IWAHLM-8

Subpage of Proceedings

International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals
13-18 October 2007

http://www.iscmns.org/catania07/index.htm described the Workshop. No link is given there to the Proceedings. The ISCMNS copy of the Proceedings is broken. Jed Rothwell has now uploaded a copy to lenr-canr.org: RothwellJproceeding.pdf

Front matter. (includes title pages, copyright, Table of Contents, and Preface.) The original Table of Contents has no author names. They are supplied here. The title for the paper beginning on page 329 was on page 328, and the page number was then incorrect in the TOC. This has been fixed in this TOC.

stripped_IWAHLM-8 362 pp., 5.3 MB (has front matter removed so that pdf page matches published page).


Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals

13-18 October 2007, Sheraton Catania, Sicily, Italy

Edited Jed Rothwell and Peter Mobberley

The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science Copyright © 2008, The International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the prior permission of the copyright owner.

ISBN 1-892925-04-4

Printed in the U.S. by InstantPublisher.com

Table of Contents

The Organizer’s personal perspective
Bill Collis
pref
Preparata Medal Lecture – A Tribute to Giuliano Preparata, a TRUE Pioneer in Cold Fusion Theory
George H. Miley
1
Erzion Model Features In Cold Nuclear Transmutation Experiments
Yu. N. Bazhutov
12
Excitation of Hydrogen Subsystem in Metals by External Influence
I. P. Chernov , Yu. M. Koroteev , V. M. Silkin, Yu. I. Tyurin
27
Roles of Approximate Symmetry and Finite Size in the Quantum Electrodynamics of d+d⇒4He in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
Scott R. Chubb
38
Synthesis Of A Copper Like Compound From Nickel And Hydrogen And Of A Chromium Like Compound From Calcium And Deuterium
J. Dufour, D. Murat, X. Dufour and J. Foos
50
External Radiation Produced by Electrolysis — A Work in Progress
John C. Fisher
62
Outline Of Polyneutron Theory
John C. Fisher
70
Theoretical Hypothesis of a Double Barrier Regarding the D-D Interaction in a Pd Lattice: A Possible Explanation of Cold Fusion Experiment Failures
Fulvio Frisone
94
Common Mechanism of Superconductivity, Superfluidity, Integer and Fractional Hall Effects, and Cold Fusion
F.A. Gareev G.F. Gareeva and I.E. Zhidkova
113
Quantization of Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses
F.A. Gareev G.F. Gareeva and I.E. Zhidkova
129
Observation of 3He and 3H in the volcanic crater lakes: possible evidence for natural nuclear fusion in deep Earth
Songsheng Jiang , Ming He , Weihong Yue , Bujia Qi , Jing Liu
137
On emission of nuclear particles caused by electrolysis
Ludwik Kowalski
152
Analysis of #2 Winthrop Williams’ CR-39 detector after SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiment
Andrei Lipson , Alexei Roussetski , Eugeny Saunin
163
Analysis of the CR-39 detectors from SRI’s SPAWAR/Galileo type electrolysis experiments #7 and #5. Signature of possible neutron emission
Andrei Lipson , Alexei Roussetski, A.G. Lipson1 , A.S. Roussetski , E.I. Saunin , F. Tanzella , B. Earle , and M. McKubre
182
“Excess heat” in a Gas-Loading D/Pd System with Pumping inside palladium Tube
Bin Liu, Xing Z. Li, Qing M. Wei, Shu X. Zheng
204
Selective Resonant Tunneling through Coulomb Barrier by Confined Particles in Lattice Well
Xing Zhong Li, Qing Ming Wei, Bin Liu, Nao Nao Cai
213
Anomalous heat Generation by surface oxidized Pd wires in a hydrogen atmosphere
A. Marmigi , A. Spallone, F. Celan, P. Marin, V.Di Stefano
224
Cluster Reactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)
George H. Miley , Heinrich Hora , Andrei Lipson , Hugo Leon , and P. Joshi Shrestha
235
Microscopic characterization of palladium electrodes for cold fusion experiments
F. Sarto, E. Castagna and V. Violante
252
Gamma Emission Evaluation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions
Irina Savvatimova, Gennady Savvatimov, Alla Kornilova
258
Transmutation in Tungsten Irradiated By Low Energy Deuterium Ions
Irina Savvatimova
275
A Review of Experimental studies about Hydrogen over-loading within Palladium wires (H/Pd ≥ 1)
A. Spallone, A. Marmigi , F. Celani, P. Marini, V.Di Stefano
289
Radiation Produced By Glow Discharge in Deuterium
Edmund Storms and Brian Scanlan
297
D-Cluster Dynamics and Fusion Rate by Langevin Equation
Akito Takahashi and Norio Yabuuchi
306
Multiple Resonance Scattering
T. Toimela
329
Joint Scientific Advances in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science
V. Violante, F. Sarto, E.Castagna, M. McKubre, F. Tanzella, G.Hubler, D. Knies, K.Grabowsk, T. Zilov, I. Dardik, C. Sibilia
341
Element Analysis of the Surface Layer on the Pd and Pd-Y Alloy after Deuterium Permeation
Wei Qing-Ming, Rao Yong-Chu, Zheng Shao-Tao, Luo De-Li, Li Xing-Zhong
351
List of Participants 358
Author index 362

