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Video from YouTube, transcript edited by Abd from YouTube closed caption. Slides from this PDF. Abstract from pre-conference distribution:

Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation in the Ni-H2 System
#Francis Tanzella1, Robert Godes2, Robert George2
1SRI International, United States
2Brillouin Energy Corp., United States
Email: francis.tanzella@sri.com [see Slide17 for new email]
Brillouin Energy and SRI International (SRI) have been performing calorimetry measurements on the Ni/ceramic/Cu coatings in a H2 atmosphere with nanosecond pulses applied between the Ni and Cu. The reactive cores have been described earlier [1]. We have been testing new materials, material fabrication techniques, and electrical stimulation methods to produce power and energy output in excess of that reported earlier. In addition to the pure metals, we have investigated systems using Ni-Pd coatings.

By applying fast pulses [2] of several hundred volts and tens of nanoseconds long, the current follows the “skin-effect” principle and is concentrated at the Ni-ceramic interface but returns through the bulk of the Cu. Two stimulation methods were used – steady-state and dynamic. In the steady-state method, the pulse power is measured directly using fast oscilloscopes that record the voltage across the core and a shunt resistor in series with the core. The input pulse power is determined by multiplying the calculated root-mean-square voltage and current and recorded every 10 seconds. Figure 1 shows typical waveforms collected from the oscilloscope and the calculated pulse power.

Using a sophisticated model of the calorimeter with up to 15 coefficients, the power reaching the five temperature sensors is determined during simultaneous continuous ramps of both heater and pulse powers. The power emanating from the core is determined during sequences of more frequent low voltage pulses (LVP) and compared to that found using less frequent high voltage pulses (HVP). The power determined during the more frequent LVP is set as the input power during that sequence. The power of the stimulation pulses during the less frequent HVP sequences is maintained equal to that during the more frequent LVP. Then the power calculated from the core is divided by that calculated during the reference sequences, giving a so-called coefficient of performance (COP). Table 1 below presents some of the recent results obtained using this dynamic stimulation method. Because the analytical method used for the dynamic stimulation is different from that used earlier with steady-state stimulation, a correction was applied for better comparison. The corrected results are presented in the last column in the table. The actual excess powers in the first column are up to three times greater than those measured earlier.

QREACTION
Watts
COP / using DS method COP / using legacy method
3.62 1.25 1.56
3.59 1.26 1.55
3.90 1.27 1.62
4.91 1.31 1.56
4.99 1.31 1.58
4.85 1.31 1.58

[1] F. Tanzella, R. Godes R., et al. “Controlled electron capture: enhanced stimulation and
calorimetry methods”, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci., vol. 24, pp. 301-311, 2017.
[2] R. Godes, “Drive circuit and method for semiconductor devices”, US Patent 8,624,636, 2014


00:00 good morning! happy to see all 00:03 these nice friendly faces, 8 o’clock in 00:06 the morning.
Slide1

[all the original slides are “© 2018 SRI International”]

anyway 00:10 today I’m here to give you an update on 00:13 what we’ve been doing at SRI, relative 00:16 to Brillouin Energy experiments, since 00:18 ICCF-20.

Slide2

it is just a quick 00:26 outline, talk about some of the earlier 00:29 pressurized gas results, and the new 00:32 designs and calorimetry, and then give 00:36 you, hopefully, a taste of the results of 00:39 what we’re seeing so far, and, hopefully, a 00:42 little bit of idea what we’re trying to go 00:44 forward with.

Slide3

so, first a summary of 00:50 what’s happened before, up to about ICCF-20, 00:54 and that was about a hundred 00:56 experiments performed in ten cores,
and 00:59 I’ll explain to you what I mean by a 01:01 core.
and what we’ve been working, in the 01:05 nickel hydrogen system, at elevated 01:07 temperatures for over two years
so . . . 01:11 there’s enough excess power, and it was 01:13 reproducible enough, to convince us to 01:16 keep moving forward.
01:18 there are pulses sent through these 01:22 pieces of metal, and I’ll show you a 01:24 photo of a diagram in a minute, and 01:28 experimental results are consistent with 01:32 Robert Godes’s controlled electron 01:34 capture hypothesis, which I won’t go into 01:37 today just for brevity.
and by changing 01:42 the pulse parameters you can alter the 01:45 excess power by between twenty-five and 01:47 a hundred percent, and you can actually 01:50 turn it on and off, [while] putting in the 01:53 same amount of power by just changing 01:55 the parameters of the stimulation pulses.
01:58 you can turn it on and off.
Slide4
02:01 so this is more or less what one of them 02:05 looks like.
02:10 starting on the inside will either be a 02:12 metallic 02:13 or a ceramic tube, and sometimes there’s 02:17 a heater in the middle, but there’s 02:18 always a temperature sensor in the 02:20 middle.
on top of that, on the purple, is a 02:24 stripe of plasma sprayed copper, that’s 02:29 just a return line for the pulses,
and 02:31 then after that, which is actually dark 02:35 blue, but might be look black to you, is a 02:39 ceramic usually alumina, and that’s also 02:41 plasma sprayed, and then on top of that 02:43 is the nickel, 02:45 that’s plasma sprayed as well.
and those 02:49 numbers up there are approximate and 02:51 everything is porous, and the pulse is 02:55 sent between the nickel and the copper, 02:58 so it’s going through the dielectric.
and 03:02 these are fast rise time pulses and 03:05 they’re fast enough, 03:07 a few nanoseconds, that it induces the 03:11 skin effect, so most of the current is 03:13 within the first few microns of the 03:15 nickel, at the alumina interface.
Slide5
so 03:21 there’s an idea what the pulse looks 03:22 like.
we have a long dead time, 03:28 generally. the numbers are less than one 03:31 percent duty cycle.
they can be more 03:35 when we go to low voltages, so that we 03:38 keep everything constant.
the pulse 03:42 width can change, as [well as] the amplitude and 03:46 the dead time repetition rate.
this is 03:49 how we measure it. there’s a very nice 03:53 oscilloscope taking five million points 03:58 a second, no, five billion points a second.
04:01 anyway to give us — [we] want [it] to give us the 04:05 voltage at one end and then we get the 04:07 voltage at the other end, so in this 04:10 chart you see the voltages and the 04:14 current plotted on the left axis and the 04:16 power — instantaneous power — plotted on the 04:20 right axis.
so you measure v1 you measure 04:23 v2 that’s what they look like and red 04:25 and blue 04:27 v2 also gives you the current because 04:30 there’s a current shunt right up next to 04:32 that, into the core, and so that’s the 04:35 current down here in black, and then 04:36 multiply the difference of the voltages 04:38 times the current and you get this power 04:40 over here, this instantaneous power.
Slide6
this 04:45 is what the interface looks like we 04:48 measure 57 parameters in the sequence 04:53 that we use
we use sequences to 04:56 automatically stimulate it.
some of 04:58 them run for a hundred hours and we just 05:00 take the data and analyze it, when it’s 05:02 ready. there’s some loss in the 05:07 termination resistor that’s designated 05:10 here, and in the switching transistor as 05:13 you can imagine that these currents — 05:16 you’re getting a lot of heat there.
05:19 those actually have water flow heat 05:21 sinks, so we’re doing some mass flow 05:23 calorimetry, on those two thermal losses.
05:27 I was going to show there there are 05:30 temperature sensors all over. there is one 05:32 in the middle there’s a couple (or 05:35 sometimes two) in the middle, two in the 05:37 heat spreader, another two out here in 05:41 the aluminum.
between the heat spreader 05:43 and an aluminum shell is a ceramic 05:46 insulation.
outside the aluminum shell is 05:49 an acrylic shell. and there’s water 05:51 flowing there to keep it at 25 degrees C.
Slide7
05:55 this is just another way of looking at 05:58 it, and I’ll point out, there’s a 06:00 feed through up here to send in and 06:03 return the pulses. everything else is 06:06 pretty much same.
there’s argon actually 06:09 flowing through that ceramic insulator 06:12 between the heat spreader and the 06:14 aluminum.
and there’s argon outside the 06:17 reactor just for safety purposes, since 06:19 we’re almost always using pure hydrogen 06:21 or pure deuterium.
Slide18
so, 06:27 static gas — we 06:30 keep it at a controlled pressure, top it 06:33 up as necessary, which is very rare, it’s 06:37 not flowing.
operation from 200 to 600 [C.] 06:41 and you saw the outer block is constant [temperature] 06:44 so that’s our isoperibolic 06:45 calorimeter.
the pulse power from the 06:50 stimulating pulse is held constant by 06:54 changing the amplitude, the repetition 06:58 rate, or the pulse width. actual pulse 07:04 power as measured, as I showed a couple 07:06 of slides ago, directly and in your two 07:09 types of calorimetry —
— power compensation 07:12 calorimetry, where the heater power is 07:16 set to [maintain] a constant temperature, and as you 07:19 add pulses to it, it lowers the power 07:22 going into the heater, and that 07:24 difference is part of our calorimetry.
07:26 and the other one is constant heater 07:29 power calorimetry, as you normally do, and 07:31 isoperibolic calorimetery, you keep 07:33 the heater power constant, and just 07:37 calibrate it at different heater power 07:39 steps, so you can calculate how much 07:42 power is being put in by the pulse. as it 07:46 adds on to the heater power.
Slide9
operation: 07:52 again I guess it was mostly an h2 gas 07:54 sometimes d2 we found we don’t need to 07:58 operate in argon or helium anymore.
it’s 08:00 just the all the thermal parameters are 08:04 so different it just gets too confusing, 08:06 so we just leave everything in hydrogen 08:10 most of the time.
again 200 [to] 600 C, adjust 08:15 everything, so first you do that pulse 08:19 stream with low voltage pulses.
the 08:22 concept in the hypothesis is that, below 08:26 a certain threshold, 08:27 you’re not going to induce this 08:29 controlled electron capture.
and so you 08:32 do that, you get your constant pulse 08:35 power, get all your parameters calculated, 08:38 calibrate your system, and then you go 08:40 and do the exact same thing, at the exact 08:42 same pressure and temperature with much 08:45 higher voltage pulses.
talking somewhere 08:48 about 30 volts versus 350 volts.
08:55 and you measure and record everything, 08:58 more than everything you need, every 10 09:02 seconds, including the hydrogen and 09:05 oxygen concentration outside the reactor 09:07 for safety reasons, and then you compare 09:10 that output power or heater power 09:14 compensation, depending on the method of 09:16 calorimetry, of high voltage pulses 09:19 versus low voltage pulses, everything 09:22 else held constant
the assumption is you 09:24 should have the exact same thermal 09:26 response.
and occasionally we’ll go in 09:30 there and do a DC calibration, just by 09:33 passing a DC current across the nickel, 09:35 without touching the copper or the 09:39 alumina.
Slide10
so . . . we have two methods of 09:46 calorimetry, we’ve been employing the 09:47 steady-state, [unintelligible] 09:51 the relatively well-established 09:55 method, or you just put in, increase the 09:59 heater power and wait, and pending on 10:01 your time constants, you can wait several 10:02 hours and call that your steady state, 10:05 temperature versus heater power.
and then 10:09 you do that with the pulses, and again 10:13 the high voltage versus low voltage and 10:16 that’s how you calculate Q.
10:21 delta H of reaction is just what you . . . the 10:25 heater power compensation, how much it’s 10:28 been reduced for a low voltage pulse, 10:30 compared to how much for a high voltage 10:32 pulse.
and then you could call — they like 10:37 to use COP, not everybody likes to use 10:39 it.
but then you just get your 10:41 delta H that you calculated, divided by 10:44 the amount of power that you know went 10:45 in, from your low voltage pulse 10:48 stimulation.
another method we use is 10:54 what I call dynamic stimulation.
and 10:56 in this you’re sending in essentially 11:00 half sine waves of combination of 11:06 both 11:07 the heater and the stimulation power.
11:10 they’re changing all the time, there’s nowhere 11:13 near steady-state, and you do that for 40 11:17 hours, or up to a hundred hours, depending 11:19 on the design.
and this gets you an idea 11:25 of what the model is.
11:27 as it turns out there are only four 11:30 terms that are important. that is 11:33 the K, which is the delta T between the 11:36 core and the heat spreader, and the other 11:40 K, which is between the core and the 11:44 outer temperature, and then there are two 11:49 heat capacity terms, and in front of 11:53 those are actually all three-parameter-binomials 11:57 and then you fit that in a 12:00 MATLAB program, under low voltage power, 12:02 and in reality maybe nine of those 12:06 twelve or eight of those twelve fall out 12:08 as zero, and you end up with four 12:11 parameters that you know define the 12:14 system.
and then you do that with the low 12:18 voltage stimulation, and then you apply 12:21 those same coefficients that you got 12:23 from the MATLAB, and in the low voltage 12:25 stimulation to your high voltage 12:26 stimulation.
and then just divide that 12:30 by the low voltage stimulation.
Slide11
this 12:37 is just an idea of what the raw data 12:39 looks like. on the left axis is heater 12:43 power or temperature.
the heater 12:46 power is in blue, the temperature is in 12:49 green.
and then on the right axis is the 12:52 power, that’s measured by the 12:55 oscilloscope, going into the core.
and you 12:58 see that’s up to like six watts that 13:01 goes in.
Slide12
this is what some of the 13:07 steady-state results look like. so 13:09 instead of just doing it at two 13:11 different voltages we’ve done it in 13:13 several voltages.
so the y-axis, we’ve 13:17 plotted voltage of the pulse, 13:21 and the x-axis we’ve taken that heater 13:24 power compensation and divided it by the 13:27 power measured by the oscilloscope, and 13:30 so at, say, the green [red] line at 250 degree,s 13:34 down here about 35 volts, you get a ratio 13:38 of like 0.58.
but then you keep 13:42 increasing the voltage but maintaining 13:44 the exact same power going into the 13:47 system, and you see as you get up to 13:49 about 350 volts your way over here at 13:53 like 0.73 – 0.74.
so it’s not a great number, 13:58 but it’s a reproducible number, probably 14:00 25 percent, something like that.
and then 14:04 you see a very similar thing at 275 .. . 14:10 no at 300 [blue], and then when you get past 300 14:13 [green and black] interestingly, that ratio of the 14:17 heater power compensation is pretty much 14:21 the same at 350 volts as it is at 35 14:24 volts.
so it tells you that you’re not 14:28 creating excess power, and it also gives 14:30 you a built-in calibration that you know 14:33 what’s going on.
Slide13
and this is some of the 14:38 summary from the from the steady-state 14:42 stimulation results and it’s very 14:45 similar to what you just saw if you stay 14:48 below 350 [C.] you get numbers, COP numbers 14:53 that are over one, above experimental 14:57 error.
and then 350 [C.] and up the numbers 15:01 are pretty much equal to experimental 15:04 error.
so you don’t see those at excess 15:07 power.
Slide14
so this is what that pulse 15:14 stimulation looks like when we do the 15:17 dynamic stimulation, and this is a 15:19 combination of the heater and core power, 15:24 in blue, that was determined from the low 15:29 voltage pulses,
and then the delta 15:33 T, measured 15:35 in the high voltage pulses, had those 15:39 same coefficients determined from the 15:41 low voltage, applied to them, and that’s 15:44 the light green.
as you can see. there’s 15:48 no steady-state except I finally asked 15:52 them, why don’t you do something that 15:54 stands still for a while, so we can watch 15:57 it, instead of having to do all of this 15:59 computational stuff.
and so they held 16:03 this constant for about three hours and 16:06 as you can see the calculated power 16:10 output power, with the high voltage pulse, 16:12 is about five watts above what we got 16:16 with the low voltage pulse at the same 16:18 input power.
and, yes, those are similar 16:22 numbers over here, and you can see those 16:26 COPs are again — not overly exciting — but 16:30 between 1.2 and 1.3.
and over here. yeah. 16:36 same sort of number.
Slide15
so we’ve done that a 16:40 bunch of times, and this is what some of 16:44 the dynamic stimulation results look 16:46 like, and again at different temperatures.
16:51 but none of these are above 350 [C.], so all 16:56 of them are showing some reasonable 17:00 powers, that delta H, as I said, the 17:04 difference between the low voltage pulse 17:07 and the high voltage pulse, up to 5 watts.
17:09 and then calculating the COP, using that 17:14 method again, those numbers in the 1.2 to 17:17 1.3 range.
but interestingly enough, when 17:22 we did all of that we changed the way we 17:25 did all of our calculations, compared to 17:27 what we reported earlier, and so I went 17:30 back and used the earlier method, 17:34 essentially put in a fudge factor, so we 17:36 could compare it to where we were 17:38 earlier, so that at least we could see 17:41 whether or not we were making progress.
17:43 and when you do that and progress was — we 17:47 were getting numbers 17:48 about the same, about one-point-two when 17:50 we used the old method, when when we went 17:53 back and reapplied that method to the 17:55 new data we got numbers closer to 1.5 — I 17:58 mean at 1.6.
which was important 18:01 to convince us that we needed — that we 18:04 were making progress, so we could go 18:05 forward.
Slide16
so let me sum up what we’ve 18:12 learned.
so these are reactions 18:14 stimulated by electrical pulses, very 18:17 narrow, very fast rise time, electrical 18:20 pulses on coated nickel powders, and these 18:23 are very porous nickel powders. 18:26 for experiments [we did?] hydrogen, deuterium 200 to 18:29 600 C., and heater-only power and heater 18:33 and pulse power, and in our compensation 18:37 mode, 500 experiments on a hundred 18:41 different nickel coated cores, and six 18:43 different reactors, so in the last two 18:45 years, we’ve upped our game, by an order 18:48 of magnitude with respect to the amount 18:51 of runs being made, and again, COP 18:54 between 1 & 2, electricity in, heat out.
19:00 and of course, as everybody else is still 19:03 doing, we’re still optimizing our metal 19:08 metallic composition and metallurgy, and 19:12 also since most of the group is 19:14 electrical engineers, they’re always 19:16 tweaking the pulse parameters, finding 19:18 narrower pulses, sharper rise time pulses, 19:21 and we regularly update and improve the 19:25 calorimetry.
Slide17
I need to acknowledge 19:29 Brillouin for their generous support at 19:32 SRI. this is an old picture of the group 19:36 in their conference room. they actually 19:38 have a lab.
about half of the experiments 19:40 are being run at SRI, half are being run 19:43 in their third-floor walk-up, as I refer 19:46 to it, in Berkeley which is behind that 19:49 rear door, and I want to thank you 19:54 for your attention.
but first one a note 19:57 a personal note on the bottom 20:00 for your information.
and thank you.
[Frank Gordon:] I 20:09 want to thank Fran because he’s helping 20:12 getting us back on time. we do have 20:14 time for some questions
[1st question:] got any numbers 20:23 for the impedance or the RC 20:28 frequencies from the aluminum oxide, is 20:31 there a capacitance there? 20:32 have you tried to match it?
yeah . 20:36 like I say, we’ve got a roomful of 20:38 electrical engineers and that’s what they they do 20:39 for a living. the number, the impedance is 20:42 in the 2 ohm range.
okay.
and they they’re 20:46 always measuring TDR, and minimizing 20:49 capacitance.
have you tried using 20:53 multiple layers and going through them.
20:55 we have done that but they weren’t very 20:59 successful, so they gave up on that since 21:01 that’s a lot harder to make.
[2nd questioner:] uh, Fran, 21:07 could you say something about the 21:08 material, the pressure, post-analysis 21:12 helium, anything like that?
okay we’re not 21:16 doing any post analysis. we do have, in 21:19 two of the six reactors we have 21:21 an online mass spec, but it’s it’s just 21:24 an RGA so it’s not telling us anything 21:27 too anomalous.
I’m sorry, I should have 21:30 mentioned: most of this is done between 21:32 eight and ten bar of hydrogen.
21:37 analysis: we’re not doing any gas 21:41 analysis. my mass spec is still being 21:43 tweaked, and occasionally they’ve tried 21:48 to get people to do isotopic analysis on 21:52 the powders, but nobody really seems to 21:55 be interested, or capable, of telling if 21:59 anything’s happening to the nickel.
I’m sure Francesco has a 22:04 quick answer or question, because it’s time 22:06 for an orientation
[Francesco Celani:] One, good paper. Second one, 22:11 we have long experience about 22:14 pulsing palladium [unintelligible] and we found that 22:19 the surface temperature is really larger 22:23 than of the bulk, because skin effect. do you 22:27 have an idea which one is your surface 22:30 temperature?
in the nickel?
oh yes 22:35 where you give pulse
22:38 well, because a nickel is paramagnetic, it 22:41 has the skin effect, so most of the 22:44 current is going at the interface.
okay
22:47 but this is just plasma sprayed, so it’s 22:51 very random, there’s no controlled 22:54 morphology, or anything.
okay. thank you.
Slides not shown: Slide18 was blank.
Slide19
List of slides and slide text
Slide1
Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation in the Ni-H2 System
Francis Tanzella, Robert Godes, Robert George
Presented at ICCF21 / Ft. Collins, CO USA / June 5, 2018
Brillouin Energy Corp.
Slide2
Outline
Ø Controlled electron capture (CEC) concept
Ø Earlier pressurized gas phase reactor results
Ø New core designs and pulse stimulation methods
Ø Updated isoperibol (IPB) calorimeter and methods
Ø Results from IPB reactor/calorimeter
Ø Summary and future work
Ø Acknowledgements
Slide3
Summary of Earlier Results
Ø Over 100 experiments performed in up to ten cores
Ø Excess power seen in Ni/H2 gas phase system
Ø Excess power has been shown to be reproducible and transportable
Ø Pulsed axial pulses gave excess power in this system
Ø Excess power depends on pulse repetition rate
Ø Experimental conditions and results are consistent with CEC hypothesis
Ø Changing pulse parameters yield 25 – 100% excess power and allows for switching power production on and off
Ø Very dependent on material chemistry and morphology
Slide4
Brillouin’s 4th Generation H2 Hot Tube Cores
One example of a spray-coated core – some have more or fewer layers
Ø Metal and ceramic coatings are porous
Ø Pulse sent through outer Ni layer returns through inner Cu layer
Ø Fast rise-time pulse current is primarily at Ni-Al2O3 interface (skin-effect)
Slide5
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor Cores / Stimulation and Measurement
Slide6
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor/Calorimeter / Computer Interface
Slide7
Brillouin’s 4th-Generation H2 Hot Tube Reactor (Isoperibolic)
Ø Heater inside or outside core
Ø Thermocouple inside core
Ø Ni-coated tube core
Ø Core sheath inside steel block
Ø 2 Tinner sensors in steel block
Ø Ceramic insulation with Ar flush
Ø Al shell with 2 Touter sensors
Ø Constant T flowing H2O
Ø Pulses injected/returned at #15
Ø Ar flush outside reactor
Slide8
Brillouin’s Isoperibolic (IPB) Reactor
Ø Static H2 or D2 gas on high-surface-area Ni inside sheath
Ø Core temperature varied from 200° to 600°C
Ø Outer block temperature held constant by constant T-flowing H2O
Ø Core pulse power held constant at generator board or at core
• (Pulse repetition rate changes to maintain constant input power at
different pulse widths and/or amplitudes)
Ø Actual pulse power imparted to core is measured directly
Ø Power compensation calorimetry
• (Heater power changes to maintain constant core or inner block
temperature)
Ø Constant heater power calorimetry
Slide9
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor: Operation
Ø Operate in H2 gas using automated sequence and low-voltage pulses (LVP)
• Vary temperature from 200° to 600°C in fixed intervals (50°C)
• Adjust repetition rate for constant pulse power at each temperature
Ø Repeat in H2 gas using automated sequence and high-voltage pulses (HVP)
Ø Measure and record 57 parameters every 10 seconds
• Heater, pulse generator, and actual pulse powers
• All temperatures, H2O flow rates, and pressures
• H2 and O2 concentration outside reactor
Ø Compare calculated output power or heater power compensation (HPC) with
high-voltage versus low-voltage pulses
Ø Occasionally compare HVP outputs to DC stimulation results
Slide10
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor: Calorimetry
Steady-State Stimulation
ΔHreaction = HPC(HVP) – HPC(LVP)
COP = ΔHreaction/ΔHLVP = (HPC(HVP) – HPC(LVP)) /ΔHLVP
COP = (HPC(HVP)/ΔHHVP)/(HPC(LVP)/ΔHLVP)
Model used for Dynamic Stimulation Calorimetry
Slide11
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor: Results
Heater / Core Power / Temperature vs Elapsed time
Slide12
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor: Results
Voltage vs Power at 4 temperatures for Core IPB2-33
Slide13
IPB Reactor: Steady-State Stimulation Results
COP for 4 cores at 250° – 400°C
Slide14
Brillouin’s IPB Reactor: Results
Power v. Time
Slide15
IPB Reactor: Dynamic Stimulation Results
Qreaction with COP, two methods
Slide16
Brillouin IPB Results Summary and Future Work
Ø LENR reactions stimulated by electrical pulses on coated Ni powders
Ø Experiments in H2 or D2 gas at 200 – 600°C
• Comparison between heater-only power and heater and pulse power
Ø Isoperibolic calorimeter operated in power compensation or constant
power mode
Ø Over 500 experiments performed on 100 different Ni-coated cores in
six different reactors
Ø COPs from 1.0 to 2.0 measured depending on stimulation conditions
Ø No measurable consumables: Electricity in – Heat out
Ø Core composition/metallurgy and pulse generation still being optimized
Ø Calorimetry is regularly updated and improved
Slide17
Acknowledgements
SRI International, Headquarters: 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025
+1.650.859.2000. Additional U.S. and international locations www.sri.com
Special thanks to: Mike McKubre for the calorimeter design; Roger Herrera, Jin Liu, Mike Beaver, and Dave Correia
SRI gratefully acknowledges funding of this work from Brillouin Energy Corp.
I will be leaving SRI International on July 31, 2018. I will continue working in the field
New contact info: consulting@tanzella.name
Slide18 blank
Slide19
Brillouin Hypothesis: Controlled Electron Capture Reaction

