ordering is immeasurably slow in the absence of the dissolved hydrogen [1]. In this research we report an example of HILM where hydrogen catalyzes a longer range metal atom diffusion than that needed for the disorder → order transition. In the present case a nearly homogeneous alloy will be shown to undergo segregation under the influence of HILM. This can be of importance as an aid in the establishment of equilibrium for the determination of phase diagrams at relatively low temperatures where, because of sluggish equilibrium, they cannot be determined in the absence of H. It should be emphasized that hydrogen is not a component of the phase equilibrium, but acts as a catalyst promoting equilibrium under conditions where it is not established after long times in its absence.

Pd-Rh has a miscibility gap shown in figure 1 [2, 3]; segregation according to this phase diagram does not, however, normally occur when the alloys are cooled from elevated temperatures and consequently a continuous series of metastable fcc solid solutions can be prepared. Raub et al [2] found that annealing the Rh0.26Pd0.74 alloy at 873 K for 1 year did not result in segregation into Pd- and Rh-rich phases. A Rh0.51Pd0.49 alloy segregated into Pd- and Rh-rich phases after annealing at 873 K for 6 months. Evidence for segregation was obtained from the presence of two sets of fcc lattice parameters. Shield and Williams [3] did not find any evidence for phase separation in slowly cooled samples using analytical techniques but confirmed the earlier phase diagram from resistivity changes as the phase envelope was entered.

Alloy-H systems are usually thermodynamically characterized from their isotherms where pH2 is measured as a function of H/M. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure is a measure of the relative chemical potential of hydrogen, i.e.,

ΔμH =  μH – 1/2μH2  = 1/2RT ln pH2 [1]

In single phase regions of the solid the H2 pressure (and ΔμH) changes continuously with HIM. When two solid phases co-exist with the gaseous phase, however, a pressure invariant region (the plateau pressure) occurs.

Hydrogen dissolves readily in Pd-Rh alloys forming hydride phases when the hydrogen concentrations exceed the terminal hydrogen solubilities. The plateau pressures increase with XRh [4, 5, 6]. This Pd-alloy system is unique because the extent of the two phase co-existence region does not decrease with increase of atom fraction of substituted metal as it does for other Pd-alloys. Typical hydrogen isotherms for homogeneous Pd-Rh alloys consist of a small dilute phase region where the pressure increases markedly with H content; this is followed by a two phase, invariant (plateau) pressure region and finally a single phase region at high hydrogen contents obtains where the pressure increases markedly with H content. If this alloy were to segregate into Pd-rich and Rh-rich phases according to the phase diagram (Fig. 1 ), then the isotherm should alter in a predictable way. […]

1993 —

Y. Fukai, N. Okuma,  Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, L1256-1259 (1993). Britz Fukai1993

Evidence of copious vacancy formation in Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure

From in situ observation of X-ray diffraction of Ni and Pd under a high hydrogen pressure (5 GPa) and temperatures (≤800°C), anomalous lattice contraction of the hydride was found to occur in 2~3 h. This contraction, amounting to ~0.5 Å3 per a metal atom, remained in the recovered specimen even after the hydrogen was removed by heating to 400°C, but was annealed out at 800°C. The concentration of vacancies responsible for this effect is estimated at ~20% of metal-atom sites. Anomalous concentration dependence of the hydrogen-induced volume and enhanced diffusion of metal atoms are explained in terms of this effect.

1993 —

Y. Fukai, Computer Aided Innovation of New Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), Vol. II, pp. 451–456. [the Fukai paper appears to be in Vol I? Vol 1 is missing.] [paper needed, not found]

1993 —

Y. Fukai, M. Yamakata, and T. Yagi, Z. Phys. Chem. 179, 119 (1993).

Some High-Pressure Experiments on the Fe — H System

In situ X-ray diffraction measurements have been performed of the hydriding process of iron under high hydrogen pressure and temperatures using a synchrotron radiation source. After hydrogenation, a sample of FeHx, in equilibrium with ~6 GPa of fluid Hundergoes a sequence of phase transitions dhcp → fcc → new phase → melt, at 650~700°C. 800~900°C and 1200°C. respectively. The structure of the new high-temperature phase is tentatively identified as a defect-bcc structure in which many vacancies exist in one of the simple cubic sublattices of bcc-Fe.

1993 —

R. A. Oriani, “The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals”, 4th International conference on cold fusion (ICCF-4), Lahaina, Maui, HI: Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (1993). Vol 1, page 18.

The physical and metallurgical aspects of hydrogen in metals

To attempt to optimize the anomalous phenomena that today go under the label “cold fusion” the experimentalist should be aware of the many aspects of the behavior of hydrogen in metals and of its entry into and egress from metals. This paper discusses the equilibrium characteristics of the isotopes of hydrogen in metals. The first section discusses the thermodynamics of the terminal solutions of metal-hydrogen systems including the enthalpies of solutions, H-H interactions, effect of third elements, distribution of isotopes between the phases, site occupation, and the molar volume of hydrogen in metallic solutions.

The mobility of hydrogen in a metal lattice is a very large subject. This discussion is restricted to the kinetics of hydrogen diffusion, at and above room temperature, with respect to the variation with temperature, hydrogen concentration, isotopic mass and concentration of third elements. A distinction is made between the effects on the mobility and the effects associated with the non-ideality of the solution. The decrease of the diffusivity due to attractive interactions with lattice defects such as those generated by cold work are discussed in terms of trapping theory. Brief consideration is given to diffusion of hydrogen along grain boundaries and along dislocation cores as well as to diffusion motivated by gradients of electrical potential, of temperature and of mechanical stress.

When hydrogen is absorbed from the molecular gas at fixed pressure and temperature, the overall driving force can be expressed in terms of thermodynamic parameters; the kinetic impediments to the ingress of hydrogen control the rate of entry and these are discussed. When hydrogen is presented to the metal by electrochemical means or by partially dissociated hydrogen gas the driving force for entry into the metal cannot be expressed thermodynamically, although the concept of input fugacity is often used. This concept is discussed and incorrect inferences sometimes made from it are pointed out. The entry and the egress of hydrogen produces mechanical stresses in the metal which modify the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems. They necessitate a distinction to be made between coherent and incoherent phase diagrams, and change the driving force for the exchange of hydrogen between the metal and the environing gas phase. More importantly, the generated stresses can relax by producing dislocations, grain rotation, cracks and microvoids. Examples of these phenomena are discussed. The generation of such lattice defects interacts in complicated ways with the intrinsic decohesioning effect of dissolved hydrogen to seriously affect the mechanical properties of metals. Some implications of these considerations for cold fusion research are pointed out.

1994 —

Y. Fukai, N. Okuma, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1640-1643 (1994). Britz Fukai1994

Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures

In situ x-ray diffraction on Pd hydride under 5 GPa of hydrogen pressure show that lattice contraction due to vacancy formation occurs in 2-3 h at 700-800 °C, and two-phase separation into PdH and a vacancy-ordered phase of Cu3Au structure (Pd3VacH4) on subsequent cooling. After recovery to ambient conditions and removal of hydrogen, the vacancy concentration in Pd metal was determined by measuring density and lattice parameter changes to be 18 ± 3 at.%. This procedure provides a new method of introducing superabundant vacancies in metals.

1994 —

R. Balasubramaniam, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 30, No. 7 (1994) 875-880.

Mechanism of hydrogen induced ordering in Pd3Mn

[Introduction] In the Pd-Mn system (Fig 1), the Pd3Mn composition undergoes an order-disorder transformation [1-4]. Pd3Mn, above its critical temperature (Tc), has a disordered fcc structure an~ attains an ordered structure when it is slowly cooled below its Tc. On the other hand, if it is quenched rapidly to a temperature below Tc, it retains its disordered fcc stucture. This ‘quenched’ structure is truly not disordered because electron diffraction studies [2,5,6,7] have indicated that faint superlattice reflections of the ordered structure exist in the rapidly quenched material. Therefore, the fully disordered structure is difficult to [obtain] even by rapid quenching. This aspect of the transformation has to be noted as this will have relevance in the proposed mechanism described below. The ordered Pd3Mn structure can be precisely indexed as being of the A3Zr type [8] and not of the Ag3Mg type [2,9] by recognizing a center of symmetry [8]. It is denoted as the long period structure (LPS) of the L12-s type. The phase diagram of the Pd-Mn system (Fig 1) [10, 11] also shows composition dependence of the critical ordering temperature (obtained during heating and cooling) for hypostoichiometric Pd3Mn compositions. It is important to note that in these hypostochiometric compositions, a two phase region separating the ordered and disordered phase fields does not exist, thus indicating that this transformation is of the second order. The disordered phase is denoted as α (Fig i) and the ordered phase obtained by slow cooling as α-L12-s . The phase transitions in the Pd-Mn system have • . 2-6 • , • been investigated by a variety of techniques and the reader is [referred] to reference [11] for details of the transformations and phase domains.

It was first shown by Flanagan et al. [6] that the introduction of hydrogen at relatively low pressures and high temperatures (below Tc ) induced ordering of both the L12-s type and the ‘quenched’ structure to the ordered L12 structure. For example, at 523K and a partial pressure of hydrogen 5MPa, Pd3Mn transforms to the L12 structure (Cu3Au type) [6]. Incidentally, this was the first time that the L12 form of Pd3Mn had been prepared [6] and this implied that hydrogen could be employed to prepare ordered structures that are not possible to produce by conventional methods like annealing of the alloy. It is important to note that the L12 is the stable form of Pd3Mn below the critical temperature and the transformation to the L12 form does not occur even for long periods of exposure at high temperatures in the absence of hydrogen [6]. […]

1994 —

W. A. Oates and H. Wenzl, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 30, No. 7 (1994) 851-854.

On the Copious Formation of Vacancies in Metals

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) have recently given convincing evidence for the formation of extremely high vacancy concentrations (≈ 20% of the metal atom sites) when Ni and Pd are annealed for a few hours at high temperatures (≤ 800°C) when under high H2 pressures (≈ 5GPa), i.e., at very high H concentrations. As indicated by Fukai and Ōkuma (1), the implications of this effect, especially through its possible influence on enhanced metal diffusion, could be profound.

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) discuss some other results which also seem to indicate large vacancy concentrations at very high H concentrations. These include the maximum observed H concentration exceeding that expected from structural considerations (2) and an anomalous change in the apparent partial molar volume of H in Pd alloys at high H concentrations (3).

Fukai and Ōkuma (1) gave a tentative explanation for the formation of large vacancy concentrations in terms of vacancy-hydrogen complexes. In the following we develop a simple model which may explain the origin of such large vacancy concentrations in a more plausible way.

1994-

Manchester, F.D., San-Martin, A. & Pitre, J.M. JPE (1994) 15: 62. DOI there is a preview of the first two pages, used in lieu of an abstract below. There is a list of references on the journal page. Anchors have been added and used as links from citations here, see the subpage Manchester 1994 references

The Pd-H system is the paradigm of metal hydrogen systems: the longest studied (since 1866 [1866Gra]), the easiest to activate for hydrogen absorption, and probably the richest in the number of physically interesting phenomena that have been observed in this type of system. In matters of the thermodynamics of hydrogen absorption, the details of phase diagram delineation, description and analysis of electronic properties and a number of other features, work on the Pd-H system has tended to provide leading developments that have subsequently been used in other metal-hydrogen systems.

The T-X phase diagram (Fig. 1) assessed here for pressures* above 102 Pa, consists of the α and α’ phases, in both of which the H occupies, randomly, the interstitial octahedral sites of the fcc Pd lattice. Table 1 gives the crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the system.

Fig. 1 Assessed Pd-H phase diagram. T-X projection from a P-X-T surface onto a plane at P = 102 Pa.

Table 1 (a) In the literature this has often been referred to as the βmin value for the Pd-H lattice parameter [75Sch]. (b) This structure is an ordered arrangement of vacancies in the fcc H(D) lattice on interstitial octahedral sites in the Pd lattice. The Pearson symbol has been chosen to count both the vacancies and the interstitial H(D) corresponding to a structure that is stoichiometric at X = 0.5 to maintain consistency with the usual listings of this symbol for tetragonal structures. (c) Values for lattice parameters of tetragonal cell estimated from [75Sch] with the help of [84Hem] for the X value and temperature given by [83Bon]. (d) As in (b), except that counting interstitials together with vacancies corresponds to a structure that is stoichiometric at X = 1. (e) Values for lattice parameters of tetragonal cell estimated from [75Sch] with the help of [84Hem] for the X value and temperature given by [79Ell]. The sets of tetragonal lattice parameters referred to in (c) and (e) are for PdD x.

Refs in table: [78Kin], [64Mae],  [64Axe], [78And2], [79Ell], [81Bla]

The α phase is the low-concentration phase of the system, separated from the high-concentration α’ phase by a mixed (α + αt’) phase region. The boundary of this mixed phase region was delineated by taking an average of the limiting T-X values for the isotherm plateaus (see Fig. 2) determined by [64Wic], [73Fri], [83Las], [85Las], and [87Wic] from experimental P-X isotherms shown in Fig. 3. Because hysteresis** is observed in absorption and desorption isotherms for T < Tc [36Gil, 60Eve89Fla], it is possible to draw two different sets of boundaries for the mixed-phase region at each temperature. For clarity, only P-X desorption isotherms reproduced from the available literature are displayed in Fig. 3. (See further discussion on locating coexistence boundaries below.)
———
*For H-in-metal systems, the equilibrium pressure of the H gas surrounding the metal is always a significant thermodynamic variable, in contrast to most situations involving metallic alloys. Thus, sections of the P-X-T surface in a T-X plane and a P-X plane are always necessary. In the presentation given here, P is the pressure in pascals, T is the temperature plotted in both K and °C. and X is the H concentration expressed either as atomic percent H or as X = H/Pd, the atomic ratio.
**Hysteresis in metal-hydrogen systems with mixed phase regions, as in the α/α’ regions of the Pd-H system, arises from plastic deformation due to a large volume change as one phase, e.g.  α, changes to the other, e.g.  α’, or vice versa (see [89Fla]).
———

At -25 °C   the maximum H solubility in the α phase is X = 0.017 (1.68 at.% H), whereas the single α’ phase exists for X > 0.60 (37.6 at. % H). The two-phase region in Fig. I bounded by the coexistence curve closes at the critical point located at T = 293°C, X = 0.29 (22.5 at.% H), and P = 20.15 × 105 Pa (see Table 2). There is no distinction between the α and α’ phases above this critical temperature consistent with the applicability of the lattice gas model for the Pd-H system [60Hill, 69Ale,76Man]. Table 2 compares critical point parameters reported for the Pd-H system. Values obtained by [78Pic] are not included because they lack the overall consistency of those quoted in Table 2, and there is no compelling reason to try to justify this. With the exception of the values from [74Riba], the critical point parameters have all been observed from analysis of absorption/desorption isotherms only.

[37Lac1] used what amounted to a lattice gas calculation in the Bragg-Williams (i.e. mean field approximation [37Lac2]) to calculate the form of the Pd-H absorption isotherms and, using the Maxwell equal area rule, to determine the location of the α/α’ coexistence curve. [37Lac1] used the experimentally determined location of the critical point (i.e. Tc and Xc [36Gil]) to fix the value of the attractive H-H interaction and the value he assumed for the maximum permitted H concentration. The [37Lac1] calculation, apart from giving the first statistical thermodynamic model for H absorption in Pd-H, provided a parametric relation for analyzing the absorption of H in Pd, which is useful today (see “Solubility”). However, the [37Lac1] model was not founded on an assessment of the basic mechanisms responsible for the attractive H-H interaction or on other basic physical features of the Pd-H system. Also using a lattice gas calculation [79Die] estimated values for Tc and Xc and the form of the coexistence curve, which were roughly comparable to those obtained from experiment. [79Die] used a description of the elastic contribution to the H-H interaction, which was based on the earlier work of [74Wag] and [74Hor], and added to this an estimate of the electronic contribution to this interaction. […]

1994 —

There is some error here, there must be a paper by Lewis in 1994 that is somehow missing. I’ll look for it.

1995 —

H. Osono, T. Kino, Y. Kurokawa, Y. Fukai,J. Alloys and Compd. 231, 41-45 (1995). Britz Oson1995

Agglomeration of hydrogen-induced vacancies in nickel.

Scanning electron microscope observations of Ni samples annealed after recovery from high temperature heat treatment in the hydride phase showed the presence of numerous holes 20–200 nm in size. From various features of the holes they are identified as voids formed by agglomeration of supersaturated vacancies (about 5 at.% in concentration) which have diffused from the surface to the interior of the sample during heat treatment.

1995 —

K. Nakamura and Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd. 231, 46 (1995).  Britz Naka1995

High-pressure studies of high-concentration phases of the TiH system

In situ X-ray diffraction at high pressure (5 GPa) and high temperatures (less than or approximately 1100 °C) of the TiH system revealed that two different kinds of phase transition take place at high hydrogen concentrations. [H]/[Ti] ≳ 2, a reversible transition due to absorption-desorption of hydrogen and an irreversible transition due to the formation of metal-atom vacancies. The general implication of the formation of defect-hydride phases in the phase diagrams of MH systems is discussed.

1995 —

Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd. 231, 35 (1995) Britz Fukai1995

Formation of superabundant vacancies in metal hydrides at high temperatures

It has been found from X-ray diffraction on several MH systems under high p, T conditions that a large number of M-atom vacancies amounting to ca. 20 at.% are formed at high temperatures, leading to a vacancy-ordered L12 structure in some f.c.c. hydrides. The energetics of vacancy formation in hydrides suggests that defect-hydrides containing many vacancies are generally more stable thermodynamically than ordinary defect-free hydrides and therefore most phase diagrams of MH systems reported heretofore are metastable.

1995 —

R. Felici, L. Bertalot, A. DeNinno, A. LaBarbera and V. Violante, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 66(5) (1995) 3344. Britz P.Feli1995.

In situ measurement of the deuterium (hydrogen) charging of a palladium 380 electrode during electrolysis by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction

A method to determine the concentration of deuterium inside a palladium cathode during the electrolysis of LiOD–heavy water solution is described. This method is based on the measurement of the host metal lattice parameter which is linearly related to the concentration in a wide range. A hard‐x‐ray beam which is able to cross two glass walls and few centimeters of water solutions without suffering a strong attenuation has been used. The measurement of the lattice parameter is performed in situ, during the electrolysis, by using energy dispersive x‐ray diffraction. The sample volume illuminated by the x‐ray beam is limited to a small region close to the surface and depends on the incident photon energy.In principle, this allows one to study the dynamics of the charging process and to determine the concentration profile in the range from few up to tens of micrometers. The deuterium concentration, determined by this method, was then checked by degassing the cathode in a known volume and was always found in a very good agreement, showing that the charging was uniform for the whole sample.

1995 —

W. A. Oates and H. Wenzl, Scripta Met. et Mat., Vol. 33, No. 2 (1995) 185-193.

On the formation and ordering of superabundant vacancies in palladium due to hydrogen absorption

Fukai and Ōkuma (1,2) have recently presented some extremely interesting results concerning the formation of high concentrations of vacancies (¤) in Pd and other metals which result from the absorption of hydrogen. In their first paper (l), they showed that when Pd is annealed for long times (hours) at high temperatures (≈ 800°C) in high pressures of H2(g) (≈ 5 GPa), vacancy concentrations as high as N¤/NPd  ≈ 0.2 can be obtained (1). In their second paper (2), they demonstrated that these vacancies can order when the alloys containing high vacancy concentrations are slowly cooled to lower temperatures (below ≈ 6OO°C).

The hydrogen chemical potential, μH is very high under the conditions used in these experiments. This can be seen in Fig. (l), which shows ½(μH2μ0H2)/RT as a function of H2(g) pressure at 1000K (3). μ0H2 is the ideal gas reference state value at 1 bar and the temperature of interest. It should be appreciated that, in this temperature and pressure range, the curve represents a substantial extrapolation from the available experimental results. Such extrapolations are sensitive to the analytical form chosen for the fluid’s equation of state (a modified van der Waals equation in this case) and although the rapid increase in PH with H2(g) pressure in the GPa range shown in Fig. (1) is undoubtedly correct, the quantitative aspects of the relation may be questionable.

A brief explanation for the formation of the high vacancy concentrations in terms of a simple statistical model has been given previously (4). In the present note we wish to present a more quantitative confirmation of this model and also demonstrate how it can also explain the ordering of the ‘superabundant’ vacancies in Pd observed by Fukai and Ōkuma (2).

1995 —

F.A.Lewis, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 20, Issue 7, 1995, Pages 587-592

The palladium-hydrogen system: Structures near phase transition and critical points

A wide ranging survey is presented updating information and opinions on the correlations which occur between structural change and hydrogen pressure-hydrogen content-temperature (pc(n)-T) relationships in the palladium-hydrogen and other related systems. Particular attention is directed to problems of the estimation and definition of the limits of composition over the α ↔ β phase transition region and near to designated critical points. (Published with permission of Platinum Metals Review, in which this paper was first published in Vol. 38, No. 3, July 1994. Copy available. See Lewis1994)

1996 —

K. Watanabe, N. Okuma, Y. Fukai, Y. Sakamoto, and Y. Hayashi, Scr. Mater. 34, 551 (1996).

Superabundant vacancies and enhanced diffusion in Pd-Rh alloys under high hydrogen pressures

In our recent experiments on a number of metal-hydrogen systems, we discovered that the equilibrium concentration of metal-atom vacancies is greatly enhanced under high hydrogen pressures [l-5]. The vacancy concentration as high as x, – 0.2 was attained when Ni and Pd specimens were held at 700 – 800°C in fluid hydrogen of 5 GPa [1,2]. In Pd hydride, formation of a Cu,Au-type vacancy-ordered structure was also observed [2].
We suggested that this phenomenon of superabundant vacancy formation should be the cause of the hydrogen-induced migration of metal atoms reported for some Pd alloys. In quenched specimens of Pd, &I,,~ alloy, where no phase separation was observed in vacuum after annealing at 600°C for 1 year [6], Noh et al. obtained indications of phase separation after annealing for only 4 h in 5.5 MPa of H2 gas [7,8]. Similar indication of hydrogen-induced phase separation was reported subsequently for Pd-Pt alloys[9]. These experiments were, however, not sufficiently convincing because their inference of phase separation was based on the form of “diagnostic” p-x-T curves without any direct structural information.
The purpose of this paper is to provide detailed structural information on the formation of superabundant vacancies and its effects on the phase separation process in P&&h0 2 alloys by performing in situ Xraydiffraction at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures.

1996 —

V. Gavriljuk, V. Bugaev, Y. Petrov, A. Tarasenko, and B. Yanchitski, Scr. Mater. 34, 903 (1996).

Hydrogen-induced equilibrium vacancies in FCC iron-base alloys

Dissolution of interstitials leads to an increase of equilibrium concentration of the site vacancies as a result of two main contributions: increase of entropy of solid solution and expenditure of energy for injection of the interstitial atoms. After hydrogen outgassing vacancies become thermodynamically unstable and form dislocation loops which can be detected by means of TEM. In our opinion, the concept of hydrogen-induced vacancies can be useful for interpretation of hydrogen-induced phase transformations and mechanism of plastic deformation of hydrogenated materials.

1997 —

H. Birnbaum, C. Buckley, F. Zaides, E. Sirois, P. Rosenak, S. Spooner, and J. Lin, J. Alloys Compd. 253, 260 (1997).

Hydrogen in aluminum

The introduction of solute hydrogen in high purity aluminum has been studied using a variety of experimental techniques. Very large hydrogen concentrations were introduced by electrochemical charging and by chemical charging. Length change and lattice parameter measurements showed that the hydrogen was trapped at vacancies which entered in a ratio close to Cv/CH=1. Small angle X-ray scattering showed that the hydrogen-vacancy complexes clustered into platelets lying on the {111}.