Library

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Miles M. Investigations of Possible Shuttle Reactions in Co-deposition SystemsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 8, (2012), p 12 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol8.pdf

Miles M. Conventional Nuclear Theory of Low-energy Nuclear Reactions in Examples of Isoperibolic Calorimetry in the Cold Fusion ControversyJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 392 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Miles M. Co-deposition of Palladium and other Transition Metals in H2O and D2O SolutionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 401 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Miles M., Bush B. Heat and Helium Measurements in Deuterated PalladiumProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 91 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Miles M. H., Fleischmann M. Measurements of Excess Power Effects In Pd/D2O Systems Using a New Isoperibolic CalorimeterJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 45 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Miles M. H., Hagelstein P. L. New analysis of MIT Calorimetric ErrorsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 8, (2012), p 132 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol8.pdf

Miles M. H. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Observations Concerning the D + D Fusion Reaction for the Pd/D SystemJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 16, (2015), p 17 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol16.pdf

Miles M. H. Excerpts From Martin Fleischmann LettersJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 210 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

Miles M. H., Fleischmann M. Twenty Year Review of Isoperibolic Calorimetric Measurements of the Fleischmann-Pons EffectProc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 6 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Miles M.H. The Fleischmann鳳ons Calorimetric Methods, Equations and New ApplicationsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 24, (2017), p 1 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol24.pdf

Miles, M. Calorimetric Studies of Palladium Alloy Cathodes Using Fleischmann-Pons Dewar Type CellsProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMcalorimetrb.pdf

Miles, M. Correlation Of Excess Enthalpy And Helium-4 Production: A ReviewProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMcorrelatioa.pdf

Miles, M. Fluidized Bed Experiments Using Platinum And Palladium Particles In Heavy WaterProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMfluidizedb.pdf

Miles, M. NEDO Final Report – Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies Of Palladium And Palladium Alloys In Heavy Waterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMnedofinalr.pdf

Miles, M. Report on Calorimetric Studies at the NHE Laboratory in Sapporo, Japanwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMreportonca.pdf

Miles, M. Calorimetric studies of Pd/D2O+LiOD electrolysis cellswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMcalorimetrc.pdf

Miles, M. and Bush B.F.. Calorimetric Principles and Problems in Pd-D2O Electrolysiswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMcalorimetr.pdf

Miles, M. and Bush B.F.. Radiation Measurements at China Lake:Real or Artifacts?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMradiationm.pdf

Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Systems, Final Reportwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesManomalousea.pdf

Miles, M. and K.B. Johnson Electrochemical insertion of hydrogen into metals and alloyswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMelectrocheb.pdf

Miles, M. and M. Fleischmann. Precision and Accuracy of Cold Fusion Calorimetry (paper and PowerPoint slides)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMprecisiona.pdf

Miles, M., et al. The Elevation of Boiling Points in H2O and D2O ElectrolytesProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMtheelevati.pdf

Miles, M., et al. Thermal Behavior of Polarized Pd/D Electrodes Prepared by Co-depositionProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMthermalbeh.pdf

Miles, M., et al. Correlation of excess power and helium production during D2O and H2O electrolysis using palladium cathodeswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMcorrelatio.pdf

Miles, M., K.B. Johnson, and M.A. Imam. Electrochemical loading of hydrogen and deuterium into palladium and palladium-boron alloyswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMelectrochec.pdf

Miles, M., K.H. Park, and D.E. Stilwell. Electrochemical Calorimetric Studies of the Cold Fusion EffectProc. ACCF1 (1990), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MilesMelectrochea.pdf

Miley G., Yang X., et al. Ultra-High Density Deuteron-cluster Electrode for Low-energy Nuclear ReactionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 256 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Miley G., Yang X., et al. Use of D/H Clusters in LENR and Recent Results from Gas-Loaded Nanoparticle-type ClustersJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 411 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Miley G., Ragheb M., et al. Comments About Diagnostics For Nuclear Reaction Products From Cold FusionProceedings: EPRI-NSF Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterided Metals (1989), p 223 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRInsfepriwor.pdf

Miley G. Comments About Nuclear Reaction ProductsProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 133 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Miley G. Intense non-linear soft x-ray emission from a hydride target during pulsed D bombardmentProc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/MileyG-1.pdf

Miley G. Overview of Light Water / Hydrogen Based Low Energy Nuclear ReactionsProc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/MileyG-2.pdf