Bridges into the unknown

I woke up this morning afire with ideas. Happens sometimes. Some of these I will be implementing, but the best ideas involve community, how to create and strengthen community, and, in particular, the LENR community, and especially the young, with life and career ahead of them. They are the future, I merely am a dreamer and observer. Well, I’ve done more than that.

Then I touched my computer and my screen lit up with the Windows “screensaver,” and it was the image above. That led me to the work of Zaha Hadid, who, somehow, had escaped being noticed by me before. What … an … amazing … woman! The world is larger than I imagine, and, in line with that:

The future does not exist yet. But it’s possible, and I declare that the future will be better than anything we can imagine.

Because we say so. Join me?

Continue reading “Bridges into the unknown”

Darden

subpage of iccf-21/videos/

Thomas F. Darden – Keynote address for ICCF-21

link to video
David Nagel:
00:00 . . . With this introduction even though it’s 00:01 a little unusual to do that.
Tom 00:03 Darden has a remarkable career. He got a 00:06 bachelor’s degree from the University of 00:08 North Carolina, and also Master in 00:10 Regional Planning, got his law degree 00:12 from Yale.
His 1976 undergraduate thesis 00:18 analyzed the environmental impact of 00:20 third-world development, and his 1981 00:23 Yale thesis addressed interstate acid 00:26 rain pollution.
So he’s had a long 00:28 history in things environmental.
He began 00:31 his career with Bain & Company in Boston, 00:33 ’81 to ’84, and then beginning in 1984 he 00:37 served for 16 years as the chairman of 00:39 the Cherokee Sanford group, which 00:41 curiously — i didn’t know this — is the 00:43 largest private brick manufacturing 00:45 company.
Okay so in brick and mortar, he 00:47 was on the brick side.
He began investing 00:50 personal capital and environmental 00:52 companies before he turned to raising 00:54 institutional private equity funds.
Since 00:58 the 1980s, he has invested in over a 01:00 hundred companies, and there’s a long 01:02 list here of green buildings and solar 01:04 energy, and all kinds of things, including 01:06 Industrial Heat LLC, which is, of course, 01:09 seeking to commercialize LENR. Tom 01:14 is the founder and CEO of Cherokee and 01:16 its predecessors.
Cherokee has raised 01:18 over 2.2 billion dollars, invested this 01:21 capital in the acquisition, cleanup, 01:23 development and sale of approximately 01:25 550 environmentally contaminated real 01:28 estate assets, in the U.S., in Europe, and 01:31 in Canada.
Tom does a lot beside his 01:35 business. He’s served and continues to 01:37 serve on numerous boards.
That’s a long 01:39 last year: Environmental Defense Action 01:42 Fund, WakeMed Hospital, 01:45 Helping Hand Mission, so he is into a lot 01:49 of things beyond the business side of 01:51 the world.
He was a chairman of the 01:53 Research Triangle Transit Authority, 01:54 served two terms on the North Carolina 01:56 Board of Transportation, through 01:58 appointments by the government and the 02:00 speaker of the house.
So it is my immense 02:02 and intense pleasure to welcome Tom 02:04 Darden
02:09 [applause] Thomas Darden:
02:14 okay i’d like to begin by thanking the 02:22 organizers stephen and david for their hard 02:27 work, and also for the honor of being 02:29 able to address the pioneers working on 02:32 this new form of energy.
I’m going to 02:38 take this opportunity to tell you the 02:39 story of why we do what we do, and how we 02:43 perceive the work that you heroes, are 02:45 doing.
Three years ago i had the 02:47 opportunity to meet many of you in Padua.
02:50 as i said that time i’m not a scientist, 02:52 i’m an entrepreneur, but we share a 02:55 common inspiration in our endeavors. 02:58
Business guru Peter Drucker once noted 03:02 that entrepreneurship is intended as a 03:04 manifesto, and as a declaration of 03:07 dissent. We see things that ought not to 03:10 be, or we see things that ought to be, but 03:13 aren’t, and then we dissent, but next, we 03:17 go to work.
Thank you for being the 03:20 dissenters against the doctrines and 03:22 institutions of the status quo. Our 03:24 mission, like yours, remains focused on 03:28 solving one of the world’s biggest 03:29 challenges of our time. We need energy 03:32 alternatives that don’t add to our 03:34 pollution problems.
That’s the reason 03:37 that we got involved in funding your 03:40 research.
Marginally reducing pollution 03:44 by being a little bit less bad is not 03:46 good enough.
We need to turn back the 03:49 clock. 03:49 we need a gestalt shift with 7.5 billion 03:53 people facing increasingly catastrophic 03:55 existential threats.
When we started 03:58 Industrial Heat six years ago, with our 04:00 mandate to bring serious funding and an 04:02 entrepreneurial spirit to your research, 04:04 we hoped there would be a way to change 04:06 the way the world’s energy needs are met.
04:08 in an ironic manner, we determined that 04:12 the potential promise of your research 04:14 was so compelling, that it would be worth 04:16 funding even if all we accomplished was 04:19 to somehow prove that 04:20 it was untrue.
We believed that we could 04:23 help change the way mainstream science 04:25 and business perceive this sector, and 04:27 help lead the way toward more 04:28 comprehensive environmental stewardship 04:30 for our planet.
I’m confident that you’re 04:33 going to succeed and that your work is 04:35 going to be accepted.
As we launch the 04:40 21st gathering of this tribe, we still 04:42 need a new paradigm.
Take a step back, and 04:45 think about why we’re here, and why this 04:47 has been such a challenging and difficult 04:49 journey.
04:49 why have some of you been chasing these 04:51 elusive phenomena for almost 30 years? 04:54 what drives that dedication, curiosity, 04:57 risk-taking, and willingness to sacrifice 04:59 in pursuit of what remains an evanescent 05:02 and intriguing effect.
Meanwhile why are 05:06 we so isolated, and has this isolation in 05:09 fact played a positive role in these 05:11 early stages of the paradigm shift?
When 05:15 we first looked into this sector, i was 05:18 warned that this was an alluring and 05:21 captivating pursuit, and that could 05:23 result in joining an isolated and 05:25 dedicated community.
We were warned about 05:28 catching CFS or Cold Fusion Addiction 05:31 Syndrome.
Humor aside, if we’re honest 05:35 with ourselves, we have to recognize that 05:37 peer systems have great influence on 05:40 what most of us believe and do.
We 05:43 observe others in our peer groups, and 05:45 learn their social code along with their 05:47 interpretation of the philosophical and 05:50 scientific fabric that evolves into some 05:53 version of truth, reality, and conformity.
05:56 this can be beneficial because it 05:58 allows us to create an affiliated tribe, 06:01 like our group here, but increasingly in 06:03 society at large, our social or work 06:06 communities lack diversity of thought, as 06:08 evidenced by the most recent us election 06:12 results, the map.
Once we perceive what 06:16 we’re supposed to think, we 06:17 subconsciously seek out, and then we’re 06:19 fed data that confirms our group opinion, 06:23 and we skillfully and deliberately 06:25 ignore contrary facts.
If we don’t do 06:29 this we impair our ability to benefit 06:32 from the culture 06:34 around us.
Socially, scientifically, 06:37 financially, or politically, there’s a 06:39 pressure to conform.
This sociological 06:43 conformity pressure applies to many of 06:45 our belief systems, making it difficult 06:47 for people to practice their pursuits 06:49 while being a part of a non-conforming 06:52 group.
Over time, the world has become 06:55 less tolerant of divergent beliefs, 06:57 making it difficult for new ideas to 06:59 gain traction.
Meanwhile some long-accepted 07:01 value systems have eroded.
Have 07:04 we lost a scientific rigor, self policing 07:07 and accountability, that carried the day 07:09 when atomic power, space travel, 07:11 supersonic flight, the computer, the 07:13 internet and recombinant dna were 07:15 discovered and harnessed for the 07:17 benefit of society?
Today, can an 07:20 independent thinker confront prevailing 07:23 scientific or cultural norms, without 07:25 risking job prospects, scientific 07:28 position, social status, and personal 07:30 relationship opportunities even.
Dan 07:33 Kahan, professor at Yale, refers to this 07:36 as cultural cognition, meaning that 07:38 society, as opposed to independent logic 07:42 or reality, drives our thinking.
He 07:46 focuses primarily on the realms of 07:48 science or technology that affect public 07:50 policy such as climate change or maybe 07:52 childhood vaccines.
Kahan states a 07:56 principal source of conflict over 07:58 decision-relevant science is the 08:00 entanglement of facts in antagonistic 08:03 social meanings, which transform 08:06 competing positions into badges of 08:08 cultural identity.
In other words, we 08:10 disagree because competing cultural 08:12 groups have decided to identify with 08:15 certain conclusions.
The correct answers 08:19 are not based on facts, but on scientific, 08:22 political or cultural identity.
When a 08:26 particular group gains power or control, 08:28 then opposing ideas face the risk of 08:30 marginalization.
Kahan tested subjects 08:33 for scientific intelligence and for 08:35 political identity, and then asked 08:37 science-based questions, both 08:39 right-leaning and left-leaning 08:41 respondents in the United States showed 08:44 similar tendencies to conform their 08:45 technical opinions 08:47 to the thinking of their 08:49 group affiliations.
For example most 08:52 left-leaning subjects answered that 08:53 nuclear power contributes to global 08:55 warming, even though that is logically 08:59 ridiculous.
.while nuclear energy has 09:02 drawbacks and reasonable people can 09:03 debate its pros and cons, there’s no doubt 09:05 of its global warming benefit.
Why do 09:08 even intelligent liberals say that it 09:10 causes global warming?
The only 09:12 explanation is that left-leaning 09:13 cultural leaders have decided that 09:15 nuclear power is negative, so it’s not 09:18 acceptable to say anything positive 09:20 about it at all.
09:21 of course right-leaning thinkers shows 09:24 similar conforming tendencies.
And by the 09:27 way level of education does not change 09:29 the results.
This is astonishing.
Kahan 09:32 found that higher iq people are just as 09:34 inclined to base their conclusions on 09:36 cultural conformity rather than 09:38 intelligent analysis.

09:51

This astonishes the 09:41 intellectual class, who think they use 09:42 their brains to seek truth, but it’s not 09:44 surprising at all to normal people who 09:46 have always felt that intellectuals 09:48 don’t have much common sense to go along 09:50 with all their brains.

Interestingly we 09:53 do see some situations where cultural 09:55 conformity fails to offer a safe 09:58 consistent opinion.
Old topics tend to 10:01 remain in their cultural containers 10:03 forever, such as gun rights in the us, 10:05 pro-life, vs. Pro-abortion positions, and 10:08 probably cold fusion relative to the 10:10 physics establishment.
But new topics 10:13 present dilemmas for group thinkers.
Will 10:16 right-leaners oppose government 10:17 restrictions on artificial intelligence, 10:20 or machine learning, or data mining, maybe 10:22 new energy sources. 10:24 why didn’t us left-wingers oppose 10:27 healthcare monopolies, and price-fixing 10:30 in the same manner that they’ve 10:31 traditionally opposed business 10:33 aggregation of other forms.
10:34 will conservatives take a laissez-fair 10:37 position regarding antitrust enforcement 10:39 against new economy monopolists, like they 10:42 did relative to old industrial 10:43 monopolists?
It seems that people are 10:46 willing to remain confused and silent 10:48 until their group forms an opinion, at 10:50 which time they will conform.
In an ideal 10:53 world, people would invite and welcome 10:54 divergent opinions.
Instead, we often see 10:58 vitriolic and demeaning attacks on 11:00 those who hold them.
For example, the 11:02 label “denier” has come to describe 11:05 people who disagree not only with 11:06 historical facts, but also with 11:09 subjective, unclear, social, technical, and 11:12 scientific beliefs.
It’s used to expand 11:15 the distance between two opposing moral, 11:17 scientific, or intellectual convictions, 11:20 or to ostracize the other side.
11:23 certainly there are times when we use 11:24 the term legitimately and intentionally 11:26 to create separation, as some do when 11:29 referring to holocaust deniers. They deny 11:32 an historic fact.
But what if someone 11:34 argues that climate science is not 11:36 perfect yet, or that the theory of 11:38 evolution needs to evolve further? Are 11:40 they deniers or are they just thinkers?
11:43 looking at this from another angle i’ve 11:45 served for over 25 years on the board of 11:47 an historically black university, where 11:49 i’m almost always the only white 11:51 person in the room.
Years ago, someone 11:54 mentioned getting pulled over by the 11:55 police for dwb, or driving while black, a 11:58 practice that i assumed had ended in 12:01 this civil rights era.
12:02 i mean it’s so ridiculous and you can 12:05 only laugh.
I innocently asked if this 12:07 was still a common occurrence, and i was 12:09 fortunate that the nice people in the 12:11 room politely smiled at my simplistic, 12:13 culturally-driven view.
I should note 12:16 that this event long predated dashboard 12:18 and body cameras, which have shown the 12:21 rest of us, sadly, what african americans 12:23 have known, have always known, and had to 12:25 deal with.
Sensitive topics such as these 12:28 often lead to shaming, and in a different 12:31 setting might possibly have evolved into 12:33 accusations of “racist denier” instead of 12:35 “naive enquirer.”
Environmental advocates 12:38 used “climate denier” to shame opponents 12:40 of bureaucratic legislation to reduce 12:43 carbon emissions.
An environmental public 12:46 relations program was built on the 12:48 concept — i was part of this — the global 12:51 warming science is indisputable, and 12:53 there could be no further discussion of 12:56 the topic.
I was raising my hand saying 12:58 “it just doesn’t sound right, even if 13:02 it’s true.”
Many who believed carbon 13:04 dioxide causes climate change were 13:06 nonetheless troubled by this dismissive 13:08 and vitriolic debate tactic.
If anyone 13:13 ever says the science 13:14 is settled, be careful.
The science will 13:15 never be settled, if we remain curious 13:17 enough to learn, while maintaining a 13:19 desire to seek truth.
Most mainstream 13:22 physicists believe our science is 13:24 settled, in that low-temperature 13:26 energetic reactions, that were 13:28 researching here, are not possible.
13:30 followers of these mainstream opinion 13:32 leaders mimic their philosophies and 13:34 behaviors, further alienating those who 13:37 disagree, and spreading discord which 13:39 increasingly stresses our scientific 13:40 fabric.
This holds back potential 13:43 benefits that can change the status quo 13:45 for the benefit of society.
This cultural 13:48 conformity, by the way, applies just as 13:50 dramatically in companies.
Bill gates had 13:53 a habit of rocking back and forth in his 13:54 chair, when he was in meetings during the 13:56 early days of his startup.
After a while 13:59 subordinates began to exhibit 14:00 the same 14:02 unusual habit of rocking back and forth.
14:05 microsoft meetings became filled with 14:07 with conformist doing the same thing as 14:10 a boss, probably subconsciously.
While this 14:13 is a silly example we regularly see 14:15 accusations of discrimination against 14:18 new york investment banks, silicon valley 14:20 vcs and large tech companies.
Their 14:23 inherent discrimination is based on 14:25 cultural group think.
We all need to 14:28 contemplate and avoid this, as our small 14:30 sector continues to evolve and mature.
So 14:34 what does this mean to this gathering, 14:35 how do we interpolate and act based on 14:37 what we know about ourselves?
There’s 14:39 story after story of discovery, rejection, 14:42 perseverance, verification, replication, 14:45 and ultimately ubiquity: the airplane, the 14:48 automobile, the laser, space travel ,and 14:50 more.
The leading thought groups of the 14:53 day have consistently resisted new 14:55 invention, breakthroughs and change.
Now 14:58 it’s our turn to change our status quo.
15:00 how can we learn from others who 15:03 converted their rejection into 15:04 usefulness?
They were able to move 15:07 through stages of progression that 15:08 brought their discoveries into common 15:10 acceptance.
Mainstream academia, science 15:14 and government stall the first wave of 15:16 cold fusion discovery. Next march will be 15:19 30 years since the announcement that 15:21 launched this field.
We owe it to the 15:24 early pioneers, and to our planet, 15:26 to responsibly finish this work, and move 15:29 the discussion into the mainstream of 15:31 science, academia and industry.
How do we 15:34 move forward from our isolation? We need 15:36 theory that can direct basic, repeatable 15:38 and understandable experiments.
We need 15:41 experiments in papers that will be 15:42 replicated and accepted by mainstream 15:44 physicists and science communities and 15:47 publications.
We need to trust, but verify, 15:50 and commit to absolute honesty in our 15:53 research.
We need a new level of self-accountability, 15:57 as we prepare for a move 15:58 into the mainstream.
The universe may be 16:01 ready to share another layer of physical 16:03 and scientific mystery with those who 16:04 are willing to see and hear.
The barriers 16:07 created by our social and scientific 16:08 orders are going to be challenged.
First-principles 16:11 research needs to replace 16:13 incomplete and sometimes shoddy 16:15 methodologies.
With this we will overcome 16:18 the bias and barriers that have kept our 16:20 field from becoming useful to the planet.
16:22 we can fix this.
Before i close, i’d like 16:26 to thank the many dedicated and honest 16:28 researchers who have worked with us in 16:30 our quest to find the truth over the 16:31 last six years.
We thank you for trusting 16:34 us, and look forward to reaching a 16:36 starting point, where a broader community 16:38 can begin to understand this anomaly 16:40 that has the potential to eliminate 16:41 pollution.
We look forward to an ongoing 16:44 relationship with you, to living each day 16:46 with courage, to continue progress, mutual 16:49 accountability, and to eventual success.
16:51 to the group, let’s find ways to work 16:54 together let’s encourage replications, 16:56 and be willing to accept results in 16:58 datasets which fail to confirm a 17:00 replication.
In conjunction with any 17:02 proclaimed discoveries let’s also admit 17:04 our mistakes, and make data from failed 17:07 experiments available for others to 17:08 analyze.
With that, a broader trust and 17:11 credibility can begin to emerge.
Let’s 17:14 live each day with courage, learn from 17:15 each other, do the right thing, be 17:17 respectful in the process, talk less and 17:19 say more.
Be tough but fair, while we 17:22 strive to move this field beyond the 17:24 fringe with the conviction and common 17:26 goal of saving our planet.
Humanity needs 17:28 for us to succeed.
Thank you and God 17:31 bless.