1997 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Kurokawa, H. Hiraoka, J. Japan Inst. Metals, 61 (1997) 663–670 (in Japanese).

Superabundant Vacancy Formation and Its Consequences in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys

A theory is proposed for the formation of super-abundant vacancies, in metal-hydrogen alloys, amounting to 10~20 at%, considering hydrogen effects to decrease the formation energy of a vacancy by cluster formation and the configurational entropy of the system at high hydrogen concentrations. A formula derived for the vacancy concentration is found to give excellent descriptions of experimental results on nickel-hydrogen and molybedenum-hydrogen alloys obtained under high hydrogen pressures. Some of the consequences of the superabundant vacancy formation are discussed, including solubility enhancement, formation of defect structures and voids, and enhancement of metal-atom diffusion.

1998 —

E. Hayashi Y. Kurokawa and Y. Fukai, Phys.Rev.Lett., 80(25) (1998) 5588.

Hydrogen-Induced Enhancement of Interdiffusion in Cu–Ni Diffusion Couples

Drastic enhancements of the interdiffusion were observed in Cu-Ni diffusion couples when samples were heated under high hydrogen pressures (5GPa). Interdiffusion coefficients measured between 600800°C were increased by 104 times on the Ni-rich end and by 10 times on the Cu-rich end. The observation is explained in terms of superabundant vacancy formation in the presence of interstitial hydrogen atoms.

1998 —

E.F. Skelton, P.L. Hagans, S.B. Qadri, D.D. Dominguez, A.C. Ehrlich and J.Z. Hu,Phys. Rev., B58 (1998) 14775.

In situ monitoring of crystallographic changes in Pd induced by diffusion of D

Crystallographic changes in a palladium wire cathode were monitored in situ, as deuterium was electrochemically deposited on the surface and diffused radially into the wire. Initially, the wire was pure Pd. A constant electrolysis current density of 1 mA/cm2 was maintained and D slowly diffused into the wire. As the D concentration increased, the wire transformed from pure Pd, to the α phase, and finally into the β phase. This reversible phase transformation begins on the surface and progresses radially inward. During the experiment, x-ray-diffraction data were collected from a volume element of about 180 pl. This volume element was systematically moved in 50-μm steps from the edge to the center of a 1.0 mm diameter Pd wire. Throughout the course of the experiment, the bulk value of x in PdDx, as determined from simultaneous measurements of the electrical resistivity, increased from 0 to ∼0.72. For each setting of the volume element, a monotonic increase in the volume of the α phase was observed, until the material entered the two-phase region. Once the β phase appeared, the volumes of both phases decreased slightly with continued loading. The integrated intensities of diffraction peaks from each phase were used in conjunction with the known phase diagram to estimate the rate of compositional change within the volume element. The diffusion rate for the solute atoms was estimated to be 57±nm/s, based on the temporal and spatial dependence of the integrated intensities of the diffraction peaks from each phase. These data also were used to evaluate the time dependence of the concentration of the solute atoms c/t and their diffusivity D. The value of c/t increased linearly from 6.2×105s1 at the surface, to  1999

1998 —

M. R. Staker, J. Alloys Compd. 266 (1998) 167-179.

The Uranium – Vanadium equilibrium phase diagram

Three uranium-rich alloys of uranium–vanadium (U–V) were melted and processed to bars for final heat treatment. The microstructures were studied via optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness measurements. The results necessitate revisions in positions of phase fields in the uranium-rich portion of the phase diagram, but confirm positions of phase lines at the vanadium-rich side. The revised diagram shows substantially lower solubility limits for α, β and γ phases and a shift in γ-eutectoid composition from 2.08 to 1.0 wt.% vanadium. The role of carbon in causing these original disparities is analyzed. For hypereutectoid γ-quenched U–V alloys, the transition from acicular to banded martensitic structure occurs between 1.45 and 1.65 wt.% V. The microstructures and mechanical properties of hypereutectoid γ-quenched alloys indicates suitability of these alloys in structural applications requiring high density.

1999 —

D. S. dos Santos, S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, J. Alloys and Compd. 291, L1-L5 (1999). Britz dSan1999

A high pressure investigation of Pd and the Pd–H  system

The effect of high pressure (3.5 GPa) on the Pd and Pd–H systems has been investigated. We have been able to induce a cubic–monoclinic structural transformation in the case of pure Pd treated at 450°C for 5 h. Hydrogen has been introduced at high pressures using an alternative hydrogen source (C14H10). It is shown that such a route can be operated to produce vacancy-ordered phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature.

1999 —

C.E. Buckley, H.K. Birnbaum, D. Bellmann, P. Staron, J. Alloys Compd., 293–295 (1999) 231–236.

Calculation of the radial distribution function of bubbles in the aluminum hydrogen system

Aluminum foils of 99.99% purity were charged with hydrogen using a gas plasma method with a voltage in the range of 1.0–1.2 keV and current densities ranging from 0.66 to 0.81 mA cm−2, resulting in the introduction of a large amount of hydrogen. X-ray diffraction measurements indicated that within experimental error there was a zero change in lattice parameter after plasma charging. This result is contradictory to almost all other FCC materials, which exhibit a lattice expansion when the hydrogen enters the lattice interstitially. It is hypothesised that the hydrogen does not enter the lattice interstitially, but instead forms a H-vacancy complex at the surface which diffuses into the volume and then clusters to form H2 bubbles. The nature and agglomeration of the bubbles were studied with a variety of techniques, such as small angle, ultra small angle and inelastic neutron scattering (SANS, USANS and INS), transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), precision density measurements (PDM) and X-ray diffraction. The USANS and SANS results indicated scattering from a wide range of bubble sizes from <10 Å up to micron size bubbles. Subsequent SEM and TEM measurements revealed the existence of bubbles on the surface, as well as in the bulk and INS experiments show that hydrogen is in the bulk in the form of H2 molecules. In this paper we calculate the radial distribution function of the bubbles from the SANS and USANS results using methods based on the models derived by Brill et al., Fedorova et al. and Mulato et al. The scattering is assumed to be from independent spherical bubbles. Mulato et al. model is modified by incorporating smearing effects, which consider the instrumental resolution of the 30 m SANS spectrometer at NIST. The distribution functions calculated from the two methods are compared, and these distributions are then compared with the range of particle sizes found from TEM and SEM techniques.

2000 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Ishii, T. Goto, and K. Watanabe, J. Alloys Compd. 313, 121 (2000).

Formation of superabundant vacancies in Pd–H alloys

Temporal variation of the lattice parameter of Pd was measured under high hydrogen pressures (2–5 GPa) and temperatures (672–896°C) by X-ray diffraction using a synchrotron radiation, and observed lattice contraction was interpreted as being due to the formation of a large number of vacancy–hydrogen (Vac–H) clusters, i.e. superabundant vacancies. Analysis of the result led to the conclusion that a major part of Vac–H clusters (amounting to ∼10 at.%) were introduced by diffusion from the surface, after a small number of them had been formed at some internal sources. The thermal-equilibrium concentration of Vac–H clusters at high temperatures shows a saturation behavior, which indicates the presence of a maximum possible concentration (ca.16 at.%) of the clusters. The formation energy, entropy and volume of a Vac–H cluster are found to be 0.72 eV, 7.2k and 0.60Ω, respectively, and the migration energy and volume are 1.20 eV and 0.49Ω, respectively. Various other implications of the results are also discussed.

2000 —

N. Eliaz, D. Eliezer, D. L. Olson, “s”, Mat. Sc. and Engr. A289 (2000) 41-53.

Hydrogen-assisted processing of materials

Under certain conditions, hydrogen can degrade the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of most structural alloys; however, it also has some positive effects in metals. Several current and potential applications of hydrogen for enhancing the production and processing of materials are reviewed. These include thermohydrogen processing (THP) and forming of refractory alloys, processing of rare earth-transition metal magnets by hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation–decomposition–desorption–recombination (HDDR), hydrogen-induced amorphization (HIA) and microstructural refinement, extraction of elements from ores and alloys, and the use of hydrogen as a reducing gas for welding and brazing. Hydrogen is found to enhance the formability, microstructure and properties of a large variety of materials, including steels, Ti-based alloys and metal matrix composites(MMCs), refractory metals and alloys, rare earth-transition metal alloys, metalloid-containing metallic glasses, etc.

2000 —

P. Tripodi, M. C. H. McKubre, F. L. Tanzella, P. A. Honnor, D. Di Giacchino, F. Celani, V. Violante, Physics Letters A 276 (2000) 122-126.  Britz P.Trip2000. See also Tripodi2009a and Tripodi2009b

Temperature coefficient of resistivity at compositions approaching PdH

Measurements have been made of the temperature coefficient of resistivity, λ, versus hydrogen concentration, H/Pd, at very high concentrations in the Pd–H system. Unusually high hydrogen compositions were achieved using an electrochemical loading procedure which allowed stable Pd–H systems to be obtained. It is well known that increasing the H/Pd concentrations leads to three different phases (αα+ββ), respectively, in the Pd–H system; the β phase is thought to end in an asymptotic limit. Possible evidence that a new phase (γ) exists, bordering the β phase at compositions H/Pd > 0.9 is reported and discussed.

2001 —

Y. Fukai, Y. Shizuku, Y. Kurokawa, J. Alloys Compds. 329, 195-201 (2001). Britz Fukai2001

Superabundant vacancy formation in Ni–H alloys

X-ray diffraction measurements on the Ni–H system were made using synchrotron radiation at high hydrogen pressures p(H2)=3∼5 GPa and high temperatures T≲1000°C. Gradual lattice contraction occurring over several hours at high temperatures revealed the formation of superabundant vacancies (vacancy-hydrogen clusters). Superlattice reflections due to ordered arrangements of Vac-H clusters were also observed. The concentration of Vac-H clusters (xcl≅0.30), deduced from the magnitude of the lattice contraction, was very nearly independent of pressure and temperature, and indicates the maximum possible cluster concentration to be accommodated by the metal lattice. A simple enlightening description of the physics of superabundant vacancy formation is given in Appendix A.

2001 —

S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, E. K. Hill, S. S. M. Tavares, D. Dos Santos, J. Alloys and Compounds 317, 77-82 (2001). Britz Mira2001

Investigation of the vacancy ordered phases in the Pd–H system

It has been shown that hydrogen–metal reactions operated at high pressures (3–5 GPa) may lead to hydrogen-induced lattice migration. The occurrence of fast diffusion processes that take place within the metal lattice has been established. Under these conditions, modifications of the diffusion kinetics and of the phases equilibria allow to produce vacancy-ordered phases with high vacancy concentrations (20%). An alternative route which leads to such phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature is presented. The structural properties of the Pd-(vacancy, H) system which have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy will be discussed. In the case of palladium, the vacancy-ordered state is characterized by the loss of superconductivity with respect to the Pd hydride. This spectacular modification of the physical properties will be presented and discussed in the light of band structure calculations that have been performed modeling different types of decorated vacancies with octahedral coordination.

2001 —

Y. Fukai, T. Haraguchi, E. Hayashi, Y. Ishii, Y. Kurokawa, and J. Yanagawa, Defect Diffus. Forum 194, 1063 (2001).

Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies and Diffusion Enhancement in Some FCC Metals

Lattice contractions caused by the formation of extremely high concentrations of vacancies (superabundant vacancies of ~ 10 at.% ) were observed in the fcc phases Mn-H, Fe-H, Co-Hi, Ni-H and Pd-H samples at high temperatures(≤900°C ) and high H2 pressures ( ≤5 GPa). Comprehensive measurements in the Pd-H system, analysed in terms of our theory of vacancy- hydrogen ( Vac-H) cluster formation, have allowed to determine the formation and migration properties of the Vac-H clusters. From the observed lattice contraction process and concomitant diffusion enhancement, it is concluded that most Vac-H clusters are introduced by diffusion from the surface over a long time but some of them are created instantly at internal sources.

2001 —

Klechkovskaya, V.V. & Imamov, R.M. Crystallogr. Rep. (2001) 46: 534.

Electron diffraction structure analysis—from Vainshtein to our days

The physical grounds of the modern electron diffraction structure analysis have been analyzed. Various methods and approaches developed in electron diffraction studies of various structures are considered. The results of the structure determinations of various inorganic and organic materials are discussed.

2001 —

S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, E. Hlil, S. Tavares, and D. D. Santos, J. Alloys Compd. 317-318, 77 (2001).

Investigation of the vacancy-ordered phases in the Pd–H system

It has been shown that hydrogen–metal reactions operated at high pressures (3–5 GPa) may lead to hydrogen-induced lattice migration. The occurrence of fast diffusion processes that take place within the metal lattice has been established. Under these conditions, modifications of the diffusion kinetics and of the phases equilibria allow to produce vacancy-ordered phases with high vacancy concentrations (20%). An alternative route which leads to such phases that are stable at ambient pressure and temperature is presented. The structural properties of the Pd-(vacancy, H) system which have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy will be discussed. In the case of palladium, the vacancy-ordered state is characterized by the loss of superconductivity with respect to the Pd hydride. This spectacular modification of the physical properties will be presented and discussed in the light of band structure calculations that have been performed modeling different types of decorated vacancies with octahedral coordination.

2001 —

M. Nagumo, M. Takamura, and K. Takai, Metall. Mater. Trans. A 32, 339 (2001).

Hydrogen thermal desorption relevant to delayed-fracture susceptibility of high-strength steels

The susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of martensitic steels has been examined by means of a delayed-fracture test and hydrogen thermal desorption analysis. The intensity of a desorption rate peak around 50 °C to 200 °C increased when the specimen was preloaded and more remarkably so when it was loaded under the presence of hydrogen. The increment appeared initially at the low-temperature region in the original peak. As hydrogen entry proceeded, the increment then appeared at the high-temperature region, while that in the low-temperature region was reduced. The alteration occurred earlier in steels tempered at lower temperatures, with a higher embrittlement susceptibility. A defect acting as the trap of the desorption in the high-temperature region was assigned to large vacancy clusters that have higher binding energies with hydrogen. Deformation-induced generation of vacancies and their clustering have been considered to be promoted by hydrogen and to play a primary role on the HE susceptibility of high-strength steel.

2002 —

Y. Shirai, H. Araki, T. Mori, W. Nakamura, and K. Sakaki, J. Alloys Compd. 330, 125 (2002).

Positron annihilation study of lattice defects induced by hydrogen absorption in some hydrogen storage materials

Some AB5 and AB2 hydrogen storage compounds have been characterized by using positron-annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. It has been shown that they contain no constitutional vacancies and that deviations from the stoichiometric compositions are all compensated by antistructure atoms. Positron lifetimes in fully-annealed LaNi5−xAlx and MmNi5−xAlx alloys show good correlation with their hydrogen desorption pressures. On the other hand, surprising amounts of vacancies together with dislocations have been found to be generated during the first hydrogen absorption process of LaNi5 and ZrMn2. These lattice defects may play a key role in initial activation processes of hydrogen storage materials.

2002 —

P. Chalermkarnnon, H. Araki, and Y. Shirai, Mater. Trans. JIM 43, 1486 (2002). [copy

Excess Vacancies Induced by Disorder-Order Phase Transformation in Ni3Fe

The order-disorder transformation and lattice defects in Ni3Fe have been studied by positron lifetime measurements. Anomalous vacancy-generation during ordering transformation, which was originally found on the ordering process of super-cooled disordered Cu3Au, has been confirmed on the ordering transformation of Ni3Fe. Disordered fcc solid solution of Ni3Fe was brought to room temperature by quenching the specimen from temperatures above the order-disorder transformation point TC. The ordering process into L12 structure was promoted by heating the sample isochronally or isothermally. It has been found that vacancies are generated in both heating processes, i.e., during the ordering process of super-cooled disordered Ni3Fe. Generated vacancies are not stable up to TC and annealed out at temperatures below TC.

2003 —

Y. Fukai,  J. Alloys and Compounds 356-357, 263-269 (2003).  Britz Fukai2003a

Formation of superabundant vacancies in M–H alloys and some of its consequences: a review

Superabundant vacancies (SAVs) are the vacancies of M atoms formed in M-H alloys, of concentrations as large as 30 at.%. After presenting some results of SAV formation as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures, its mechanism in terms of vacancy-hydrogen (Vac-H) cluster formation is described, including the underlying information of Vac-H interactions. One of the most important conclusions of the theory is that defect structures containing SAVs are in fact the most stable structure of M-H alloys, and therefore SAVs should be formed whenever the kinetics allow. It is shown subsequently that SAVs can be formed in the process of electrodeposition. Some of the consequences of SAV formation including the enhancement of M-atom diffusion and creep are described, and its possible implication for hydrogen embrittlement of steels is mentioned.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, M. Mizutani, S. Yokota, M. Kanazawa, Y. Miura, T. Watanabe, J. Alloys and Compd. 356-357, 270-273 (2003). Britz Fukai2003b

Superabundant vacancy–hydrogen clusters in electrodeposited Ni and Cu

Superabundant vacancies (SAVs) are the vacancies of M atoms formed in M–H alloys, of concentrations as large as ≲30 at.%. After presenting some results of SAV formation as revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures, its mechanism in terms of vacancy-hydrogen (Vac-H) cluster formation is described, including the underlying information of Vac-H interactions. One of the most important conclusions of the theory is that defect structures containing SAVs are in fact the most stable structure of M–H alloys, and therefore SAVs should be formed whenever the kinetics allow. It is shown subsequently that SAVs can be formed in the process of electrodeposition. Some of the consequences of SAV formation including the enhancement of M-atom diffusion and creep are described, and its possible implication for hydrogen embrittlement of steels is mentioned.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, K. Mori, and H. Shinomiya, J. Alloys Compd. 348, 105 (2003).

The phase diagram and superabundant vacancy formation in Fe–H alloys under high hydrogen pressures

In situ XRD measurements at high temperatures and high hydrogen pressures were performed on Fe–H alloys, and in combination with all available data a p(H2)–T diagram was constructed up to p(H2)=10 GPa and T=1500 °C. A drastic reduction of the melting point with dissolution of hydrogen, down to 800 °C at 3 GPa, was observed. In the f.c.c. phase, a gradual lattice contraction due to superabundant vacancy formation was found to take place over several hours. The lattice parameter at 784 °C, 4.7 GPa decreased by 6%, which implies that a vacancy concentration as high as 19 at.% was attained.

Y. Fukai, Y. Kurokawa, and H. Hiraoka, J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 61, 663 (1997). [reference obscure, no vol 61, paper not at page in 1997. About Mo, see this 2003 paper[working reference to find abstract, or paper needed]

2003 —

Y. Fukai and M. Mizutani, Mater. Trans. 43, 1079 (2002). (copy)

Phase Diagram and Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Cr-H Alloys

X-ray diffraction measurements on the Cr–H system were made using synchrotron radiation at high hydrogen pressures and high temperatures, and the phase diagram was determined up to p(H2)=5.5 GPa and T\\lesssim1400 K. Three solid phases were found to exist; a bcc phase (α) of low hydrogen concentrations, x=[H]⁄[Cr]\\lesssim0.03 existing at low hydrogen pressures (\\lesssim4.4 GPa), and two high-pressure phases, an hcp (ε) phase at lower temperatures and an fcc (γ) phase at higher temperatures, both having high hydrogen concentrations x∼1. A drastic reduction of the melting point is caused by dissolution of hydrogen. A gradual lattice contraction observed in the fcc phase indicates the formation of superabundant Cr-atom vacancies (vacancy-hydrogen clusters). Thermal desorption measurements after recovery from high p(H2), T treatments revealed several desorption stages including those due to the release from vacancy-hydrogen clusters and from hydrogen-gas bubbles, and allowed determination of relevant trapping energies.

2003 —

Y. Fukai, Phys. Scr. T103, 11 (2003)

Superabundant Vacancies Formed in Metal–Hydrogen Alloys

Superabundant vacancies of metal atoms, of concentrations as high as 10 ~ 30 at %, can be formed in the presence of interstitial hydrogen as a consequence of reduction of the formation energy by trapping H atoms. The equilibrium concentration and mobility of Vac-H clusters were determined by in situ XRD and resistivity measurements, and their sources were identified. The binding energies of trapped H atoms were determined by thermal desorption spectroscopy. Some of these experimental results are described, with particular reference to Pd, Ni and Cr.

2003 —

Y. Tateyama and T. Ohno, Phys. Rev., B67 (2003) 174105.

Stability and clusterization of hydrogen–vacancy complexes in α-Fe: An ab initio study

By means of ab initio supercell calculations based on the density-functional theory, we have investigated stability of hydrogen-monovacancy complexes (VHn) and their binding preferences in αFe. We have found that VH2 is the major complex at ambient condition of hydrogen pressure, which corrects the conventional model implying the VH6 predominance. It is also demonstrated that monovacancies are not hindered from binding by the hydrogen trapping in the case of VHpredominance. Besides, the presence of hydrogen is found to facilitate formations of line-shaped and tabular vacancy clusters without the improbable accumulation. These anisotropic clusters can be closely associated with the fracture planes observed in experiments on hydrogen embrittlement in Fe-rich structural materials such as steel. The present results should suggest implications of hydrogen-enhanced vacancy activities to microscopic mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement in those materials.

2003 —

D. S. dos Santos, S. S. M. Tavares, S. Miraglia, D. Fruchart, D. R. dos Santos, J. Alloys Compd., 356–357 (2003) 258–262.

Analysis of the nanopores produced in nickel and palladium by high hydrogen pressure

Samples of pure nickel and palladium were submitted to a high hydrogen pressure (HHP) of 3.5 GPa at 800 °C for 5 h. Analysis of the resulting structural modification was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the latter specifically for Ni. The formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs) was observed in the structure in both cases. For Pd, the pores, which formed by the coalescence of vacancies, had dimensions of 20–30 nm when present in the interior of the metal and 1–3 μm when condensed at the surface. The pores were seen to be dispersed homogeneously across the surface of Pd. For Ni, however, pores were created preferentially at the grain boundaries, which promoted significant decohesion in the metal. The distribution of pores induced by heat treatment of Ni subjected to HHP was determined by SAXS analysis and two populations of pores, with population mean diameters of 50 and 250 Å, were observed.

2003 —

M. P. Pitt and E. MacA. Gray, Europhys. Lett., 64 (3), pp. 344–350 (2003). Copy on ResearchGate

Tetrahedral occupancy in the Pd-D system observed by in situ neutron powder diffraction

The crystallography of the Pd-Dx system has been studied by in situ neutron powder diffraction at 309 °C, in the supercritical region, and, after quenching in the pure β phase to 50 °C, in the two-phase region at 50 °C. Rietveld profile analysis of the supercritical diffraction patterns showed that 14% of D interstitials were occupying tetrahedral interstices, in sharp contrast to previous studies at lower temperatures. Tetrahedral occupancy was maintained through the two-phase region at 50 °C. These results are discussed in the light of first-principles total-energy calculations of hydrogen states in palladium.

2004 —

H. Koike, Y. Shizuku, A. Yazaki, and Y. Fukai, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 1335 (2004).

Superabundant vacancy formation in Nb–H alloys; resistometric studies

The formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs; vacancy–hydrogen clusters) was studied in Nb–H alloys by means of resistivity measurements as a function of temperature, pressure and H concentration. The formation energy of a vac–H cluster (0.3 ± 0.1 eV), which is 1/10 of the formation energy of a vacancy in Nb, is explained tentatively as being the consequence of six H atoms trapped by a vacancy with the average binding energy of 0.46 eV/H atom. The SAVs were introduced from the external surface, and transported into the interior by direct bulk diffusion and/or by fast diffusion along dislocations. The activation volumes for the formation and migration of vac–H clusters were determined to be 3.7 and 5.3 Å3, respectively.