Miley G. Summary of the Transmutation Workshop Held in Association with ICCF-14Proc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 212 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Miley G., Hora H., et al. Condensed Matter ‘Cluster’ Reactions in LENRsProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 451 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Miley George H. Preparata Medal Lecture – A Tribute to Giuliano Preparata, a TRUE Pioneer in Cold Fusion Theory8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. Catania, Italy. (2007), p 1 www.iscmns.org/catania07/ProcW8.pdf

Miley George H., Hora H., et al. Cluster Reactions in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENRs)8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. Catania, Italy. (2007), p 235 www.iscmns.org/catania07/ProcW8.pdf

Miley, G.H. On the Reaction Product and Heat Correlation for LENRsProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/MileyGHonthereact.pdf

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Storms E., Scanlan B. What is Real about Cold Fusion and What Explanations are Plausible?J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 17 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

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Storms E. The Role of Voids as the Location of LENRJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 11, (2013), p 123 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol11.pdf

Storms E., Scanlan B. Nature of Energetic Radiation Emitted from a Metal Exposed to H2J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 11, (2013), p 142 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol11.pdf

Storms E. Explaining Cold FusionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 295 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Storms E. In the Spirit of John BockrisJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 16, (2015), p 8 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol16.pdf

Storms E. Anomalous Energy Produced by PdDJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 20, (2016), p 81 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol20.pdf

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Storms, E. Some Thoughts on the Nature of the Nuclear-Active Regions in Palladiumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEsomethough.pdf

Storms, E. Relationship Between Open-Circuit-Voltage and Heat Production in a Pons-Fleischmann Cellwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsErelationsh.pdf

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Storms, E. How to Make A Cheap and Effective Seebeck CalorimeterProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtomakea.pdf

Storms, E. Use Of A Very Sensitive Seebeck Calorimeter To Study The Pons-Fleischmann And Letts EffectsProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEuseofavery.pdf

Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Generated by Electrolysis Using a Palladium Cathode and Heavy Waterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanomaloush.pdf

Storms, E. Ways to Initiate a Nuclear Reaction in Solid Environmentswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwaystoinit.pdf

Storms, E. A critical evaluation of the Pons-Fleischmann effect: Part 1www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEacriticale.pdf

Storms, E. A New Method for Initiating Nuclear Reactionswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanewmethod.pdf

Storms, E. A Response to the Review of Cold Fusion by the DoEwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEaresponset.pdf

Storms, E. A Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudentsg.pdf

Storms, E. A Study of Those Properties of Palladium That Influence Excess Energy Production by the “Pons-Fleischmann” Effectwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudyofth.pdf

Storms, E. Anomalous Heat Produced by Electrolysis of Palladium using a Heavy-Water Electrolytewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEanomalousha.pdf

Storms, E. Calorimetry 101 for Cold Fusion; Methods, Problems and Errorswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcalorimetr.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion for Dummieswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusione.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion Revisited (translation into Chinese)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusionc.pdf

Storms, E. Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessmentwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcoldfusiond.pdf

Storms, E. Description of a dual calorimeterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEdescriptio.pdf

Storms, E. Fusテ」o a Frio para Principianteswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEfusoafriop.pdf

Storms, E. How to Cause Nuclear Reactions at Low Energy and Why Should You Care (PowerPoint slides from video)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtocausea.pdf

Storms, E. My life with cold fusion as a reluctant mistresswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEmylifewith.pdf

Storms, E. Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEestudiodel.pdf

Storms, E. Student’s Guide to Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEestudodafu.pdf

Storms, E. The Nature of the Nuclear-Active-Environment Required for Low Energy Nuclear Reactionswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEthenatureo.pdf

Storms, E. The Science Of Low Energy Nuclear Reactionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEthescience.pdf

Storms, E. The US Government Once Again Evaluates Cold Fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEtheusgover.pdf

Storms, E. What Conditions Are Required To Initiate The Lenr Effect?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhatcondit.pdf

Storms, E. What is believed about cold fusion?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhatisbeli.pdf

Storms, E. Why Cold Fusion Has Been So Hard to Explain and Duplicatewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhycoldfus.pdf

Storms, E. Why I believe “Cold Fusion” is Realwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEwhyibeliev.pdf

Storms, E. Formation of b-PdD Containing High Deuterium Concentration Using Electrolysis of Heavy-Waterwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEformationo.pdf

Storms, E. Comment on papers by K. Shanahan that propose to explain anomalous heat generated by cold fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEcommentonp.pdf

Storms, E. Measurements of excess heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-type electrolytic cell using palladium sheetwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEmeasuremena.pdf

Storms, E. How to produce the Pons-Fleischmann effectwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEhowtoprodu.pdf

Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Role of cluster formation in the LENR processProc. ICCF15 (2009), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEroleofclus.pdf

Storms, E. and B. Scanlan. Radiation produced by glow discharge in a deuterium containing gas (Part 2)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEradiationpa.pdf