ICCF-21 Slides and Video, Transcripts available

The organizers of ICCF-21 have released oral presentation slides and video. The page to access them is at https://www.iccf21.com/videos-oral-presentations

There are actually three pages, with a graphic display of links that vary with the page. The link above is to the video link graphic, there are two others:

The slide graphic, and the abstract graphic.

However, our video index page is searchable. and will be a single page with all links.  That is where links to transcripts and other related resources will be placed. It takes about an hour to create a presentation transcript in the format I am using, and about a day to clean it up and polish it.

I will be creating indexes to this material, to make it more accessible for search and study.  For the first time, Darden’s keynote is available. The video I’ve seen is high quality and far surpasses the poor audio we had for some presentations (which was still appreciated, people provided what they had.)

Because there is Close Caption working with the videos (at least what I saw), I will also be preparing transcripts.

UPDATE:Done. This is the video page here.

The first transcript I started with was of Tom Darden, but I happened to complete the Michael Staker transcript first.  I will now go back and present the Darden video in the same way. I will also integrate the slides and abstracts, so one will be able to read the transcripts and make sense out of the references to slides.

This process is highly enlightening. In the case of the Staker video, I had already worked extensively on SAV sources, so everything he was saying made sense (and I could more accurately decode the automated transcription text). I had already worked with a draft of Staker’s ICCF-21 paper and Mike McKubre’s presentation at Greccio, which was co-authored with Staker, collecting all the sources. So it’s now all quite clear to me, amazingly so, from being obscure and “hard to understand.”

How to capture a YouTube transcript (general and ICCF-21 specific).
  1. Go to the YouTube page. The ICCF-21 videos are all listed in a single YouTube channel.
  2. [Below the title is a menu button ( . . . ). Press it and select “Open Transcript.” A window will open with the closed caption transcript. Ctrl-A within that window to highlight it, and Ctrl-C to capture it in your clipboard.] The italicized description worked when I was writing this. I just tried it again, and instead of just selecting the text in the transcript window, it selected much else on the page. To capture just the transcript text I needed to put the cursor at the beginning, maybe select a little text at the beginning — left-mouse-hold at the beginning and then move a little — and then shift-left-click at the end after scrolling to the end. (ctrl-home places the cursor at the beginning of the transcript and ctrl-end places it at the end). Then ctrl-C will copy the selected text.
  3. [Paste this into a word processor or other editor. I found that if it is straight pasted (which includes formatting) into the WordPress visual editor, every line is a link to the video, with the brief transcript for the time shown as the next line.] Again, that’s what I was able to do earlier, and I was unable to reproduce this behavior. So the text doesn’t have the links, those will be introduced in Excel.
  4. At this point the text is useful. If I have this text for a video, I can then proceed to create the WordPress page. The further this is taken, the less work for me.
  5. I copy the youtunr transcript to Excel, to massage that copy into the format I want on the page. The URLs are translated to specific jumps to the specific times, by adding “&t=12m34s” to the URL. (that would be a timestamp for 12:34. My guess is that “h” is used for hours.) The time, from the next line, is moved to the text portion of the “a” tag, and the </a> tag closing is moved to just after the time, leaving the transcript text open, unformatted.
  6. This will give a transcript with the timestamps as links followed by a space and the text.. I then add in the HTML code to display the time in 6 point type, to make it less obtrusive but still readable. Replace {<a}  with {<span style=”font-size: 6pt;”><a} (don’t copy the curly braces!) and {</a>} with {</a></span>}. 4 point can be used for this, it is sort-of readable. However, it’s useful to have it be more readable when editing the transcript.
  7. To speed up editing of this into continuous text, paragraphed, I replace all the LF/CR codes (represented in Word search and replace as “^p”) with spaces, so it becomes one huge “paragraph.” Then, editing the transcript, I paragraph it, simply by adding punctuation and a return (“Enter↵”).
  8. The HTML code is then copied back to my WordPress editor.
  9. I clean up the transcript in WordPress. At any time, I can follow a timestamp link to find the exact point in the video. If I press the link just before some text, there it is, quickly. However, because it takes some time for my computer to load the video, when editing, I have WordPress open in one window, and the YouTube video in another, so I can immediately press the stop/run button in the video, and so if I want to adjust the time, usually to go back, I use the YouTube slider and I know what time to go to, approximately, by the displayed link in WordPress.
  10. Once the text is paragraphed, I can add (in word) spacer code, to reduce the space. I’m using ten pixels instead of the default space (which I think is 20 pixels.) I’m using a WordPress shortcode from the Spacer plug-in for that. It’s a little tricky.
  11. The ICCF-21 has the slides available, and the presentations can make much more sense with the slides! I downloaded the slide PDF, renamed it with a simpler but still unique name, and used ILovePDF to convert this to individual JPEG images, Powershell to change the filenames to simple followed by the page number, and then I uploaded the files to the blog domain in a slides directory, uploads/slides, then I used MediatoFTP to register these as images. I used to manually upload all the images within WordPress, which puts them into dated media directories with much longer names. This gives me immediate access from the editor to the slides, searchable by slide number, and the Media facility remembers the last search, so I can just bump the number of to insert the next slide.
  12. So I watch the video again, inserting the slides. The normal place is in the time sequence when the speaker clicks to the next slide. For clarity, I vary this. Some speakers use many slides where another will use one, the many slides each adding something to the display.
  13. I add the slide numbers in Excel when I’m done. It’s too much work to add them when placing the image, and I found that if the slide number is put as a caption, it’s weirdly place. It was much easier to place the slide number as small text just before the image.
  14. You can see the results on two pages at this point: Staker and Storms.
  15. Comments are invited.
  16. Participation is invited.

I cannot imagine a better way to develop deep understanding of CMNS than work like this. To do this work well requires deep attention to detail. If you are unfamiliar with terms, you will become familiar, or you will make mistakes in editing the transcript.

I have the brain of a 74-year old.  They must have made some mistake!

It takes more repetition to learn than when I was younger, but I can still learn and the results are little short of amazing, certainly for me!

As to those mistakes, we hope, someone will find and correct them, and we will learn if we pay attention. Making mistakes is generally the fastest way to learn, and any error in these transcripts can be quickly fixed. I am considering putting them on the wiki, which would stand as a working draft.

I see that the following is somewhat redundant to what is above, but, hey, it’s only a paragraph. . . . The Staker and Storms videos are particularly significant now, considering discussions in the community about Super Abundant Vacancies. From working with sources, a presentation in Greccio this year and those two videos, I have enough familiarity with the findings that, to my great surprise, at least one major expert has deferred to my opinion. But I’m certainly not a full expert, just an opinionated reporter who loves to inform my readers as to what exists in sources, so that they can come to their own conclusions. I will report my opinions, sometimes, but they matter much less. Increasingly, they are informed.

The related fields are complex and can take advanced study and training, but, by continual exposure to the material, I become familiar with it.

I learned years ago to notice and drop the “this is too complicated” reaction that creates an obstacle to familiarity.

Our strong tendency is to remember what generates feelings, particularly feelings of dislike, rather than what is actually happening.

I actually don’t “try” to understand, I just keep looking, more or less like a child. Maybe I look something up if it seems interesting.

If I write, I check sources, over and over, I don’t just rely on memory, usually.

Since I have the sources, I cite them. All this can make my writing long. I write polemic in a different way.

I learned electronics and made it into a successful profession, when I was about 30, by having a basic background (but from many years before, obsolete, hey vacuum tube radios!), and then just looking at electronics magazines, and having a work opportunity allowing me to focus and learn some specifics. I did not “study” it.

I learned Arabic by reading the Qur’an in Arabic. (That simply requires learning the symbols, Qur’anic orthography is phonetic. Understanding Arabic came much later, after familiarity was developed. That’s a theme: familiarity.) Again, I did not learn by studying it. The fastest increase in comprehension actually came when I memorized a large chunk of the Qur’an. Before then, when I tried to study Arabic with grammars, etc.., it went in one eye and out the other. (Hah!) Arabic is famously difficult for non-Semitic language natives. But children learn it just as easily as other languages. Familiarity. Once I was familiar with the patterns of the language, the grammars then made far more sense. Otherwise they seemed like a pile of arbitrary rules to memorize.

Alternate channel

Some internet fora pretend to represent a community, and, sometimes, to some extent, they do. But it is common that the collection of users that would consider itself the community has no real power except to make a fuss (and maybe get banned) or walk away.

The Wikipedia community is a great example. There is a real community, but there is also a corporation which, for years, hid behind the trope that the community was in charge. Several years ago, they appear to have abandoned that, and the problems show up in quite a few ways.

Bottom line, the WikiMedia Foundation can and does, on its own, globally ban users, with no explanation and using a crude tool that disables account access and incoming email, cutting the user off. They announce to the world that the person is banned (without explanation but generally implying that the Terms of Service have been violated, which is sometimes false). In fact, the community is banned from communicating with the user! At least using the open email access that is normal through the MediaWiki interface. (Some time back it was discovered that a globally locked user could receive mail if they had email enabled, and so the Foundation quietly fixed that.)

And they do this arbitrarily, with no notice to the user, no warning, and they claim, no appeal possible. They ignore requests for review or to correct errors. It’s a lifetime ban of the person, not the account, and one person was banned with no account, banned by his real name.

Lenr-forum also bans users. For most bans, there is a fairly obvious reason, but occasionally, it’s personal and arbitrary and lenr-forum administration is opaque. But they cannot stop people from reading the site and commenting, and I’m not talking about creating sock puppets. Some time ago, I started occasionally commenting on lenr-forum, using hypothes.is. This tool was designed for academic use, largely. Comment on any web site, and share the comments with a group or with the world. I highly recommend it for the possibilities. I have the tool installed in my browser, so I can add a comment anywhere, with no fuss or special log-in, and I can make it private or publish it.

So, some links:

All comments on lenr-forum.com (by anyone using hypothes.is)

All my comments on lenr-forum

(at this point, both links return the same 116 comments. They are returned in reverse date order, so, as you can see, I made 7 comments recently.)

All my comments anywhere.

I just added new comments on a Shanahan post.

My ideal is better than your reality

Much criticism is based on this comparison between real-world expression and the critic’s ideas, which, of course, may be revised, ad hoc.

This extends far outside science. Our ideas of perfect morality may be, for example, compared with the real behavior of (some) formal members of a religion, as if this demonstrates the superiority of our religion (or our ideals) over the other.

Because there was only one major and relatively deep critique of the Fleischmann-Pons calorimetry, published in a mainstream journal, one debate where there was original publication, critique (by D.R.O. Morrison), and author response, last year I began a page hierarchy to study the debate. The original as-published documents are behind a pay-wall, so I used copies from lenr-canr.org, that were based on a copy of the Morrison critique from sci.physics.fusion, an internet newsgroup, an obsolete form similar to a mailing list.

I first observed the issue of paper integrity in that the FP paper was not identical to the lenr-canr.org copy, which is likely a copy supplied to that library by an author. That is routine for lenr-canr copies of journal-published papers, for copyright reasons. The changes seemed quite minor (I will check this again more thoroughly). But for no decent reason, I did not check the Morrison critique against the later as-published version, and because that as-published version is not widely available, I preferred to use a version that anyone could check against my copy.

And that was an error. I was then distracted by other business, and as continued participation in the review did not appear, I did not return to my study of the debate until yesterday. I started by completing the adding of URLs for references, and then began going over the Morrison paper. It was full of errors or non sequiturs, immature argument, etc. And I started to wonder how this had gotten past peer review. Journals do not necessarily review critiques as strongly as original papers, and I have seen blatant errors in such critiques. Ordinarily, it is left to the authors to correct such errors. In one case where a blatant error was left standing (the Shanahan review in the Journal of Environmental Monitoring), the error was so ridiculously bad that the authors and others responding completely missed it, instead focusing on Shanahan’s conclusion from his seriously defective analysis. Argument from conclusion, naughty, naughty!)

The Morrison document from the newsgroup had this at the top:
5th DRAFT – Scientific Comments Welcomed.

There were no serious responses to that post, threaded with it. (There were other responses that can be found with some searching, made more complicated by some very poor Google archiving practices, what they did when they took over the newsgroups. I will cover other responses (some of it is interesting) elsewhere.

What Morrison was doing was, in part, to be commended, he was putting his work out there for critique before final submission. However, by this time, the scientific community had become highly polarized, and serious discussion, what might be called collaborative critique, good scientific process, was often missing. It still is, too often. Morrison’s critique would be useful, even if “wrong” in this way or that, because what Morrison wrote would be what many would think, but not necessarily write.

I came back to this issue because I noticed a mention of my study on lenr-forum.com. The remainder of this post is a detailed response to that. Continue reading “My ideal is better than your reality”

IWAHLM-8

Subpage of Proceedings

International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals
13-18 October 2007

http://www.iscmns.org/catania07/index.htm described the Workshop. No link is given there to the Proceedings. The ISCMNS copy of the Proceedings is broken. Jed Rothwell has now uploaded a copy to lenr-canr.org: RothwellJproceeding.pdf

(The ISCMNS copy has now been repaired.)

Front matter. (includes title pages, copyright, Table of Contents, and Preface.) The original Table of Contents has no author names. They are supplied here. The title for the paper beginning on page 329 was on page 328, and the page number was then incorrect in the TOC. This has been fixed in this TOC.

stripped_IWAHLM-8 362 pp., 5.3 MB (has front matter removed so that pdf page matches published page).


Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals

13-18 October 2007, Sheraton Catania, Sicily, Italy

Edited Jed Rothwell and Peter Mobberley

The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Copyright © 2008, The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 1-892925-04-4

Printed in the U.S. by InstantPublisher.com

Table of Contents

The Organizer’s personal perspective
Bill Collis
pref
Preparata Medal Lecture – A Tribute to Giuliano Preparata, a TRUE Pioneer in Cold Fusion Theory
George H. Miley
1
Erzion Model Features In Cold Nuclear Transmutation Experiments
Yu. N. Bazhutov
12
Excitation of Hydrogen Subsystem in Metals by External Influence
I. P. Chernov , Yu. M. Koroteev , V. M. Silkin, Yu. I. Tyurin
27
Roles of Approximate Symmetry and Finite Size in the Quantum Electrodynamics of d+d⇒4He in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Scott R. Chubb
38
Synthesis Of A Copper Like Compound From Nickel And Hydrogen And Of A Chromium Like Compound From Calcium And Deuterium
J. Dufour, D. Murat, X. Dufour and J. Foos
50
External Radiation Produced by Electrolysis — A Work in Progress
John C. Fisher
62
Outline Of Polyneutron Theory
John C. Fisher
70
Theoretical Hypothesis of a Double Barrier Regarding the D-D Interaction in a Pd Lattice: A Possible Explanation of Cold Fusion Experiment Failures
Fulvio Frisone
94
Common Mechanism of Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Integer and Fractional Hall Effects, and Cold Fusion
F.A. Gareev G.F. Gareeva and I.E. Zhidkova
113
Quantization of Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses
F.A. Gareev G.F. Gareeva and I.E. Zhidkova
129
Observation of 3He and 3H in the volcanic crater lakes: possible evidence for natural nuclear fusion in deep Earth
Songsheng Jiang , Ming He , Weihong Yue , Bujia Qi , Jing Liu
137
On emission of nuclear particles caused by electrolysis
Ludwik Kowalski
152
Analysis of #2 Winthrop Williams’ CR-39 detector after SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiment
Andrei Lipson , Alexei Roussetski , Eugeny Saunin
163
Analysis of the CR-39 detectors from SRI’s SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiments #7 and #5. Signature of possible neutron emission
Andrei Lipson , Alexei Roussetski, A.G. Lipson1 , A.S. Roussetski , E.I. Saunin , F. Tanzella , B. Earle , and M. McKubre
182
“Excess heat” in a Gas-Loading D/Pd System with Pumping inside palladium Tube
Bin Liu, Xing Z. Li, Qing M. Wei, Shu X. Zheng
204
Selective Resonant Tunneling through Coulomb Barrier by Confined Particles in Lattice Well
Xing Zhong Li, Qing Ming Wei, Bin Liu, Nao Nao Cai
213
Anomalous heat Generation by surface oxidized Pd wires in a hydrogen atmosphere
A. Marmigi , A. Spallone, F. Celan, P. Marin, V.Di Stefano
224
Cluster Reactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)
George H. Miley , Heinrich Hora , Andrei Lipson , Hugo Leon , and P. Joshi Shrestha
235
Microscopic characterization of palladium electrodes for cold fusion experiments
F. Sarto, E. Castagna and V. Violante
252
Gamma Emission Evaluation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions
Irina Savvatimova, Gennady Savvatimov, Alla Kornilova
258
Transmutation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions
Irina Savvatimova
275
A Review of Experimental studies about Hydrogen over-loading within Palladium wires (H/Pd ≥ 1)
A. Spallone, A. Marmigi , F. Celani, P. Marini, V.Di Stefano
289
Radiation Produced By Glow Discharge in Deuterium
Edmund Storms and Brian Scanlan
297
D-Cluster Dynamics and Fusion Rate by Langevin Equation
Akito Takahashi and Norio Yabuuchi
306
Multiple Resonance Scattering
T. Toimela
329
Joint Scientific Advances in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
V. Violante, F. Sarto, E.Castagna, M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, G.Hubler, D. Knies, K.Grabowsk, T. Zilov, I. Dardik, C. Sibilia
341
Element Analysis of the Surface Layer on the Pd and Pd-Y Alloy after Deuterium Permeation
Wei Qing-Ming, Rao Yong-Chu, Zheng Shao-Tao, Luo De-Li, Li Xing-Zhong
351
List of Participants 358
Author index 362

Library

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ISCMNS Internet Library.