2004 —

J. Cizek, I. Prochazka, F. Becvar, R. Kuzel, M. Cieslar, G. Brauer, W. Anwand, R. Kirchheim, and A. Pundt, Phys. Rev. B 69, 224106 (2004)

Hydrogen-induced defects in bulk niobium

Our aim in the present work was to investigate changes of the defect structure of bulk niobium induced by hydrogen loading. The evolution of the microstructure with increasing hydrogen concentration was studied by x-ray diffraction and two complementary techniques of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), namely positron lifetime spectroscopy and slow positron implantation spectroscopy with the measurement of Doppler broadening, in defect-free Nb (99.9%) and Nb containing a remarkable number of dislocations. These samples were electrochemically loaded with hydrogen up to XH=0.06[H/Nb], i.e., in the α-phase region, and it was found that the defect density increases with hydrogen concentration in both Nb samples. This means that hydrogen-induced defects are created in the Nb samples. A comparison of PAS results with theoretical calculations revealed that vacancy-hydrogen complexes are introduced into the samples due to hydrogen loading. Most probably these are vacancies surrounded by 4 hydrogen atoms.

2004 —

M. Nagumo, Mater.Sci.Tech., 20 (2004) 940–950.

Hydrogen related failure of steels – a new aspect

Recent studies of the characteristics and mechanism of hydrogen related failure in steels are overviewed. Based on an analysis of the states of hydrogen in steels, the role of hydrogen in reducing ductile crack growth resistance is attributed to the increased creation of vacancies on straining. Cases showing the involvement of strain induced vacancies in susceptibility to fracture are presented. The function of hydrogen is ascribed to an increase in the density of vacancies and their agglomeration, rather than hydrogen itself, through interactions between vacancies and hydrogen. The newly proposed mechanism of hydrogen related failure is supported by a recent finding of amorphisation associated with crack growth.

2004 —

Daisuke Kyoi, Toyoto Sato, Ewa R¨onnebro, Yasufumi Tsuji, Naoyuki Kitamura, Atsushi Ueda, Mikio Ito, Shigeru Katsuyama, Shigeta Hara, Dag Nor´eus, Tetsuo Sakai, J. Alloys  Compd., 375 (2004) 253–258.

A novel  magnesium–vanadium hydride synthesized by a gigapascal-high-pressure technique

A magnesium-based vanadium-doped hydride was prepared in a high-pressure anvil cell by reacting a MgH2–25%V molar mixture at 8 GPa and 873 K. The new magnesium–vanadium hydride has a cubic F-centred substructure (a=4.721(1) Å), with an additional superstructure, which could be described by a doubling of the cubic cell axis and a magnesium atom framework, including an ordered arrangement of both vanadium atoms and vacancies (a=9.437(3) Å, space group (no. 225), Z=4, V=840.55 Å3). The metal atom structure is related to the Ca7Ge type structure but the refined metal atom composition with vacancies on one of the magnesium sites corresponding to Mg6V nearly in line with EDX analysis. The thermal properties of the new compound were also studied by TPD analysis and TG-DTA. The onset of the hydrogen desorption for the new Mg6V hydride occurred at a 160 K lower temperature when compared to magnesium hydride at a heating rate of 10 K/min.

2004 —

S. Tavares, S. Miraglia, D. Frucharta, D.Dos Santos, L. Ortega and A. Lacoste, J. Alloys Compd., 372 (2004) L6–L8.

Evidence for a superstructure in hydrogen-implanted palladium

An alternative route for hydrogenation has been investigated: plasma-based ion implantation. This treatment applied to the Pd–H system induces a re-ordering of the metal lattice and superstructure lines have been observed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. These results are similar to those obtained by very high-pressure hydrogenation of palladium and prompt us to suggest that plasma-based hydrogen implantation is likely to induce superabundant vacancy phase generation.

2004 —

H. Araki, M. Nakamura, S. Harada, T. Obata, N. Mikhin, V. Syvokon, M. Kubota, J. Low Temp. Phys., 134 (2004) 1145–1151.

Phase Diagram of Hydrogen in Palladium

Hydrogen in palladium, Pd-H(D), is an interesting system because of the highly mobile hydrogen and the presence of a phase boundary below 100 K. Experimentally, however, the nature of this transition has not been established. Historically this transition around 55 to 100 K has been thought to be an order-disorder transition. Such a transition would produce a phase boundary with anomalies at specific hydrogen concentrations corresponding to the specific ordered structures. In order to check this phase boundary we have performed a detailed study of the hydrogen concentration dependence of the specific heat of PdH x over the temperature range from below 0.5 K to above 100 K using PdH x specimens with x up to 0.8753. The measured heat capacity has been analyzed as the sum of contributions due to the lattice specific heat of Pd, the electronic specific heat of PdH x , and the excess contribution caused by hydrogenation of the specimen. The excess specific heat result shows a sharp peak which indicates a phase boundary with transition temperature T1=55 K to 85 K depending linearly on the hydrogen concentration from x=0.6572 to 0.8753. We do not observe anomalies at specific x values as would be expected for the specific ordered structures.

2004 —

Paolo Tripodi, Daniele Di Gioacchino, and Jenny Darja Vinko, Brazilian Journal of Physics, vol. 34, no. 3B, September, 2004.

Magnetic and transport properties of PdH: intriguing superconductive observations

Since the discovery of superconductivity in palladium-hydrogen (PdH) and its isotopes (D,T) at low temperature, several efforts have been made to study the properties of this system. Superconductivity of PdH system has been initially claimed by resistance drop versus temperature and then confirmed by dc magnetic susceptibility measurements. These studies have shown that the critical transition temperature is a function of the hydrogen concentration x in the PdHx system. In all these experiments, the highest concentration of hydrogen in palladium was lower than the unit. In the last decade we defined a room temperature and room pressure technique to load hydrogen and its isotopes into palladium at levels higher than unit, using electrochemical set-up, followed by a stabilization process to maintain the hydrogen concentration in palladium lattice stable. In the meanwhile, several measurements of resistance versus temperature have been performed. These measurements have shown several resistive drops in the range of [18K<Tc< 273K] similar to the results presented in literature, when the superconducting phase has been discovered. Moreover, on PdH wires 6cm long the current-voltage characteristic with a current density greater than 6*104 Acm–2 has been measured at liquid nitrogen temperature. These measurements have the same behavior as superconducting I-V characteristic with sample resistivity, at 77K, of two orders of magnitude lower than copper or silver at the same temperature. The measurements of first and third harmonic of ac magnetic susceptibility in PdHx system have been performed. These represent a good tool to understand the vortex dynamics, since the superconducting response is strongly non-linear. Clear ac susceptibility signals confi rming the literature data at low temperature (9K) and new significant signals at high temperature (263K) have been detected. A phenomenological approach to describe the resistance behaviour of PdH versus stoichiometry x at room temperature has been developed. The value x=1.6 to achieve a macroscopic superconducting state in PdHx has been predicted.

2005 —

Y. Fukai, Second, Revised and Updated Edition, Springer, 2005, Britz Fukai2005

The Metal–Hydrogen System: Basic Bulk Properties

Metal hydrides are of inestimable importance for the future of hydrogen energy. This unique monograph presents a clear and comprehensive description of the bulk properties of the metal-hydrogen system. The statistical thermodynamics is treated over a very wide range of pressure, temperature and composition. Another prominent feature of the book is its elucidation of the quantum mechanical behavior of interstitial hydrogen atoms, including their states and motion. The important topic of hydrogen interaction with lattice defects and its materials-science implications are also discussed thoroughly. This second edition has been substantially revised and updated.

2005 —

T. Iida, Y. Yamazaki, T. Kobayashi, Y. Iijima, and Y. Fukai, Acta Mater. 53, 3083 (2005).

Enhanced diffusion of Nb in Nb–H alloys by hydrogen-induced vacancies

The diffusion coefficient of 95Nb in pure Nb and Nb–H alloys whose hydrogen concentration ranges between H/Nb = 0.05 and 0.34 in atomic ratio has been determined in the temperature range 823–1598 K using a serial sputter-microsectioning technique. The diffusion coefficient of Nb in the Nb–H alloys was found to increase significantly with increasing hydrogen concentration. The dependence of the diffusion enhancement on temperature and hydrogen concentration was examined in some detail, and explained tentatively in terms of average occupation number of hydrogen atoms per vacancy, r. The diffusion enhancement comes primarily from the decrease of the activation energy Q, resulting from the increase of r with increase of hydrogen concentration. Some remaining problems with this interpretation are pointed out for future investigations.

2005 —

S. Harada, S. Yokota, Y. Ishii, Y. Shizuku, M. Kanazawa, Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 404–406 (2005) 247–251.

A relation between the vacancy concentration and hydrogen concentration in the Ni–H, Co–H and Pd–H systems

The formation of superabundant vacancies (Vac-H clusters) has been observed in many M–H alloys, but the factors that determine the equilibrium concentration of vacancies have not been identified yet. To identify these factors, the equilibrium concentration of vacancies was estimated from lattice contraction measurements on Ni, Co and Pd having a fcc structure, at high temperatures (930–1350 K) and high hydrogen pressures (2.4–7.4 GPa). The results show that the vacancy concentration is not so much dependent on temperature and hydrogen pressure as the hydrogen concentration. In Ni and Co, the vacancy concentration (xcl) increases linearly with the hydrogen concentration (xH) for the whole concentration range, reaching xcl∼0.3 at xH∼1.0. In Pd, the vacancy concentration is very small up to xH∼0.6 and increases linearly thereafter with nearly the same slope as in Ni and Co. The maximum vacancy concentration reached in Pd is xcl∼0.12. It is noted that the observed difference in the  2005 —

C. Zhang, Ali Alavi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127(27) (2005) 9808–9817.

First-Principles Study of Superabundant Vacancy Formation in Metal Hydrides

Recent experiments have established the generality of superabundant vacancies (SAV) formation in metal hydrides. Aiming to elucidate this intriguing phenomenon and to clarify previous interpretations, we employ density-functional theory to investigate atomic mechanisms of SAV formation in fcc hydrides of Ni, Cu, Rh, Pd, Ag, Ir, Pt, and Au. We have found that upon H insertion, vacancy formation energies reduce substantially. This is consistent with experimental suggestions. We demonstrate that the entropy effect, which has been proposed to explain SAV formation, is not the main cause. Instead, it is the drastic change of electronic structure induced by the H in the SAV hydrides, which is to a large extent responsible. Interesting trends in systems investigated are also found:  ideal hydrides of 5metals and noble metals are unstable compared to the corresponding pure metals, but the SAV hydrides are more stable than the corresponding ideal hydrides, whereas opposite results exist in the cases of Ni, Rh, and Pd. These trends of stabilities of the SAV hydrides are discussed in detail and a general understanding for SAV formation is provided. Finally, we propose an alternative reaction pathway to generate a SAV hydride from a metal alloy.

2005 —

Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 404–406 (2005) 7–15.

The structure and phase diagram of M–H systems at high chemical potentials—High pressure and electrochemical synthesis

Efforts to provide a unified picture of metal–hydrogen alloys over a wide range of chemical potentials are described. High chemical potentials are produced either by high-pressure molecular hydrogen or high excess potentials in electrolytic charging or electrodeposition. General systematics of the phase diagram of 3d-metal–hydrogen systems are noted; a drastic reduction of the melting point and the stabilization of close-packed structures with dissolution of hydrogen. Supercritical anomalies are observed in the fcc phase of Fe–H, Co–H and Ni–H systems. In the electrodeposition of metals, it is shown that structural changes are caused by dissolution of hydrogen, and superabundant vacancies of concentrations 10−4 are present.

2005 —

D. Tanguy and M. Mareschal, Physical Review B 72, Issue 17 (2005) 174116.

Superabundant vacancies in a metal-hydrogen system:  Monte Carlo simulations

An equilibrium Monte Carlo simulation capable of treating superabundant vacancy formation and ordering in metal-hydrogen systems (MH) is developed. It combines lattice site occupations and continuous degrees of freedom which enables one to perform insertion/removal moves and hydrogen-vacancy cluster moves while the position of the particles are sampled. The bulk phase diagram in (μM,NH,V,T) ensemble is estimated for concentrations lower than 1  at. %. Within the framework of an EAM Al-H potential, ordering of superabundant vacancies in the shape of chains and platelets is reported at room temperature.

2006 —

K. Sakaki, R. Date, M. Mizuno, H. Araki, and Y. Shirai, Acta Mater. 54, 4641 (2006).

The effect of hydrogenated phase transformation on hydrogen-related vacancy formation in Pd1−xAgx alloy

To clarify the hydrogen-related vacancy formation mechanism, positron lifetime measurements were performed for Pd1−xAgx alloys that were hydrogenated at 296 or 373 K. Positron lifetime increased only when the alloys were hydrogenated below the critical temperature for phase transformation of the hydrogenation reaction, while it remained constant when they were hydrogenated above the critical temperature. This strongly suggests that vacancies formed only when phase transformation occurs. Therefore, hydrogen-related vacancy formation must be caused by the strain generated as the result of the phase transformation.

2006 —

K. Sakaki, T. Kawase, M. Hirato, M. Mizuno, H. Araki, Y. Shirai, and M. Nagumo, Scr. Mater. 55, 1031 (2006).

The effect of hydrogen on vacancy generation in iron by plastic deformation

Positron lifetime spectroscopy was applied to examine the synergistic effect of hydrogen and plastic straining on the vacancy generation in iron. Hydrogen enhanced the increase in mean positron lifetime, τm, by plastic straining and elevated the recovery temperature of τmon isochronal annealing. Multi-component analyses of positron lifetime spectra showed that the presence of hydrogen enhances the generation of vacancies, rather than of dislocations. These results are consistent with previous interpretations on thermal desorption analysis of hydrogen in deformed steels.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, T. Hiroi, N. Mukaibo, and Y. Shimizu, J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 71, 388 (2007). (In Japanese. Figure captions are in English.)

Formation of Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Electroplated Nickel-Iron Alloy Films

The structure and formation of superabundant vacancies in electroplated Ni64Fe36 alloy films have been studied by XRD and thermal desorption spectroscopy. The films, as deposited, consist of fine grains of ca. 10 nm in size, which, upon heating, start to undergo a gradual grain growth at ~600 K, and a rapid growth above ~670 K. The desorption of hydrogen occurred in seven stages; P0(385 K), P1(440 K), P2(560 K), P3(670 K), P4(960 K), P5(1170 K), and P6(>1270 K). P0 is attributed to desorption of H atoms on regular interstitial sites, P1~P2 and P4~P5 to H atoms trapped by vacancies, and P6 to hydrogen bubbles precipitated in the matrix. P3 and a desorption peak of CO+ (1100 K) are attributed to the decomposition of occluded C, H compounds. Binding energies of H in these trapped states are estimated, and possible configurations of these vacancy-H clusters are discussed.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, H. Sugimoto, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 19 365 (2007) 436201.

Formation mechanism of defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies

The formation of defect hydrides containing a large number of M-atom vacancies (superabundant vacancies; SAVs) was studied in bcc NbHx and in the fcc phase of FeHx, CoHx, NiHx and PdHx, by resistivity and XRD measurements under different conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature, with/without allowing for exchange of hydrogen with environment (open-/closed-system methods). Two distinctly different behaviors were observed: in metals with small formation energy of Vac–H clusters, both H and vacancies enter abundantly into the M-lattice to form the ultimate defect-ordered structure, whereas in metals with relatively large formation energies, vacancy concentrations remain relatively small. This general trend was examined by Monte Carlo simulations based on a lattice–gas model. The result showed the occurrence of two distinct phases in the vacancy distribution caused by the combined action of the long-range elastic interaction and local Vac–H interactions, in accordance with the observation. Conditions for the occurrence of these ‘vacancy-rich’ and ‘vacancy-poor’ states are examined.

2007 —

Y. Fukai, H. Sugimoto,  J. Alloys Compd., 446–447 (2007) 474–478.

[See the paper below. The list of authors is incomplete, leaving out the first two authors.]

2007 —

S. Harada, D. Ono, H. Sugimoto, Y. Fukai, J. Alloys Compd.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 446–447 (2007) 474–478

The defect structure with superabundant vacancies to be formed from fcc binary metal hydrides: Experiments and simulations

The process of formation of defect hydrides containing a large number of metal-atom vacancies was studied experimentally in the fcc phase of Fe, Co, Ni and Pd, under different conditions of hydrogen pressure and temperature. Two distinctly different behaviors were observed: In metals with small formation energies of Vac–H clusters, both H and vacancies readily enter the metal lattice to attain the ultimate composition M3VacH4, whereas in metals with relatively large formation energies, the formation of this ultimate structure may become appreciable only at H concentrations exceeding some critical value. This general trend was confirmed by a model calculation including a long-range elastic interaction and short-range interatomic interactions between H atoms and vacancies.

2007 —

A.K. Eriksson, A. Liebig, S. Olafsson, B. Hjörvarsson, J. Alloys Compd. 446–447 (2007) 526-529ResearchGate

Resistivity changes in Cr/V(0 0 1) superlattices during hydrogen absorption

The hydrogen induced resistivity changes in Cr/VHx(0 0 1) superlattices where investigated in the concentration range 0<x<0.7. Initially, the resistivity increases with H content, reaching a maximum at H/V≈0.5 atomic ratio. At concentration above 0.5, the resistivity decreases with increasing H concentration. These results are in stark contrast to the H induced resistivity changes in Fe/V(0 0 1) superlattices, in which the resistivity increases monotonically up to H/V≈1. The results unambiguously prove the importance of the interface scattering, which calls for better theoretical description of the H induces changes in the electronic structure in this type of materials.

2008 —

S. Kala and B. R. Mehta, Bull. Mater. Sci., Indian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 3, June 2008, pp. 225–231.

Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers

In this study, modification in the properties of hydrogen-induced switchable mirror based on Pr nanoparticle layers is reported. The reversible changes in hydrogen-induced electrical and optical properties of Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers have been studied as a function of hydrogenation time and compared with the conventional device based on Pd capped Pr thin films. Faster electrical and optical response, higher optical contrast and presence of single absorption edge corresponding to Pr trihydride state in hydrogen loaded state have been observed in the case of nanoparticle layers. The improvement in the electrical and optical properties have been explained in terms of blue shift in the absorption edge due to quantum confinement effect, larger number of interparticle boundaries, presence of defects, loose adhesion to the substrate and enhanced surface to volume atom ratio at nanodimension.

2008 —

Nagatsugu Mukaibo, Yasuo Shimizu, Yuh Fukai and Toshiaki Hiroi, Materials Transactions, Vol. 49, No. 12 (2008) pp. 2815 to 2822. (full copy)

In an effort to realize the long-term stability of the magnetostrictive property of electrodeposited Ni-Fe alloy films, heat treatments needed for eliminating the possible effect of hydrogen and hydrogen-induced vacancies have been investigated, mainly by use of thermal desorption spectroscopy. While metal-atom vacancies begin to move only above ~500 K, hydrogen atoms can undergo slow motion and concomitant changes of state at room temperature, and are therefore believed to be a major cause of the long-term drift of the magnetism. Hydrogen atoms dissolved on regular interstitial sites can be completely removed by high-frequency pulse heating to 668 K, and those trapped by vacancies with relatively low binding energies by additional heat treatments to 453 K for over 1 h. This combination of heat treatments was found to reduce substantially the change of state of hydrogen during subsequent aging tests (383 K for 400 h), and proved to be effective for ensuring the long-term stability of magnetostrictive Ni-Fe film sensors.

2009 —

O.Yu. Vekilova, D.I. Bazhanov, S.I. Simak, I.A. Abrikosov, Phys.Rev. B, 80 (2009) 024101.

First-principles study of vacancy–hydrogen interaction in Pd

Hydrogen absorption in face-centered-cubic palladium is studied from first principles, with particular focus on interaction between hydrogen atoms and vacancies, formation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes, and multiple hydrogen occupancy of a Pd vacancy. Vacancy formation energy in the presence of hydrogen, hydrogen trapping energy, and vacancy formation volume have been calculated and compared to existing experimental data. We show that a vacancy and hydrogen atoms form stable complexes. Further we have studied the process of hydrogen diffusion into the Pd vacancy. We find the energetically preferable position for hydrogen to reside in the palladium unit cell in the presence of a vacancy. The possibility of the multiple hydrogen occupancy (up to six hydrogen atoms) of a monovacancy is elucidated. This theoretical finding supports experimental indication of the appearance of superabundant vacancy complexes in palladium in the presence of hydrogen.

2009 —

M. Wen, L. Zhang, B. An, S. Fukuyama, and K. Yokogawa, Phys. Rev. B 80, 094113

Hydrogen-enhanced dislocation activity and vacancy formation during nanoindentation of nickel

The effect of hydrogen on dislocation activities during the nanoindentation of Ni(110) is studied by molecular-dynamics simulation at 300 K. The results reveal that the critical event for the first dislocation nucleation during nanoindentation is due to the thermally activated formation of a small cluster with an atom’s relative displacement larger than half the magnitude of the Burgers vector of partial dislocations. Hydrogen only enhances homogenous dislocation nucleation slightly; however it promotes dislocation emission, induces slip planarity, and localizes dislocation activity significantly, leading to locally enhanced vacancy formation from dislocations. The present results, thus, prove hydrogen-enhanced localized dislocation activity and vacancy formation to be the main reason of hydrogen embrittlement in metals and alloys.

2009 —

H. Sugimoto, Y. Fukai, Diffusion-fundamentals.org 11 (2009) 102, pp 1-2. (full copy)

Migration mechanism in defect metal hydrides containing superabundant vacancies

[Introduction] In the presence of interstitial H atoms, the concentration of M-atom vacancies is
enhanced dramatically, forming a defect structure containing superabundant vacancies
(SAVs). The diffusivity of M atoms is enhanced accordingly. Physically, these
phenomena are the result of the lowering of the formation energy of a vacancy by
trapping H atoms [1, 2].

A Monte Carlo calculation on the SAV formation process revealed that, in hydrides of fcc
metals, two distinct defect phases are formed; a vacancy-ordered phase of high
concentrations of vacancies on the L12 structure, and a vacancy-disordered phase of
relatively low concentrations where vacancies are randomly distributed over the M lattice.
Transitions between these two phases take place, as shown in Fig.1 [2].

Figure 1. Temperature dependence of the vacancy concentration for several different
H concentrations, x=[H]/[M], calculated for eb=0.4 eV.

Note that, in both phases, the vacancy concentration is many orders of magnitude
higher than in pure metals. The present paper addresses, specifically, the migration of H
atoms and M-atom vacancies in the vacancy-disordered phase.
Experimental data available for Pd, Ni and Nb indicate that the migration energy of a
vacancy is increased by amounts comparable to the migration energy of an H atom, and
the pre-exponential factor is reduced by 1 ~ 2 orders of magnitude [3 ~ 5].

2009 —

J. F. Shackelford, 7th ed.,  Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2009, pp. 272-3. Googlebooks There is an 8th edition, the 7th is much less expensive. Publisher description:

Introduction to Materials Science for Engineers

[Publisher description} This book provides balanced, current treatment of the full spectrum of engineering materials, covering all the physical properties, applications and relevant properties associated with engineering materials. The book explores all of major categories of materials while offering detailed examinations of a wide range of new materials with high-tech applications. The reader is treated to state-of-the-art computer generated crystal structure illustrations, offering the most technically precise and visually realistic illustrations available. The book includes over 350 exercises with sample problems to provide guidance. Materials for Engineering, Atomic Bonding, Crystal Structure and Defects, Diffusion, Mechanical Behavior, Thermal Behavior, Failure Analysis & Prevention. Phase Diagrams, Heat Treatment, Metals, Ceramics and Glasses, Polymers, Composites, Electrical Behavior, Optical Behavior, Semiconductor Materials, Magnetic Materials, Environmental Degradation, Materials Science. For mechanical and civil engineers and machine designers.