Storms, E. and C. Talcott-Storms The effect of hydriding on the physical structure of palladium and on the release of contained tritiumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEtheeffecto.pdf

Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott Electrolytic tritium productionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEelectrolyt.pdf

Storms, E. and C.L. Talcott. A Study of Electrolytic Tritium ProductionProc. ACCF1 (1990), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StormsEastudyofel.pdf

Stringham R. Model for SonofusionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 304 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Stringham R. Sonofusion: Ultrasound-Activated He Production in Circulating D2OJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 79 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Stringham R. Helium Measurements From Target Foils, LANL and PNNL, 1994J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 24, (2017), p 284 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol24.pdf

Stringham R. Bubble Driven FusionProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 411 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Stringham R. S. When Bubble Cavitation becomes SonofusionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 1 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Stringham R. S. Model for Electromagnetic pulsed BEC ExperimentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 8, (2012), p 75 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol8.pdf

Stringham R. S. Sonofusion痴 Transient Condensate ClustersJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 505 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Stringham R. S. Conservation of E and M, Single Cavitation Heat EventsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 55 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Stringham, R. Pinched cavitation jets and fusion eventsProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRpinchedcav.pdf

Stringham, R. Cavitation and Fusion – poster sessionProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRcavitationb.pdf

Stringham, R. Low Mass 1.6 MHz Sonofusion ReactorProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRlowmassmhz.pdf

Stringham, R. Ejecta Sites and DD Fusion Eventswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRejectasite.pdf

Stringham, R. 1.6 MHz Sonofusion Measurement and Modelwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/StringhamRmhzsonofus.pdf

Swartz M., Verner, G., et al. Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 66 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M., Verner, G., et al. Imaging of an Active NANORョ-type LANR Component using CR-39J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 81 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. Incremental High Energy Emission from a ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured Quantum Electronic Component CF/LANRJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 92 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. Entrepreneurial Efforts: Cold Fusion Research at JET Energy Leads to Innovative, Dry ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 102 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Swartz M. A Method to Improve Algorithms Used to Detect Steady State Excess EnthalpyProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 257 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Some Lessons from Optical Examination of the PFC Phase-II Calorimetric CurvesProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 283 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Isotopic Fuel Loading Coupled to Reactions at an ElectrodeProc. ICCF4 2, (1993), p 429 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedinga.pdf

Swartz M. Catastrophic Active Medium (CAM) Theory of Cold FusionProc. ICCF4 4, (1993), p 255 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedingc.pdf

Swartz M. Excess Power Gain using High Impedance and Codepositional LANR DevicesMonitored by Calorimetry, Heat Flow, and Paired Stirling EnginesProc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 123 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Swartz M., Verner G., et al. Non-Thermal Near-IR Emission from High Impedance and Codeposition LANR DevicesProc. ICCF14 1, (2008), p 343 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14a.pdf

Swartz M., Verner G. The Phusor-type LANR Cathode is a Metamaterial Creating Deuteron Flux for Excess Power GainProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 458 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M. Optimal Operating Point Manifolds in Active, Loaded Palladium Linked to Three Distinct Physical RegionsProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 639 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M., Forsley L. Analysis and Confirmation of the ‘Superwave-as-Transitory飽OP-Peak’ HypothesisProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 653 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Swartz M. Generalized Isotopic Fuel Loading EquationsInternational Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. Minsk (1994), p 164 www.iscmns.org/FIC/CFSB.pdf

Swartz M. R. Impact of an Applied Magnetic Field on a High Impedance Dual Anode LANR DeviceJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 93 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Swartz M. R. LANR Nanostructures and Metamaterials Driven at their Optimal Operating PointJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 149 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Swartz M. R., Hagelstein P. I. Demonstration of Energy Gain from a Preloaded ZrO2鳳dD Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic Device at MITJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 516 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Swartz M. R., Verner G., et al. Energy Gain From Preloaded ZrO2鳳dNi縫 Nanostructured CF/LANR Quantum Electronic ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 528 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Swartz M. R., Verner G., et al. Impact of Electrical Avalanche through a ZrO2鋒iD Nanostructured CF/LANR Component on its Incremental Excess Power GainJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 287 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

Swartz M. R. Optical Detection of Phonon Gain Distinguishes an Active Cold Fusion/LANR component (3)J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 20, (2016), p 29 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol20.pdf

Swartz M. R. Oscillating Excess Power Gain and Magnetic Domains in NANORョ-type CF/LANR ComponentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 22, (2017), p 35 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol22.pdf

Swartz M.R., Hagelstein P.L. Increased PdD anti-Stokes Peaks are Correlated with Excess Heat ModeJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 24, (2017), p 130 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol24.pdf

Swartz M.R. Quasiparticles, Collective Excitations and Higher-order Collective Quasi-excitations in Lattice Assisted Nuclear ReactionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 25, (2017), p 26 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol25.pdf