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Hagelstein P. L., Chaudhary I. U. Lossy Spin肪oson Model with an Unstable Upper State and Extension to N-level SystemsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 11, (2013), p 59 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol11.pdf

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Hagelstein P. L., Chaudhary I. U. Models for Phonon墨uclear Interactions and Collimated X-ray Emission in the Karabut ExperimentJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 177 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

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Hagelstein P. L. Models for the Phase Diagram of Palladium Hydride Including O-site and T-site OccupationJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 20, (2016), p 54 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol20.pdf

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Hagelstein P.L. Current Status of the Theory and Modeling Effort based on FractionationJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 98 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

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Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladiumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEsomethough.pdf

Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cellwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsErelationsh.pdf

Storms, E. Excess Power Production from Platinum Cathodes Using the Pons-Fleischmann EffectProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEexcesspowe.pdf

Storms, E. How to Make A Cheap and Effective Seebeck CalorimeterProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtomakea.pdf

Storms, E. Use Of A Very Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter To Study The Pons-Fleischmann And Letts EffectsProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEuseofavery.pdf

Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Generated by Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode and Heavy Waterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanomaloush.pdf

Storms, E. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environmentswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwaystoinit.pdf

Storms, E. A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 1www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEacriticale.pdf

Storms, E. A New Method for Initiating Nuclear Reactionswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanewmethod.pdf

Storms, E. A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoEwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEaresponset.pdf

Storms, E. A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudentsg.pdf

Storms, E. A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effectwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudyofth.pdf

Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolytewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanomalousha.pdf

Storms, E. Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion; Methods, Problems and Errorswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcalorimetr.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion for Dummieswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusione.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion Revisited (translation into Chinese)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusionc.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessmentwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusiond.pdf

Storms, E. Description of a dual calorimeterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEdescriptio.pdf

Storms, E. Fusテ」o a Frio para Principianteswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEfusoafriop.pdf

Storms, E. How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care (PowerPoint slides from video)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtocausea.pdf

Storms, E. My life with cold fusion as a reluctant mistresswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEmylifewith.pdf

Storms, E. Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEestudiodel.pdf

Storms, E. Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEestudodafu.pdf

Storms, E. The Nature of the Nuclear-Active-Environment Required for Low Energy Nuclear Reactionswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEthenatureo.pdf

Storms, E. The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reactionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEthescience.pdf

Storms, E. The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEtheusgover.pdf

Storms, E. What Conditions Are Required To Initiate The Lenr Effect?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhatcondit.pdf

Storms, E. What is believed about cold fusion?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhatisbeli.pdf

Storms, E. Why Cold Fusion Has Been So Hard to Explain and Duplicatewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhycoldfus.pdf

Storms, E. Why I believe “Cold Fusion” is Realwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhyibeliev.pdf

Storms, E. Formation of b-PdD Containing High Deuterium Concentration Using Electrolysis of Heavy-Waterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEformationo.pdf

Storms, E. Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcommentonp.pdf

Storms, E. Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell using palladium sheetwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEmeasuremena.pdf

Storms, E. How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effectwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtoprodu.pdf

Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR processProc. ICCF15 (2009), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEroleofclus.pdf

Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation produced by glow discharge in a deuterium containing gas (Part 2)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEradiationpa.pdf

Storms, E. and C. Talcott-Storms The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritiumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEtheeffecto.pdf

Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott Electrolytic tritium productionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEelectrolyt.pdf

Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott. A Study of Electrolytic Tritium ProductionProc. ACCF1 (1990), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudyofel.pdf

Stringham R. Model for SonofusionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 304 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Stringham R. Sonofusion: Ultrasound-Activated He Production in Circulating D2OJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 79 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Stringham R. Helium Measurements From Target Foils, LANL and PNNL, 1994J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 24, (2017), p 284 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol24.pdf

Stringham R. Bubble Driven FusionProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 411 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Stringham R. S. When Bubble Cavitation becomes SonofusionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 1 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Stringham R. S. Model for Electromagnetic pulsed BEC ExperimentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 8, (2012), p 75 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol8.pdf

Stringham R. S. Sonofusion痴 Transient Condensate ClustersJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 505 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Stringham R. S. Conservation of E and M, Single Cavitation Heat EventsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 55 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Stringham, R. Pinched cavitation jets and fusion eventsProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRpinchedcav.pdf

Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion – poster sessionProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRcavitationb.pdf

Stringham, R. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion ReactorProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRlowmassmhz.pdf

Stringham, R. Ejecta Sites and DD Fusion Eventswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRejectasite.pdf

Stringham, R. 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Measurement and Modelwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRmhzsonofus.pdf

Swartz M., Verner, G., et al. Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 66 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M., Verner, G., et al. Imaging of an Active NANORョ-type LANR Component using CR-39J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 81 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. Incremental High Energy Emission from a ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured Quantum Electronic Component CF/LANRJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 92 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. Entrepreneurial Efforts: Cold Fusion Research at JET Energy Leads to Innovative, Dry ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 102 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. A Method to Improve Algorithms Used to Detect Steady State Excess EnthalpyProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 257 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Some Lessons from Optical Examination of the PFC Phase-II Calorimetric CurvesProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 283 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Isotopic Fuel Loading Coupled to Reactions at an ElectrodeProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 429 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Catastrophic Active Medium (CAM) Theory of Cold FusionProc. ICCF4 4, (1993), p 255 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedingc.pdf

Swartz M. Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR DevicesMonitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling EnginesProc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 123 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Swartz M., Verner G., et al. Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR DevicesProc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 343 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Swartz M., Verner G. The Phusor-type LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial Creating Deuteron Flux for Excess Power GainProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 458 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M. Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical RegionsProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 639 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M., Forsley L. Analysis and Confirmation of the ‘Superwave-as-Transitory飽OP-Peak’ HypothesisProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 653 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M. Generalized Isotopic Fuel Loading EquationsInternational Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. Minsk (1994), p 164 www.iscmns.org/FIC/CFSB.pdf

Swartz M. R. Impact of an Applied Magnetic Field on a High Impedance Dual Anode LANR DeviceJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 93 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Swartz M. R. LANR Nanostructures and Metamaterials Driven at their Optimal Operating PointJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 149 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Swartz M. R., Hagelstein P. I. Demonstration of Energy Gain from a Preloaded ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Device at MITJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 516 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Swartz M. R., Verner G., et al. Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2鳳dNi縫 Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 528 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Swartz M. R., Verner G., et al. Impact of Electrical Avalanche through a ZrO2鋒iD Nanostructured CF/LANR Component on its Incremental Excess Power GainJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 287 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

Swartz M. R. Optical Detection of Phonon Gain Distinguishes an Active Cold Fusion/LANR component (3)J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 20, (2016), p 29 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol20.pdf

Swartz M. R. Oscillating Excess Power Gain and Magnetic Domains in NANORョ-type CF/LANR ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 22, (2017), p 35 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol22.pdf

Swartz M.R., Hagelstein P.L. Increased PdD anti-Stokes Peaks are Correlated with Excess Heat ModeJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 24, (2017), p 130 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol24.pdf

Swartz M.R. Quasiparticles, Collective Excitations and Higher-order Collective Quasi-excitations in Lattice Assisted Nuclear ReactionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 25, (2017), p 26 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol25.pdf

Szpak S., Dea J. Evidence for the Induction of Nuclear Activity in Polarized Pd/H蓬2O SystemJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 9, (2012), p 21 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol9.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. The Fleischmann鳳ons Effect: Reactions and ProcessesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 12, (2013), p 143 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol12.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. Forcing the Pd/1H�1H2O System into a Nuclear Active StateJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 543 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. On the Mechanism of Tritium Production in Electrochemical CellsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 61 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S. The Pd + D Co-Deposition: Process, Product, PerformanceJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 68 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. Cathode to Electrolyte Transfer of Energy Generated in the Fleischmann鳳ons ExperimentJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 76 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S. On the Path Leading To The Fleischmann鳳ons EffectJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 17, (2015), p 91 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol17.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D Systemwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSanomalousb.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Calorimetry of Open Electrolysis Cellswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScalorimetr.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D Codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSnuclearand.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss On the release of n/1H from cathodically polarized palladium electrodeswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSontherelea.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and 窶廴ini-Explosions窶�Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSpolarizedda.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and 窶廴ini-Explosions窶�; (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSpolarizedd.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd latticewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSevidenceof.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publicationswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSspawarsyst.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Cyclic voltammetry of Pd + D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScyclicvolt.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium productionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehavc.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-depositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSthermalbeh.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Electrochemical charging of Pd rodswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSelectroche.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D filmswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakStheeffecto.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experimentwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSabsorption.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particleswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSfurtherevi.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric FieldProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSprecursors.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSprecursorsa.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice (PowerPoint slides)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSexperiment.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith Deuterium uptake during Pd-D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSdeuteriumu.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuteriumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehav.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiationwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehavb.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons EffectProc. ACCF2. SIF Conference Proceedings 33. The Science of Cold Fusion. (1991), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSreliablepr.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determinationwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScommentson.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. Miles Calorimetry of the Pd+D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScalorimetra.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and R.D. Boss Comments on the analysis of tritium content in electrochemical cellswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScommentsona.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphasewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSchargingof.pdf

Szu H. Nuclear Fission Generated By A High Power Neutron Beam Shot Through A Cylindrical Palladium Lattice Packed Densely With Deuteron FuelProceedings: EPRI-NSF Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterided Metals (1989), p 650 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRInsfepriwor.pdf

Szumski D. Si Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model using Reversible ThermodynamicsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 554 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Tadayoshi Ohmori, Michio Enyo Detection of Iron Atoms on Gold Electrodes Used for Electrolysis of Neutral and Alkaline H2O and D2O SolutionsInternational Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. Minsk (1994), p 247 www.iscmns.org/FIC/CFSB.pdf

Taft S. L., Marwan J. The Open Gate Phenomenon: A New Energy TechnologyJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 77 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Takahashi A., Kitamura A., et al. Anomalous Exothermic and Endothermic Data Observed by Nano-Ni-Composite SamplesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 23 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Takahashi A. Deuteron Cluster Fusion and ASHJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 62 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. TSC-Induced Nuclear Reactions and Cold Transmutations J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 86 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A., Yabuuchi N. On Condensation Force of TSCJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 97 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. Fusion Rates of Bosonized CondensatesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 106 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. A Theoretical Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear EffectsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 129 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation MotionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 2, (2009), p 33 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol2.pdf

Takahashi A. Progress in Condensed Cluster Fusion TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 269 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Takahashi A., Seto R., et al. Role of PdO Surface-coating in CMNS D(H)-Gas Loading ExperimentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 5, (2011), p 17 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol5.pdf

Takahashi A. Are Ni + H Nuclear Reactions Possible?J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 9, (2012), p 108 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol9.pdf

Takahashi A. Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 565 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Takahashi A. Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion by TSC TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 11 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Takahashi A. Fundamental of Rate Theory for CMNSJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 298 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

Takahashi A., Yabuuchi N. D-Cluster Dynamics and Fusion Rate by Langevin Equation8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. Catania, Italy. (2007), p 306 www.iscmns.org/catania07/ProcW8.pdf

Takahashi A. Some Considerations of Multibody Fusion in Metal DeuteridesProc. ICCF4 4, (1993), p 159 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedingc.pdf

Takahashi A. The Italy-Japan Project – Fundamental Research on Cold Transmutation Process for Treatment of Nuclear Wastes Proc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/TakahashiA-2.pdf

Takahashi A. Time-Dependent EQPET Analysis of TSCProc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/TakahashiA-3.pdf

Takahashi A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation MotionProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 663 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Takahashi N., Kosaka Si, et al. Detection of Pr in Cs Ion-implanted Pd/CaO Multilayer Complexes with and without D2 Gas PermeationJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 579 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Takahashi R. Cold Fusion Explained by Negentropy Theory of Microdrop of Heavy WaterProc. ICCF4 4, (1993), p 317 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedingc.pdf

Takahashi, A. A Theoretical Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear Effects6th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. Siena, Italy. (2005), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAatheoretic.pdf

Takahashi, A. Tetrahedral And Octahedral Resonance Fusion Under Transient Condensation Of Deuterons At Lattice Focal PointsProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAtetrahedra.pdf

Takahashi, A. Mechanism Of Deuteron Cluster Fusion By EQPET ModelProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAmechanismo.pdf

Takahashi, A. Studies on 3D Fusion Reactions in TiDx under Ion Beam Implantation (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAstudiesonda.pdf

Takahashi, A. Theoretical Background for Transmutation Reactions (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAtheoretica.pdf

Takahashi, A. 3He/4He Production Ratios By Tetrahedral Symmetric CondensationProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAheheproduc.pdf

Takahashi, A. Deuterons-to-4He Channels (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF13 (2007), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAdeuteronst.pdf

Takahashi, A. Condensed Matter Nuclear Effectswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAcondensedm.pdf

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Zhang, W.-S., et al. Numerical simulation of hydrogen (deuterium) absorption into テ�-phase hydride (deuteride) palladium electrodes under galvanostatic conditionswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSnumericals.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and H.Q. Li The maximum hydrogen (deuterium) loading ratio in the Pd|H2O(D2O) electrochemical systemwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSthemaximum.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and X.G. Zhao Voltammograms of thin layer Pd/H(D) electrodes in the coexistence of a and テ� phaseswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSvoltammogr.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., X.-W. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang Effects of self-induced stress on the steady concentration distribution of hydrogen in fcc metallic membranes during hydrogen diffusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsofsa.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang Some problems on the resistance method in the in situ measurement of hydrogen content in palladium electrodewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSsomeproble.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang. Electrochemical effects on the resistance measurements of Pd/H electrodeProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSelectroche.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-F. Zhang, and Z.-L. Zhang. Primary calorimetric results on closed Pd/D2O electrolysis systems by calvet calorimetryProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSprimarycal.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang Effects of self-induced stress in tubular membranes during hydrogen diffusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsofsb.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang Effects of temperature on hydrogen absorption into palladium hydride electrodes in the hydrogen evolution reactionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsoft.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang. Effects of Temperature on Loading Ratios of Hydrogen (Deuterium) in Palladium Cathodes under the Galvanostatic ConditionsProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsofta.pdf

Zhang, X., et al. On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic Systemwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangXontheexplo.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L. and W.-S. Zhang. Possibility of electron capture by deuteronProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLpossibilit.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L., et al. Measurements of Excess Heat in the Open Pd/D2O Electrolytic System by the Calvet CalorimetryProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLmeasuremen.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L., W.-S. Zhang, and Z.-Q. Zhang. Further study on the solution of Schrテカdinger equation of hydrogen-like atomProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLfurtherstu.pdf

Zhang, Z.-Q., Z.-L. Zhang, and W.-S. Zhang. Are there some loose bound states of nucleus-nucleus two-body system?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZQarethereso.pdf

Zhou D. Z., Wang C., et al. Energetic Particles Generated in Earlier Pd + D Nuclear ReactionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 33 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Zhou, X., X.Z. Li, and B. Liu. Bethe’s Calculation For Solar Energy And Selective Resonant TunnelingProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhouXbethescalc.pdf

1300 titles.

Trolls

Subpage of RationalWiki/Anglo Pyramidologist

This is a collection of accounts showing a kind of troll behavior characteristic of some AP socks. These accounts appear, often create pages with disruptive names, and are intended to be immediately blocked. Sometimes these accounts are intended to be seen as socks of someone else.

It is not impossible that some of these are themselves impersonations of AP. However, I find that explanation generally implausible. The particular interests and foci are those of AP. If impersonations, they succeed.

I’m starting this page August 20, 2018, showing recent examples. There are a large number of examples. As well, these are only on RationalWiki. I have sometimes documented these accounts. Where they edit covered RW articles, they have been listed there when noticed, or sometimes when impersonation was clear. Accounts are shown articles or edits, and content of articles. Analysis is in unindented italics.

EMIL_OW_KIRKEGAARD (impersonation) created

EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKIEMIL OW KIRKEGAARD (talk contribs) 12:06, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

The lack of a space between the comment and the signature is commonly seen with AP signatures.

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

Some of the material copied to RW above was taken from the linked blog. But not all, and this practice of quoting exposés of AP, disruptively, is a known AP tactic. It actually works on RW, on occasion. Since the sock quotes X, RationalWikians may assume that the sock is X, increasing dedication to opposing any genuine X activity, and presenting the apparent target (here, Oliver Smith) as a victim. Generally, these prolific impersonations socks may be, not Oliver himself, but his brother, Darryl.

ElfredaTheCalm blocked 12:24, 4 August 2018 GrammarCommie for “spam” created

[[File:Emilkirkegaard Nazi salute.png]]

This file was uploaded by Dr. Witt, an obvious Oliver Smith sock.

RIGHTPEDIA.ORG EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI

EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI

EMIL KIRKEGAARD IS CLOSING RATIONALWIKI ANTIFA DOWN

 EMIL KIRKEGAARD CLOSING RATIONALWIKI ANTIFA DOWN U GEY

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

David Gerard and Oliver Smith both antifa

Jump to: navigation, search

A sign of careless copying.

(aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia

Oliver has stated that he believes he can get away with defaming and abusing European dissidents, as they will be less likely to contact the authorities. This suggests he is motivated by psychotic behavior disorder rather than political views.

On his autobiography, he falsely claims in the D&D alignment he is “true neutral”. In reality, he is chaotic evil. Chaotic because he’s a schizophrenic with multiple personality disorder and he’s a pathological liar — he even constantly lies on the talk pages of his autobiography, such has here he lied and claimed Rightpedia said they were doing to dox all Rationalwiki Sysops and nobody said this. Evil because he cares not for right or wrong, but only power, and chaotic evil because he has no goals other than his emotions. And just look at his photo which he chose to upload for his autobiography; that’s clearly chaotic evil.

Other enemies of Oliver Carolyn Emerick – A European Pagan who teaches ancient folklore. She has never responded to him. She bought one of Evalion’s paintings, the one with the four seasons in Celtic mythology. Abd ul-Rahman Lomax – A based Muslim

This was partly based on the Kirkegaard blog with more AP raving. However, I’m a blogger and here is an opportunity for some eye candy. Sorry about the rest, but I can think of a medicinal use for it. So perhaps I have an opportunity to chat with one of two people: Carolyn Emerick or Oliver Smith.

from

OR

 

Tough call, eh? Politics? Who cares about politics? Presence is everything.

[[File:Kirkegaard.png|800px|thumb|Emil Kirkegaard]]

File uploaded by https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/User:CheeseburgerFace not an AP sock.

RationalWiki (nicknamed IrrationalWiki) and Wikis on politics tend to have a certain viewpoint, such as Wikipedia is mainstream US liberalism. Conservapedia is mainstream US conservatism. For IrrationalWiki, it is pro-neo-Marxism, pro-Globalism, and the hypocritical position that conspiracy theories are hoaxes. Although the viewpoint in its articles is often too extreme, it is run professionally. They prevent doxxing and have banned members that behave crazy like traditional Communist activists. Crazy viewpoints are fine, but behaving uncivil is not allowed.

For its pro-Neo-Marxist stance, the wiki supports things along the lines of secular humanism, cultural degeneracy, and old-fashioned Economic Communism, race denialism, New Atheism, anti-Christian, anti-Conservative, pro-sodomy, pro-gun restriction and basically that sort of thing. It even claims rape culture in white countries is only done by white people and the masses of rapy immigrants from African, Muslim and other countries that have a real rape culture aren’t the ones doing the raping. It’s the viewpoint that a man looking at pornography is “rape culture” while the common occurrence in Europe these days of a gang of foreign men gang-raping a small child and then the government imprisoning anyone who speaks against it on Facebook or Twitter is not rape culture.