2009 —

Paolo Tripodi,, Nicolas Armanet, Vincenzo Asarisi, Alessandro Avveduto, Alessandro Marmigi,
Jean-Paul Biberian, Jenny Darja Vinko,  Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(35). Copy available.

The effect of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles on palladium physical properties

A series of hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles have been performed on palladium wire samples, stressed by a constant mechanical tension, in order to investigate the changes in electrical and mechanical properties. A large increase of palladium electrical resistivity has been reported due to the combined effects of the production of defects linked to hydrogen insertion into the host lattice and the stress applied to the sample. An increase of the palladium sample strain due to hydrogenation/dehydrogenation cycles in α → β → α phase transitions is observed compared to the sample subjected to mechanical tension only. The loss of initial metallurgical properties of the sample occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle, i.e. a displacement from the initial metallic behavior (increase of the resistivity and decrease of thermal coefficient of resistivity) to a worse one occurs already after the first hydrogen cycle. A linear correlation between palladium resistivity and strain, according to Matthiessen’s rule, has been found

Paolo Tripodi, Nicolas Armanet, Vincenzo Asarisi, Alessandro Avveduto, Alessandro Marmigi,
Jean-Paul Biberian, Jenny Darja Vinko, Phys. Lett. A, 2009. 373(47). Copy available.

The effect of hydrogen stoichiometry on palladium strain and resistivity

The strain and the electrical resistivity of a Pd sample stressed by a constant tension have been investigated through a series of hydrogenation cycles in a continuous H stoichiometry [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8] range. The isotropic lattice expansion for both “as drawn” and “annealed” Pd sample reveals a strain of only 1% from pure Pd to PdH0.8 in disagreement with literature data available; the measured effect is minimum at x = 0.13 (α + β phase) and then from x = 0.6 (β phase) it has an exponential increase. The contribution of the mechanical tensile stress on the total relative elongation of the wire is also investigated. An increase of the Pd sample tensile strain after each hydrogenation cycle is reported for “as drawn” samples, while for “annealed” samples the reverse behaviour is observed. Moreover, annealed samples show considerably higher value of tensile strain compared to “as drawn”. The variation of mechanical strain versus H content, for both “annealed” and “as drawn”, has a maximum at x = 0.52. Strain variation and resistivity variation versus H content exhibit similar behaviour.

2009 —

Y. Yagodzinskyy, T. Saukkonen, S. Kilpelinen, F. Tuomisto, and H. Hnninen, Scr. Mater. 62, 155 (2010).

Effect of hydrogen on plastic strain localization in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel

Tensile tests accompanied with on-line in situ field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy observations were performed to study hydrogen effects on plastic strain localization in the form of slip lines in single crystals of austenitic stainless steel. It was found that the slip lines on the hydrogen-charged specimens were markedly shorter and more grouped together than the straight slip lines on the hydrogen-free specimens. Hydrogen thermal desorption and positron annihilation spectroscopy were applied to study the combined effect of hydrogen and plastic deformation on excessive generation of vacancies.

2009 —

Degtyareva V.F.,  Conference “Hydrogen Materials Science” (ICHMS) 2009, 25-31 August, Yalta, Ukraine, arXiv.

Electronic origin of superabundant vacancies in Pd hydride under high hydrogen pressures

Summary: [. . . ] formation of vacancies in the fcc structure of Pd hydride and several other metal hydrides can be accounted for by electronic origin assuming that valence electron energy is minimized due to Hume-Rothery effects.

2010 —

Scott Richmond, Joseph Anderson, and Jeff Abes, Plutonium Futures — The Science Keystone, CO, September 19-23, (2010) 206. This refers to  a CD-ROM, apparently the proceedings. Program schedule. The authors’ affiliation shows as LANL.  ResearchGate  requested and provided. See also The solubility of hydrogen and deuterium in alloyed, unalloyed and impure plutonium metal, contemporaneous. Copy available.

Evidence for hydrogen induced vacancies in Plutonium metal

1. Thermodynamic data for the solubility of hydrogen in plutonium indicate that Pu-Vac-H1+x (0< x< 1) clusters are the thermodynamically stable state of “solution” hydrogen atoms in plutonium metal <525°C.
2. The thermodynamic hydrogen solubility data together with the low melting point of Pu show that the conditions for “Super-Abundant Vacancy” creation are met. The Super-Abundant Vacancy (SAV ) phenomena was identified by Fukai in 1993 [2] and has significant material consequences.
3. Evaluation of helium release data from Pu metal samples supports the evidence of hydrogen induced vacancies in Pu metal.
4. Hydrogen is present in all Pu metal unless great care is taken to avoid it. An H/Pu value of ~0.01 is common even in “high purity” samples.

2011 —

L.E. Isaeva, D.I. Bazhanov, E.I. Isaev, S.V. Eremeev, S.E. Kulkova, I.A. Abrikosov, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 36, 1254 (2011). (copy)

Dynamic stability of palladium hydride: An ab initio study

We present results of our ab initio studies of electronic and dynamic properties of ideal palladium hydride PdH and its vacancy ordered defect phase Pd3VacH4 (“Vac” – vacancy on palladium site) with L12 crystal structure found experimentally and studied theoretically. Quantum and thermodynamic properties of these hydrides, such as phonon dispersion relations and the vacancy formation enthalpies have been studied. Dynamic stability of the defect phase Pd3VacH4 with respect to different site occupation of hydrogen atoms at the equilibrium state and under pressure was analyzed. It was shown that positions of hydrogen atoms in the defect phase strongly affect its stability and may be a reason for further phase transitions in the defect phase.

2011 —

Y. Z. Chen, G. Csiszar, J. Cizek, C. Borchers, T. Ung ´ ar, S. Goto, and R. Kirchheim, Scr. Mater. 64, 390 (2011).

On the formation of vacancies in α-ferrite of a heavily cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire

Cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires are widely used in numerous engineering fields. Combining X-ray line profile analysis and positron annihilation spectroscopy methods, up to 10−5–10−4vacancies were found in α-ferrite of a cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire with a true strain of ε = 3. The formation of deformation-induced vacancies in α-ferrite of cold-drawn pearlitic steel wire was quantitatively testified.

2011 —

N. Fukumuro, T. Adachi, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, Y. Fukai, Trans. Inst. Met. Finish., 89 (2011) 198–201.

Influence of hydrogen on room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films: thermal desorption spectroscopy

The mechanism of recrystallisation observed at room temperature in electrodeposited Cu films has been examined in light of the enhancement of metal atom diffusion by hydrogen induced superabundant vacancies. Thermal desorption spectroscopy revealed that Cu films electrodeposited from acid sulphate bath containing some specific additives showed a pronounced peak, which was ascribed to the break-up of vacancy–hydrogen clusters. The amount of desorbed hydrogen was comparable to that of vacancy type clusters estimated in previous positron annihilation experiments. The grain size of Cu films increased as hydrogen desorption proceeded. Such grain growths were not observed in the films deposited from the baths without additives. These results indicate that the room temperature recrystallisation of electrodeposited Cu films is caused by hydrogen induced superabundant vacancies.

2011 —

S.Yu. Zaginaichenko, Z.A. Matysina, D.V. Schur, L.O. Teslenko, A. Veziroglu, , Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36 (2011) 1152–1158.

The structural vacancies in palladium hydride. Phase diagram

The theory development of structural vacancies formation in palladium hydride on the molecular-kinetic presentations is the subject of this paper. The production of vacant-ordered superstructure of Cu3Au type has been considered at the high temperatures. The calculation of free energies of the PdH and Pd3VH phases has been carried out. The constitution diagram defined the temperature and concentration regions of phases formation with the A1 and L12 structures and regions of two A1 + L12 phases realization has been constructed. The results of theoretical calculations are in agreement with experimental data.

2011 —

M. Khalid and P. Esquinazi, Phys. Rev. B 85, 134424 – Published 13 April 2012.

Hydrogen-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO single crystals investigated by magnetotransport

We investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of low-energy H+-implanted ZnO single crystals with hydrogen concentrations up to 3 at% in the first 20-nm surface layer between 10 K and 300 K. All samples show clear ferromagnetic hysteresis loops at 300 K with a saturation magnetization up to 4 emu/g. The measured anomalous Hall effect agrees with the hysteresis loops measured by superconducting quantum interferometer device magnetometry. All the H-treated ZnO crystals exhibit a negative and anisotropic magnetoresistance at room temperature. The relative magnitude of the anisotropic magnetoresistance reaches 0.4% at 250 K and 2% at 10 K, exhibiting an anomalous, nonmonotonous behavior and a change of sign below 100 K. All the experimental data indicate that hydrogen atoms alone in the few percent range trigger a magnetic order in the ZnO crystalline state. Hydrogen implantation turns out to be a simpler and effective method to generate a magnetic order in ZnO, which provides interesting possibilities for future applications due to the strong reduction of the electrical resistance.

2011 —

Y. Fukai, Defect and Diffusion Forum, Vol. 312-315 (2011) pp. 1106-1115.

Hydrogen-Induced Superabundant Vacancies in Metals: Implication for Electrodeposition

The equilibrium concentration of vacancies in metals is invariably enhanced in the presence of interstitial hydrogen atoms – a phenomenon called superabundant vacancy (SAV) formation. It has been recognized that the SAV formation occurs in electrodeposition, as M-, H-atoms and M-atom vacancies are deposited by atom-by-atom process. Effects of SAV formation are described for electrodeposited Ni, Ni-Fe alloys, Fe-C alloys and Cu. Possible implication of SAV formation for corrosion in Al and steels is also briefly described.

2012 —

D.L. Knies, V.Violante, K.S. Grabowski, J.Z. Hu, D.D. Dominguez, J.H. He, S.B. Qadri and G.K. Hubler, J. Appl. Phys., 112 (2012) 083510. Copy on Research Gate.

In-situ synchrotron energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction study of thin Pd foils with Pd:D and Pd:H concentrations up to 1:1

Time resolved, in-situ, energy dispersive x-ray diffraction was performed in an electrolysis cell during electrochemical loading of palladium foil cathodes with hydrogen and deuterium. Concentrations of H:Pd (D:Pd) up to 1:1 in 0.1 M LiOH (LiOD) in H2O (D2O) electrolyte were obtained, as determined by both the Pd lattice parameter and cathode resistivity. In addition, some indications on the kinetics of loading and deloading of hydrogen from the Pd surface were obtained. The alpha-beta phase transformations were clearly delineated but no new phases at high concentration were determined.

2012 —

D. E. Azofeifa, N. Clark, W. E. Vargas, H. Solís, G. K. Pálsson, and B. Hjörvarsson, Physica Scripta, Volume 86, Number 6, Published 15 November (2012).

Temperature- and hydrogen-induced changes in the optical properties of Pd capped V thin films

Optical properties of V thin films deposited on MgO substrates have been obtained from spectrophotometric measurements. The V films were coated with a thin Pd layer to protect them from oxidation and to favor absorption of atomic hydrogen. Electrical resistance was recorded while hydrogen pressure was increased slowly up to 750 mbar keeping the temperature constant. Simultaneously, visible and near-infrared transmittance spectra of this Pd/V/MgO system were measured. The spectra were numerically inverted to obtain the spectral behavior of the Pd and V dielectric functions at 22 and 140 °C. Hydrogen concentrations were first determined from the combined effect of hydrogen content on the electrical resistance and on the optical direct transmission of the system. Then, determination of these concentrations was improved using retrieved values of the absorption coefficients of the hydrides and taking into account the structural change of V and the volumetric expansion of Pd. Good agreement is established when considering qualitative correlations between spectral features of the optimized PdHy and VHx dielectric functions and band structure calculations and densities of states for these two transition metal hydrides.

2012 —

Ruby Carat, ColdFusionNow, Interview, August 12, 2012. 38:04No abstract or transcript.

An Explanation of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions (Cold Fusion) by Edmund Storms

2013 —

N. Hisanaga, N. Fukumuro, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, ECS Trans., 50(48) (2013) 77–82.

Hydrogen in Platinum Films Electrodeposited from Dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) Solution

The influence of hydrogen on the microstructure of Pt films electrodeposited from a dinitrosulfatoplatinate(II) solution was investigated with thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Two pronounced desorption peaks were observed in the thermal desorption spectrum of hydrogen from the Pt films. The total amount of desorbed hydrogen in the range from 300 to 1100 K in the atomic ratio (H/Pt) was 0.1. The deposited Pt film consisted of fine grains (~10 nm) and many nano-voids. The lattice parameter of the Pt grains was lower than that of bulk Pt. Drastic grain growth and reduction in the lattice contraction occurred from heat treatment at a temperature corresponding to the first hydrogen desorption peak of 500 K.

2013 —

N. Fukumuro, M. Yokota, S. Yae, H. Matsuda, Y.Fukai, J. Alloys Compd., 580 (2013) s55–s57.

Hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films

The hydrogen-induced enhancement of atomic diffusion in electrodeposited Pd films on Cu substrate has been investigated with thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen content in Pd films (= H/Pd) was 2.2–7.7 × 10−2 and decreased with time at room temperature. For Pd films with lower hydrogen contents (x ≦ 4.0 × 10−2), lattice contraction and grain growth proceeded as hydrogen desorption proceeded. For Pd films with higher hydrogen contents (x ≧ 5.8 × 10−2), fine grains became large columnar grains, and a large-grained Cu–Pd interlayer was formed by interdiffusion between the Cu substrate and the Pd film.

2013 —

Atsushi Yabuuchi, Teruo Kihara, Daichi Kubo, Masataka Mizuno, Hideki Araki, Takashi Onishi and Yasuharu Shirai, Jpn.J.Appl.Phys., 52 (2013) 046501.

Effect of Hydrogen on Vacancy Formation in Sputtered Cu Films Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

As a part of the LSI interconnect fabrication process, a post-deposition high-pressure annealing process is proposed for embedding copper into trench structures. The embedding property of sputtered Cu films has been recognized to be improved by adding hydrogen to the sputtering argon gas. In this study, to elucidate the effect of hydrogen on vacancy formation in sputtered Cu films, normal argon-sputtered and argon–hydrogen-sputtered Cu films were evaluated by positron annihilation spectroscopy. As a result, monovacancies with a concentration of more than 10-4 were observed in the argon–hydrogen-sputtered Cu films, whereas only one positron lifetime component corresponding to the grain boundary was detected in the normal argon-sputtered Cu films. This result means monovacancies are stabilized by adding hydrogen to sputtering gas. In the annealing process, the stabilized monovacancies began clustering at around 300 °C, which indicates the dissociation of monovacancy-hydrogen bonds. The introduced monovacancies may promote creep deformation during high-pressure annealing.

2013 —

David J. Nagel, “Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 10 (2013) 1–1. (Copy available)

Characteristics and energetics of craters in LENR experimental materials

Small craters have been observed frequently in the surfaces of cathodes from electrochemical LENR experiments. They are generally 1–100 µm in size. The craters vary widely in shape and areal distribution. Two methods were used to determine the energies needed to produce such craters. The resulting energies range from nJ to mJ, depending on the crater size. If craters are caused by LENR, then many nearly simultaneous MeV-level energy releases would have to occur in a very small volume. There are numerous open basic questions regarding the formation and characteristics of craters in LENR cathodes. It remains to be seen if craters will be helpful in understanding the origin and nature of LENR. But already, the existence and features of craters seriously challenge theories that seek to understand LENR

2014 —

M. Tsirlin, J. Cond. Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, 1-4 (2014).

Comment on the article ‘Simulation of Crater Formation on LENR Cathodes Surfaces’

Formation of small craters on the surface of Pd cathode during electrolysis in electrolytes based on heavy water is sometimes interpreted as a consequence of low-temperature nuclear reactions. In this note we discuss the validity of these statements.

2014 —

Nazarov, R. and Hickel, T. and Neugebauer, J., Phys. Rev. B 89, 144108 (2014). Britz Naza2014

Ab initio study of H-vacancy interactions in fcc metals: Implications for the formation of superabundant vacancies

Hydrogen solubility and interaction with vacancies and divacancies are investigated in 12 fcc metals by density functional theory. We show that in all studied fcc metals, vacancies trap H very efficiently and multiple H trapping is possible. H is stronger trapped by divacancies and even stronger by surfaces. We derive a condition for the maximum number of trapped H atoms as a function of the H chemical potential. Based on this criterion, the possibility of a dramatic increase of vacancy concentration (superabundant vacancy formation) in the studied metals is discussed.

2014 —

A. Houari, A., S. Matar, V. Eyert,  arXiv (2014).

Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented.
The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal
approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical
bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy
is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer
hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende
and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d
and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group.
Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density
of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise
favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as
realized e.g. in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found
in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations
the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered
defect phase Pd3H4 follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt
structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

2014 —

I.A. Supryadkina, D.I. Bazhanov, and A.S. Ilyushin, Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, 118 (2014) 80–86.

Ab Initio Study of the Formation of Vacancy and Hydrogen–Vacancy Complexes in Palladium and Its Hydride

We report on the results of ab initio calculations of vacancy and hydrogen-vacancy complexes in palladium and palladium hydride. Comparative analysis of the energies of the formation of defect complexes in palladium and its hydride has revealed that the formation of vacancy clusters is easier in the palladium hydride structure. Investigation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes in bulk crystalline palladium has shown that a hydrogen atom and a vacancy interact to form a stable hydrogen-vacancy (H-Vac) defect complex with a binding energy of E b = −0.21 eV. To investigate the initial stage in the formation of hydrogen-vacancy complexes (H n -Vac m), we consider the clusterization of defects into clusters containing H-Vac and H2-Vac complexes as a structural unit. It is found that hydrogen-vacancy complexes form 2D defect structures in palladium in the (100)-type planes.

2014 —

L. Liu, J. Wang, S. K. Gong & S. X. Mao, Scientific Reports vol. 4, Article number: 4397 (2014) (full copy available at source)

Atomistic observation of a crack tip approaching coherent twin boundaries

Coherent twin boundaries (CTBs) in nano-twinned materials could improve crack resistance. However, the role of the CTBs during crack penetration has never been explored at atomic scale. Our in situ observation on nano-twinned Ag under a high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) reveals the dynamic processes of a crack penetration across the CTBs, which involve alternated crack tip blunting, crack deflection, twinning/detwinning and slip transmission across the CTBs. The alternated blunting processes are related to the emission of different types of dislocations at the crack tip and vary with the distance of the crack tip from the CTBs.

2015 —

H. Wulff, M. Quaas, H. Deutsch, H. Ahrens, M. Frohlich, C.A. Helm, Thin Solid Films, 596 (2015) 185–189.

Formation of palladium hydrides in low temperature Ar/H2-plasma

20 nm thick Pd coatings deposited on Si substrates with 800 nm SiO2 and 1 nm Cr buffer layers were treated in a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source at 700 W plasma power and 40 Pa working pressure without substrate heating. For obtaining information on the effect of energy influx due to ion energy on the palladium films the substrate potential was varied from Usub = 0 V to − 150 V at constant gas flow corresponding to mean ion energies Ei from 0.22 eV ∙ cm− 2 ∙ s− 1 to 1.28 eV ∙ cm− 2 ∙ s− 1.

In contrast to high pressure reactions with metallic Pd, under plasma exposure we do not observe solid solutions over a wide range of hydrogen concentration. The hydrogen incorporation in Pd films takes place discontinuously. At 0 V substrate voltage palladium hydride is formed in two steps to PdH0.14 and PdH0.57. At − 50 V substrate voltage PdH0.57 is formed directly. However, substrate voltages of − 100 V and − 150 V cause shrinking of the unit cell. We postulate the formation of two fcc vacancy palladium hydride clusters PdHVac(I) and PdHVac(II). Under longtime plasma exposure the fcc PdHVac(II) phase forms cubic PdH1.33.

The fcc PdH0.57 phase decomposes at temperatures > 300 °C to form metallic fcc Pd. The hydrogen removal causes a decrease of lattice defects. In situ high temperature diffractometry measurements also confirm the existence of PdHVac(II) as a palladium hydride phase. Stoichiometric relationship between cubic PdH1.33 and fcc PdHVac(II) becomes evident from XR measurements and structure considerations. We assume both phases have the chemical composition Pd3H4. Up to 700 °C we observe phase transformation between both the fcc PdHVac(II) and cubic PdH1.33 phases. These phase transformations could be explained analog to a Bain distortion by displacive solid state structural changes.

2015 —

Y. Fukada, T. Hioki, T. Motohiro, S. Ohshima, J. Alloys Compd., 647 (2015) 221–230.

In situ x-ray diffraction study of crystal structure of Pd during hydrogen isotope loading by solid-state electrolysis at moderate temperatures 250−300 °C

Hydrogen isotopes and metal interaction with respect to Pd under high hydrogen isotope potential at moderate temperature region around 300 °C was studied. A dry electrolysis technique using BaZr1−x YxO3 solid state electrolyte was developed to generate high hydrogen isotope potential. Hydrogen or deuterium was loaded into a 200 nm thick Pd cathode. The cathode is deposited on SiO2 substrate and covered with the solid state electrolyte and a Pd anode layer. Time resolved in situ monochromatic x-ray diffraction measurement was performed during the electrolysis. Two phase states of the Pd cathodes with large and small lattice parameters were observed during the electrolysis. Numerous sub-micron scale voids in the Pd cathode and dendrite-like Pd precipitates in the solid state electrolyte were found from the recovered samples. Hydrogen induced super-abundant-vacancy may take role in those phenomena. The observed two phase states may be attributed to phase separation into vacancy-rich and vacancy-poor states. The voids formed in the Pd cathodes seem to be products of vacancy coalescence. Isotope effects were also observed. The deuterium loaded samples showed more rapid phase changes and more formation of voids than the hydrogen doped samples.

2015 —

Ian M. Robertson, P. Sofronis, A. Nagao, M.L. Martin, S. Wang, D.W. Gross, and K.E. Nygren, Edward DeMille Campbell Memorial Lecture”, ASM International, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, (28 March 2015) DOI: 10.1007/s11663-015-0325-y  (copy available.)

Hydrogen Embrittlement Understood

The connection between hydrogen-enhanced plasticity and the hydrogen-induced fracture mechanism and pathway is established through examination of the evolved microstructural state immediately beneath fracture surfaces including voids, “quasi-cleavage,” and intergranular surfaces. This leads to a new understanding of hydrogen embrittlement in which hydrogen-enhanced plasticity processes accelerate the evolution of the microstructure, which establishes not only local high concentrations of hydrogen but also a local stress state. Together, these factors establish the fracture mechanism and pathway.

2016 —

,  Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 688, Part B, 15 December 2016, Pages 404-412. DOI * ResearchGate

Multiple phase separation of super-abundant-vacancies in Pd hydrides by all solid-state electrolysis in moderate temperatures around 300 °C

The dynamics of hydrogen-induced vacancies are the key for understanding various phenomena in metal–hydrogen systems under a high hydrogen chemical potential. In this study, a novel dry-electrolysis experiment was performed in which a hydrogen isotope was injected into a Pd cathode and time-resolved in situ monochromatic X-ray diffraction measurement was carried out at the Pd cathode. It was found that palladium-hydride containing vacancies forms multiple phases depending on the hydrogen chemical potential. Phase separation into vacancy-rich, vacancy-poor, and moderate-vacancy-concentration phases was observed when the input voltage was relatively low, i.e., ∼0.5 V. The moderate-vacancy-concentration phase may be attributed to Ca7Ge or another type of super-lattice Pd7VacH(D)8. Transition from the vacancy-rich to the moderate-vacancy-concentration phase explains the sub-micron void formations without high temperature treatment that were observed at the Pd cathode but have never been reported in previous anvil experiments.