Szpak S., Dea J. Evidence for the Induction of Nuclear Activity in Polarized Pd/H蓬2O SystemJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 9, (2012), p 21 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol9.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. The Fleischmann鳳ons Effect: Reactions and ProcessesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 12, (2013), p 143 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol12.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. Forcing the Pd/1H�1H2O System into a Nuclear Active StateJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 543 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. On the Mechanism of Tritium Production in Electrochemical CellsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 61 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S. The Pd + D Co-Deposition: Process, Product, PerformanceJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 68 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S., Gordon F. Cathode to Electrolyte Transfer of Energy Generated in the Fleischmann鳳ons ExperimentJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 14, (2014), p 76 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol14.pdf

Szpak S. On the Path Leading To The Fleischmann鳳ons EffectJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 17, (2015), p 91 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol17.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Anomalous Behavior of the Pd/D Systemwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSanomalousb.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Calorimetry of Open Electrolysis Cellswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScalorimetr.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss Nuclear and Thermal Events Associated with Pd + D Codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSnuclearand.pdf

Szpak, S. and P.A. Mosier-Boss On the release of n/1H from cathodically polarized palladium electrodeswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSontherelea.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and 窶廴ini-Explosions窶�Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSpolarizedda.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Polarized D+/Pd-D2O System: Hot Spots and 窶廴ini-Explosions窶�; (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSpolarizedd.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd latticewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSevidenceof.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. SPAWAR Systems Center-Pacific Pd:D Co-Deposition Research: Overview of Refereed LENR Publicationswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSspawarsyst.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Cyclic voltammetry of Pd + D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScyclicvolt.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. On the behavior of the Pd/D system: Evidence for tritium productionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehavc.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Thermal behavior of polarized Pd/D electrodes prepared by co-depositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSthermalbeh.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. Electrochemical charging of Pd rodswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSelectroche.pdf

Szpak, S., et al. The effect of an external electric field on surface morphology of co-deposited Pd/D filmswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakStheeffecto.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and C.J. Gabriel Absorption of deuterium in palladium rods: Model vs. experimentwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSabsorption.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon Further evidence of nuclear reactions in the Pd lattice: emission of charged particleswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSfurtherevi.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric FieldProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSprecursors.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Precursors And The Fusion Reactions In Polarised Pd/D-D2O System: Effect Of An External Electric Field (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSprecursorsa.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and F. Gordon. Experimental Evidence for LENR in a Polarized Pd/D Lattice (PowerPoint slides)www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSexperiment.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith Deuterium uptake during Pd-D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSdeuteriumu.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith On the behavior of Pd deposited in the presence of evolving deuteriumwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehav.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith On the behavior of the cathodically polarized Pd/D system: Search for emanating radiationwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSonthebehavb.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons EffectProc. ACCF2. SIF Conference Proceedings 33. The Science of Cold Fusion. (1991), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSreliablepr.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and J.J. Smith. Comments on Methodology of Excess Tritium Determinationwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScommentson.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and M. Miles Calorimetry of the Pd+D codepositionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScalorimetra.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and R.D. Boss Comments on the analysis of tritium content in electrochemical cellswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakScommentsona.pdf

Szpak, S., P.A. Mosier-Boss, and S.R. Scharber Charging of the Pd/(n)H system: role of the interphasewww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/SzpakSchargingof.pdf

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Szumski D. Si Nickel Transmutation and Excess Heat Model using Reversible ThermodynamicsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 554 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Tadayoshi Ohmori, Michio Enyo Detection of Iron Atoms on Gold Electrodes Used for Electrolysis of Neutral and Alkaline H2O and D2O SolutionsInternational Symposium on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources. Minsk (1994), p 247 www.iscmns.org/FIC/CFSB.pdf

Taft S. L., Marwan J. The Open Gate Phenomenon: A New Energy TechnologyJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 6, (2012), p 77 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol6.pdf

Takahashi A., Kitamura A., et al. Anomalous Exothermic and Endothermic Data Observed by Nano-Ni-Composite SamplesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 23 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Takahashi A. Deuteron Cluster Fusion and ASHJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 62 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. TSC-Induced Nuclear Reactions and Cold Transmutations J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 86 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A., Yabuuchi N. On Condensation Force of TSCJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 97 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. Fusion Rates of Bosonized CondensatesJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 106 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. A Theoretical Summary of Condensed Matter Nuclear EffectsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 1, (2007), p 129 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol1.pdf

Takahashi A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation MotionJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 2, (2009), p 33 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol2.pdf

Takahashi A. Progress in Condensed Cluster Fusion TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 4, (2011), p 269 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol4.pdf