For pro-Globalism, while that tends to conflict with old-fashioned economic Marxism, current Neo-Marxism is a modification that isn’t totally at odds with Globalism. Even people typically on the left oppose globalist things such as genetically modified foods, smart meters, fracking, Monsanto, Aspartame, cancer danger from cell phones and that sort of thing. Irrationalwiki is of the point of view that these conspiracies are pseudoscience and corporations in general can do no wrong.

The delusion that all conspiracy theories are hoaxes really just overlaps with the pro-Globalism viewpoint. The wiki holds that if it’s a conspiracy theory, it’s wrong. This can be conspiracy theories not related to Communism or Globalist corporations such as 9/11 conspiracies, water fluoridation, and DDT banning conspiracies. rightpedia.info/w/RationalWiki

This was material taken from http://en.rightpedia.info/w/RationalWiki

Also August 4, from the block log:

11:35, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . Oliveratlantis
11:33, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . Oliveratlantis

11:41, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+1,414)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual: new section)

Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual

Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

A massive wikisperg, Oliver is infamous for going to extremes to remove websites or articles that he believes have offended, disparaged or merely criticized him; this includes accusing his opponents he has met online wikis (e.g. his arch-enemy) of various crimes, setting up attack blogs on them, hounding, stalking and impersonating them using sockpuppets, accusing his opponents of being his own impersonations, and even sending threats with the purpose of trying to coerce them into deleting everything written about him. In numerous cases this has worked. Emil OW Kirkegaard (talk) 11:41, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

1:39, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . (+185)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎

EXPOSING THIS MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA: emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034 Emil OW Kirkegaard (talk) 11:39, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

11:37, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Talk:Oliveratlantis (Created page with “oliver is a traitor to the European people and should be shot. ~~~~”) [entire content shown in summary]

11:54, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+2,064)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (emil kirkegaard is being stalked by a schizoid antifa: new section)

emil kirkegaard is being stalked by a schizoid antifa

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

11:56, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff ) . . Emil kirkegaard is being stalked by an antifa (Created page) 

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:00, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . OLIVER SCHIZOPHRENIC ANTIFA (Created page) with 

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?
[code block] There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

[code block] Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:14, 4 August 2018 (diff | hist. . (-2,173)‎ . . Michael A. Woodley of Menie ‎[replaced content with:]

THIS SMEAR ARTICLE WAS WRITTEN BY A MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA

11:31, 4 August 2018 (diff | deletion log | view) . . Oliveratlantis (Created page)

(aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia

11:29, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+192)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎

EXPOSING THIS MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA: emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034 Emil Kirkegaard Real (talk) 11:29, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

  • 12:34, 4 August 2018 GrammarCommie  blocked Oliver boglins (contribs) with an expiration time of π×infinity! (account creation disabled, cannot edit own talk page) (Spam) [created 11:22, 4 August 2018]

11:25, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+665)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Impersonations)

oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica. Oliver boglins (talk) 11:25, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

12:09, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Schizophrenic antifa oliver (Created page)

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:07, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Talk:EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI (Created page with “EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI~~~~”) [all content in summary]

12:10, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Michael a woodley of menie close down rationalwiki (Created page)

[[Image:Michael Woodley.png|thumb|2500px|U GEY]]

File uploaded by AP sock M87.

Reviewing M87 edits led me to Octo, created  09:25, 14 August 2018. Caught a fish! This is Oliver.

Back to the task at hand, troll accounts:

17:37, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . User:MrSheen (Created page with “https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets Hilariously the other socks are Oliver attempting to frame me.”) [text=summary]

17:01, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . User:MrSheen (Created page with “https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets”) [text=summary]

 User:MrSheen (shows deletion log)

Account renamed by LeftyGreenMario

16:00, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff. . (+686)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Lol, how Kirkegaard sees his politics…) [revdel by Bongolian]

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppetsEMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 15:57, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica. EMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 16:00, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

15:59, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff. . (+581)‎ . . User talk:MrSheen ‎[revdel by Bongolian]

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

 15:58, 8 August 2018 (diff  . . (+161)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (edit summary removed) [by Kazitor]

Edit summary was content:

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppetsEMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 15:57, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

15:38, 8 August 2018 (diff. . (+182)‎ . . Talk:Michael Coombs

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets“)EmilOWKirkegaard1488 (talk) 15:38, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

Geolocates to region for AP or Mikemikev.

Proceedings

Index to Conference Proceedings

International Conference for Cold Fusion (ICCF)
also known as
International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCMNS)

… and there are other organizations involved that have held conferences with proceedings issued.

EPRI-NSF, Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1989

Where I have not yet split the proceedings into individual papers, and where I have found them, I here link to copies or similar resources. ICCF Proceedings are now routinely being published as JCMNS volumes, and those are all split and hosted here.

ICCF-1, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 28-31, 1990
ICCF-2 , Como, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991
ICCF-3, Nagoya, Japan, October 21 – 25, 1992
ICCF-4 , Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, December 6-9, 1993
ICCF-5, Monte Carlo, Monaco, April 9-13, 1995
ICCF-6, Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, October 13th – 18th 1996
ICCF-7, Vancouver, Canada, April 19-24, 1998. review by Jed Rothwell. abstracts (partial list), part 1, part 2, part 3Some documents. (copies in libraries)
ICCF-8, Lerici (La Spezia), Italy, 21-26 May 2000 see lenr-canr.org for some papers.
ICCF-9, Beijing, China, 2002, May 19 – 24, 2002 (our page is incomplete, based on lenr-canr.org, we are looking for a copy of the Proceedings.
ICCF-10, Cambridge, Massachusetts 24 – 29 August 2003, see lenr-canr.org. That is incomplete, we have the printed Proceedings and will complete it.
ICCF-11, Marseilles, France. Book is available on World Scientific and Amazon. Most papers are on lenr-canr.org (index to this volume created from the World Scientific site, but we have no copy of the proceedings. Our page links to lenr-canr.org copies and notes where those don’t exist.)
ICCF-12, Yokahama, Japan, 27 November – 2 December 2005. We have a paper copy of Proceedings. Some papers.
ICCF-13, Dagomys, Sochi, Russia,  June 25 – July 1, 2007. There is almost no mention of this conference on lenr-canr.org. Documents were hosted on iscmns.org for a time. Those have disappeared, but can be found on archive.org and newenergytimes.com, including a table of contents. The program and abstracts. (no longer hosted on NET, found on archive.org.)
ICCF-14, Washington, D.C., 10-15 August 2008.
ICCF-15, Roma, Italy, October 5 – 9, 2009, ENEA Proceedings, linked from ENEA.
ICCF-16, Chennai, India, February 2011, jcmns/v8 and jcmns/v10
ICCF-17, Daejeon, South Korea, 2012. We have preprints for all presentations. Proceedings jcmns/v13.
ICCF-18, Columbia, Missouri, July 21 – 27, 2013. jcmns/v15
ICCF-19, Padua, Italy, April 13–17, 2015, jcmns/v19
ICCF-20, Sendai, Japan, October 02–07, 2016,  jcmns/v24
ICCF-21 (forthcoming) abstracts.

International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals (IWAHLM)

IWAHLM-8, Catania, Italy, 13-18 October 2007
IWAHLM-11, Toulouse, France, October 15–16, 2015, jcmns/v23
IWAHLM-12, Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017, jcmns/v26.
IWAHLM-13 is scheduled for 5-9 October 2018, Greccio, Italy.

Do other IWAHLM proceedings exist? I have found references to these IWAHLM events:

IWAHLM-9, 17 – 19 September 2010, page on conference. Program.
IWAHLM-10, Pontignano (Siena)-Italy; 10-14 April 2012. Program. Abstracts.
IWAHLM-6,  Certosa di Pontignano, (Siena)-Italy, 2005.

IWAHLM-7, Asti, Italy, September 23-25, 2006, article includes program, and notes that Asti workshops were started in 1993.
IWAHLM-5, Asti, Italy, 2004.
Asti Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen-Loaded Metals, Asti, Italy, November 27-30, 1997. Articles about this conference. (what number was this? From clues, this would be IWAHLM-3.

The 1997 article mentions the history, workshops started in 1993 by a Fiat executive.
IWAHLM-4
IWAHLM-2 October 1995. Truffle Prizes to Akito Takahashi and Francesco Piantelli.
IWAHLM-1  Villa Ricardo, Asti, Italy. Truffle Prize to Yan Kucherov.

Japan CF Research Society

JCF has available Proceedings, from all JCF Conferences since JCF-4 ( 2002) through JCF-17 (2017). There were also abstracts available from JCF 1 through 3, but those have gone down. It might be possible to find them.

Related resources

New Energy Times index to conferences

Lenr-canr.org page on conferences

Wikipedia on cold fusion patents

This is a subpage of jcmns/v13/p118, a review of an article by David French on Patents and Cold Fusion

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cold_fusion&oldid=852432636#Patents

Patents

Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March 1989 Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.[30] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) announced on 12 April 1989 that it had applied for its own patents based on theoretical work of one of its researchers, Peter L. Hagelstein, who had been sending papers to journals from the 5 to 12 April.[174] On 2 December 1993 the University of Utah licensed all its cold fusion patents to ENECO, a new company created to profit from cold fusion discoveries,[175] and in March 1998 it said that it would no longer defend its patents.[75]

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) now rejects patents claiming cold fusion.[88] Esther Kepplinger, the deputy commissioner of patents in 2004, said that this was done using the same argument as with perpetual motion machines: that they do not work.[88]

It’s a problem when Wikipedia alleges a current state of affairs with “now,” especially based on an old source. Reference 18 is to this article, from 2004. From that article, this:

… The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has refused to grant a patent on any invention claiming cold fusion. According to Esther Kepplinger, the deputy commissioner of patents, this is for the same reason it wouldn’t give one for a perpetual motion machine: It doesn’t work.

This is popular language, not a legal position. Perpetual motion machines violate a strongly-held understanding of thermodynamics, so any claim of one is going to be met with skepticism, and if skepticism is broad and wide on a particular class of inventions, and if the USPTO notices this, and if an invention actually claims what is considered impossible (that is not the same as actually being impossible), it will require proof of utility and enablement. 

These problems, Hagelstein and McKubre argue, are all tied to the 1989 DOE review. While the report’s language was measured, pointing out the lack of experimental evidence, “it was absolutely the intention of most of the framers of that document to kill cold fusion,” McKubre says.

McKubre was probably correct about that intention, though the document itself was modified to avoid that, in theory (it actually recommended research). However, the intention, whatever it was, is irrelevant to the patent situation. What is the problem is a widespread belief that cold fusion experiments are not reliably reproducible, or not reliably reproduced from a specific protocol, or . And that belief happens to be reasonable, it’s also understood by many LENR researchers, and that bears directly on patentability.

Not all real effects are patentable. They must actually be useful, and not merely potentially useful at some point in the future, but in the present. The enabling description in the patent must be adequate to generate practical results, of practical utility, when implemented by a Person Having Ordinary Skill In The Art (PHOSITA), and not only that, the patent and evidence shown to the USPTO must be such as to convince such persons that the invention will work. (or at least is likely to work!)

There came to be, after that rushed 1989 report, plenty of experimental evidence that there was a real effect, and even that the effect was nuclear in nature. (Some of that evidence shows the reality without requiring reliability, through correlation; specifically, the effect is difficult to set up, but when it does occur, there are reliable correlates.)

[. . . ] According to McKubre, the reason cold fusion experiments can’t be reproduced on demand is a materials issue: It’s a matter of developing a form of palladium, or another metal, with the right mix of impurities. With help on that issue and more funding, he suggests, a small cold-fusion-powered heater or generator could be ready in as little as two years.

And that’s the rub. That “issue” is still unresolved. If it were resolved, the suggested possibility is not unreasonable. With such a material to specify, if it were creating reliable heat and if this heat were adequate for practical use, not merely measurable experimentally — which would be enough for science — then such a generator could be patented. Until then, once the substantial doubt has been raised, clear evidence is required to rebut the skepticism.

This is often considered unfair, because most patents don’t need to provide that kind of proof. However, the courts have again and again supported this position, and I have to agree that it is sensible. There are ways for inventors to proceed, if they actually have found a way to make a practical device.

Patent applications are required to show that the invention is “useful”, and this utility is dependent on the invention’s ability to function.[176] In general USPTO rejections on the sole grounds of the invention’s being “inoperative” are rare, since such rejections need to demonstrate “proof of total incapacity”,[176] and cases where those rejections are upheld in a Federal Court are even rarer: nevertheless, in 2000, a rejection of a cold fusion patent was appealed in a Federal Court and it was upheld, in part on the grounds that the inventor was unable to establish the utility of the invention.[176][notes 5]

Yes. (This is much better than what the article used to have on this topic, by the way.) Note 176 refers to In re Swartz, called “Swartz I” in the 2018 Swartz v. PATO rejection.

A U.S. patent might still be granted when given a different name to disassociate it from cold fusion,[177] though this strategy has had little success in the US: the same claims that need to be patented can identify it with cold fusion, and most of these patents cannot avoid mentioning Fleischmann and Pons’ research due to legal constraints, thus alerting the patent reviewer that it is a cold-fusion-related patent.[177]

The issue is not the name, so much as the claim. Patents have been granted which were cold-fusion related. One of the problems is that “cold fusion” is a loose popular name for the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, and there is a large family of such effects, more commonly called Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, and that the “reactions” are nuclear in nature is a matter of theory, and only in a few instances, strong and direct evidence. Mostly what is seen is anomalous heat. “Little success in the US” is a bit misleading. Looking up the source, this was Voss, in Science, 1999, ‘New Physics’ Finds a Haven at the Patent Office and I doubt he understood the real situation (he seems to think that fringe science should not be patentable). Few cold fusion related patents had been granted by 1999, and there are fast-approval exceptions, for example for the age of the inventor. There are more, now. I don’t have the article (paywall). There was a sidebar, though, referring to Thomas Valone case. A Free Energy Enthusiast Seeks Like-Minded Colleagues. Valone won an arbitration with the USPTO. 

David Voss said in 1999 that some patents that closely resemble cold fusion processes, and that use materials used in cold fusion, have been granted by the USPTO.[178] The inventor of three such patents had his applications initially rejected when they were reviewed by experts in nuclear science; but then he rewrote the patents to focus more in the electrochemical parts so they would be reviewed instead by experts in electrochemistry, who approved them.[178][179]

Note 178 refers to Voss and gives the three patents:

US 5,616,219  US 5,628,886  US 5,672,259 are broken links. These work:  US5616219 US5628886 US5672259 .  These are Patterson patents. My understanding is that these were issued under a fast-track rule for inventors over 70 years old. So these have nothing to do with normal Patent Office practice.

Note 178 refers to a Law Review article, which I found of high interest. 2006 Wis. L. Rev. 1275 (2006) They cite an Internet Archive copy, this is the original publication: A Case Study of Inoperable Inventions: Why is the USPTO Patenting Pseudoscience, Daniel Rislove. Rislove covers the patenting of inoperable inventions, recognizes the difficulties involved, but seems to think that nevertheless the USPTO should protect the public by not issuing patents to “pseudoscientific” inventions. However, the mission of the Patent Office is not to protect the public, but to benefit inventors. The problem is that the issuance of a patent can appear to support an inventor’s claim of legitimacy, in some cases. The problem is actually public ignorance and the ability of some inventors to deceive the public or investors as to the utility of their inventions, by the fact of a patent. Rislove seems to believe that that problem is insoluble, therefore the Patent Office should avoid harm to the public by taking greater care to reject inoperable inventions. But this will raise costs to inventors, and can also harm the public (he is aware that what is considered impossible might not actually be so. Perhaps an invention operates by an unknown principle, instead of what the inventor thinks. Patents are not scientific theories, and are not “pseudoscientific,” if described accurately.

The FDA is mentioned, but the mission of the FDA is to protect the public. At least in theory! There are other legal institutions that can protect the public from fraud and fakery. On the patent issue, every patent could be accompanied by a disclaimer that the patent does not guarantee operability or suitability for purpose. It could be made a form of fraud to claim that a patent shows these things.

When asked about the resemblance to cold fusion, the patent holder said that it used nuclear processes involving “new nuclear physics” unrelated to cold fusion.[178]

The quoted phrase is not found in source 178. Rislove does cite Voss so maybe the Wikipedia editor was confused. However, that would be a generic argument. “New nuclear physics” is not inherently incredible. “Cold fusion” conjures up a specific idea that is probably impossible under the relevant conditions. But there can always be new physics, including new nuclear physics. It’s merely unlikely, and until and unless the new physics is confirmed, the USPTO may have a basis for challenging it. But it is not clear to me that this right is actually useful for the purposes of patent law. Such rejections, as Rislove points out, are rare, but plenty of garbage is patented.

Melvin Miles was granted in 2004 a patent for a cold fusion device, and in 2007 he described his efforts to remove all instances of “cold fusion” from the patent description to avoid having it rejected outright.[180]

The source is an article, Cold fusion is back at the American Chemical Society It quotes Miles:

Miles is also careful to avoid using the words ‘cold fusion’. “There are code names you can use,” he says. In 2004 Miles and colleagues were granted a US patent for a palladium material doped with boron for use in low-energy nuclear reactions, but if the patent application contained the CF words it would never have been granted, Miles says. “We kind of disguised what we did.”

The Wikipedia link for the patent is dead. US6764561B1 Remarkably, though, the patent does cover the use of his material for generating energy. My emphasis:

The present invention generally relates to processes for the production of a high-strength alloy that may be used as a gas purification membrane, as an electrode for numerous applications including the generation of heat energy or other electrochemical processes, and more particularly to the preparation and use of two-phase palladium-boron alloys which have greater strength and hardness than other palladium metals or alloys and which thus can be advantageously utilized in a variety of applications including hydrogen purification membranes or electrodes.

And then in the Background, again my emphasis:

. . . the demand for energy increases each year while the world’s natural energy sources such as fossil fuels are finite and are being used up. Accordingly, the development of alternative energy sources is very important and a number of potential new energy sources are under study. Although there have been many attempts to develop a palladium compound which can be utilized in processes to generate heat, such as through the introduction of aqueous deuterium, none of these attempts have been successful or repeatable, and there is thus a distinct need to develop palladium alloys which can be utilized for the generation of heat as a potential energy source.

So he is claiming a possible use, but not standing the patent on “nuclear reactions,” even though he is obviously talking about what is known as “cold fusion.” He is centrally claiming an alloy with multiple uses. It is not “incredible” that an alloy can be made. The utility of such an alloy might be claimed, but this is where the burden of proof would be on the USPTO, to show that it is not useful.

At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.[181]

The Davis patent I have cited elsewhere, which is a US patent which clearly cited Fleischmann and Pons, also cites this patent, EP0568118, “Process for storing hydrogen, and apparatus for cold nuclear fusion and method for generating heat energy, using the process.” application 1990, granted to Canon in 1993.

There are other European patents, for sure, but Wikipedia can only cite what is in reliable secondary sources, and the source here was a 1994 article in New Scientist.

A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one’s invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.[178]

Yes. Patents are not stamps of approval. Period. You want approval, for safety, go to Underwriter’s Laboratories. For drugs, go to the Food and Drug Administration (in the U.S). For investment in cold fusion inventions, scream and run in the opposite direction unless you have experts with you. Even scientists have been fooled by “demonstrations.”

What is required for validation is verification by independent experts, in circumstances under the control of those experts. For an investor, the most important word in this is “independent.” Cold fusion is not impossible, we know that, because of controlled experiment, multiply confirmed. (But the word “fusion” could still be misleading.) As it stands, a lot of very smart people have worked for decades to create reliable devices and they have failed. So a reliable cold fusion device is quite unexpected. The US Patent Office, rightly or wrongly, wants to see proof of utility and enablement, and if you actually have such a device, proving it should not be all that difficult. Unless you want to keep secrets, or don’t actually have something reliable, then it could be impossible.

Peter Gluck

This is a message to Peter Gluck as a response to https://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/2018/03/

It was suggested to me by a well-known scientist that your blog should be preserved as an important part of LENR history, and I agreed, so I am at this point downloading the entire site. Much (not all) of is on the Internet Archive. Meanwhile you have asked for updates.

Nothing is certain regarding LENR-technology, even that it does NOT exist.