Graphical Abstract|

2017 —

L. Bukonte, T. Ahlgren, and K. Heinola, J. Appl. Phys. 121, (2017) pp. 045102-1 to -11. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4974530. (full copy available) (extensive references with links)

Thermodynamics of impurity-enhanced vacancy formation in metals

Hydrogen induced vacancy formation in metals and metal alloys has been of great interest during the past couple of decades. The main reason for this phenomenon, often referred to as the  superabundant vacancy formation, is the lowering of vacancy formation energy due to the trapping of hydrogen. By means of thermodynamics, we study the equilibrium vacancy formation in fcc metals (Pd, Ni, Co, and Fe) in correlation with the H amounts. The results of this study are compared and found to be in good agreement with experiments. For the accurate description of the total energy of the metal–hydrogen system, we take into account the binding energies of each trapped impurity, the vibrational entropy of defects, and the thermodynamics of divacancy formation. We demonstrate the effect of vacancy formation energy, the hydrogen binding, and the divacancy binding energy on the total equilibrium vacancy concentration. We show that the divacancy fraction gives the major contribution to the total vacancy fraction at high H fractions and cannot be neglected when studying superabundant vacancies. Our results lead to a novel conclusion that at high hydrogen fractions, superabundant vacancy formation takes place regardless of the binding energy between vacancies and hydrogen. We also propose the reason of superabundant vacancy formation mainly in the fcc phase. The equations obtained within this work can be used for any metal–impurity system, if the impurity occupies an interstitial site in the lattice.

2017 —

A. Paolone, S. Tosti, A. Santucci, O. Palumbo and F. Trequattrini, Chem. Engr. 1 (2017), 14; pp.1-9 doi: 10.3390/chemengineering1020014 MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. (copy available)

Hydrogen and deuterium solubility in commercial Pd–Ag alloys for hydrogen purification

Pd–Ag alloys with compositions close to 23–25% Ag are considered as a benchmark for hydrogen permeability. They are used in small scale reactors for hydrogen separation and purification. Permeability and solubility are strictly mathematically correlated, and the temperature dependence of solubility can provide useful information about the physical state of the material, the hydrogenation enthalpy, and the occurrence of different thermodynamic states. While the permeability of Pd–Ag alloys has been largely investigated, solubility measurements are available only in a restricted temperature range. In this paper, we extend solubility measurements up to 7 bar for Pd77Ag23 in the temperature range between 25 °C and 400 °C and for Pd30Ag70for temperatures between 190°C and 300°C. The occurrence of solid solutions or hydride phases is discussed, and the hydrogenation enthalpy is calculated.

2017 —

Hidehiko Sugimoto, Yuh Fukai, Scripta Materialia, June 2017 134:20-23, DOI:10.1016/j.scriptamat.2017.02.033 ResearchGate

Hydrogen-induced superabundant vacancy formation by electrochemical methods in bcc Fe: Monte Carlo simulation

Process of formation of superabundant vacancies (SAVs) by electrochemical methods is examined by Monte Carlo simulation developed in our previous papers, with particular focus on bcc Fe. SAVs are introduced abruptly when the electrode potential is lowered below some critical value, −0.4V vs. SHE, and, once formed, remain as such to another critical potential significantly higher. The effect of varying pH of the electrolyte is also included. Two different configurations of Vac-H clusters are formed; VacH4 and VacH5. A consistent explanation is given of our previous observations of SAV formation in electrodeposited Fe.

2018 —

M.R. Staker, ICCF-21 (2018) (preprint).

Coupled Calorimetry and Resistivity Measurements, in Conjunction with an Emended and More Complete Phase Diagram of the Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen System

Results of a calorimetric study established the energy produced, over and above input energy, from electrolytic loading of deuterium into Pd was 150 MJ/cc of Pd (14000 eV/Pd atom) for a 46 day period. High fugacity of deuterium was developed in unalloyed palladium via electrolysis (0.5 molar electrolyte of lithium deuteroxide, LiOD) with the use of an independent electromigration current. In situ resistivity measurements of Pd were used to assay activity of D in the Pd lattice (ratio of D/Pd) and employed as an indicator of phase changes. During this period, two run-away events were triggered by suddenly increasing current density resulting in 100 percent excess power (2.4 watts output with 1.2 watts input) and necessitating temporary cut back in electrolysis current. The average excess power (excluding run-away) ranged from 4.7 +/- 0.15 to 9.6 +/- 0.30 percent of input power while input power ranged from 2.000 to 3.450 watts, confirming the Fleischmann-Pons effect. The precision was: Power In = +/-.0005 W; ∆T = +/- .05oC; Power Out = +/-.015 W for an overall precision of +/- 0.5%. High fugacity was required for these results, and the triggered run-away events required even higher fugacity. Using thermodynamic energy balance, it was found that the energy release was of such magnitude that the source of the energy is from a nuclear source, however the exact reaction was not determined in this work. X-ray diffraction results from the recent literature, rules for phase diagram construction, and thermodynamic stability requirements necessitate revisions of the phase diagram, with addition of three thermodynamically stable phases of the superabundant vacancy (SAV) type. These phases, each requiring high fugacity, are: γ (Pd7VacD6-8), δ (Pd3VacD4 – octahedral), δ’ (Pd3VacD4 – tetrahedral). The emended Palladium – Isotopic Hydrogen phase diagram is presented. The excess heat condition supports portions of the cathode being in the ordered δ phase (Pd3VacD4 – octahedral), while a drop in resistance of the Pd cathode during increasing temperature and excess heat production strongly indicates portions of the cathode also transformed to the ordered δ’ phase (Pd3VacD4 – tetrahedral). A dislocation mechanism is presented for creation of vacancies and mobilizing them by electromigration because of their attraction to D+ ions which aids the formation of SAV phases. Extending SAV unit cells to the periodic lattice epiphanates δ as the nuclear active state. The lattice of the decreased resistance phase, δ’, reveals extensive pathways of low resistance and a potential connection to the superconductivity phase of PdH/PdD.

## ICCF-15

Subpage of Proceedings

Foto Group, October 5, 2009. At the main entrance to Angelicum, the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas.

PROCEEDINGS

15th International Conference on

Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

Rome, Italy
October 5-9, 2009

Edited by Vittorio Violante and Francesca Sarto

 Preface Vittorio Violante i Welcome of the Italian Physical Society (SIF) Enzo De Sanctis xi In Memory of Andrei George H. Miley xiii Forward M.C.H. McKubre xv

## ICCF-14

subpage of Proceedings

Proceedings of the
14th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
and the
14th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF-14)
10-15 August 2008
Washington DC

ISBN: 978-0-578-06694-3. Rights to the papers herein are reserved by their respective authors
Printing was done by the Marriott Library of the University of Utah
Copies of these proceedings can be purchased on a DVD for $20 from: New Energy Foundation, Inc. P.O. Box 2816 Concord, NH 03302-2816 http://www.infinite-energy.com Phone: 603-485-4700 General Editors: David J. Nagel and Michael E. Melich Theory Editors: Rodney W. Johnson and Scott R. Chubb Copy Editor: Jed Rothwell The files hosted here were obtained from a copy of the Proceedings hosted at one time by iscmns.org. At this point, it is no longer there, but copies were found on archive.org for Volume 1 and Volume 2. Front matter and table of contents. All files have been moderately compressed.  VOLUME 1 Preface i Calorimetry 1 Twenty Year Review of Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect M. H. Miles and M. Fleischmann 6 The Method and Results Using Seebeck Calorimetry Edmund Storms 11 Construction of a Seebeck Envelope Calorimeter and Reproducibility of Excess Heat Wu-Shou Zhang, John Dash and Zhong-Liang Zhang 26 Mass Flow Calorimetry Michael C. H. McKubre and Francis Tanzella 32 MOAC – A High Accuracy Calorimeter for Cold Fusion Studies Scott R. Little, George A. Luce, Marissa E. Little 47 Constant Heat Flow Calorimeter T. V. Lautzenhiser, D. W. Phelps and M. Eisner 53 A Simple Calorimetric Method to Avoid Artifacts in a Controversial Field: The Ice Calorimeter Jacques Dufour, Xavier Dufour, Denis Murat and Jacques Foos 60 Heat Measurements 67 The Enabling Criteria of Electrochemical Heat: Beyond Reasonable Doubt Dennis Cravens and Dennis Letts 71 Ultrasonically-Excited Electrolysis Experiments at Energetics Technologies I. Dardik, T. Zilov, H. Branover, A. El-Boher, E. Greenspan, B. Khachaturov, V. Krakov, S. Lesin, A. Shapiro and M. Tsirlin 106 Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR Devices Monitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling Engines Mitchell Swartz 123 Anomalous Heat Generation during Hydrogenation of Carbon (Phenanthrene) Tadahiko Mizuno and Shigemi Sawada 147 Electric and Heat Measurements in High Voltage Electrolysis Cell Experiments A. B. Karabut and E. A. Karabut 169 Nuclear Reaction Products 176 Trace Analysis of Elements in a Palladium Matrix David A. Kidwell 180 Investigation of Nuclear Transmutation Using Multilayered CaO/X/Pd Samples Under Deuterium Permeation T. Yamaguchi, Y. Sasaki, T. Nohmi, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama, A. Kitamura and A. Takahashi 195 Influence of Deuterium Gas Permeation on Surface Elemental Change of 88SrIon- Implanted Pd and Pd/CaO Multi-layer System T. Hioki, J. Gao, N. Takahashi, S. Hibi, A. Murase, T. Motohiro and J. Kasagi 203 Summary of the Transmutation Workshop Held in Association with ICCF-14 George H. Miley 212 Energetic Particle Measurements 217 Charged Particle Emission during Electron Beam Excitation of Deuterium Subsystem in Pd and Ti- Deuteride Targets Andrei Lipson, Ivan Chernov, Alexei Roussetski, Yuri Chardantsev, Boris Lyakhov, Eugeny Saunin and Michael Melich 220 Reproducible Evidence for the Generation of a Nuclear Reaction During Electrolysis R. A. Oriani 250 Detection of Radiation Emitted from LENR Edmund Storms and Brian Scanlan 263 Partial Replication of Storms/Scanlan Glow Discharge Radiation Rick Cantwell and Matt McConnell 288 New Results of Charged Particles Released From Deuterium-Loaded Metal at Low Temperature Songsheng Jiang, Jinghuai Li, Ming He, Shaoyong Wu, Jianqing Wang, Hongtao Zhang, Shunhe Yao, Yonggang Zhao and Chen Wang 299 Development of New Detector System for Charged Particle Emission Yu Toriyabe and Jirohta Kasagi 310 Ion Beam Experiments 316 Screening Potential for Nuclear Reactions in Condensed Matter J. Kasagi 318 Photon Measurements 326 Excess Heat Triggering by 532 nm Laser in a D/Pd Gas-Loading System J. Tian, L. H. Jin, B. J. Shen, Z. K. Weng and X. Lu 328 Stimulation of Optical Phonons in Deuterated Palladium Dennis Letts and Peter Hagelstein 333 Observation of Optical Phonon in Palladium Hydrides Using Raman Spectroscopy Ken-ichi Tsuchiya, Aya Watanabe, Masao Ozaki and Shigeru Sasabe 338 Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR Devices Mitchell Swartz, Gayle Verner and Alan Weinberg 343 Research into Spectra of X-ray Emission from Solid Cathode Medium During and After High Current Glow Discharge Operation A. B. Karabut and E. A. Karabut 362 Gas Loading 368 Cold Fusion by Gas Loading: A Review Jean-Paul Biberian 370 Deuteron Electromigration in Thin Pd Wires Coated With Nano-Particles: Evidence for Ultra-Fast Deuterium Loading and Anomalous, Large Thermal Effects Francesco Celani, P. Marini, V. Di Stefano, A. Spallone, M. Nakamura, E. Purchi, O. M. Calamai , V. Andreassi, E. Righi, G. Trenta, A. Marmigi, G. Cappuccio, D. Hampai, F. Todarello, U. Mastromatteo, A. Mancini, F. Falcioni, M. Marchesini, P. Di Biagio, U. Martini, P. G. Sona, F. Fontana, L. Gamberale and D. Garbelli 385 Basic Research on Condensed Matter Nuclear Reaction Using Pd Powders Charged With High Density Deuterium T. Nohmi, Y. Sasaki, T. Yamaguchi, A. Taniike, A. Kitamura, A. Takahashi, R. Seto and Y. Fujita 400 VOLUME 2 Cavitation Experiments 409 Bubble Driven Fusion Roger Stringham 411 Investigation of Radiation Effects at Bubble Cavitation in Running Liquid Alla A. Kornilova, Vladimir I. Vysotskii, Nickolai N. Sysoev and Andrey V. Desyatov 418 Materials 425 Material Science on Pd-D System to Study the Occurrence of Excess Power V. Violante, F. Sarto, E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler 429 Electrode Surface Morphology Characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy. F. Sarto, E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, V. Violante, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler 437 Metallurgical Characterization of Pd Electrodes Employed in Calorimetric Experiments Under Electrochemical Deuterium Loading E. Castagna, M. Sansovini, S. Lecci, A. Rufoloni, F. Sarto, V. Violante, D. L. Knies, K. S. Grabowski, and G. K. Hubler, M. McKubre and F. Tanzella 444 Condensed Matter “Cluster” Reactions in LENRs George H. Miley, Heinz Hora and Xiaoling Yang 451 The Phusor®-type LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial Creating Deuteron Flux for Excess Power Gain Mitchell Swartz and Gayle Verner 458 Theory Papers 475 The Possible Mechanism of Creation of Light Magnetic Monopoles in Strong Magnetic Field of a Laboratory System V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotskii 484 Heavy Electrons in Nano-Structure Clusters of Disordered Solids Dimiter Alexandrov 490 Empirical System Identification (ESID) and Optimal Control of Lattice-Assisted Nuclear Reactors Robert W. Bass and Mitchell Swartz 497 Can Established Physical Principles Explain Solid-State Fusion? Ben R. Breed 503 Resonant Electromagnetic-Dynamics Explains the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Scott R. Chubb 521 Interface Model of Cold Fusion Talbot A. Chubb 534 Toward an Explanation of Transmutation Products on Palladium Cathodes Norman D. Cook 540 An Experimental Device to Test the YPCP (“Yukawa Pico Chemistry And Physics”) Model: Implications for the CF-LENR Field Jacques Dufour, Xavier Dufour, Denis Murat and Jacques Foos 546 Investigation of Deuteron-Deuteron Cold Fusion in a Cavity Cheng-ming Fou 553 “The Coulomb Barrier not Static in QED” A correction to the Theory by Preparata on the Phenomenon of Cold Fusion and Theoretical Hypothesis Fulvio Frisone 556 Quantum Fusion Hypothesis Robert E. Godes 573 Excitation Transfer and Energy Exchange Processes for Modeling The Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect Peter L Hagelstein and Irfan U Chaudhary 579 Input to Theory from Experiment in the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Peter L. Hagelstein, Michael Melich and Rodney Johnson 586 A Theoretical Formulation for Problems in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Peter Hagelstein, Irfan Chaudhary, Michael Melich and Rodney Johnson 596 Theory of Low-Energy Deuterium Fusion in Micro/Nano-Scale Metal Grains and Particles Yeong E. Kim 604 Complexity in the Cold Fusion Phenomenon Hideo Kozima 613 Nuclear Transmutations in Polyethylene (XLPE) Films and Water Tree Generation in Them Hideo Kozima and Hiroshi Date 618 Exploring a Self-Sustaining Heater without Strong Nuclear Radiation Xing Z. Li, Bin Liu, Qing M. Wei, Shu X. Zheng and Dong X. Cao 623 A Model for Enhanced Fusion Reaction in a Solid Matrix of Metal Deuterides K. P. Sinha and A. Meulenberg 633 Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical Regions Mitchell Swartz 639 Analysis and Confirmation of the “Superwave-as-Transitory–OOP-Peak” Hypothesis Mitchell R. Swartz and Lawrence P.G. Forsley 653 Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion Akito Takahashi 663 Challenges and Summary 670 The Importance of Replication Michael C. H. McKubre 673 Electrical Breakeven from LANR Phusor Device Systems: Relative Limitations of Thermal Loss in Feedback Loop Mitchell Swartz 689 Self-Polarisation of Fusion Diodes: From Excess Energy to Energy Fabrice David and John Giles 696 Weight of Evidence for the Fleischmann-Pons Effect Rodney Johnson and Michael Melich 704 Nuclear or Not Nuclear: How to Decide? Ludwik Kowalski 723 Open Source Science Applied to CMNS Research: A Paradigm for Enhancing Cold Fusion Prospects and the Public Interest Thomas W. Grimshaw 729 ICCF-14 Summary Thomas O. Passell 737 Honoring Pioneers 742 In Honor of Yoshiaki Arata Talbot A. Chubb 743 Establishment of the “Solid Fusion” Reactor Yoshiaki Arata and Y-C Zhang 752 LENR Research using Co-Deposition S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, F. Gordon, J. Dea, M. Miles, J. Khim and L. Forsley 766 SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publications S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, F. Gordon, J. Dea, J. Khim and L. Forsley 772 Preparata Prize Acceptance Speech I. Dardik 778 Cold Fusion Country History Project Xing Z. Li, Jean-Paul Biberian, Jacques Dufour, M. Srinivasan, F. Scaramuzzi, J. Kasagi, Y. Iwamura, Andrei Lipson, Ivan Chernov and Yu. N. Bazhutov 780 Acknowledgements 789 Author Index 792 ## ICCF-2 Subpage of Proceedings Jed Rothwell had his copy of the ICCF-2 Proceedings scanned, and provided the files to us. The pages linked here, by page number are from the scans, so they are as-published. Preprints are available for some of these on lenr-canr.org. Generally, the quality of the lenr-canr files is much higher and the searchable and copiable text more reliable. But these files are readily readable. Please comment if higher resolution images are needed, these files were compressed. “L” indicates that a document is available on lenr-canr.org and is linked (as well as the copy here). “R”, the paper was found on ResearchGate and is linked. “+” indicates another source, linked. “A” links to abstracts on a subpage. In some cases the “abstract” is taken from an “Introduction” or “Conclusion” section. In one case (*)it was apparently supplied by Hal Fox. In some cases, documents that may be similar were published in refereed journals. B as a link is to a search of the Library for the Britz filename. (The Library is available to researchers, contact us.) (The Britz bibliography is hosted here, see Britz.) To find the entry for a paper, if you don’t have access to the Library, google the Britz filename, found in the search URL, or search the bibliography, perhaps the Bibtex version.  Foreword T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice and G. Preparata xiii CONTRIBUTED PAPERS Analysis of tritium and heat excess in electrochemical cells with Pd cathodes L. Bertalot, L. Bettinali, F. De Marco, V. Violante, P. De Logu, T. Dikonimos Makris and A. La Barbera 3•A L Product analysis from D2O electrolysis with palladium and titanium cathodes E. Brillas, G.Sardin, J. Casado, X. Doménech and J. Sánchez 9•A B Solid state and electrochemical phenomena related to cold fusion in titanium B. Escarpizo, F. Fernández, J. Sevilla, F. Cuevas and C. Sánchez 15 •A Multicell experiments for searching time-related events in cold fusion D. Gozzi, P.L.Cignini, M. Tomellini, S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice and G.M. Urciuoli 21 •A Some results on cold fusion research Z. Hongyu, W. Chenlin, R. Yanin, F. Guoying, Y. Hua, Z. Weidong, W. Dachun, H. Ming, L. Shuzhen, H. Zhuen, W. Zhongda, Y. Runhu, L. Zhenghao and R. Guoxiao 49 •A Recent progress on cold fusion research using molten salt techniques B. Y. Liaw, P.-L. Tao and B.E. Liebert 55 •A Tritium and neutron emission in conventional and contact glow discharge electrolyses of D2O at Pd and Ti cathodes G. Mengoli, M. Fabrizio, C.Manduchi, G. Zannoni, L. Riccardi and A. Buffa 65 •A Neutron emission and surface observation during a long-term evolution of deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD H. Numata, R. Takagi, I. Ohno, K. Kawamura and S. Haruyama 71 •A Anomalous neutron burst in heavy water electrolysis Y. Fujii, M. Takahashi, M. Nakada, T. Kusunoki and M. Okamoto 81 •A Reliable procedure for the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss and J. J. Smith 87•A Neutron spectra and controllability by PdD/electrolysis cell with low-high current pulse operation A. Takahashi, T. Iida, T. Takeuchi, A. Mega, S. Yoshida and M. Watanabe 93•A,R Characterization of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin titanium foils D. H. Beddingfield, F.E. Cecil, C.S. Galovich, H. Liu and S. Asher 99 •A A study of the neutron emission from Ti loaded with D in gas. phase by means of a time-of-flight spectrometer T. Bressani, D. Calvo, A. Feliciello, C. Lamberti, F. Iazzi, B. Minetti, R. Cherubini, A.M.I. Haque and R. A. Ricci 105 •A Search for neutron emission from deuterided high temperature superconductors in a very low background environment F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori, F. Croce, L. Storelli, S. Fortunati, M. Tului and N. Sparvieri 113•A +,+ B Search for precursor and charged particles in “cold fusion” D. W. Mo, Y. S. Liu, L. Y. Zhou, S. Y. Dong, K. L. Wang, S. C. Wang and X. Z. Li 123 •A The production of neutrons and tritium in the deuterium gas-titanium interaction A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi, A. Frattolillo, S. Migliori, F. Lanza, S. Scaglione, P. Zeppa and C. Pontorieri 129 •A Fusion neutron emission induced by injection of deuterium into titanium target in a mirror plasma S. Y. Duan, W. S. Guan, S.Q. Cheng, J. Zhang, S. L. Hao, B. Gu, J.Q. Li, W.X. Liang, G. Y. Zhang, S.X. Pei, J. C. Huang, K. W. Chen, R. Liu, X. R. Liu and Ying Li 139 •A Anomalous nuclear effects in deuterium palladium systems S. Jin, F. Zhang, D. Yao and B. Wu 145 •A Tritium production resulting from deuteration of different metals and alloys F. Lanza, G. Bertolini, V. Vocino, E. Parnisari and C. Ronsecco 151•A L Time-correlated neutron detection from deuterium loaded palladium T. Tazima, K. Isii and H. Ikegami 157 •A Search for better material for cold fusion experiment using CR-39 detector K. L. Wang, X. Z. Li, S. Y. Dong, S. C. Wang, D.’ W. Mo, C M . Luo, Q. R. Lin, X. D. Wu, W.Z. Li, Y. F. Zhu, P. L. Zhou and L. Chang 163•A .B Identification of the energetic charged particles in gas-loading experiment of “cold fusion” using CR-39 plastic track detector S. C. Wang, T.S. Rang, K.L. Wang, S. Y. Dong, Y.Y. Feng, D. W. Mo and X. Z. Li 169•A .B Evidence of neutron emission from a titanium deuterium system D. Seeliger, M. Bittner, A. Meister, R. Schwierz and T. Streil 175 •A Observation of D-D fusion neutrons during degassing of deuterium loaded palladium M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Seeliger, R. Schwierz and P. Wtjstner 181 •A Enhancement of fusion rate induced by the collective electron excitations M. Baldo 187 •A Binuclear atoms as fusion precursors in a hot cloud G. F.Cerofolini, R. Dierckx, A. Foglio Para and G. Ottaviani 193 •A An explanation of cold fusion and cold fusion by-products, based on lattice induced nuclear chemistry S. R. Chubb and T. A. Chubb 199 •A Coherent and semi-coherent neutron transfer reactions P. L. Hagelstein 205•A + Summary of progress in hydron physics F. J. Mayer and J. R. Reitz 211 •A B Relativistic hyperfine interaction and the Spence-Vary resonance J. A. McNeil 217 •A Anomalous deuteron to hydrogen ratio in Oklo samples and the possibility of deuteron disintegration M. Shaheen, M. Ragheb, G.H. Miley, H. Hora and J. Kelly Shah 221•A B The cross section factor for the reactions 2H(d,p) → 3H + 2H(d,n) → 3He at very low temperature A. Scalia and P. Figuera [many papers on sub-barrier fusion, even before 1989] 235 •A An improved zero gradient calorimeter for the investigation of cold fusion phenomena T. F. Droege and L. J. Droege 243 •A Improvement of the TOFUS apparatus M. Agnello, F. Iazzi, B. Minetti, E. Botta, T. Bressani, 0. Brunasso, D. Calvo, D. Dattola, P. Gianotti, C. Lamberti and A. Zecchina 249 •A A large solid angle multiparameter neutron detector G. Ricco, M.Anghinolfi, P.Corvisiero, P. Prati, M. Taiuti, C. Boragno, R. Eggenhoffner and U. Valbusa 255 •A Liquid scintillator detection and multiparameter data acquisition for neutron detection in cold fusion experiments. K. A. Sjoland, P. Kristiansson and K. G. J. Westergard 261 •A Crack-fusion: a plausible explanation of “cold fusion” L. H. Bagnulo 267 •A* Measurement of D-D and D-6Li nuclear reactions at very low energies F. E. Cecil and G. M. Hale 271•A L Mossbauer spectroscopic characterization of samples for cold fusion experiment E. Kuzmann, M. Gal, G.K. Solymos and Cs. Szeles 277 •A Recent modifications to the Manitoba deuterium implantation accelerator and a study of the properties of the online neutron monitor detector M. S. Mathur, H.L. Johnston, A. Mirzai, J. S. C. McKee, G.R. Smith, J. J. G. Durocher, K. Furutani, J. K. Mayer, Y. H. Yeo, H. Hnatiuk, S. King, A. Hempel, K. S. Sharma and G. Williams 283 •A High deuterium concentration in palladium for application to cold fusion H. S. Uhm and W. M. Lee 289 A•B INVITED PAPERS Cold fusion researches in Japan H. Ikegami 297 •A Chinese effort in understanding the “cold fusion” phenomena X. Z. Li 309 •A Cold fusion studies in the USSR V. A. Tsarev 319•A B The mechanism of deuterium evolution on palladium: relation to heat bursts provoked by fluxing deuterium across the interface J. O’M. Bockris, D. Hodko and Z. Minewski 337 •A The calorimetry of electrode reactions and measurements of excess enthalpy generation in the electrolysis of D2 O using Pd-based cathodes S. Pons and M. Fleischmann 349 •A Heat and helium production in cold fusion experiments M. H. Miles, B. F. Bush, G. S. Ostrom and J. J. Lagowski 363 A•B Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading of palladium with deuterium F. G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M-C Yang, J. R. Peterson, H. E. Bergeson, S. C. Barrowes, W. J. West and D. C. Linton 373 •A Low-background measurements of neutron emission from Ti metal in pressurized deuterium gas H. O. Menlove, M. A. Paciotti, T. N. Claytor and D. G. Tuggle 385 A•L Tritium generation and neutron measurements in Pd-Si under high deuterium gas pressure T. N. Claytor, D.G. Tuggle and H.O. Menlove 395 A•L Hydrogen and its isotopes in and on metals L. Schlapbach 409 •A Isothermal flow calorimetric investigations of the D/Pd system M. C. H. Mckubre, R. Rocha-Filho, S. I. Smedley, F. L. Tanzella, S. Crouch-Baker, T. O. Passell and J. Santucci 419 •A L Survey of gas loading experiments F. Scaramuzzi 445 •A Cold fusion: what do the laws of nature allow and forbid? G. Preparata 453 A•+ SUMMARIES Is cold fusion a reality? The impressions of a critical observer H. Gerischer 465 L•A The present status of research in cold fusion M. Fleischmann 475 L•A APPENDIX Report to the Utah State Fusion/Energy Council on the analysis of selected Pons Fleischmann calorimetric data W. N. Hansen 491 L Librarian’s Notes The name of “J. S. C. McCKEE,” in the table of contents, is an error, and has been corrected. The name is J. S. C. McKee, as would be normal in English. There is a page anomaly in the paper beginning on p. 395. The copy of this article from lenr-canr.org has 11 pages, so it would end, with page number restoration, on p. 405. Then the practice in this publication was to begin papers on an odd-numbered page, so 406 would have been blank, and the next paper would have begun on p. 407. However, the TOC shows the next paper as beginning on p. 409. The abstract for the p. 395 paper shows it as running to p. 408. There may be two missing pages, though the count of figures and tables and refs agrees with the abstract and I see no obviously missing text. (Note added after obtaining the scan: The lenr-canr copy is not exact as to page layout, it is more condensed. Generally, for reference purposes, the as-published pagination — i.e., what we show here — should be used. Looking over the two versions, I see no differences in text. In general, if anyone notices version issues with any document hosted here, please point to it. We can annotate copies here. Because these are historical documents, I would not change them, per se, but notes may be added, errata, corrigenda and addenda.) ## Abstracts Subpage of Proceedings/ICCF-2 See the Proceedings page supra for links to copies of articles, where we have them. From http://newenergytimes.com/v2/archives/fic/F/F199204.pdf (Fusion Facts, April 1992). B. LISTING & ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS IN THE SCIENCE OF COLD FUSION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE II ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON COLD FUSION June 29-July 4, 1991 in Como, Italy; Edited by T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, & G. Preparata. Order from Societa Italiana di Fisica, Redazione, Via L. Degli Andalo, 2 , 40124 Bologna, BO, Italy ($110 by air mail.)
Note: The following authors, titles, abstracts are listed in the order they appear in the book:

The generic Bibliographic information is only shown for the first paper, for subsequent papers only the additional specific information for that paper is shown.

ITALY – 17% EXCESS HEAT

L. Bertalot, L. Bettanali, F. De Marco, V. Violante (ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione, CentroRicerche Energia Frascati, Rome, Italy), P.DeLogu, T. DikominosMakris,A. La Barbera (ENEA, Dipartimento Inn-PCM Rome, Italy), “Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells with Pd Cathodes,” The Science of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, Como, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991, pp 3-7, 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
A series of electrochemical cells was set up mainly with the objective of tritium detection. In the frame work of a collaboration with the Texas A&M University also some calorimetric measurement were carried out. In the experiments aimed to tritium analysis particular care was given to a clear assembling of the cells and to avoid possible tritium contamination. Nine cells were installed with different materials and
geometry. No tritium in excess of the isotopic enrichment was detected. Post mortem surface analysis shows contamination of the Pd surface. In the calorimetric experiments, one cell out of three gave about 17% of excess heat for ten days, corresponding to 55 kJ.

SPAIN – CATHODE SURFACE ANALYSIS

J. Brillas, G. Sardin (Universitat de Barcelona), J. Casado, X.
Domenech, & J.A. Sanchez-Cabeza (Universitat Autonoma Barcelona),
“Product Analysis from D2O Electrolysis with Palladium and Titanium
Cathodes,”  pp 9-13, 4 refs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
The possible generation of tritium in the electrolyte and the incorporation of species such as tritium, lithium and platinum to cathodes during the electrolysis of 0.1M LiOD solutions with Pd and Ti cathodes and Pt anodes at low and high current densities have been studied by means of different techniques.

SPAIN – PHASE TRANSITION IN Ti

B.Escarpizo, F. Fernandez,J. Sevilla, F. Cuevas and C. Sanchez (Dept of Applied Physics, U. Autonoma de Madrid), “Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium,” pp 15-20, 2 refs,5 figs.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS
We therefore can conclude from the content of this communication that: Deuteration of Ti cathodes in electrolytic cold fusion experiments seems to take place in only the first grain layer. Grain boundaries seem to be barriers for the propagation of Deuterium in the next grain layer.Differences in behavior are found between the hydrides formed in acid and basic electrolytes. In basic media, used by most of the authors, the deuterated grains release from the cathode and a new and clean surface of Ti appears periodically.

ITALY – MULTI-CELL EXPERIMENTS

D. Gozzi, P.L. Cignini and M. Tomellini (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy), S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice and G.M. Urciuoli (Lab. di Fisica, Istit. Superiore di Sanita and Sezione INFN, Roma, Italy, “Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-related Events in Cold Fusion,” pp 21-47, 15 refs, 12 figs, 4 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT
A new ten-electrochemical cell experiment is running in order to confirm previous results and to understand the key role of some experimental parameter sin triggering cold fusion events. The experiment is designatedt odetect: a) heatexcess; b) loading factor by in situ measurement of the cathode displacement; c) nuclear products: neutrons, tritium in the electrolytic solution and in the recombined heavy water, gamma-rays; d) effect of the palladium electrode preparation. To measure th eheat excess, a calibration curve of the input power vs. the temperature of the solution was obtained for cells equal in the shape, materials and in the same experimental condition in which the experiment is now running. The unique difference lays in the cathode. The cathode used in the calibration measurements was made of palladium rod gold-plated by electrochemicald eposition. The growth of the gold layer was carefully controlled by microprobe analysis to be sure that all of the palladium cathode surface was covered by gold. After that a further deposition of gold was done. In the multicell experiment one of the ten cells is a calibration cell previously utilized. This allows to have both a blank and to control the stability of the calibration curve. Two cells out of the ten are equipped by micro-displacement transducers which allow to measure the palladium swelling,caused by the deuterium loading, with at least 0.1 micrometer resolution. Neutron detector is a He proportional counter, the same used in the previous experiments, but
the data acquisition is now implemented by a fast pulse-shape storage and off-line discrimination for very accurate counting. The gamma-ray detection has also been improved by using a more efficient high purityGe detector and a large NaI(Ti) monocrystal detector. Each of the cathodes is different from the others in shape, dimension, and preparation.

CHINA – RESEARCH SUMMARY

Zhou Hongyu, Wen Chenlin, Rong Yanin, Fan Guoying, Yan Hua, Zhou Weidong, Wang Dachun,Hua Ming, Liu Shuzhen and Han Zhuen (Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University). Wu Zhongda, Yu Runhu and Liu Zhanghao (Chemical Department, Beijing Normal University), Ren Guoxiao (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), “Some Results on Cold Fusion Research,”  pp 49-54, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Anomalous nuclear effects in Pd+Ti+D2 system were investigated by means of a double liquid scintillator system. A recoil proton spectrum of 2.45MeV neutrons was obtained from heavy water electrolysis
experiment using Pd as cathode. Burst neutrons and random neutron emissions were observed in discharge experiments and temperature cycle experiments for Pd+Ti+D2 system.

HAWAII – MOLTEN SALT UPDATE

Bor Yann Liaw, Peng-Long Tao, and Bruce E.Liebert* (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, and *Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii), “Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques,” pp 55-64, 17 refs, 11 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We have demonstrated a novel elevated-temperature molten salt technique for generating high-level excess heat. More than 4MJ/mole D2 of excess heat, at least 600% over the input power, was measured in two incidents using a torched Pd anode and an aluminum alloy cathode merged in a eutectic LiCl-KCl mixture saturated with excessive LiD at about 370 C. No thermochemical explanation can account for this excess heat. Measurements on the hydrogen based system showed normal endothermal behaviors. The Pd samples were later examined for their morphological behaviors and for He analysis. A very porous microstructure of the samples was found. Electrolysis and deuteriding processes changed the morphology substantially. Enhancement of alpha-particles in the deuterated sample was detected while the hydrated sample showed an opposite effect. The amount of the alpha-particles in the sample, however, were not commensurate with the measured excess heat. On-line neutron (using BYU facility) and particle measurements (using ETEC/Rockwell facility) were planned and at work. Reproducibility of the experiments is poor to date.

ITALY – GOOD TRITIUM DATA

G.Mengoli, M. Fabrizio (IPELP-CNR, Padova, Italy), C. Manduchi, G. Zannoni, L. Riccardi, (Dip. Fisica “G. Galelei”, Padova, Italy), A. Buffa (IGI-CNR, Padova, Italy) “Tritium and neutron emission in conventional and contact glow discharge electrolyses of D2O at Pd and Ti Cathodes” (work performed in collaboration with ENEA-Frascati), pp 65-70, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We recently found that the level of3H in D2O / 0.1 M LiOD solutions electrolyzed at Pd sheet cathodes increased, although sporadically (<20%), till an order of magnitude over background, we indeed used D2O with very low background. The surface of a Pd sheet cathode (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm3) which gave apparent generation of 3H had developed localized swelling with deep pitting underneath; if this phenomenon was relating with 3H, the latter was likely formed by means of a near- surface process, which might be easier to reproduce if electrodes of relatively larger dimensions are utilized. The experimental design adopted for the four conventional electrolytic runs hereafter described was mostly in agreement with the above consideration. We are also reporting on contact glow discharge electrolyses (CGDE) aimed at inducing critical conditions at/in the metal deuteride cathode.

JAPAN – LARGE Pd CATHODE RESULTS

H. Numata, I. Ohno (Tokyo Institute of Technology), R, Takagi (Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo), K. Kawamura (Inst. of R&D, Takai Univ., Kanagawa), S. Haruyama (Tokyo National Col. Of Tech., Tokyo, JAPAN), “Neutron Emission and Surface Observation during a Long-term Evolution of Deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD,” pp 71-80, 16 refs, 13 figs. 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Long-term electrolysis for well annealed thick Pd rods (9.0 and 21.2 mm phi) in 0.1M LiOD have been performed to examine anomalous phenomena;neutron emission and heat bursts. The count rate of neutron (CRN) bunched for 3 h showed no significant increase at low current densities. High CRN appeared a few days later after the current increased to 102.4 mA/cm2 and the temperature was raised to 50°C. In two experiments CRN and neutron energy spectrum of 2.45 MeV was reproduced. Metallographic observation showed two faults, blisters, cross slips and holes on Pd surface and a raw [row] of defects in a recrystallized grain. Microstructural changes of Pd electrode during long-term electrolysis is discussed.

JAPAN – NEUTRON BURSTS

Y. Fujii, N. Takahashi, M. Nakada, T. Kusunoki, M. Okamoto, “Anomalous Neutron Burst in Heavy Water Electrolysis,” pp 81-85, 1 ref, 4 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Anomalous neutron burst has been detected in heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode. The burst events occurred five times periodically for ca. 140 hours. The numbers of the burst neutrons increased gradually from 5.3–(the 1st event/10 min.) to 135–(the 5th event/10min.) and the last event continued for 50 min. and gave 1779 neutrons to the five 3He neutron counters of 1% detection efficiency. The reproducibility has been examined three times, but any further event did not occur.

CALIFORNIA – NAVY – Pd ELECTRODEPOSITION

S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss (NOSC, San Diego, CA) & J.J. Smith (DoE, Washington, D.C.), “Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect,” pp 87-91, 5 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only about 1 out of 10 attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reaction(s). Recently, [S. Szpak et al., J. Electroanal Chem, 302, 255 (1991)] we have shown that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing Pd electrodes prepared by the electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production. Effects of deposit morphology, electrolyte composition and temperature on the rate of tritium production are discussed.

JAPAN – SUCCESS WITH PULSING

A. Takahashi, I. Iida, T. Takeuchi, A. Mega, S. Yoshida and M. Watanabe (Osaka University, Japan) “Neutron spectra and controllability by PdD/electrolysis cell with low-high current pulse operation,” pp 93-98, 5 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Neutron spectra with two components (2.45 and 3-7 MeV) have been repeatedly observed by pulse electrolysis of D2O-Pd cell. Tritium production with (T/n) ratio 105 w as also confirmed with low-high current operation. These results are consistently explained with the products and byproducts in competing process of d-d and d-d-d fusions in PdD lattice.

D.H. Beddingfield, F.E. Cecil, C.S. Galovich, H. Liu (Colorado School of Mines, USA) Sally Asher (Solar Energy Research Institute, USA), “Characterization of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin Titanium foils,” pp 99-103, 2 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION

Following our recently reported observation of intense bursts of charged particles from deuterium gas load thin Titanium foils, we conducted a relatively exhaustive analysis of the samples involved in this study in order to better understand the has loading process, to characterize the elemental and structural properties of the samples, and to ascertain, if possible, any differences between those samples which evinced particle bursts and those which did not.

In conclusion, the studies which we have carried out on the hydrogen and deuterium gas loaded Titanium foils indicate that we employed a reliable and reproducible gas loading technique, capable of achieving gas-metal ratios of order unity to depths of at least several microns and probably more. No differences, however, were noted between those sample from which charged particle bursts were observed versus those which did not.

ITALY – D-Ti NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS

T. Bressani, D. Calvo, F. Iazzi, C. Lamberti and B. Minetti (INFI Sez di Torino, Italy) R. Cherubini, A.M.I. Haque and R.A. Ricci (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy), “A Study of the Neutron Emission from Ti Loaded with D in Gas Phase by Means of a Time-of-Flight Spectrometer,” pp 105-111, 9 refs, 7 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The final results of an experiment carried out in order to detect and measure the energy of the neutrons emitted from Ti metal loaded with D in gas phase are reported. A neutron spectrometer based on the time-of-flight and double scattering technique was used. We observed a 2.5 sigma signal for the emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, corresponding to 1.3 +/- 0.5 neutrons s-1 g-1.

ITALY – FUSION IN SUPERCONDUCTORS

F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori (INFN, Lab. Naz. Frascati, Roma Italy), F. Croce, L. Storelli (Univ. di Roma, Italy), S. Fortunati, M. Tului (CSM ILVA-IRI, Italy), N. Sparvieri (ALENIA-IRI, Italy), “Search for neutron emission from deuterided high temperature superconductors in a very low background environment,” pp 113-121, 16 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Following the experiments performed with deuterided High Temperature SuperConductors (HTSC) at underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, we have learnt the capacity to absorb Deuterium (D) by these materials and the role played by non-equilibrium conditions to get neutron burst emissions in the framework of Cold Fusion. So far, some Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) pellets and high pressure D2 gas were enclosed in stainless steal vessel and a charging-up procedure was performed. The vessel was put in a thermal neutrons field and some thermal cycles (300-> 77-> 300 K) were performed; moreover, for comparison, background and blank runs were performed. A specific acquisition system, able to detect multiple neutron signals in defined time-windows (“time-correlated events”), was set up. One thermal cycle run showed a large increase of time-correlated events in respect to the blanks; one other urn [run], although with no relevant mean-value increase of events detected, showed, on the other hand, one interesting multiple neutron signal (triple); other similar runs produced no relevant values. One-other kind of experiment, at constant temperature (300 K), characterized by a heavy D2 gas refill, showed both some increase of time-correlated events and few ‘triple’ neutron signals.

CHINA – SEARCH FOR CHARGED PARTICLES

Da-Wei Mo, Yi S. Liu, Li Y. Zhou, Shi Y. Dong, Ke L. Wang, Shi C. Wang, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, China), “Search for Precursor and Charged Particles in Cold Fusion,”pp 123-127, 6 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ DISCUSSION

It is clear that the energy of charged particle has a peak above the 5 MeV. It does not fit with any conventional binary D-D-> 4He+23.8 MeV, might give more energy, we had to assume an anomalous branching [ratio]. It is suggestive to use dE /dx detector for identification of the charged particles. If we assume that the low energy signals were  caused by electromagnetic radiation, this was a good manifestation of precursor. We planned to use  photo-electric diode for confirmation of this observation. Was there any mistake which might cause the  fault signals? We were worried about this also. A good verification was that we did not detect any signals as before when the vessel sealing failed in one of the experiments.

ITALY – NEUTRONS AND TRITIUM

A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi (ENEA, Areea Energia e Innovazione), A. Frattolillo, S. Migliori (ENEA, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione), F. Lanza (JRC Euratom), S. Scaglione (ENEA, Aea Energia e Innovazione), P. Zeppa (ENEA, Frascati, Italy), C. Pontorieri (ENEA student), “The Production of Neutrons and Tritium in Deuterium Gas- Titanium Interaction,” pp 129-137, 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium gas system has been detected in experiments performedin the Springof 1989 [DeNinno et al. Europhysics Letters, 9, 221 (1989)]. One of the most striking features was the structure in bursts (duration of about 100 microsec) of the neutron emission. Using a detection system proposed by a Los Alamos Group [Menlove,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990, pg 250], suitable to analyze the structure in bursts of the emission, a preliminary set of measurements has been performed with satisfactory results [F. D’Amato et al.,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990,pg 170]. A better tailored detector is now in use in a low neutron background setup (INFN, Lab Nazionale del Gran Sasso). The first results of this experiment will be presented. Furthermore, the search for tritium excess in the samples used for neutron detection has been continued, with the technique described in above reference. Also these results will be reported.

CHINA – RESULTS FROM ION-IMPLANTATION

Shu Yun Duan, Wei Shu Guan, Shi Qing Cheng, Jun Zhang, Shu Li Hao, Biao Gu, Jia Quan Li, Wen Xue Liang, Guang Yang Zhang, Si Xiu Pei, Jun Cheng Huang, Kang Wei Cheng, Rong Liu, Xi Rong Liu, Ying Li (Southwestern Inst of Physics, Sichuan, China), “Fusion Neutron Emission Induced by Injection of Deuterium into Titanium Target in a Mirror Plasma,” pp 139-143, 2 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A target, titanium sheet laden with deuterium, is immersed in the deuterium plasma confined in MM-2U magnetic mirror and the target is biased to a high negative voltage about 10 kv. The deuterium nuclei- deuterons are infused into the crystal structure of titanium target. After about three and a half hours’ implantation, random neutron emissions are observed and neutron bursts are measured by using two identical BF neutron detectors No. 1 and No. 2 located at different positions and a neutron dosimeter. The neutron count rates are 102 higher than the background rates of 0.8 counts/sec. It is corresponding to neutron flux of (2-5) x 105 neutron/sec. No gamma- ray counts above background are detected in our experiments. It is suggested that random neutron bursts may be from cold nuclear fusion reactions related to the propagation of microcracks of the metal lattice.

CHINA – NEUTRON BURSTS USING CR-39

Shangxian Jin, Fuxiang Zhang, Decheng Yao, & Bailu Wu (Dept. of Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China), “Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium Palladium Systems,”pp 145-149, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Intense bursts of charged particles far larger than background have been reproducibly detected for the first time by using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector during either a high voltage discharge between deuterated palladium electrodes or a non-equilibrium out-diffusion of deuterons in palladium. Not any anomalous effects were found in the control experiments of Pd-H system under the same experimental conditions. This indicates that some anomalous nuclear effects were definitely produced in the Pd-D system under certain conditions.

ITALY – TRITIUM FROM TANTALUM

F. Lanza, G. Bertolini, V. Vocino, E. Parnisari, C. Ronsecco (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Res. Center, Ispra, Italy), “Tritium Production Resulting from Deuteration of Different Metals and Alloys,”  pp 151-155, 9 refs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Previous experiments have shown that tritium is produced in deuterated titanium. To define better the phenomenon a series of tests have been performed using various metals and alloys and different deuterating conditions. Sheets and shaving of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr 50% alloy have been tested. A statistical analysis of the tritium production shows that significant differences are obtained varying the type of metal used. Using pure metals the tritium production increases with the increase of the atomic number of the metal. Moreover higher productions of tritium have been obtained using materials of technical purity as tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr alloy.