Takahashi A., Seto R., et al. Role of PdO Surface-coating in CMNS D(H)-Gas Loading ExperimentsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 5, (2011), p 17 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol5.pdf

Takahashi A. Are Ni + H Nuclear Reactions Possible?J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 9, (2012), p 108 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol9.pdf

Takahashi A. Physics of Cold Fusion by TSC TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 565 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

Takahashi A. Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion by TSC TheoryJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 11 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Takahashi A. Fundamental of Rate Theory for CMNSJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 19, (2016), p 298 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol19.pdf

Takahashi A., Yabuuchi N. D-Cluster Dynamics and Fusion Rate by Langevin Equation8th International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen / Deuterium Loaded Metals. Catania, Italy. (2007), p 306 www.iscmns.org/catania07/ProcW8.pdf

Takahashi A. Some Considerations of Multibody Fusion in Metal DeuteridesProc. ICCF4 4, (1993), p 159 www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/EPRIproceedingc.pdf

Takahashi A. The Italy-Japan Project – Fundamental Research on Cold Transmutation Process for Treatment of Nuclear Wastes Proc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/TakahashiA-2.pdf

Takahashi A. Time-Dependent EQPET Analysis of TSCProc. ICCF12 (2005), www.iscmns.org/iccf12/TakahashiA-3.pdf

Takahashi A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation MotionProc. ICCF14 2, (2008), p 663 www.iscmns.org/iccf14/ProcICCF14b.pdf

Takahashi N., Kosaka Si, et al. Detection of Pr in Cs Ion-implanted Pd/CaO Multilayer Complexes with and without D2 Gas PermeationJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 13, (2014), p 579 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol13.pdf

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Takahashi, A. Tetrahedral And Octahedral Resonance Fusion Under Transient Condensation Of Deuterons At Lattice Focal PointsProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAtetrahedra.pdf

Takahashi, A. Mechanism Of Deuteron Cluster Fusion By EQPET ModelProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAmechanismo.pdf

Takahashi, A. Studies on 3D Fusion Reactions in TiDx under Ion Beam Implantation (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAstudiesonda.pdf

Takahashi, A. Theoretical Background for Transmutation Reactions (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAtheoretica.pdf

Takahashi, A. 3He/4He Production Ratios By Tetrahedral Symmetric CondensationProc. ICCF11 (2004), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAheheproduc.pdf

Takahashi, A. Deuterons-to-4He Channels (PowerPoint slides)Proc. ICCF13 (2007), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAdeuteronst.pdf

Takahashi, A. Condensed Matter Nuclear Effectswww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAcondensedm.pdf

Takahashi, A. Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAdynamicmeca.pdf

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Takahashi, A., et al. Studies on 3D Fusion Reactions in TiDx under Ion Beam ImplantationProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAstudiesond.pdf

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Takahashi, A., et al. Excess heat and nuclear products by D2O/Pd electrolysis and multibody fusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/TakahashiAexcessheat.pdf

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Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang Effects of self-induced stress in tubular membranes during hydrogen diffusionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsofsb.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang Effects of temperature on hydrogen absorption into palladium hydride electrodes in the hydrogen evolution reactionwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsoft.pdf

Zhang, W.-S., Z.-L. Zhang, and X.-W. Zhang. Effects of Temperature on Loading Ratios of Hydrogen (Deuterium) in Palladium Cathodes under the Galvanostatic ConditionsProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangWSeffectsofta.pdf

Zhang, X., et al. On the Explosion in a Deuterium/Palladium Electrolytic Systemwww.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangXontheexplo.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L. and W.-S. Zhang. Possibility of electron capture by deuteronProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLpossibilit.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L., et al. Measurements of Excess Heat in the Open Pd/D2O Electrolytic System by the Calvet CalorimetryProc. ICCF8 (2000), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLmeasuremen.pdf

Zhang, Z.-L., W.-S. Zhang, and Z.-Q. Zhang. Further study on the solution of Schrテカdinger equation of hydrogen-like atomProc. ICCF9 (2002), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZLfurtherstu.pdf

Zhang, Z.-Q., Z.-L. Zhang, and W.-S. Zhang. Are there some loose bound states of nucleus-nucleus two-body system?www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhangZQarethereso.pdf

Zhou D. Z., Wang C., et al. Energetic Particles Generated in Earlier Pd + D Nuclear ReactionsJ. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, (2015), p 33 www.iscmns.org/CMNS/JCMNS-Vol15.pdf

Zhou, X., X.Z. Li, and B. Liu. Bethe’s Calculation For Solar Energy And Selective Resonant TunnelingProc. ICCF10 (2003), www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ZhouXbethescalc.pdf

1300 titles.

ISCMNS

International Society for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

Home page.

Library (copy here).

Trolls

Subpage of RationalWiki/Anglo Pyramidologist

This is a collection of accounts showing a kind of troll behavior characteristic of some AP socks. These accounts appear, often create pages with disruptive names, and are intended to be immediately blocked. Sometimes these accounts are intended to be seen as socks of someone else.