“Certain” is a human reaction, which can be individual or social. Human memory and analysis can always be flawed. The Richard Garwin argument (“They must be making some mistake.”) is a default hypothesis whenever strong beliefs are challenged, and this can never be completely proven to be incorrect. However, routinely, we do accept preponderance of the evidence conclusions.

But, again, who is “we”? People who have a strong belief that “LENR” — what is that? — is “impossible,” will generally put little time into studying the evidence. But some will put in that time. What we know most certainly about so-called “cold fusion,” I continue to assert, is that in the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, deuterium is being converted to helium, with very little else happening at substantial levels. This is very different from claiming that PdD is the energy solution of the future.

This obviously tells us nothing, either way, about NiH.

I am desperate.

I’ve always been sorry to hear that. It’s painful to be desperate. Desperation creates poor decisions, only rarely, in true emergencies, is it useful.

And that’s how I’d encourage you to think, about “useful and not-useful,” instead of right and wrong and good and bad. Yes, there is some element of “good” in “useful,” as long as we remain in the realm of choice.

So far, LENR is not useful, except for investigation, and that is why patents that claim usefulness for energy production are rejected (in the US). They are not actually useful for that when independently tested, so far, it is potential, not realization. We often think of ideas being patentable, and yes, sometimes, but not if there is doubt, then usefulness for stated purpose must be shown.

Rossi got his US patent by not claiming any nuclear reaction, the patent was for a “fluid heater,” and nobody doubts that the Doral reactor heated water. But how much? Rossi did not make claims about that in his patent application, so they did not demand proof.

Other patents have been granted that actually claim LENR, the SPAWAR patent is one. It makes no energy claim, only particle production (including neutrons). There is another granted patent for an electrolytic method for investigating the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect! It does not claim use for creating energy, but for testing claims of such creation. That’s useful!

The Miamy Trial – Rossi vs. Darden is a complete mistery, but it seems Rossi has not lost the trial.

It’s not a mystery to someone who has studied the documents. I compiled all of them and created study guides, etc. and my personal full trust is in reality, not in the ideas of people including myself. Out of that, I do have opinions, but hopefully rooted strongly in evidence, as if I were a member of that jury, and I was there and saw the jury selection and opening arguments, already being very familiar with the evidence that had been revealed in depositions (sworn testimony) and pleadings.

A summary:

On many, many occasions, Rossi lied.

That is, he made statements and acted in ways clearly designed to create false impressions.

He lied to Industrial Heat about the Hydro Fusion test — that he deliberately failed that test to deceive Hydro Fusion into walking away from their agreement — or he lied to IH about his purpose. There are many small deceptions, often passed off by his supporters as simple hyperbole and style, but, he created and confirmed in many ways the impression to IH, including in emails, where it was quite clear, that his customer in Doral was Johnson-Matthey. When Vaugh wrote him that he was going to visit JM in England, Rossi quickly said, “No, they don’t want to be known, I should not have mentioned them. Your customer is a Florida company.” or like that.

The Florida company was a blind trust created by Rossi’s attorney, Johnson, who was also President of Leonardo Corporation. It was owned by a friend of Rossi, on paper. Rossi actually paid for everything and totally controlled the “customer.” The customer was not at all independent, as Rossi had claimed many times, to IH, and to the world on his blog.

Rossi and Johnson met with IH in North Carolina and signed the Terms Sheet covering the sale of power to JM Chemical Products. The name was obviously designed to resemble Johnson-Matthey, and Johnson represented that JM Products was an “English entity.” Since it was obviously not (Rossi was forced to reveal, from court process, the true owner), later, in depositions, Johnson claimed that they intended to create an English entity, but it was too expensive, so they didn’t. That is, Johnson — entirely working for Rossi — lied, claiming as fact, for legal purposes, what was only an idea, in order to promote the deception of an independent customer.

Rossi later claimed that he never told them that the customer was Johnson Matthey, but it’s very clear that he created that impression, and his fake JM engineer (Bass) clearly believed that he was actually working for Johnson Matthey, this was in emails revealed in the case.

So, then, there is a background of lies, and this actually goes way back. (I learned a lot more at ICCF-21 about his thermoelectric generators) However, some people don’t care about lying, if the liar delivers what they want, and we want cheap energy, right?

So Rossi set up and controlled what he later called a “test” of the 1 MW reactor assemblies, and his friend Penon issued a report showing a megawatt generated, thus providing what Rossi claimed would trigger an $89 million payment.

(There are many deceptions in the case. The agreement allowing the test to be postponed was never actually executed, the approval was required of Rossi’s long-time friends and partners, at Ampenergo,  but they never agreed to it, and that was deliberate, not merely an accident as I thought it might have been. Rossi knew this, so he obviously tried to set up something to resemble a test and then to claim that he was still owed the money (and that they had set out to defraud him from the beginning and never had any intention to pay, and then he argued that they didn’t have the money to pay, and he argued many things that don’t match the evidence. They were well prepared to pay if the results had been good.)

But the kicker, of greatest interest, is that Rossi had failed to provide adequate ventilation to dissipate a megawatt of heat, 24/7. His own expert testified that without a heat exchanger, the warehouse would have been fatally hot. After having been asked about this in 2016, and having written on his blog that the heat was dissipated by an “endothermic reaction,” and then claiming that the roof vent was enough, and opening the back door, he, as discovery was ending, more or less last-minute, claimed he had built a heat exchanger on the second floor of the warehouse. In that, he crossed from deceptive interpretation into perjury, lying under oath, which is criminal. I won’t go into all the details, but, the jury would have agreed there was no heat exchanger and there was no evidence that it ever existed, for  it would have been very visible and very noisy and many people had visited. You have to move a lot of air to dissipate a megawatt by air cooling!

So if this case did not settle, the possibility became high that Rossi could be prosecuted for perjury. He could go to jail again. At the same time, IH was not going to recover the $11.5 million they had given him, even if he had defrauded IH with the Validation Test in Italy. They had formally accepted that, even though they knew there were problems. However, they could have recovered a few million dollars in damages from the fraudulent customer and fake test (and they could also have collected from the co-conspirators, Johnson, as well as, with various degrees of culpability, Fabiani, Penon, and Bass. It is questionable that they could have recovered their legal expenses, and, as a technology company, needing to create confidence in inventors, they would not want the appearance of attempting to punish an inventor when things don’t work out. They had not sued Rossi, they had not attempted to expose him, and only counterclaimed when sued.

I think Rossi believed they would settle, but that was a bridge too far for them, given that he had essentially cheated them out of millions of dollars. Because of his legal expenses, Rossi was facing the likelihood of bankruptcy, and some of his friends might have also been bankrupted.

I was there when, as Rossi’s attorneys were setting up displays for the jury, the actual trial was about to begin, Rossi’s new attorney asked to confer with the lead attorney for IH. It was obvious what was happening. Rossi had been convinced to abandon the lawsuit, and the settlement agreement abandoned all claims of the parties against each other. Rossi had filed a federal lawsuit costing many millions of dollars, and was walking away with only one thing. I’m sure that attorney knew what to say to IH: “You are claiming the technology is worthless, so it would make sense that you would abandon it.

That agreement was used later by Rossi to claim that this is what he’d wanted all along, to get out of the agreement with IH,  but, in fact, IH had not been preventing Rossi from developing and selling his technology around the world. He has also being deceptive about the agreement and IH behavior.

IH would not have been able to prove there was no excess heat. Their own testing, they testified under oath, had found nothing that did not turn out to be a measurement error. And, again, Peter, I could go on and on. But, bottom line, Rossi did not win his lawsuit and he lost many millions of dollars in legal costs, and no sane investor will put money into Rossi technology any more without taking extraordinary precautions, because there are many clear facts in the case that became public record. I’d call that a loss.

What will bring the future to LENR?

The future will bring itself, in its time, and desperately wanting something only hastens it, sometimes, when we are children, and our parents want to please us. Desperation does not generally serve adults, unless their lives are under immediate threat. Then it may motivate us to do difficult things, but complaining isn’t one of them, unless created and directed so as to effective. Desperation may delay the future when it leads us into useless activity, when smarter activity might carry the day.

In this blog I have told many times what I think about Pd/D and Ni/H etc., and I have not changed my opinion.

Don’t confuse me with facts?

Peter, you were always right, in my judgment, in certain ways, but you confused and did not understand other ways of looking at the situation. PdD is very unlikely to become a practical energy source, except maybe for special applications (such as space flight, and the SPAWAR patent I mentioned is of possible utility in a hybrid fusion/fission reactor being studied by Larry Forsley, Pam Boss, and others, working with NASA. Briefly, LENR (PdD!) is used to generate neutrons which then cause fission in associated uranium 238.

Now, is NiH viable? If so, it has very obvious advantages. At ICCF-21, there was a report from Takahashi about a collaboration where NiH is being intensively investigated, by a number of research groups, with more careful study of the effect of controlled variations than I have seen before. They are reporting XP in the 10 watt range, with some level of consistency.

What have we to do? Is any hope lost?

False hopes must always be lost. The only safety is in trusting reality no matter what. We are going to die, that comes to all of us. I have hope that LENR will be accepted as real in my lifetime, and, indeed, I hope to be able to personally help with this transformation in public understanding. I have less hope that practical applications will exist before I pass on, and even less hope that LENR will be “understood” in that time. If these things don’t happen, however, it does not distress me.

My stand is for real science and, as well, functional social process, but, again, my full trust and hope is in reality: reality is, as I wrote above, better than I can imagine. That is not a specific vision, it’s a declaration, a way of looking at the future, and I highly recommend it. It will not make things worse, particularly if you can recognize that “better” is a fantasy.

Peter, I hope you can find a way to come to terms with the reality of your life. “Reality” is not “good” or “bad.” It is largely what we say it is, as to those impressions. Reality itself doesn’t care about our opinions, those are froth, not substantial. Some think that Reality doesn’t care about us, but that is yet another opinion, and the only reasonably objective standard for judging opinions is whether or not they are useful.

From another post, one more question from Peter:

I also see that it [ICCF-21} is not organized by Darden – why?

At ICCF-20, Industrial Heat had agreed to support ICCF-21, to be held in North Carolina. However, as Rossi v. Darden was heating up, they decided that they could not maintain that commitment. David Nagel and Steve Katinsky took on the organizational task, and IH did support them. Darden was the keynote speaker. Industrial Heat is still actively supporting LENR research. So the Conference was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, on the campus of Colorado State University. ICCF-22 is planned to be in Slovenia, organized by Bill Collis.

NASA

This is a subpage of Widom-Larsen theory/Reactions

On New Energy Times, “Third Party References” to W-L theory include two connected with NASA, by Dennis Bushnell (2008) [slide 37] and J. M. Zawodny (2009) (slide 12, date is October 19, 2010, not 2009 as shown by Krivit).

What can be seen in the Zawodny presentation is a researcher who is not familiar with LENR evidence, overall, nor with the broad scope of existing LENR theory, but who has accepted the straw man arguments of WL theorists and Krivit, about other theories, and who treats WL theory as truth without clear verification. NASA proceeded to put about $1 million into LENR research, with no publications coming out of it, at least not associated with WL theory. They did file a patent, and that will be another story.

By 2013, all was not well in the relationship between NASA and Larsen.

To summarize, NASA appears to have spent about a million dollars looking into Widom-Larsen theory, and did not find it adequate for their purposes, nor did they develop, it seems, publishable data in support (or in disconfirmation) of the theory. In 2012, they were still bullish on the idea, but apparently out of steam. Krivit turns this into a conspiracy to deprive Lattice Energy of profit from their “proprietary technology,” which Lattice had not disclosed to NASA. I doubt there is any such technology of any significant value.

NASA’s LENR Article “Nuclear Reactor in Your Basement”

[NET linked to that article, and also to another copy. They are dead links, like many old NET links; NET has moved or removed many pages it cites, and the search function does not find them. But this page, I found with Google on phys.org. 

Now, in the Feb. 12, 2013, article, NASA suggests that it does not understand the Widom-Larsen theory well. However, Larsen spent significant time training Zawodny on it. Zawodny also understood the theory well enough to be a co-author on a chapter about the Widom-Larsen theory in the 2011 Wiley Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia. He understood it well enough to give a detailed, technical presentation on it at NASA’s Glenn Research Center on Sept. 22, 2011.

It simply does not occur to Krivit that perhaps NASA found the theory useless. Zawodny was a newcomer to LENR, it’s obvious. Krivit was managing that Wiley encyclopedia. The “technical presentation” linked contains numerous errors that someone familiar with the field would be unlikely to make — unless they were careless. For example, Pons and Fleischmann did not claim “2H + 2H -> 4He.” Zawodny notes that high electric fields will be required for electrons “heavy” enough to form neutrons, but misses that these must operate over unphysical distances, for an unphysical accumulation of energy, and misses all the observable consequences.

In general, as we can see from early reactions to WL Theory, simply to review and understand a paper like those of Widom and Larsen requires study and time, in addition to the followup work to confirm a new theory. WL theory was designed by a physicist (Widom, Larsen is not a physicist but an entrepreneur) to seem plausible on casual review.

To actually understand the theory and its viability, one needs expertise in two fields: physics and the experimental findings in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (mostly chemistry). That combination is not common. So a physicist can look at the theory papers and think, “plausible,” but not see the discrepancies, which are massive, with the experimental evidence. They will only see the “hits,” i.e., as a great example, the plot showing correspondence between WL prediction and Miley data. They will not know that (1) Miley’s results are unconfirmed (2) they will not realize that other theories might make similar predictions. Physicists may be thrilled to have a LENR theory that is “not fusion,” not noticing that WL theory actually requires higher energies than are needed for ordinary hot fusion.

Also from the page cited:

New Energy Times spoke with Larsen on Feb. 21, 2013, to learn more about what happened with NASA.

“Zawodny contacted me in mid-2008 and said he wanted to learn about the theory,” Larsen said. “He also dangled a carrot in front of me and said that NASA might be able to offer funding as well as give us their Good Housekeeping seal of approval.

Larsen has, for years, been attempting to position himself as a consultant on all things LENR. It wouldn’t take much to attract Larsen.

“So I tutored Zawodny for about half a year and taught him the basics. I did not teach him how to implement the theory to create heat, but I offered to teach them how to use it to make transmutations because technical information about reliable heat production is part of our proprietary know-how.

Others have claimed that Larsen is not hiding stuff. That is obviously false. What is effectively admitted here is that WL theory does not provide enough guidance to create heat, which is the main known effect in LENR, the most widely confirmed. Larsen was oh-so-quick to identify fraud with Rossi, but not fast enough — or too greedy — to consider it possible with Larsen. Larsen was claiming Lattice Energy was ready to produce practical devices for heat in 2003. He mentioned “patent pending, high-temperature electrode designs,” and “proprietary heat sources.” Here is the patent, perhaps. It does not mention heat nor any nuclear effect. Notice that if a patent does not provide adequate information to allow constructing a working device, it’s invalid. The patent referred to a prior Miley patent. first filed in 1997, which does mention transmutation. Both patents reference Patterson patents from as far back as 1990. There is another Miley patent filed in 2001 that has been assigned to Lattice.

“But then, on Jan. 22, 2009, Zawodny called me up. He said, ‘Sorry, bad news, we’re not going to be able to offer you any funding, but you’re welcome to advise us for free. We’re planning to conduct some experiments in-house in the next three to six months and publish them.’

“I asked Zawodny, ‘What are the objectives of the experiments?’ He answered, ‘We want to demonstrate excess heat.’

I remember that this is hearsay. However, it’s plausible. NASA would not be interested in transmutations, but rather has a declared interest in LENR for heat production for space missions. WL Theory made for decent cover (though it didn’t work, NASA still took flak for supporting Bad Science), but it provides no guidance — at all — for creating reliable effects. It simply attempts to “explain” known effects, in ways that create even more mysteries.

“I told Zawodny, ‘At this point, we’re not doing anything for free. I told you in the beginning that all I was going to do was teach you the basic physics and, if you wish, teach you how to make transmutations every time, but not how to design and fabricate LENR devices that would reliably make excess heat.’

And if Larsen knew how to do that, and could demonstrate it, there are investors lined up with easily a hundred million dollars to throw at it. What I’m reasonably sure of is that those investors have already looked at Lattice and concluded that there is no there there. Can Larsen show how to make transmutations every time? Maybe. That is not so difficult, though still not a slam-dunk.

“About six to nine months later, in mid-2009, Zawodny called me up and said, ‘Lew, you didn’t teach us how to implement this.’ To my amazement, he was still trying to get me to tell him how to reliably make excess heat.

See, Zawodny was interested in heat from the beginning, and the transmutation aspect of WL Theory was a side-issue. Krivit has presented WL Theory as a “non-fusion” explanation for LENR, and the interest in LENR, including Krivit’s interest, was about heat, consider the name of his blog (“New Energy”). But the WL papers hardly mention heat. Transmutations are generally a detail in LENR, the main reaction clearly makes heat and helium and very few transmuted elements by comparison. In the fourth WL paper, there is mention of heat, and in the conclusion, there is mention of “energy-producing devices.”

From a technological perspective, we note that energy must first be put into a given metallic hydride system in order to renormalize electron masses and reach the critical threshold values at which neutron production can occur.

This rules out gas-loading, where there is no input energy. This is entirely aside from the problem that neutron production requires very high energies, higher than hot fusion initiation energies.

Net excess energy, actually released and observed at the physical device level, is the result of a complex interplay between the percentage of total surface area having micron-scale E and B field strengths high enough to create neutrons and elemental isotopic composition of near-surface target nuclei exposed to local fluxes of readily captured ultra low momentum neutrons. In many respects, low temperature and pressure low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter systems resemble r- and
s-process nucleosynthetic reactions in stars. Lastly, successful fabrication and operation of long lasting energy producing devices with high percentages of nuclear active surface areas will require nanoscale control over surface composition, geometry and local field strengths.

The situation is even worse with deuterium. This piece of the original W-L paper should have been seen as a red flag:

Since each deuterium electron capture yields two ultra low momentum neutrons, the nuclear catalytic reactions are somewhat more efficient for the case of deuterium.

The basic physics here is simple and easy to understand. Reactions can, in theory, run in reverse, and the energy that is released from fusion or fission is the same as the energy required to create the opposite effect, that’s a basic law of thermodynamics, I term “path independence.” So the energy that must be input to create a neutron from a proton and an electron is the same energy as is released from ordinary neutron decay (neutrons being unstable with a 15 minute half-life, decaying to a proton, electron, and a neutrino. Forget about the neutrino unless you want the real nitty gritty. The neutrino is not needed for the reverse reaction, apparently). 781 KeV.

Likewise, the fusion of a proton and a neutron to make a deuteron releases a prompt gamma ray at 2.22 MeV. So to fission the deuteron back to a proton and a neutron requires energy input of 2.22 MeV, and then to convert the proton to another neutron requires another 0.78 MeV, so the total energy required is 3.00 MeV. What Widom and Larsen did was neglect the binding energy of the deuteron, a basic error in basic physics, and I haven’t seen that this has been caught by anyone else. But it’s so obvious, once seen, that I’m surprised and I will be looking for it.

Bottom line, then, WL theory fails badly with pure deuterium fuel and thus is not an explanation for the FP Heat Effect, the most common and most widely confirmed LENR. Again, the word “hoax” comes to mind. Larsen went on:

I said, ‘Joe, I’m not that stupid. I told you before, I’m only going to teach you the basics, and I’m not going to teach you how to make heat. Nothing’s changed. What did you expect?’”

Maybe he expected not to be treated like a mushroom.

Larsen told New Energy Times that NASA’s stated intent to prove his theory is not consistent with its behavior since then.

Many government scientists were excited by WL Theory. As a supposed “not fusion” theory, it appeared to sidestep the mainstream objection to “cold fusion.” So, yes, NASA wanted to test the theory (“prove” is not a word used commonly by scientists), because if it could be validated, funding floodgates might open. That did not happen. NASA spent about a million dollars and came up with, apparently, practically nothing.

“Not only is there published experimental data that spans one hundred years which supports our theory,” Larsen said, “but if NASA does experiments that produce excess heat, that data will tell them nothing about our theory, but a transmutation experiment, on the other hand, will.

Ah, I will use that image from NET again:

Transmutations have been reported since very early after the FP announcement, and they reported, in fact, tritum and helium, though not convincingly. With one possible exception I will be looking at later, transmutation has never been correlated with heat. (nor has tritium, only helium has been found and confirmed to be correlated). Finding low levels of transmuted products has often gotten LENR researchers excited, but this has never been able to overcome common skepticism. Only helium, through correlation with heat, has been able to do that (when skeptics took the time to study the evidence, and most won’t.)