JAPAN – D2 GAS DISCHARGE & NEUTRONS

T. Tazima, K. Isii, & H. Ikegami (Nat’l Inst for Fusion Science,Nagoya, Japan), “Time-Correlated Neutron Detection from Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 157-
162, 5 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Significant neutron bursts and good time-correlation between two independent neutron detection systems were observed in two kinds of experiments on cold fusion. One employed two palladium rods of 2 mm diameter and 5 cm length, deuterated under 1 atm for 30 days, and plasma discharge was applied as a trigger. The other was palladium shavings of 10 g deuterated under 11 atm for 40 days. The averaged background level was 5-6 counts/dwell time (100 s). In both cases, significant neutron emission of successive bursts of 13-60 counts/100 s were observed for several hours and repeated several times during 2-11 days in [some] cases.

CHINA – 2 PAPERS ON USING CR-39

Ke L. Wang, Xing Z. Li, Shi Y. Dong, Shi C. Wang, Da W. Mo, Cheng M. Luo, Qin R. Lin, Xiao D. Wu, Wei Z. Li, Yong F. Zhu, Ping L. Zhou, & Lee Chang (Tsinghua U, Beijing except Shi C. Wang – Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China), “Search for the Better Material for Cold Fusion Experiment Using CR-39 Detector,” pp 163-168, 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

CR-39 (plastic track detector) has been proven to be a good detector in the research on cold fusion phenomena. It has high sensitivity and high efficiency in detection of energetic charged products of anomalous nuclear reactions. It does not need a high voltage power supply; hence, it is easy to use in the high pressure vessel of gas-loading experiments (Frascati type), and to eliminate the electronic noises. It has low background because the spurious signals due to cosmic ray can be discriminated by re-etching procedures. It can be run in batch and it is relatively cheap as well. Therefore, CR-39 technique is selected for wide-searching the better material for cold fusion. Different materials such as palladium from USA, Russia, and from different sources in China; pure titanium (in porous state), titanium alloys (e.g. V6-A16- Sn2); zirconium; nickel; lanthanum; and hydrogen-storage materials (such as LaNi5) are tested using CR-39. Preliminary results show that: (1) Russian palladium imported in 1950’s gives the highest yield of charged particles ( > 100 per sq cm per day). The Ti alloy (Ti-662) is not as good as Russian palladium (about 100 per sq cm per day), but it still has high repetition rate. Other materials give no evident signal distinct from background, which is less than 10 per sq cm per day. The yield becomes less and less after the first usage in the gas-loading experiment. (2) It is important to eliminate the contamination of the surface of the materials due to the radioactive impurities (e.g. uranium 238, radon’s daughter[s], et al.). However, it is possible to distinguish the real signal from the spurious by the shape of track in the microscopy
[of CR-39.] (3) Using vapor deposit technique to plate the Russian palladium on another surface did not give positive results. (4) Auger electron scanning probe reveals the complicated surface composition at various points on the palladium foil, although it is pure palladium inside the materials. This may explain the difficulty in reproducing the cold fusion phenomena. [May have some errors – copy quality of abstract was poor.]

SECOND CHINESE PAPER

Shi C. Wang & Tie S. Kang (Inst. of High Energy Physics), Ke L. Wang, Shi Y. Dong, Yu Y. Feng, Da W. Mo, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), “Identification of the Energetic Charged Particles in Gas-Loading Experiment of “Cold Fusion” Using CR-39 Plastic Track Detector,” pp 169-173, 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

CR-39 plastic track detectors have been used for searching for charged particles from deuterized palladium and titanium foils. Alpha particles, slowed to various energies from a Cf source were used for the calibration. Since high-pressure deuterium gas (up to 58 atm.) and low temperature (down to 77 K) may affect response of CR-39, the calibration was done in the condition which mimics experimental condition as closely as possible. Our results show that pre- and post-irradiation high-pressure deuterium gas and low temperature do not make significant difference of response of CR-39. A calibration curve was obtained, using a ‘restricted energy loss model’ of track formation, the etching behaviors of 3.22 MeV proton, 1.01 MeV triton, and 0.82 MeV helium-3 were predicted.

GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM TITANIUM

D. Seeliger, M. Bittner, A. Meister, R. Schwierz and T. Streil, “Evidence of Neutron Emission from a Titanium Deuterium System,”  pp 175-179, 5 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

In both experimental runs we have observed definite signs for a weak neutron production with a PRE spectrum, which corresponds to the assumption, that dd-neutrons have been detected. Following the paper of Jones et al., the reaction rates should be expressed in terms of the fusion rate lambdaDD per dd-pair per second. If we assume a full loading of the Tritanium, corresponding to TiDx with x = 2, the number of dd-pairs in the Titanium probe is equal to the number of Titanium atoms in it, which is equal to 7.28 x 1023. The fusion rate obtained is 6.6 x 10-25s-1, for the average and maximum effect, respectively. However, we have seen, that there is no correlation between the reaction rate NDD and the pressure p. This means that there is also no simple proportionality between NDD and the number of deuterons absorbed in the sample! In opposite, the present experiment gives some indication, that the dd-reaction rate is governed by dp, that means by the particle flow into the metal per second. [Maybe] even more pronounced is the dependence on p x dp, that means to the product of already absorbed deuterons and the additional flow of particles through the surface. This would be qualitatively in accordance with a simple [plasma] model of dd-fusion processes in condensed matter, published recently. However, direct quantitative application of this model in the present case is difficult, due to the complicated surface-to-volume geometry of the titanium turnings.

GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM LARGE Pd

M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Seeliger, R. Schwierz & P. Wüstner, “Observation of D-D Fusion Neutrons during Degassing of Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 181-185, 6 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSION

The present experiment with a 0.5 kg palladium sample shows a definite excess neutron counting rate for [a] period of about 1 h. This period is just the time interval during which the deuterium is expulsed from the massive palladium sample. The energy of detected neutrons is near to 2.5 MeV, as expected for d-d fusion neutrons. Therefore the conclusion is obvious, that these neutrons are caused by the d-d fusion reaction. The neutron excess counting rate, which is time dependent, corresponds in its maximum to a d-d reaction rate of (3+/-) x 10-25 per second and deuteron pair.

ITALY – OVERSCREENING THEORY

Marcello Baldo (INFN, Catania, Italy), “Enhancement of Fusion Rate Induced by the Collective Electron Excitations,” pp 187-192, 10 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

The anomalously large fusion rate of deuterium absorbed in transition metals, which has been claimed by some authors, has produced a large amount of theoretical work. Legget and Baym have demonstrated that a rigorous upper bound to the fusion rate of deuterium, in equilibrium with the crystal, can be obtained in the framework of conventional solid state theory and using the phenomenological helium and deuterium chemical potentials. This bound is too small to be compatible with the claimed fusion rate. We explore the possibility that the interaction energy between helium atoms and the metal crystal possesses a second deeper minimum, which is separated by a potential barrier from the one accessible by the usual absorption experiments, but which can be more easily reached through the path followed by the deuteron-deuteron fusion process inside the crystal. The interaction of a bare positive charge with the electrons of the crystal is modeled in terms of its coupling with a set of harmonic oscillators, which describe the collective excitation of the electron gas. The energies of the latter can be obtained experimentally. Making use of the f-sum rule, evidences are presented which indicate the possibility of an ‘overscreening’ of the charge, a phenomenon that could render a configuration with delocalized electrons around the charge energetically favorable with respect to a helium-like configuration inside the crystal. Speculations about the possible connection with cold fusion are presented.

ITALY – IMPACT FUSION MODEL

G.F. Cerofolini, R. Dierckx, A. Foglio Para and G. Ottaviani, “Binuclear Atoms as Fusion Precursors in a Hot Cloud,” pp 193-197, 19 refs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

Deuteron-deuteron fusions were claimed by a Brookhaven group to result from the impact on deuterated surfaces of clusters of 25 – 1350 D2O molecules with energy up to 300 keV. The collective motion in the impact region is tentatively assumed to be responsible for these fusion events. The number of involved atoms is of the order of 104, with a mean energy of some electronvolts. The model is able to reproduce qualitatively the Brookhaven data according to an Arrhenius plot, with an activation energy approx. equal to 2E0, where E0 is the hydrogen ionization energy. At this energy an activated precursor is postulated
to be synthesized; it can tentatively by identified as the binuclear atom (D+ — D+)2e.

VIRGINIA – LATTICE NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Scott R. Chubb & Talbot A. Chubb (Research Systems, Arlington, VA), “An Explanation of Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion By-Products, Based on Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry,” pp 199-204, 9 refs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

At room temperature, solid state effects may alter the framework from which nuclear processes proceed in a manner that is completely difference from the one responsible for nuclear interaction between free space deuterons. Quantum mechanical effects enter during the overcharging of a fully-loaded PdD lattice a sa result of periodic order, the requirement that energy be minimized, and the fact that deuterons which share a common potential are indistinguishable and must be described by a single, many-particle wave function. When a macroscopically small number of deuterons are added to stoichiometric PdD, a compound can be created of the form PdD1+DELTA, in which solid state physics effects provide a channel for reducing lattice strain by distributing the excess charge (delta) with equal weight to all periodically equivalent locations within the crystallite. Then, the fundamental free space idea that a huge Coulomb barrier must be overcome in order for D+D nuclear interaction to occur is replaced by a new picture in which small portions of each of the excess deuterons, on the average, are distributed throughout the solid, thereby avoiding the stress that results when two deuterons are forced into a common unit cell. Because only a small fraction of each excess deuteron is present at any site and each excess deuteron is indistinguishable from the others, it becomes possible for microscopically large numbers of pairs of excess deuterons to interact. This new form of nuclear interaction is not inhibited by proton-proton repulsion because when the excess charge (delta) is sufficiently small, the lattice provides the dominant electrostatic interaction. Lattice interaction further greatly reduces proton repulsion by inducing a broadening of proton charge. The lattice interaction is responsible for new selection rules in which the energy release is distributed among all unit cells. Release of high alpha energy particles at isolated sites is also allowed. We have previously named this new form of nuclear reaction, Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC). In LINC, the new selection rules allow deuterons to fuse to form 4He throughout the crystal while maintaining periodic order. Energy release occurs by coupling to phonons or coherent motion (in which the lattice moves as a whole), accompanied by the expulsion of “untrapped,” low-energy 4He into the surface and outgassing regions. In this paper, the underlying assumptions responsible for LINC and the resulting selection rules will be summarized and explained. Comparisons will be made between predictions provided by LINC with recent experiments.

MASS – MIT & HAGELSTEIN’S THEORY

Peter L. Hagelstein (MIT), “Coherent and Semi-coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions,” pp 205-209, 1 ref, 1 fig.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

The novel process of coherent neutron transfer in the presence of a lattice is proposed to be the basis of a number of anomalous phenomena which have recently been reported in investigations of the Pons-Fleischmann effect.

ANN ARBOR, MI – THEORY

F.J. Mayer and J.R. Reitz, “Summary of Progress in Hydron Physics,” pp 211-216, 13 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic scattering resonances in the ep+, ed+,e-t+ systems produce short-lived, charge-neutral, particles called hydrons. These particles provide the screening of repulsive Coulomb forces so that nuclear reactions between a hydron nucleus and a reaction partner are possible. Hydron formation, reactions, and applications to anomalous nuclear observations in the laboratory and geophysics are summarized.

J.A. McNeil, “Relativistic Hyperfine Interaction and the Spence-Vary Resonance,”  pp 217-
219, 8 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

…In an attempt to address this question in a qualitative yet gauge-invariant way, we have studied the two fermion system using the Breit equation. The wavefunctions explicitly obey current conservation so the Coulomb gauge terms can have no effect on the results. For the purposes of obtaining qualitative features of the affect of the hyperfine interaction at short distances we approximate the relative coordinate Breit equation by the equivalent Schrodinger-form equation for hydrogen (m2>>m2 [sic] , for applications to positronium we use the reduced mass). We examine the hyperfine interaction in the axion channel and solve the equation in the energy range of interest (0-> 2MeV). We find the hyperfine interaction introduces an effective attractive interaction at very short distances (approx. 10 fm for positronium), but find no evidence for a resonance in the energy range of interest.

ILLINOIS – EXOTIC PLASMA MODEL

M. Shaheen, M. Ragheb, G.H. Miley, & H. Hora, J.C. Kelly (U of New So. Wales, Kensington, Australia), (Fusion Studies Lab, U. of Illinois except Hora & Kelly), “Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and the Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration,” pp 221-234, 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A hypothesis is presented to explain the anomalous D/H ratio observed in samples from the site of the naturally occurring fission reaction at Oklo. The experimentally observed D/H ratio of 127 ppm exceeds the naturally occurring value of 150 ppm [sic]. Further, using a multicomponent system consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and helium nuclei to model the Oklo reaction phenomenon and assuming a thermal fission process term, we calculate a D/H ratio of 445 ppm in the presence of the thermal neutron fluence attributed to Oklo. However, solving the same rate equations with a deuterium sink term to represent the hypothesis of deuteron disintegration, we find a deuteron disintegration constant of 7.47 x 10-14 s-1 yields the observed D/H ration. Indeed, deuteron disintegration would provide a neutron source (in addition to the fission neutrons) that could have driven the Oklo system as a subcritical (vs. a critical) reactor overt the extended period attributed to it.

ITALY – CROSS SECTION FACTORS

A. Scalia (Dipart. di Fisica, Univ di Catania, Corso, Italy) & P. Figuera (Lab Nazionaledel Sud, Doria, Italy), “The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p) → 3H and 2H(d,n) → 3He at Very Low Temperature,”  pp 235-242, 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The fusion cross section is obtained in terms of the Rutherford scattering by assuming that the fusion process is the “shadow” of elastic scattering. [A. Scalia, “The sub-barrier fusion as the shadow of the elastic scattering” to be publ. in Il Nuovo Cimento. See also Nuovo Cimento, 103, 85, 213, 255, 927, 1177 (1990).] The parameters which appear in the analytical expression of fusion cross section are determined by fitting the experimental values of fusion cross section. The cross section factor, <sigma nu> is obtained by using this fusion cross section and by assuming that the distribution of relative velocity between two different sets of particles will be described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The values of <sigma nu> at different temperatures are determined by performing numerical integrations. At energies at which the experimental data are available the values of cross section factor obtained coincide with those reported in the literature, at very low energies experimental data are not available and our approach is able to give the values of cross section factor. At T = 300 K, we obtain: NA <sigma nu> = 3.5286 x 10-27 (cu cm per mole per sec).

ILLINOIS – IMPROVED CALORIMETER

Thomas F. Droege & Lee John Droege (Batavia, IL), “An Improved Zero Gradient Calorimeter for the Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena,”  pp 243-248, 2 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A second generation null balance calorimeter has been constructed for measuring anomalous heat in electrolytic cells. This calorimeter is similar in concept to an isothermal calorimeter except that it is operated with zero temperature differential. The calorimeter accuracy is 4 milliwatts when operated at a total power of 12 watts. Calibration is performed in situ by operating the cells under test reversed or at zero current.

ITALY – DOUBLE-SCATTERING N DETECTOR

M. Agnello, F. Iazzi, & B. Minetti (INFN Sezione di Torino, Italy), E. Botta, T. Bressani, O. Brunasso, D. Calvo, D. Dattola, P. Gianotti, C. Lamberti & A. Zecchina, “Improvement of the TOFUS Apparatus,”  pp 249-254, 5 refs, 6 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The TOFUS experiment was started in order to detect 2.45 MeV neutrons emitted from a Ti/D system in the gas phase. Improvements in the electronics of the neutron detector, based on the double scattering technique, and in the performances of a new cell are described.

ITALY – SOLID ANGLE NEUTRON DETECTOR

G. Ricco, M. Anghinolfi, P. Corvisiero, P. Prati, M. Taiuti, C. Boragno, R. Eggenhoffner, U. Valbusa (Dept. of Physics, Sezione di Genova, Italy), “A Large Solid Angle Multiparameter Neutron Detector,” pp 255-260, 5 refs, 3 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

We present the results of recent measurements, performed in Genoa with a novel neutron detector, on some titanium-deuterium systems. In spite of the good detector sensitivity, better of [than] the one claimed by Jones and co-workers, no neutron emission was found.

SWEDEN – NEUTRON DETECTOR

K.A. Sjoland, P.Kristiansson & K.G.J. Westergard, “Liquid Scintillator Detection and Multiparameter Data Acquisition for Neutron Detection in Cold Fusion Experiments,” pp 261-265, 6 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

We have designed a low level neutron detector for cold fusion experiments with titanium and deuterium gas. The basic principle of the system is to monitor as many relevant parameters as possible and store them event-by-event and analyze the data afterwards. The result of the experiment was that no significant excess of neutrons was observed. We also discuss the cosmic radiation that may influence low level measurement of neutrons.

ITALY – CRACK FUSION

L.H. Bagnulo, “Crack-fusion: a Plausible Explanation of Cold Fusion,” pp 267-270, 3 refs,
7 figs. [editor’s note: the abstract below is not from the paper, it is apparently a summary written by Hal Fox or whoever put together that issue of Fusion Facts (linked above).]

AUTHOR’S CONCLUSIONS

A hypothesis is postulated that crack growth results in charge separation on the newly formed crack surfaces, which act like a miniature “linear accelerator”; i.e. D+ ions are accelerated in the electric field across the crack tip to kinetic energies of 104 eV or more, sufficient to raise the D+D fusion probability. We assume that also in the case of deuterated Ti or Pd there is an occurrence of D+D fusion in accordance with the dynamics as described in this article. Here too, it is a case of a fusion process resulting from the liberation of deuterium atoms within the tip of an external crack.

COLORADO – MEASURING VERY LOW ENERGY

F.E. Cecil (Colo School of Mines), & G.M. Hale (Los Alamos Nat’l Lab), “Measurement of D-D and D-6Li Nuclear Reactions at Very Low Energies,” pp 271-275, 11 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The nuclear reactions of very low energy deuterons (down to center-of- mass energies of 2 keV) with deuterons and 6Li have been measured. The measured D-D reactions are in good with agreement recent R- matrix calculations. The reaction ratios D(d,p) → T / D(d,n) → 3He and 6Li(d,p) → 7Li / 6Li(d,alpha) → 4He in particular were examined for possible evidence of an Oppenheimer-Phillips type enhancement. No significant enhancement was found in either ratio or in the absolute yields of the reactions. The radiative capture reactions D(d,lambda) → 4He and 6Li(d,lambda) → 8Be were likewise measured. The branching ratios of these radiative capture reactions to the nucleonic branches of the reactions appear roughly independent of energy. The role of these reactions in the production of heat in  cold-fusion experiments is evaluated.

HUNGARY – MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

E. Kuzmann, M. Gal, G.K. Solymos, & CS. Szeles (Eotvos Univ., Budapest, Hungary), “Mossbauer Spectroscopic Characterization of Samples for Cold Fusion Experiment,” pp 277-281, 7 refs, 12 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

In our previous works Mossbauer spectroscopy (as well as neutron and gamma-spectroscopy) was used to study the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe-Zr amorphous alloys deuterized electrolytically both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrical monopole and quadrupole as well as magnetic dipole interactions measured by Mossbauer spectroscopy can provide information about the surrounding of Mossbauer atoms in deuterized samples. Consequently, the localization of deuterium can be sensitively studied. Mossbauer spectroscopy can be especially advantageously applied to the study of the effect of electrolytical hydrogenation of Fe-Zr amorphous alloys because the considerable changes appearing in the spectra(due to the change in the deuterium concentration or due to small heat effects) allow us to detect any structural changes caused by deuterization. Because Celani et al. have shown neutron burst activity in deuterized high Tsuperconductor, we have prepared EuBa2(Cu1-x57Fex)3O7DELTA high TC
superconductors for cold fusion experiments to be performed in an international collaboration. Both the Cu(1) and Cu(2) as well as the rare earth sites can be sensitively monitored by the Mossbauer measurements. The preliminary results of 151Eu and 57Fe Mossbauer investigation of these samples will be discussed.

M.S. Mathur, H.L. Johnston, A. Mirzai, J.S.C. [McKee], G.R. Smith, J.J.G. Durocher, K. Furutani, J.K. Mayer, Y.H. Yeo, H. Hnatiuk, S. King, A. Hempel, K.S. Sharma & G. Williams, “Recent Modifications to the Manitoba Deuterium Implantation Accelerator and a Study of the Properties of the Online Neutron Monitor Detector,” pp 283-288, 6 refs, 4 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Deuterium molecules have been implanted into Palladium, Titanium and Indium targets in recent experiments at Manitoba by means of the 60 keV, 100 microA D2+ ‘Narodny’ ion accelerator. Neutrons from D- D interactions involving beam particles with previously stopped D atoms were detected by a large plastic scintillator viewed by two Photomultiplier tubes. We describe recent modifications to the accelerator made to improve the quality of the implanting beam, and some of the properties of the neutron detector used.

MARYLAND – NAVY THEORY ON Pd DENSITY

Hans S. Uhm & W.M. Lee (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD), “High Deuterium Concentration in Palladium for Application to Cold Fusion,” pp 289-293, 9 refs, 2 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. High deuterium concentration in palladium is needed for application to the solid-state fusion. The first deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the [plasma] ion implantation, which consists of a cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with diffusion-barrier material and immersed in a deuterium [plasma]. The second deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the temperature gradient effects on the deuterium solubility in palladium. A heat source at temperature T2 and a heat sink at temperature T2 (where T2 >T2) [sic] are in contact with two different
parts of a palladium sample, which has been presoaked with deuterium atoms and has been coated with diffusion-barrier material or securely locked in a metal case.

JAPAN – COLD FUSION RESEARCH

H. Ikegami, “Cold Fusion Researches in Japan,” pp 297-307, 16 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

Positive results as well as some negative results from cold fusion research in Japan are reviewed with some comments. Out of 11 research groups taken up in the present review, three groups are mainly working on excess heat calorimetry, and the rest of the eight groups are involved in the detection of nuclear fusion products.

CHINA – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION RESEARCH

Xing Zhong Li (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) “Chinese Effort in Understanding the Cold Fusion Phenomena,” pp 309-317, 16 refs, 1 fig.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

Review on cold fusion research in China in the past two years is presented with the emphasis on the experiments after the first national symposium on cold fusion (May 10, 1990. Beijing). There were three phases: hot, quiet, and deep-going phases. Hot phase is characterized by failures in experiments in repetition and is restrained in thinking by the conventional ideas. Quiet phase started with different approaches and newly-designed experiments. Deep-going phase encourages the scientist to be respectful to the facts and creative in mind. Three anomalies in deuterium / solid system may exist.

RUSSIA – REVIEW OF SOVIET WORK

V.A. Tsarev, “Cold Fusion Studies in the USSR,” pp 319-336, 71 refs, 4 figs, 5 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

This special report is dedicated to the soviet scientists whose work seems not to be well known to the western scientific community. It is possible that some of the early soviet work has been “precursors” to the “cold fusion” era. The first Soviet National Conference on CF took place only recently in March of this year (March 22-26, 1991, Dubna- Moscow). This paper illustrates by a map, the centers of work that was presented at the Dubna conference. This work was carried out by about 45 Institutes. However, others stopped or “froze” their activities after the first unsuccessful attempts and under the pressure of wide- spread skepticism. The CF reputation in our country has suffered greatly from rush and inexact experiments of the initial period, widely boosted with a mass media. The total number of soviet publications on CF certainly exceeds one hundred (more than 80 papers were submitted at the Dubna Conference). About half of them are devoted to CF experiments, about a quarter are connected with methodical and structural studies, and the rest with theoretical models. This paper categorizes and summarizes the soviet CF work and provides suitable references.