It is not impossible that some of these are themselves impersonations of AP. However, I find that explanation generally implausible. The particular interests and foci are those of AP. If impersonations, they succeed.

I’m starting this page August 20, 2018, showing recent examples. There are a large number of examples. As well, these are only on RationalWiki. I have sometimes documented these accounts. Where they edit covered RW articles, they have been listed there when noticed, or sometimes when impersonation was clear. Accounts are shown articles or edits, and content of articles. Analysis is in unindented italics.

EMIL_OW_KIRKEGAARD (impersonation) created

EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKIEMIL OW KIRKEGAARD (talk contribs) 12:06, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

The lack of a space between the comment and the signature is commonly seen with AP signatures.

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

Some of the material copied to RW above was taken from the linked blog. But not all, and this practice of quoting exposés of AP, disruptively, is a known AP tactic. It actually works on RW, on occasion. Since the sock quotes X, RationalWikians may assume that the sock is X, increasing dedication to opposing any genuine X activity, and presenting the apparent target (here, Oliver Smith) as a victim. Generally, these prolific impersonations socks may be, not Oliver himself, but his brother, Darryl.

ElfredaTheCalm blocked 12:24, 4 August 2018 GrammarCommie for “spam” created

[[File:Emilkirkegaard Nazi salute.png]]

This file was uploaded by Dr. Witt, an obvious Oliver Smith sock.

RIGHTPEDIA.ORG EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI

EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI

EMIL KIRKEGAARD IS CLOSING RATIONALWIKI ANTIFA DOWN

 EMIL KIRKEGAARD CLOSING RATIONALWIKI ANTIFA DOWN U GEY

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

David Gerard and Oliver Smith both antifa

Jump to: navigation, search

A sign of careless copying.

(aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia

Oliver has stated that he believes he can get away with defaming and abusing European dissidents, as they will be less likely to contact the authorities. This suggests he is motivated by psychotic behavior disorder rather than political views.

On his autobiography, he falsely claims in the D&D alignment he is “true neutral”. In reality, he is chaotic evil. Chaotic because he’s a schizophrenic with multiple personality disorder and he’s a pathological liar — he even constantly lies on the talk pages of his autobiography, such has here he lied and claimed Rightpedia said they were doing to dox all Rationalwiki Sysops and nobody said this. Evil because he cares not for right or wrong, but only power, and chaotic evil because he has no goals other than his emotions. And just look at his photo which he chose to upload for his autobiography; that’s clearly chaotic evil.

Other enemies of Oliver Carolyn Emerick – A European Pagan who teaches ancient folklore. She has never responded to him. She bought one of Evalion’s paintings, the one with the four seasons in Celtic mythology. Abd ul-Rahman Lomax – A based Muslim

This was partly based on the Kirkegaard blog with more AP raving. However, I’m a blogger and here is an opportunity for some eye candy. Sorry about the rest, but I can think of a medicinal use for it. So perhaps I have an opportunity to chat with one of two people: Carolyn Emerick or Oliver Smith.

from

OR

 

Tough call, eh? Politics? Who cares about politics? Presence is everything.

[[File:Kirkegaard.png|800px|thumb|Emil Kirkegaard]]

File uploaded by https://rationalwiki.org/wiki/User:CheeseburgerFace not an AP sock.

RationalWiki (nicknamed IrrationalWiki) and Wikis on politics tend to have a certain viewpoint, such as Wikipedia is mainstream US liberalism. Conservapedia is mainstream US conservatism. For IrrationalWiki, it is pro-neo-Marxism, pro-Globalism, and the hypocritical position that conspiracy theories are hoaxes. Although the viewpoint in its articles is often too extreme, it is run professionally. They prevent doxxing and have banned members that behave crazy like traditional Communist activists. Crazy viewpoints are fine, but behaving uncivil is not allowed.

For its pro-Neo-Marxist stance, the wiki supports things along the lines of secular humanism, cultural degeneracy, and old-fashioned Economic Communism, race denialism, New Atheism, anti-Christian, anti-Conservative, pro-sodomy, pro-gun restriction and basically that sort of thing. It even claims rape culture in white countries is only done by white people and the masses of rapy immigrants from African, Muslim and other countries that have a real rape culture aren’t the ones doing the raping. It’s the viewpoint that a man looking at pornography is “rape culture” while the common occurrence in Europe these days of a gang of foreign men gang-raping a small child and then the government imprisoning anyone who speaks against it on Facebook or Twitter is not rape culture.

For pro-Globalism, while that tends to conflict with old-fashioned economic Marxism, current Neo-Marxism is a modification that isn’t totally at odds with Globalism. Even people typically on the left oppose globalist things such as genetically modified foods, smart meters, fracking, Monsanto, Aspartame, cancer danger from cell phones and that sort of thing. Irrationalwiki is of the point of view that these conspiracies are pseudoscience and corporations in general can do no wrong.