Finding some transmutations would not prove WL theory. First of all, it is possible that there is more than one LENR effect (and, as “effect” might be described, it is clear there is more than one). Secondly, other theories also provide transmutation pathways.

“The theory says that ultra-low-momentum neutrons are produced and captured and you make transmutation products. Although heat can be a product of transmutations, by itself it’s not a direct confirmation of our theory. But, in fact, they weren’t interested in doing transmutations; they were only interested in commercially relevant information related to heat production.

Heat is palpable, transmutations are not necessarily so. As well, the analytical work to study transmutations is expensive. Why would NASA invest money in verifying transmutation products, if not in association with heat? From the levels of transmutations found and the likely precursors, heat should be predictable. No, Larsen was looking out for his own business interests, and he can “sell” transmutation with little risk. Selling heat could be much riskier, if he doesn’t actually have a technology. Correlations would be a direct confirmation, far more powerful than the anecdotal evidence alleged. At this point, there is no experimental confirmation of WL theory, in spite of it having been published in 2005. The neutron report cited by Widom in one of his “refutations” — and he was a co-author of that report — actually contradicts WL Theory.

Of course, that report could be showing that some of the neutrons are not ultra-low momentum, and some could then escape the heavy electron patch, but the same, then, would cause prompt gammas to be detected, in addition to the other problem that is solved-by-ignoring-it: delayed gammas from radioactive transmuted isotopes. WL Theory is a house of cards that actually never stood, but it seemed like a good idea at the time! Larsen continued:

“What proves that is that NASA filed a competing patent on top of ours in March 2010, with Zawodny as the inventor.

The NASA initial patent application is clear about the underlying concept (Larsen’s) and the intentions of NASA. Line [25] from NASA’s patent application says, “Once established, SPP [surface plasmon polariton] resonance will be self-sustaining so that large power output-to-input ratios will be possible from [the] device.” This shows that the art embodied in this patent application is aimed toward securing intellectual property rights on LENR heat production.

The Zawodny patent actually is classified as a “fusion reactor.” It cites the Larsen patent described below.

See A. Windom [sic] et al. “Ultra Low Momentum Neutron Catalyzed Nuclear Reactions on Metallic Hydride Surface,” European Physical Journal C-Particles and Fields, 46, pp. 107-112, 2006, and U.S. Pat. No. 7,893,414 issued to Larsen et al. Unfortunately, such heavy electron production has only occurred in small random regions or patches of sample materials/devices. In terms of energy generation or gamma ray shielding, this limits the predictability and effectiveness of the device. Further, random-patch heavy electron production limits the amount of positive net energy that is produced to limit the efficiency of the device in an energy generation application.

They noticed. This patent is not the same as the Larsen patent. It looks like Zawodny may have invented a tweak, possibly necesssary for commercial power production.

The Larsen patent was granted in 2011, but was filed in 2006, and is for a gamma shield, which is apparently vaporware, as Larsen later admitted it couldn’t be tested.

I don’t see that Larsen has patented a heat-producing device.

“NASA is not behaving like a government agency that is trying to pursue basic science research for the public good. They’re acting like a commercial competitor,” Larsen said. “This becomes even more obvious when you consider that, in August 2012, a report surfaced revealing that NASA and Boeing were jointly looking at LENRs for space propulsion.” [See New Energy Times article “Boeing and NASA Look at LENRs for Green-Powered Aircraft.”]

I’m so reminded of Rossi’s reaction to the investment of Industrial Heat in standard LENR research in 2015. It was intolerable, allegedly supporting his “competitors.” In fact, in spite of efforts, Rossi was unable to find evidence that IH had shared Rossi secrets, and in hindsight, if Rossi actually had valuable secrets, he withheld them, violating the Agreement.

From NET coverage of the Boeing/NASA cooperation:

[Krivit had moved the page to make it accessible to subscribers only, to avoid “excessive” traffic, but the page was still available with a different URL. I archived it so that the link above won’t increase his traffic. It is a long document. If I find time, I will extract the pages of interest, PDF pages 38-40, 96-97]

The only questionable matter in the report is its mention of Leonardo Corp. and Defkalion as offering commercial LENR systems. In fact, the two companies have delivered no LENR technology. They have failed to provide any convincing scientific evidence and failed to show unambiguous demonstrations of their extraordinary claims. Click here to read New Energy Times’extensive original research and reporting on Andrea Rossi’s Leonardo Corp.

Defkalion is a Greek company that based its technology on Rossi’s claimed Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) technology . . . Because Rossi apparently has no real technology, Defkalion is unlikely to have any technology, either.

What is actually in the report:

Technology Status:
Multiple coherent theories that explain LENR exist which use the standard Quantum Electrodynamics & Quantum Chromodynamics model. The Widom-Larson(10) theory appears to have the best current understanding, but it is far from being fully validated and applied to current prototype testing. Limited testing is ongoing by NASA and private contractors of nickel-hydrogen LENR systems. Two commercial companies (Leonardo Corp. & Defkalion) are reported to be offering commercial LENR systems. Those systems are advertised to run for 6 months with a single fueling cycle. Although data exists on all of these systems, the current data in each case is lacking in either definition or 3rd party verification. Thus, the current TRL assessment is low.
In this study the SUGAR Team has assumed, for the purposes of technology planning and establishing system requirements that the LENR technology will work. We have not conducted an independent technology feasibility assessment. The technology plan contained in this section merely identifies the steps that would need to take place to develop a propulsion system for aviation that utilizes LENR technology.

This report was issued in May 2012. The description of Leonardo, Defkalion, and WL theory were appropriate for that time. At that point, there was substantial more evidence supporting heat from Leonardo and Defkalion, but no true independent verification. Defkalion vanished in a cloud of bad smell, Leonardo was found to be highly deceptive at best. And WL theory also has, as they point out, no “definition” — as to energy applications — n nor 3rd party verification.

Krivit’s articles on Rossi and Leonardo were partly based on innuendo and inference; they had little effect on investment in the Rossi technology, because of the obvious yellow-journalist slant. Industrial Heat decided that they needed to know for sure, and did what it took to become certain, investing about $20 million in the effort. They knew, full well, it was very high-risk, and considered the possibly payoff so high, and the benefits to the environment so large, as to be worth that cost, even if it turned out that Rossi was a fraud. The claims were depressing LENR investment. Because they took that risk, Woodford Fund then gave them an additional $50 million for LENR research, and much of current research has been supported by Industrial Heat. Krivit has almost entirely missed this story. As to clear evidence on Rossi, it became public with the lawsuit, Rossi v. Darden and we have extensive coverage on that here. Krivit was right that Rossi was a fraud . . . but it is very different to claim that from appearances and to actually show it with evidence.

In the Feb. 12, 2013, NASA article, the author, Silberg, said, “But solving that problem can wait until the theory is better understood.”

He quoted Zawodny, who said, “’From my perspective, this is still a physics experiment. I’m interested in understanding whether the phenomenon is real, what it’s all about. Then the next step is to develop the rules for engineering. Once you have that, I’m going to let the engineers have all the fun.’”

In the article, Silberg said that, if the Widom-Larsen theory is shown to be correct, resources to support the necessary technological breakthroughs will come flooding in.

“’All we really need is that one bit of irrefutable, reproducible proof that we have a system that works,’ Zawodny said. ‘As soon as you have that, everybody is going to throw their assets at it. And then I want to buy one of these things and put it in my house.’”

Actually, what everyone says is that if anyone can show a reliable heat-producing device, that is independently confirmed, investment will pour in, and that’s obvious. With or without a “correct theory.” A plausible theory was simply nice cover to support some level of preliminary research. NASA was in no way prepared to do what it would take to create those conditions. It might take a billion dollars, unless money is spent with high efficiency, and pursuing a theory that falls apart when examined in detail was not efficient, at all.  NASA was led down the rosy path by Widom and Larsen and the pretense of “standard physics.” In fact, the NASA/Boeing report was far more sophisticated, pointing out other theories:

Multiple coherent theories that explain LENR exist which use the standard Quantum Electrodynamics & Quantum Chromodynamics model

As an example, Takahashi’s TSC theory. This is actually standard physics, as well, more so than WL theory, but is incomplete. No LENR theory is complete at this time.

There is one theory, I call it a Conjecture, that in the FP Heat Effect, deuterium is being converted to helium, mechanism unknown. This has extensive confirmed experimental evidence behind it, and is being supported by further research to improve precision,. It’s well enough funded, it appears.

Back on Jan. 12, 2012, NASA published a short promotional video in which it tried to tell the public that it thought of the idea behind Larsen and Widom’s theory, but it did not mention Widom and Larsen or their theory. At the time, New Energy Times sent an e-mail to Zawodny and asked him why he did not attribute the idea to Widom and Larsen.

“The intended audience is not interested in that level of detail,” Zawodny wrote.

The video was far outside the capacity of present technology, but treats LENR as a done deal, proven to produce clean energy. That’s hype, but Krivit’s only complaint is that they did not credit Widom and Larsen for the theory used. As if they own physics. After all, if that’s standard physics . . . .

(See our articles “LENR Gold Rush Begins — at NASA” and “NASA and Widom-Larsen Theory: Inside Story” for more details.)

The Gold Rush story tells the same tale of woe, implying that NASA scientists are motivated by the pursuit of wealth, whereas, in fact, the Zawodny patent simply protects the U.S. government.

The only thing that is clear is that NASA tries to attract funding to develop LENR. So does Larsen. It has massive physical and human resources. He is a small businessman and has the trade secret. Interesting times lie ahead.

I see no sign that they are continuing to seek funding. They were funded to do limited research. They found nothing worth publishing, apparently. Now, Krivit claims that Larsen has a “trade secret.” Remember, this is about heat, not transmutations. By the standards Krivit followed with Rossi, Larsen’s technology is bullshit. Krivit became a more embarrassing flack for Larsen than Mats Lewan became for Rossi. Why did he ask Zawodny why he didn’t credit Widom and Larsen for the physics in that video? It’s obvious. He’s serving as a public relations officer for Lattice Energy. Widom is the physics front. Krivit talks about a gold rush at NASA. How about at New Energy Times and with Widom, a “member” of Lattice Energy, and a named inventor in the useless gamma shield patent.

NASA started telling the truth about the theory, that it’s not developed and unproven. Quoted on the Gold Rush page:

“Theories to explain the phenomenon have emerged,” Zawodny wrote, “but the majority have relied on flawed or new physics.

Not only did he fail to mention the Widom-Larsen theory, but he wrote that “a proven theory for the physics of LENR is required before the engineering of power systems can continue.”

Shocking. How dare they imply there is no proven theory? The other page, “Inside Story,” is highly repetitive. Given that Zadodny refused an interview, the “inside story” is told by Larsen.

In the May 23, 2012, video from NASA, Zawodny states that he and NASA are trying to perform a physics experiment to confirm the Widom-Larsen theory. He mentions nothing about the laboratory work that NASA may have performed in August 2011. Larsen told New Energy Times his opinion about this new video.

“NASA’s implication that their claimed experimental work or plans for such work might be in any way a definitive test of the Widom-Larsen theory is nonsense,” Larsen said.

It would be the first independent confirmation, if the test succeeded. Would it be “definitive”? Unlikely. That’s really difficult. Widom-Larsen theory is actually quite vague. It posits reactions that are hidden, gamma rays that are totally absorbed by transient heavy electron patches, which, by the way, would need to handle 2.2 MeV photons from the fusion of a neutron with a proton to form deuterium. But these patches are fleeting, so they can’t be tested. I have not seen specific proposed tests in WL papers. Larsen wanted them to test for transmutations, but transmutations at low levels are not definitive without much more work.  What NASA wanted to see was heat, and presumably heat correlated with nuclear products.

“The moment NASA filed a competing patent, it disqualified itself as a credible independent evaluator of the Widom-Larsen theory,” he said. “Lattice Energy is a small, privately held company in Chicago funded by insiders and two angel investors, and we have proprietary knowledge.

Not exactly. Sure, that would be a concern, except that this was a governmental patent, and was for a modification to the Larsen patent intended to create more reliable heat. Consider this: Larsen and Widom both have a financial interest in Lattice Energy, and so are not neutral parties in explaining the physics. If NASA found confirmation of LENR using a Widom-Larsen approach (I’m not sure what that would mean), it would definitely be credible! If they did not confirm, this would be quite like hundreds of negative studies in LENR. Nothing particularly new. Such never prove that an original report was wrong.

Cirillo, with Widom as co-author, claimed the detection of neutrons. Does Widom as a co-author discredit that report? To a degree, yes. (But the report did not mention Widom-Larsen theory.) Was that work supported by Lattice Energy?

“NASA offered us nothing, and now, backed by the nearly unlimited resources of the federal government, NASA is clearly eager to get into the LENR business any way it can.”

Nope. They spent about a million dollars, it appears, and filed a patent to protect that investment. There are no signs that they intend to spend more at this point.

New Energy Times asked Larsen for his thoughts about the potential outcome of any NASA experiment to test the theory, assuming details are ever released.

“NASA is behaving no differently than a private-sector commercial competitor,” Larsen said. “If NASA were a private-sector company, why would anyone believe anything that it says about a competitor?”

NASA’s behavior here does not remotely resemble a commercial actor. Notice that when NASA personnel said nice things about W-L theory, Krivit was eager to hype it. And when they merely hinted that the theory was just that, a theory, and unproven, suddenly their credibility is called into question.

Krivit is transparent.

Does he really think that if NASA found a working technology, ready to develop for their space flight applications, they would hide it because of “commercial” concerns. Ironically, the one who is openly concealing technology, if he isn’t simply lying, is Larsen. He has the right to do that, as Rossi had the right. Either one or both were lying, though. There is no gamma shield technology, but Larsen used the “proprietary” excuse to avoid disclosing evidence to Richard Garwin. And Krivit reframed that to make it appear that Garwin approved of WL Theory.

 

Let’s Move the Needle with our Core Competencies

This post was inspired by Cole Schafer, a professional copy writer, and it shows.

We don’t need everyone to buy in , but if we open the kimono, we can attract a few good men. Ahem, scientists, people.

Empower the community with this bleeding edge technology, instead of drinking the Kool-Aid, that Rossi or Widom-Larsen will save us.

Put out some feelers and develop our human capital!

LENR has lots of moving parts, so, double-checking, get our ducks in a row, stop working in silos, and accept that it’s just business!

If we each give 110%, we will . . .

Take a nap, that’s my idea. Whew!

110%, 24/7! Let me sit down. I just cleaned up much of my office.

Continue reading “Let’s Move the Needle with our Core Competencies”

Explanation

This is a subpage of Widom-Larsen theory

Steve Krivit’s summary:

1. Creation of Heavy Electrons   
Electromagnetic radiation in LENR cells, along with collective effects, creates a heavy surface plasmon polariton (SPP) electron from a sea of SPP electrons.

Part of the hoax involves confusion over “heavy electrons.” The term refers to renormalization of mass, based on the behavior of electrons user some conditions which can be conceived “as if” they are heavier. There is no gain in rest mass, apparently. That “heavy electrons” can exist, in some sense or other, is not controversial. The question is “how heavy”? We will look at that. In explanations of this, proponents of W-L theory point to evidence of intense electric fields under some conditions, one figure given was 1011 volts per meter. That certainly sounds like a lot, but … that field strength exists over what distance? To transfer the energy to an electron, it would be accelerated by the field over a distance, and that would give it a “mass” of 1011 electron volts per meter, but the fields described exist only for very short distances. The lattice constant with palladium is under 4 Angstroms or 4 x 10-10 meter.  So a field of 1011 volts/meter  would give mass (energy) of under 40 electron volts per lattice constant.

Generally , this problem is denied by claiming that there is some collective effect where many electrons give up some of their energy to a single electron. This kind of energy collection is a violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, applying to large systems. The reverse, large energy carried by one electron being distributed to many electrons, is normal.

The energy needed to create a neutron is the same as the energy released in neutron decay, i.e., 781 Kev, which is far more than the energy needed to “overcome the Coulomb barrier.” If that energy could be collected in a single particle, then ordinary fusion would be easy to come by. However, this is not happening.

2. Creation of ULM Neutrons  
An electron and a proton combine, through inverse beta decay, into an ultra-low-momentum (ULM) neutron and a neutrino.

Neutrons have a short half-life, and undergo beta decay, as mentioned below, so they are calling this “inverse beta decay,” though the more common term is “electron capture.” What is described is a form of electron capture, of the electron by a proton. By terming the electron “heavy,” they perhaps imagine it could have an orbit closer to the nucleus, I think, and thus more susceptible to capture. But the heavy electrons are “heavy” because of their momentum, which will cause many other effects that are not observed. They are not “heavy” as muons are heavy, i.e., higher rest mass. High mass will be associated with high momentum, hence high velocity, not at all allowing electron capture.

The energy released from neutron decay is 781 KeV. So the “heavy electron” would need to collect energy across a field that large, i.e., over about 20,000 lattice constants, roughly 8 microns. Now, if you have any experience with high voltage: what would you expect would happen long before that total field would be reached? Yes. ZAAP!

Remember, these are surface phenomena being described, on the surface of a good conductor, and possibly immersed in an electrolyte, also a decent conductor. High field strength can exist, perhaps, very locally. In studies cited by Larsen, he refers to biological catalysis, which is a very, very local phenomenon where high field strength can exist for a very short distance, on the molecular scale, somewhat similar to the lattice constant for Pd, but a bit larger.

Why and how “ultra low momentum”? Because he says so? Momentum must be conserved, so what happens to the momentum of that “heavy electron?” These are questions I have that I will keep in mind as I look at explanations. In most of the explanations, such as those on New Energy Times, statements are made that avoid giving quantities, they are statements that can seem plausible, if we neglect the problems of magnitude or rate. It is with magnitude and rate that conflicts arise with “standard physics” and cold fusion. After all, even d-d fusion is not “impossible,” but is rate-limited. That is, there is an ordinary fusion rate at room temperature, but it’s very, very . . . very low — unless there are collective effects and it was the aim of Pons and Fleischmann, beginning their research, to see the effect of the condensed matter state on the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. (There are possible collective effects that do not violate the laws of thermodynamics.)

3. Capture of ULM Neutrons  
That ULM neutron is captured by a nearby nucleus, producing, through a chain of nuclear reactions, either a new, stable isotope or an isotope unstable to beta decay.

A free neutron outside of an atomic nucleus is unstable to beta decay; it has a half-life of approximately 13 minutes and decays into a proton, an electron and a neutrino.

If slow neutrons are created, expecially “ultra-slow,” they will be indeed captured, neutrons are absorbed freely by nuclei, some more easily than others. If the momentum is too high, they bounce. With very slow neutrons (“ultra low momentum”) the capture cross-section becomes very high for many elements, and many such reactions will occur (essentially, in a condensed matter environment, all the neutrons generated will be absorbed. The general result is an isotope with the same atomic number as the target (same number of protons, thus the same positive  charge on the nucleus), but one atomic mass unit heavier, because of the neutron. While some of these will be stable, many will not, and they would be expected to decay, with a characteristic half-lives.

Neutron capture on protons would be expected to generate a characteristic prompt gamma photon at 2.223 MeV. Otherwise the deuterium formed is stable. That such photons are not detected is explained by an ad hoc side-theory, that the heavy electron patches are highly absorbent of the photons. Other elements may produce delayed radiation, in particular gammas and electrons.

How these delayed emissions are absorbed, I have never seen W-L theorists explain.

From the Wikipedia article on Neutron activation analysis:

[An excited state is generated by the absorption of a neutron.] This excited state is unfavourable and the compound nucleus will almost instantaneously de-excite (transmutate) into a more stable configuration through the emission of a prompt particle and one or more characteristic prompt gamma photons. In most cases, this more stable configuration yields a radioactive nucleus. The newly formed radioactive nucleus now decays by the emission of both particles and one or more characteristic delayed gamma photons. This decay process is at a much slower rate than the initial de-excitation and is dependent on the unique half-life of the radioactive nucleus. These unique half-lives are dependent upon the particular radioactive species and can range from fractions of a second to several years. Once irradiated, the sample is left for a specific decay period, then placed into a detector, which will measure the nuclear decay according to either the emitted particles, or more commonly, the emitted gamma rays.