TEXAS – FUGACITY & EXCESS HEAT

J.O’M. Bockris, D. Hodko, & Z. Minevski (Texas A&M Univ.), “The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked by Fluxing Deuterium across the Interface,”  pp 337-362, 8 refs, 7 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

In recent times much attention has been given to interpretations of the so-called fusion reactions which were related to the concept of high fugacity within the metal depending on the overpotential applied. In the present paper some preliminary electrochemical investigations of mechanisms of D2 evolution on Pd are outlined together with a report on some recent research upon the effect of electrical pulsing upon the initiation of excess heat generation. Cathodic overpotentials and overpotential decay transients for PdD2 electrode were measured in KOD and LiOD solutions. The mechanism of the deuterium electrode reaction is investigated and two Tafel slopes are obtained. In order to characterize the Pd surface and to find out the influence of different species, present on/in Pd, on the mechanism of D.E.R. surface techniques XPS and EDS were employed. Surface spectra and depth profiling up to 200 A are analyzed for samples exposed to different pretreatment such as annealing/abrading or exposed/not exposed to electrolyzing conditions. The atomic concentration of ad/absorbed species (Zn, Pt, Au, Cu, Fe, etc.) changes with the pretreatment and electrolysis. In respect to above impurities, the presence of Si is much less pronounced. Neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the presence of different species in solutions before and after the electrolysis. Following species are found at detectable levels: Pt, Au, and Na. Light water concentration measured by NMR technique is found to be less than 1%. Enthalpy generation during long term electrolysis of Pd in O.1 M LiOD is measured by a calorimetric method. Four-probe resistivity measurements were used to optimize a current-charging regime and to monitor changes in D/Pd ratio. Increase in current occasionally caused enhancement of D/Pd ratio (up to 0.8). After charging, the electrodes were pulsed in a potentiostatic mode. A typical pulsing regime consisted of cathodic (up to 1 A per sq cm) and anodic pulses of equal duration. The cell pulsed with 5 ms regime for more than 30 days showed no measurable excess heats. Applying 5s pulsing regime excess heats of up to 23% were observed, Fig. 2. The application of 5s pulsing regimes caused electrode to slowly discharge. An interesting observation was that excess heat bursts appeared to be correlated with the process of charging of electrode and enhanced with repetitive pulsing. The total energy production in excess enthalpy bursts shown in Fig. 1 is approx. 39 MJ per mole, the amount exceeding known chemical origin.

UTAH – F&P NOW WORKING IN FRANCE

Martin Fleischmann (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Southampton, UK) and Stanley Pons (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Utah, USA), “The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-Based Cathodes,”  pp 349-362, 8 refs, 11 figs.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

The major measurement technique which we have used in our investigations of the anomalous behavior of palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water has been the calorimetry of these systems. Three types of signatures were detected in our experiments up to October 1989:

1. Low to medium levels in the rates of excess enthalpy generation (0.1-100 watts per cu. cm., 5-40 % excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells);
2. Increases of the rates of excess enthalpy generation with decreases of the rates of enthalpy input; and
3. Bursts in the rates of excess enthalpy generation lasting for periods of a few hours to 16 days (typically 10 watts per cu. cm., 1000% excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells).
It is the magnitudes of the excess enthalpies (typically 50 MJ per cu. cm. in the base line values and up to 16 MJ per cu. cm. in the bursts) which demand explanations of the phenomena in terms of anomalous nuclear processes in these solid state systems. We have continued to use calorimetry as a major method of investigation in the period since October 1989. In this paper we describe the various types of signature which are readily observed using such measurements. We report on the observation of a pattern of behavior intermediate to that of the base line generation of excess enthalpy and the enthalpy bursts which can be observed with some types of cathode materials.

U. S. NAVY – FINDS 4He IN EFFLUENT GASES

M.H. Miles, B.F. Bush, G.S. Ostrom (Chem Div, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA), & J.J. Lagowski (Dept. of Chem, U. of Texas, Austin), “Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments,” pp 363-372, 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A critical issue in determining whether or not the cold fusion process exists is the quality of the evidence concerning the composition of the gaseous products. The lack of neutrons, gamma-rays, and other forms of radiation in these experiments has prompted theoretical proposals of fusion processes in the Pd-D lattice that yield only heat and helium as products. Calorimetric evidence of excess heat production during the electrolysis of heavy water using a palladium cathode will be presented. Effluent gas samples collected during episodes of excess heat production and sent to the University of Texas for analysis by mass spectrometry showed the presence of helium-4. Furthermore, the amount of helium detected was within experimental error of the theoretical estimate of helium production. Various control samples gave no evidence for helium. Attempts to measure the neutron activation of metal foils in cold fusion will also be discussed.

Comments from Fusion Facts Editor: The U.S. Navy can take great pride in the cold fusion work done by Miles et al., by Szpak (NOSC) and by Chubb (NRL) in making large experimental and theoretical strides in cold fusion. By contrast, the DoE hasn’t found out that cold fusion is real.

UTAH NCFI – TRITIUM EVERY TIME

F.G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M-C Yang, J.R. Peterson, H.E. Bergeson, S.C. Barrowes, W.J. West and D.C. Linton (National Cold Fusion Inst., University of Utah, USA), “Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading ofpalladium with deuterium,” pp 373-383, 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

NEW MEXICO – LANL & NEUTRONS

H.O. Menlove, M.A.Paciotti, T.N. Claytor & D.G. Tuggle (Los Alamos Nat’l Lab), “Low-Background Measurement of Neutron Emission from Ti Metal in Pressurized Deuterium Gas,” pp 385-394, 7 refs, 5 figs, 4 tables.

AUTHORS’ ABSTRACT

A wide variety of neutron detector systems have been used at various research facilities to search for anomalous neutron emission from deuterated metals. Some of these detector systems are summarized here together with possible sources ofspurious signals from electronic noise. During the past two years, we have performed experiments to measure neutron emission from pressurized D2 gas mixed with various forms of titanium metal chips and sponge. Details concerning the neutron detectors, experimental procedures, and results have been reported previously. Our recent experiments have focused on increasing the low-level neutron emission and finding a way to trigger the emission. To improve our detection sensitivity, we have increased the shielding in our counting laboratory, changed to low-background 3Hetubes, and set up additional detector systems in deep underground counting stations. This report is an update on this experimental work.

NEW MEXICO – T & NEUTRONS IN Pd-Si

T.N. Claytor, D.G. Tuggle & H.O. Menlove, “Tritium Generation and Neutron Measurements in Pd-Si under High Deuterium Gas Pressure,” pp 395-408, 16 refs,
8 figs, 1 table.

AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS

A reproducible method of tritium generation has been demonstrated. The tritium output scales with the current applied to various configurations of the cells. The tritium yield is found to depend strongly on the type of palladium metal used (powder or foil) and it may be expected that other parameters that have not been investigated thoroughly will have similar effects Various tests for tritium contamination confirm that there is little chance of initial tritium contamination in the powder, foil or other materials used in this study. The tritium and neutron results are self consistent, and consistent with other reports. However, more sensitive neutron measurements are required to give a definitive neutron emission result.

SWITZERLAND – ABSORPTION OF H

Louis Schlapbach (Solid State Physics Group, Univ. of Fribourg), “Hydrogen and its Isotopes in and on Metals,” pp 409-418, 14 refs, 5 figs.

AUTHOR’S ABSTRACT

A summary description is given of phenomena related to the surface adsorption and bulk absorption of hydrogen and of its isotopes by a metallic host. Thermodynamic and surface properties, electronic and crystal structure and diffusion are illustrated for the examples of the hydride formation of Pd and of LaNi5 as typical examples of hydride forming elemental metals and intermetallic compounds.

CALIFORNIA – EPRI RESULTS

M.C.H. McKubre, R. Rocha-Filho, S.I. Smedley, F.L. Tanzella, S. Crouch-Baker, T.O. Passell & J. Santucci, “Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System,” pp 419-443, 6 refs, 14 figs.

AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION

F. Scaramuzzi, “Survey of Gas Loading Experiments,”pp 445-452, 5 refs, 2 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

In March 1989 the results of two experiments claiming for nuclear reactions taking place, at room temperature, in metal lattices (Pd and Ti) charged with deuterium, were presented. In both cases the technique chosen for charging the metals with deuterium consisted in using an electrolytic cell, containing heavy water, in which the cathodes were made out of Pd or Ti. Soon later, in April, the Group led by the writer addressed a very straight forward question: if nuclear reactions take place in a metal lattice because of the interaction between the deuterium nuclei and the lattice, is electrolysis the only route to be followed, in order to produce them? Wouldn’t it be possible to perform experiments, having the same purpose, by letting the lattice to interact with deuterium in the gaseous phase? The question seemed quite appealing, mostly for one reason: the physical system consisting in an electrolytic cell is a very complicated one, and has to take into account a great number of parameters, while the system consisting in a metal and a gas looks much simpler. The latter would permit much cleaner experimental conditions, and thus it would be possible to analyze more clearly the experiments; it would also favor a higher reproducibility, and would enable testing the proposed theories. Experiments were performed at the Frascati Laboratory of ENEA following this alternative route, using titanium: furthermore, it was decided that, in order to favor nuclear reactions, temperature cycles should be performed on the system (from 77K to room temperature). Positive results were obtained, consisting in the detection of neutron bursts, and were soon published.

ITALY – PHYSICS OF FUSION

Giuliano Preparata (Dep di Fisica, Univ di Milano), “Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid?”, pp 453-461, 29 refs, 1 fig, 2 tables.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

I shall try to examine first the strange facts of hydrogen incorporation into Palladium, and then I shall discuss the phenomena of cold fusion in relation to those facts. In the light of the known experimental data I will then discuss the general features of what we might call “possible” and “impossible” theories of cold fusion, somehow drawing a demarcation line between which theoretical ideas can and cannot explain those observations, given the well established and accepted general laws of condensed matter (Quantum Electro Dynamics, QED) and nuclear physics (Quantum Chromo Dynamics, QCD). My discussion will follow quite closely a paper recently completed in collaboration with M. Fleischmann and S. Pons [Possible and
impossible theories of Cold Fusion, preprint MITH 91/23 (1991)]

Fleischmann, M., Pons, S. & Preparata, G. Nuov Cim A (1994) 107: 143. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02813078, Britz Flei1994a, lenr-canr.org.

GERMANY – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION

H. Gerischer (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin), “Is Cold Fusion a Reality? The Impressions of a Critical Observer,” pp 465-474, 14 refs.

AUTHOR’S INTRODUCTION

Having received, at short notice, the invitation to attend the second international conference on cold fusion as a skeptical observer, I began to study some of the papers which have appeared since the fall of 1989 after which I had stopped following the publications in this area. Being skeptical from the beginning, the many negative reports from renowned laboratories seemed to confirm that the disputed claims of cold fusion occurring in a solid were, unfortunately, based on the erroneous interpretation of ill-defined experiments. I now realize that in the meantime many new positive results have been published which cannot be pushed aside quite so easily. Two reviews, currently in the course of publications, were very helpful and yielded much information on the present situation. These are the reviews of M. Srinivasan and E. Storms. Together with my reading and the lectures given on the first days of the conference, I eventually felt able to present my impressions in a lecture on the last day of the conference, as the organizers had requested. I am aware that all the arguments pro and contra the reality of cold fusion have been pointed out by others before. The first part of my contribution to the report of this conference is therefore mainly a reminder of the problems. In the second part I raise some questions seen with the eyes of a physical chemist being specially experienced in electrochemistry.

ENGLAND – FLEISCHMANN REPORTS

M. Fleischmann, “The Present Status of Research in Cold Fusion,” pp 475-527, 1 fig.

EDITORIAL NOTE: Martin Fleischmann was asked by the Royal Society of Chemistry to give an account of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion for the Newsletter of the Electrochemistry Group of the Society. This is a reprint of that article. This article was reviewed and quoted extensively in the December 1991 issue of Fusion Facts.

## Being right is not enough

or How “fusion” created confusion.

We now have strong evidence that the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, sometimes known as the Anomalous Heat Effect, is nuclear in nature and accomplishes the transmutation of deuterium into helium, as the main reaction generating heat, but this evidence was not available in the early days of the field. Skeptics and “believers” conspired (albeit not realizing what they were doing) to call what was actually observed — or claimed, and the two were heavily confused — by Pons and Fleischmann, “cold fusion.” Even when a little careful thought would have exposed the distinction.\

What Pons and Fleischmann observed, in experiments with extreme loading of palladium with deuterium, was anomalous heat, with an apparent energy density or net energy production higher than they could explain with chemistry. They also saw weak signals associated with fusion, specifically, they believed they had seen evidence of neutrons, they detected tritium, and also helium. They did not have quantitative correlations, and  the quantities found of tritum and neutrons and the ratio of heat to tritium and neutrons, and tritium to neutrons, was far different from that expected if they had succeeded in creating normal fusion.

So what they had found, if it was nuclear in nature, was not “d-d fusion,” almost certainly, which is very well known, and which is believed to necessarily produce those products.

I just came across some remarkable language from 1990 that shows the issue. This is in a report to ICCF-1, by Iyangar and Srinivasan, from BARC, the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, India. These were nuclear experts, and there was, for a time, a massive effort to investigate cold fusion.

Wait, to investigate “cold fusion”? What’s that? Getting little details like exactly what one is investigating and why can be, ah, let’s call it useful.

From the abstract, and, remember, I have the benefit of an intervening three decades of history, a huge dollop of hindsight. What I’m seeing here as a misunderstanding that fostered confusion and conflict was something that many, many thought, it was language in common use. From the abstract:

A wide variety of experiments have been carried out by twelve independent teams employing both electrolytic and gas phase loading of deuterium in Pd and Ti metals to investigate the phenomenon of cold fusion first reported by Fleischmann and Pons in March 1989. The experiments were primarily devoted to the study of the emission of nuclear particles such as neutrons and tritium with a view to verify the“nuclear origin”of cold fusion.

Did Fleischmann and Pons report “cold fusion”? It was quite unfortunate that they mentioned the classical fusion reactions in their first paper, because it was totally obvious that what they were seeing, whatever it was, was not those reactions. The evidence that a nuclear reaction was happening was circumstantial, not enough to overcome strong expectation that such reactions would be impossible in the conditions of their experiments

That is, there was heat that they could not explain. If the heat were regular and predictable and reproducible, that could have been enough. But it wasn’t. The heat effect was elusive. “I can’t explain these results with chemistry” is not evidence with which one could convince a physicist. One would first need to convince the physicist that the evidence is clear and not artifact, because if one has telegraphed that you think this is something the physicist will think is impossible, they will examine all the evidence with a jaundiced eye. It’s just human nature.

So “cold fusion” started off with a handicap. It really didn’t help that the neutron evidence that Pons and Fleischmann adduced was artifact. What we know now is that very few neutrons, if any, are generated with their experiment.

(We need to realize that many difference kinds of experiments get lumped together as “cold fusion,” but different experiments may actually show different results, different reactions might be happening under conditions that are sometimes not adequately controlled. By conceptualizing the object of study as “cold fusion,” an assumption is created of a single phenomenon, and then when results differ, the reality of the alleged phenomenon comes into question.l)

What was reasonably being investigated was the possibility of nuclear phenomena in certain metals loaded with deuterium. The first issue to investigate was, for most groups, heat. But groups with a particular interest in nuclear physics often investigated neutrons, and when it was found that many replication attempts produced very few neutrons, this strengthened skepticism. There was also a common assumption that if nuclear reactions were happening, there must be neutrons. That is simply false, but the absence of neutrons from what was being assumed to be deuterium-deuterium fusion, that’s actually a very dificult puzzle.

The first order of business was to detect, measure, and correlate phenomena, not to interpret the results, but this was all pre-interpreted. They were investigating “cold fusion.” Not, say, “the Fleischman and Pons reports of anomalous heat.”

Ask a physicist, could there be deuterium fusion in palladium deuteride at room temperature, and he or she is likely to tell you, straight out, “No.” But ask this scientist if there could be a heat effect of unknown origin, and if they are worth their salt, they would tell you, well, we don’t know everything and sometimes it can take time to figure out what is happening.

Tbe report desperately needing confirmation was what Pons and Fleischmann had actually observed, once the confusion over their neutron reports was cleared up. “Cold fusion” was an interpretation, not an experimental fact, or certainly not yet.

Tritium was widely observed, it wasn’t just BARC. But was the tritium connected with the prime Fleischmann=Pons effect, the heat? And then things really got crazy when reports started to show up of a heat effect with light hydrogen. Again, the concept of a single phenomenon caused confusion. It is not that we know there is more than one reaction, we don’t know that yet. But it is quite possible, the “law of conservation of miracles” is not a law, and cold fusion is not a miracle. It’s something that doesn’t happen very often, and while I use the tern “cold fusion,” often, I would not use it academically without clear definition. At least I hope not!

By “cold fusion” i mean the FP Heat Effect and other possible affects commonly associated with it or believed or claimed to be related. I justify the use of the term because the known product from the FP Heat Effect is helium, which is, Ockham’s Razor with the evidence we have, coming from the conversion oi deuterium to helium. That is fusion in effect, which must be distinguished from “deuterium fusion,” i.e., two deuterium nuclei fusing. Why? That reaction is very well known and the products are well known, and there are reasons to consider that even if this happens somehow at low energy, the products will be the same.

(When a physicist claims that “cold fusion” is impossible, because of the Coulomb barrier making the fusion rate be so low as to be indetectable, they are being sloppy, because muon-catalyzed fusion takes place at extremely low temperatures. Muons act as catalysts, so the immediate question arises, could something else catalyze fusion. An inability to imagine it is, again, not evidence. The universe is vast and possibilities endless, we cannot know all of them, only what is common.)

In 22 different electrolytic experiments whose cathode surface areas ranged from 0.1 to 300 cm2 , large bursts of neutrons and/or tritium were measured. Some of these gave clear evidence that these two nuclear particles were being generated simultaneously. The neutron-to-tritium yield ratios in the majority of these experiments was in the range of 10-6 to 10-9.

“Large bursts” is suspicious. Large compared to what? I have not read the report in detail yet. (I will). But tritium is a minor effect associated with the FP Heat Effect. It may be the case that tritium is enhanced if there is substantial light hydrogen in the heavy water, but even a little light water tends to suppress the FP Heat Effect. Even if there is some single mechanism, it behaves differently when presented with different fuels. The norm with cold fusion experiments, though, is that high-energy radiation and radioactive products are found only at very low levels. The rule of thumb, I state as tritium being a million times down from helium, and neutrons a million times down from helium. Helium production, with deuterium fuel (helium is not reported with light hydrogen as fuel, and we don’t know the product of light hydrogen “cold fusion.”

Those ratios are strong evidence that “cold fusion” is not d-d fusion, because the operation of d-d fusion, how and why the nucleus normally fragments, is well understood. I.e, the fused nucleus, the product of that fusion, is highly energized, it’s hot. That is true even if the reaction is not hot fusion (and the kinetic energy involved with fusion from the velocity of impact is dwarfed by the energy of collapse, as the nucleons collapse under the influence of the strong force. (Very strong force!)  There is so much energy that normally the nucleus breaks into two pieces and there are only two ways it can do that. It can eject a proton or it can eject a neutron, to carry away that energy and leave the nucleus in the ground state, cool. That’s the two branches, and it is mostly equal which nucleon ends up being odd man out. Hence the two common branches,

1H2 (deuterium)+ 1H2 -> 1H3 (Helium-3)+ 1H(light hydrogen, a proton) + energy

1H2 + 1H2 -> 2He3 (Helium-4) + 0N 1 (a neutron) + energy

And then the third branch is very rare. If the nucleus happens to be exactly balanced (I think, maybe balance is not an issue, just the odds), and manages to live intact long enough to generate a photon, the nucleons can stay together and almost all the energy is dumped into the photon, which is very high energy, 23.8 MeV. (The rest of the energy is in the recoil of the helium nucleus.) I think the branching ratio for that is one in 10^-7 reactions. One in ten million.

So that becomes another miracle that exercised Huizenga. If somehow the fusion happens (spectacularly unlikely!), and somehow it manages to produce helium (very unlikely), there must be a gamma ray, a very energetic one. This would be, at the heat levels reported, very dangerous. It’s not observed. That’s strong evidence that d+d fusion is no happening.

Something else is happening. In that context and with that understanding, and given the mishegas about “cold fusion” it was important to be investigating phenomena, not explanations. Tritium was actually contradictory to the FP Heat Effect, in general. It was lumped together with it because if tritium was being produced, “something nuclear” was happening. But what is the evidence that the heat was nuclear. Maybe if we look carefully, we will see nuclear reactions happening at low levels in unexpected places.

A unique feature of the BARC electrolysis results is that the first bursts of neutrons and tritium occurred (in 8 out of 11 cells) on the very first day of commencement of electrolysis, when hardly a few amp-hrs of charge had been passed.

This is evidence that the effects they are seeing are not the FP Heat Effect! It doesn’t happen that early, in FP type electrolysis experiments. There are rapid effects reported with codeposition, a different approach.

But the occasion for this post was the linguistic anomaly here. I’ll repeat it:

The experiments were primarily devoted to the study of the emission of nuclear particles such as neutrons and tritium with a view to verify the“nuclear origin”of cold fusion.

“Fusion” is a nuclear reaction. So they are looking to verify the nuclear origin of a nuclear reaction. It’s a tautology. As to looking for nuclear particles associated with what was called “cold fusion,” the FP Heat Effect, they are missing, mostly. What BARC found was at very low levels. Helium was suspected early on, but (because of no gammas) was not given a great deal of credence, and there was an additional reason to doubt helium evidence: helium is present in the atmosphere at levels normally greater than those expected if the FP Heat Effect were producing helium. So in many experiments (not all), leakage can be a possible artifact. It took careful work (beginning with Miles as to what I know so far) to actually show that helium is the main product of the FP Heat Effect.

That has been done, and confirmed many times. Tritium, however, is interesting, scientifically, and there is much work still to be done with tritium, and in particular, investigating tritium correlations with other products and conditions.

## ICCF-1

subpage of Proceedings

The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion
Conference Proceedings

March 28-31, 1990
University Park Hotel
Salt Lake City, Utah

National Cold Fusion Institute

“Reprint Permissions: Abstracting is permitted with credit to the source. For copying, reprint or
republication permission, write to Director, National Cold Fusion Institute, 390 Wakara Way,
Salt Lake City, UT 84106 (801) 581-5571″

This information and the files associated were obtained from a copy of the Proceedings hosted by lenr-canr.org.

The front matter includes a transmittal note from Fritz Will, his Opening Address, the Conference Program (from which the TOC here was prepared, a list of papers in the Proceedings (duplicated here, but the way the author names are presented is different), an index of authors, and a word index.

*Indicates another source, noted and linked with the asterisk. There may be small differences. Pages 70 and 71 were replaced with full pages from the alernate source.

## V26

Subpage of JCMNS
JOURNAL OF CONDENSED MATTER NUCLEAR SCIENCE
Experiments and Methods in Cold Fusion

Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen Loaded Metals, Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017

source page: http://www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol26.pdf  pp.,    MB. All pages hosted here have been compressed, see the source for full resolution if needed.  stripped_JCMNS-Vol26, pp.,  1.8 MB, has front matter removed so that pdf page number and as-published page match. All files may have undiscovered errors. Please note any problems or desired creation of a discussion page in comments.