So, there will be a characteristic prompt gamma, and then delayed gammas and other particles, such as the electrons (beta particles) mentioned. Notice that if a proton is converted to a neutron by an electron, and then the neutron is absorbed by an element with atomic number of X, and mass M, the result is an increase M of one, and it stays at this mass (approximately) with the emission of the prompt gamma. Then if it beta-decays, the mass stays the same, but the neutron becomes a proton and so the atomic number becomes X + 1. The effect is fusion, as if the reaction were the fusion of X with a proton. So making neutrons is one way to cause elements to fuse, this could be called “electron catalysis.”

Yet it’s very important to Krivit to claim that this is not “fusion.” After all, isn’t fusion impossible at low temperatures? Not with an appropriate catalyst! (Muons are the best known and accepted possibility.)

4. Beta Decay Creation of New Elements and Isotopes  
When an unstable nucleus beta-decays, a neutron inside the nucleus decays into a proton, an energetic electron and a neutrino. The energetic electron released in a beta decay exits the nucleus and is detected as a beta particle. Because the number of protons in that nucleus has gone up by one, the atomic number has increased, creating a different element and transmutation product.

That’s correct as to the effect of neutron activation. Sometimes neutrons are considered to be element zero, mass one. So neutron activation is fusion with the element of mass zero. If there is electron capture with deuterium, this would form a di-neutron, which, if ultracold, might survive long enough for direct capture. If the capture is followed by a beta decay, then the result has been deuterium fusion.

In the graphic above, step 2 is listed twice: 2a depicts a normal hydrogen reaction, 2b depicts the same reaction with heavy hydrogen. All steps except the third are weak-interaction processes. Step 3, neutron capture, is a strong interaction but not a nuclear fusion process. (See “Neutron Capture Is Not the New Cold Fusion” in this special report.)

Very important to him, since, with the appearance of W-L theory, Krivit more or less made it his career, trashing all the other theorists and many of the researchers in the field, because of their “fusion theory,” often making “fusion” equivalent to “d-d fusion,” which is probably impossible. But fusion is a much more general term. It basically means the formation of heavier elements from lighter ones, and any process which does this is legitimately a “fusion process,” even if it may also have other names.

Given that the fundamental basis for the Widom-Larsen theory is weak-interaction neutron creation and subsequent neutron-catalyzed nuclear reactions, rather than the fusing of deuterons, the Coulomb barrier problem that exists with fusion is irrelevant in this four-step process.

Now, what is the evidence for weak-interaction neutron creation? What reactions would be predicted and what evidence would be seen, quantitatively? Yes, electron catalysis, which is what this amounts to, is one of a number of ways around the Coulomb barrier. This one involves the electron being captured into an intermediate product. Most electron capture theories have a quite different problem, than the Coulomb barrier problem, that other products would be expected that are not observed, and W-L theory is not an exception.

The most unusual and by far the most significant part of the Widom-Larsen process is step 1, the creation of the heavy electrons. Whereas many researchers in the past two decades have speculated on a generalized concept of an inverse beta decay that would produce either a real or virtual neutron, Widom and Larsen propose a specific mechanism that leads to the production of real ultra-low-momentum neutrons.

It is not the creation of heavy electrons, per se, that is “unusual,” it is that they must have an energy of 781 KeV. Notice that 100 KeV is quite enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier. (I forget the actual height of the barrier, but fusion occurs by tunnelling at much lower approach velocities). This avoidance of mentioning the quantity is typical for explanations of W-L theory.

ULM neutrons would produce very observable effects, and that’s hand-waved away.

The theory also proposes that lethal photon radiation (gamma radiation), normally associated with strong interactions, is internally converted into more-benign infrared (heat) radiation by electromagnetic interactions with heavy electrons. Again, for two decades, researchers have seen little or no gamma emissions from LENR experiments.

As critique of the theory mounted, as people started noticing the obvious, the explanation got even more devious. The claim is that the “heavy electron patches” absorb the gammas, and Lattice Energy (Larsen’s company) has patented this as a “gamma shield,” but then when the easy testability of such a shield, if it could really absorb all those gammas, was mentioned (originally by Richard Garwin), Larsen first claimed that experimental evidence was “proprietary,” and then, later pointed out that they could not be detected because the  patches were transient, pointing to the flashing spots in a SPAWAR IR video, which was totally bogus. (Consider imaging gammas, which was the proposal, moving parallel to the surface, close to it. Unless the patches are in wells, below the surface, they would be captured by a patch anywhere along the surface. No, more likely: Larsen was blowing smoke, avoiding a difficult question asked by Garwin. That’s certainly what Garwin thought. Once upon a time, Krivit reported that incident straight (because he was involved in the conversation. Later he reframed it, extracting a comment from Garwin, out of context, to make it look like Garwin approved of W-L theory.

 Richard Garwin (Physicist, designer of the first hydrogen bomb) – 2007: “…I didn’t say it was wrong

The linked page shows the actual conversation. This was far, far from an approval. The “I didn’t say” was literal, and Garwin points out that reading complex papers with understanding is difficult. In the collection of comments, there are many that are based on a quick review, not a detailed critique.

Perhaps the prompt gammas would be absorbed, though I find the idea of a 2 MeV photon being absorbed by a piddly patch, like a truck being stopped by running into a motorcycle, rather weird, and I’d think some would escape around the edges or down into and through the material. But what about the delayed gammas? The patches would be gone if they flash in and out of existence.

However, IANAP. I Am Not A Physicist. I just know a few. When physics gets deep, I am more or less in “If You Say So” territory. What do physicists say? That’s a lot more to the point here than what I say or what Steve Krivit says, or, for that matter, what Lewis Larson says. Widom is the physicist, Larson is the entrepreneur and money guy, if I’m correct. His all-but-degree was in biophysics.

McKubre

subpage of iccf-21/abstracts/review/

abstract

Slides: ICCF21 Main McKubre

introductory summary by Ruby Carat:

Michael McKubre followed up making a plea that “condensed matter nuclear science is anomalous no more!” He echoes Tom Darden’s sentiment that CMNS must be integrated into the mainstream of science.

“I needed to see it with my own eyes to believe that it was true”, says McKubre. “At the same time, cold fusion is reproduced somewhere on the planet every day. Verification has already happened. But self-censorship is a problem in the CMNS field. Are we guarding our secrets for fear that someone else might take credit? Yes.”

Michael McKubre with The Fleischmann Pons Heat and Ancillary Effects: What Do We Know, and Why? How Might We Proceed? (copy on ColdFusionNow, 74.16 MB)

Local copy on CFC: (1:02:32)

But energy is a primary problem and you must “collaborate, cooperate, and communicate”, McKubre says to the scientists in the room.

That’s been my message for years. . . . the three C’s.

McKubre thanked Jed Rothwell and Jean-Paul Biberian for all the work on lenr.org and the Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, respectively. Beyond that, the communication in the CMNS field is very poor and needs to be remedied.

He also supports a multi-laboratory approach where reproductions are conducted. Verification of this science has already occurred in the 90s, with the confirmation of tritium, and the heat-helium correlation. He believes that all the many variables must be correlated to move forward. Unfortunately, he believes the same thing he said in 1996, according to a Jed Rothwell article, that “acceptance of this field will only come about when a viable technology is achieved.”

To make progress, a procedure for replication must be codified, and a set of papers should be packaged for newbies to the field. A demonstration cell is third important effort to pursue.

Electrochemical PdD/LiOD is already proven, despite the problem with “electrochemisty”, and has not been demonstrated for >10 years. Energetics Technologies cell 64 a few years back gave 40 kJ input 1.14 MJ output, gain= 27.5 Sadly, the magic materials issue prevented replication.

“1 watt excess power is too small to convince a skeptic, and 100 Watts too hard (at least for electrochemistry)”, said McKubre. The goal is to create the heat effect at the lowest input power possible.

According to McKubre, Verification, Correlation, Replication, Demonstration, Utilization are the five marks of exploring and exploiting the FPHE.

Task for a learner/volunteer: transcribe the talk, key it to the minutes in the audio and to the slide deck.

I’m postponing major review until I have the text. I’ll have a lot to say (as he predicted!).

Beiting

subpage of iccf-21/abstracts/review/

DRAFT

My comments are in indented italics.

Abstract 1

Investigation of the Nickel-Hydrogen Anomalous Heat Effect

Edward J. Beiting
TrusTech, USA
(email redacted)

Experimental work was undertaken at The Aerospace Corporation to reproduce a specific
observation of the gas-phase Anomalous Heat Effect (aka LENR).[1] This task required the
production of a quantity of heat energy by a mass of material so small that the origin of the energy
cannot be attributable to a chemical process. The goal is to enhance its credibility by reproducing
results first demonstrated in Japan and later reproduced in the U.S. by a solitary investigator. The
technique heated nanometer-sized Ni:Pd particles (20:1 molar ratio) embedded in micron-sized
particles of an inert refractory of ZrO2. It was not within the purview of this work to investigate the
physical origin of the AHE effect or speculate on its source.

The goal was off from the beginning, stated as to “enhance its credibility.” That sets up an opportunity for confirmation bias. After all, engineers will keep working toward the goal until they reach it. Not speculating on the physical origin of anomalous energy, great, though speculating on possible artifacts would be completely in order, to test them and confirm or reject them.

An apparatus was built that comprised identical test and a reference heated cells. These thermally
isolated cells each contained two thermocouples and a 10 cm3 volume of ZrO2NiPd particles.

Calibration functions to infer thermal power from temperature were created by electrically heating
the filled cells with known powers when they were either evacuated or pressurized with 1 bar of N2.
During the experimental trial, the test cell was pressurized with hydrogen and the control cell was
pressurized with nitrogen.

An obvious problem: nitrogen and hydrogen have drastically different thermal conductivity. Calibration can be a major problem with hot hydrogen work. We will study how they did it. 

After conditioning the cells, both were heated to near 300°C for a period
of 1000 hours (40 days). During this period, the test cell registered 7.5% more power
(approximately 1 W) than the input power. The control cell measured approximately 0.05 W of
excess power. The error in the excess power measurement was ±0.05 W.

Time-integrating the excess power to obtain an excess energy and normalizing to the 20 gram mass
of the ZrO2NiPd sample yields a specific energy of 173 MJ/kg. Assuming that the active material is
the 5.44g of Ni+Pd yields a specific energy of 635 MJ/kg. For comparison, the highest specific
energy of a hydrocarbon fuel (methane) is 55.5 MJ/kg. The highest chemical specific energy listed
[see Energy Density in Wikipedia] is 142 MJ/kg for hydrogen compressed to 700 bar. Based on
these results, it is unlikely that the source of heat energy was chemical in origin.

So here he is speculating on the origin, or, specifically, what is not the origin. Integrating power to determine excess energy can be quite sensitive to some systematic artifact, error would accumulate. Again, there is a show of precision in the numbers. What would be a standard error calculation? In SRI presentation of the Case experiment, where integrated energy was plotted against helium measurements, the error bars grow very large as the experiment proceeds. That shows the issue. Without error calculations, based on actual data variance, the significance of the result may be unclear.

(images can be seen in the original abstract) The full report (which will be reviewed below):

[1] E. Beiting, “Investigation of the nickel-hydrogen anomalous heat effect,” Aerospace
Report No. ATR-2017-01760, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo CA, USA, May 15, 2017.

Abstract 2

Generation of High-Temperature Samples and Calorimetric Measurement of Thermal Power for the
Study of Ni/H2 Exothermic Reactions

Edward J. Beiting, Dean Romein
TrusTech, USA
(email redacted)

Instrumentation developed to measure heat power from a high-temperature reactor for experimental
trials lasting several weeks is being applied to gas-phase Ni/H2 LENR. We developed a reactor that
can maintain and record temperatures in excess of 1200o C while monitoring pressures exceeding 7
bar. This reactor is inserted into a flowing-fluid calorimeter that allows both temperature rise and
flow rate of the cooling fluid to be redundantly measured by different physical principles. A
computerized data acquisition system was written to automate the collection of more than 20
physical parameters with simultaneous numerical and dual graphical displays comprising both a
strip chart and complete history of key parameters.

Redundant measures, too often neglected. Nice.

The water inlet and outlet temperatures of the calorimeter are simultaneously measured with
thermocouple, RTD, and thermistor sensors. The water flow is passed in series through two
calorimeters and a Hall-effect flow meter. The first calorimeter houses a resistance heater of known
input power, which allows the flow rate to be inferred from the heater power and water inlet and
outlet temperature difference. Careful calibration of this system produces a nominal accuracy and
precision of ±1 W.

“Nominal accuracy and precision.” I.e., not measured. Not so nice. Was this correctly stated? The full report claims XP on the order of 1 W. 

The reactor is constructed by tightly wrapping Kanthal wire around an alumina tube, which is
embedded in ceramic-fiber insulation (see Figures 1 and 2). The length of the alumina tube is
chosen so that its unheated end remains below 100o C when the interior volume of the heated end is
1300o C. During use the internal reactor temperature is inferred from two type-N thermocouples
fixed to the outside of the reactor using a previously made calibration that employed internal
thermocouples. Using external thermocouples have advantages: the thermocouple metals cannot
react with the reactants; the thermocouples are kept at lower temperatures (usually < 1000C)
increasing the thermocouple’s life and accuracy; no high pressure/vacuum feedthrough is required;
no high temperature electrical insulation isolating the thermocouple from the reactants is necessary.

The design gives me a headache, trying to understand the implications of that drastic temperature gradient across the length of the alumina tube. The reasons all sound good, but the road to a very hot place is paved with good reasons. We’ll see how this is handled in the report.

This instrumentation is being used to study the gas-phase anomalous heat effect (aka LENR) using
nickel and light hydrogen. Tests are being undertaken using both LiAlH4 and bottled H2 as the
source of hydrogen. The results from these tests will be presented with special emphasis on the
morphology and the cleaning of the surface of the nickel particles, absorption of hydrogen by the
nickel, and excess heat or lack thereof.

All techniques and data will be presented in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. Nothing will
be deemed proprietary. Source code and documentation of the data acquisition software resulting
from a significant development effort will be distributed on request.

Great. I think the better term would be replicability, i.e., the same techniques could be used. But will anyone actually do this? Results, then, might be reproducible. But what results? At this point my impression is that there were two runs, the second of which is described. What’s the variation or reliability of the result?

That is impossible to determine from such a small sample set. At the risk of sounding like a broken record, one theme of the conference, certainly that of Mike McKubre and myself, was correlation, that much more is needed to progress the field than Yet Another Anecdote, which, so far, this study seems to amount to. Was it a replication? 

The first abstract has the goal as “reproducing results first demonstrated in Japan and later reproduced in the U.S. by a solitary investigator.” This would be a reference to Y. Arata and Y. C. Zhang, ‘Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and Nuclear Fusion,” Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B, 2002 78(Ser. B), p. 57 2, on the one hand, and, on the other,  B. Ahern, “Program on Technology Innovation: Assessment of Novel Energy Production Mechanisms in a Nanoscale Metal Lattice,” EPRI Report 1025575, Technical Update, August 2012.

Crucial to experiments in this field is the exact material. See the review here of the similar work of the Japanese collaboration, lead author Akito Takahashi.

Arata used “ZrO2, · Pd powder . . .  as metal specimens constructed with nanometer-sized individual Pd particles embedded dispersively into ZrO2, matrix, which were made by annealing amorphous Zr65Pd35 alloy.” However, the paper cited shows a 10 W result, with a “DS-cathode,” which is a technique Arata used to generate very high deuterium pressure. (Confirmed by SRI, long story). This is a very different technique, using different material.

Ahern:

While several research reports from Europe by Piantelli et al. [16] had indicated significant thermal energy output from nanotextured nickel in the presence of hydrogen gas, similar tests conducted under
this EPRI research project produced only milliwatt-scale thermal power release. Based on experimental calorimetric calibrations, the amount of thermal power being produced was estimated to be about
100 milliwatts per degree C of elevation above the value of the outer resistance thermal device (RTD).

In one experiment, researchers used 10-nm nickel powder from Quantum Sphere Corp. The inner RTD was 208o C hotter than the outer RTD (533o C versus 325o C) and represents roughly ~ 21 watts from 5 grams of nanopowder, based on the calibration. The powder maintained this rate of thermal power output for a period of five days when it was terminated for evaluation. There was no sign of degradation of the power output. Researchers, however, were not able to replicate this final experiment due to limited project funding.

Anecdote. So, perhaps Beiting was trying to replicate that high-output experiment? No. And I see this over and over in the field. Promising avenues are abandoned because they still are not good enough, and researchers, instead of nailing down and confirming what has come before, want to try something new, perhaps hoping that some miracle will cause their experiment to melt down. (and if it does, they won’t be ready for it!)

Beiting was using “Ni:Pd particles (20:1 molar ratio) embedded in micron-sized
particles of an inert refractory of ZrO2.”  But that is not all that was in the mix. From the full report:

Because it was an internally funded modest program, the goal was not to create a research effort to study its origin but to demonstrate reproducibility of previous work. If demonstration was successful and convincing, the hope was that this work would stimulate a subsequent larger effort.

To this end, a review of the gas-phase AHE results was made when this project was initiated in 2013 to find
an observation likely to be reproduced. Three criteria were considered to increase probability of achieving
this goal: a complete description of material preparation was required; a simple triggering mechanism was desirable to reduce the experimental complexity; and at least one reproduction of the manifestation of
excess heat† of non-chemical origin using the method should be documented by an independent investigator. At the time of this survey, only the work by Arata and Zhang [4] in Japan as reproduced by Ahern [5] in the United States met these three requirements.‡

Only to someone naive about the history of LENR research. Experiments which are vaguely similiar are often considered “confirmations.” There is commonly a lack of extended experimental sets with a single variable. The Takahashi ICCF-21 report barely begins to address this, in parts. Not realizing the danger, Beiting bet the farm on a new and unconfirmed approach. My emphasis:

This method employs a simple heat-triggering mechanism on a powder of micron-sized particles of ZrO2 imbedded with nanometer-sized particles of a nickel (with a small admixture of palladium). The active material used in the work presented in this report differs from that of Refs. [4] and [5] by the addition of magnetic particles. This addition was made with the desire of increasing the probability of observing excess energy, based on reports by other investigators [6] and the initial experimental trial in this work. Other than these additional particles, the material used here was identical to that used by Refs. [4] and [5].

Sounds like multiple reports, eh? No, this was one paper by one working group, a private company, led by Mitchell Swartz, using a proprietary device, the NANOR. And they did not use ground-up magnets. I’ll come back to that.

The Arata and Zhang report experiment was  not heat-triggered, and Ahern was not a replication of it. There were similarities, that’s all.

Ref 6 was  M. Swartz, G. Verner, J. Tolleson, L. Wright, R. Goldbaum, and P. Hagelstein, “Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Components,” J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, 66-80 (2015). Exactly what was found from the “fractionated magnetic fields” isn’t clearly presented, but the authors were obviously impressed. (Only two DC field data points with an effect are shown). Beiting did not do what they did, though! 

In this case, it was discovered that high intensity, dynamic, repeatedly fractionated magnetic fields have a major, significant and unique synchronous amplification effect on the preloaded NANOR®-type LANR device under several conditions of operation.

No details were given, only vague hints. This must be proprietary information, not surprising for a commercial effort. I have no idea what “fractionated magnetic field” means. Much Swartz language is idiosyncratic. Google finds only the JCMNS article for the term.

The Beiting experiment was one-off, not replication. That is unfortunate, because the relatively weak results cannot then be strengthened by other reports. The original goal seems to have been lost in the shuffle. 

I will continue study of the actual Beiting report, but am publishing this today as a draft, based on the abstracts and the single issue from the report about what the work was intended to confirm.

Yes, Virgina, there is a cabal

A link to this was posted here, and I didn’t see it until recently. By itself, this is only a rant of a disturbed fanatic skeptic, who is known to lie, but there are breadcrumbs, pieces that fit together over time, and this comment caused the picture to pop into view. I wrote in 2009, there is a cabal, presented evidence of de-facto coordinated editing on Wikipedia, by a faction. I did not claim that this violated policy, in itself, but the effect was a warping of Wikipedia process, and I wanted ArbComm to look at that. Unfortunately, ArbComm was infected by the cabal or the cabal point of view.

The cabal uses attack dogs to create a cloud of confusion that allows others to intervene to “prevent disruption,” blaming the target and the dogs, and the dogs don’t care, because there is an endless supply of dogs, a dog can be created from any non-blocked IP.


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From later research and evidence, this was Darryl L. Smith. The story matches information from his twin brother, Oliver D. Smith.