The delusion that all conspiracy theories are hoaxes really just overlaps with the pro-Globalism viewpoint. The wiki holds that if it’s a conspiracy theory, it’s wrong. This can be conspiracy theories not related to Communism or Globalist corporations such as 9/11 conspiracies, water fluoridation, and DDT banning conspiracies. rightpedia.info/w/RationalWiki

This was material taken from http://en.rightpedia.info/w/RationalWiki

Also August 4, from the block log:

11:35, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . Oliveratlantis
11:33, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . Oliveratlantis

11:41, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+1,414)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual: new section)

Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual

Oliver (aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

A massive wikisperg, Oliver is infamous for going to extremes to remove websites or articles that he believes have offended, disparaged or merely criticized him; this includes accusing his opponents he has met online wikis (e.g. his arch-enemy) of various crimes, setting up attack blogs on them, hounding, stalking and impersonating them using sockpuppets, accusing his opponents of being his own impersonations, and even sending threats with the purpose of trying to coerce them into deleting everything written about him. In numerous cases this has worked. Emil OW Kirkegaard (talk) 11:41, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

1:39, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . (+185)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎

EXPOSING THIS MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA: emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034 Emil OW Kirkegaard (talk) 11:39, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

11:37, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Talk:Oliveratlantis (Created page with “oliver is a traitor to the European people and should be shot. ~~~~”) [entire content shown in summary]

11:54, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+2,064)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (emil kirkegaard is being stalked by a schizoid antifa: new section)

emil kirkegaard is being stalked by a schizoid antifa

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

11:56, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff ) . . Emil kirkegaard is being stalked by an antifa (Created page) 

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:00, 4 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . OLIVER SCHIZOPHRENIC ANTIFA (Created page) with 

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?
[code block] There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

[code block] Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:14, 4 August 2018 (diff | hist. . (-2,173)‎ . . Michael A. Woodley of Menie ‎[replaced content with:]

THIS SMEAR ARTICLE WAS WRITTEN BY A MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA

11:31, 4 August 2018 (diff | deletion log | view) . . Oliveratlantis (Created page)

(aka oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia

11:29, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+192)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎

EXPOSING THIS MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA: emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034 Emil Kirkegaard Real (talk) 11:29, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

  • 12:34, 4 August 2018 GrammarCommie  blocked Oliver boglins (contribs) with an expiration time of π×infinity! (account creation disabled, cannot edit own talk page) (Spam) [created 11:22, 4 August 2018]

11:25, 4 August 2018 (diff. . (+665)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Impersonations)

oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica. Oliver boglins (talk) 11:25, 4 August 2018 (UTC)

12:09, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Schizophrenic antifa oliver (Created page)

http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?page_id=7034

Media criticism •www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jan/10/ucl-to-investigate-secret-eugenics-conference-held-on-campus •www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2018/01/10/ucl-launches-eugenics-probe-emerges-academic-held-controversial/

Various large UK media has repeated some rather extreme claims about me. In particular, they claim that I’m a Nazi and pedophile apologist. Neither are true, and never were true. The main person behind the claims is a schizophrenic stalker who has a long history of obsessively stalking people.

What? Who?

There are various pictures of him, but they are all about equally unflattering.

To understand the situation, one has to learn about a certain person named Oliver and a website called Rationalwiki (RW). RW is a snarky version of Wikipedia with looser standards of evidence (often none), and a very heavy left-wing slant. The website looks like Wikipedia, so many people think it is Wikipedia, not realizing that there are many Wiki projects on the internet. Much of the content on RW is quite decent, but the site’s leadership gives free reigns to a small group of vicious individuals to basically use the website’s prominent Google position to defame people they dislike. At some point, an individual named Oliver started using this site, and creating pages on persons he dislikes. He is quite explicit about this strategy:

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

12:07, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Talk:EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI (Created page with “EMIL KIRKEGAARD DANISH POLYMATH SMEARED BY MENTALLY ILL ANTIFA AT RATIONALWIKI~~~~”) [all content in summary]

12:10, 4 August 2018 (diff) . . Michael a woodley of menie close down rationalwiki (Created page)

[[Image:Michael Woodley.png|thumb|2500px|U GEY]]

File uploaded by AP sock M87.

Reviewing M87 edits led me to Octo, created  09:25, 14 August 2018. Caught a fish! This is Oliver.

Back to the task at hand, troll accounts:

17:37, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . User:MrSheen (Created page with “https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets Hilariously the other socks are Oliver attempting to frame me.”) [text=summary]

17:01, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff) . . User:MrSheen (Created page with “https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets”) [text=summary]

 User:MrSheen (shows deletion log)

Account renamed by LeftyGreenMario

16:00, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff. . (+686)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (Lol, how Kirkegaard sees his politics…) [revdel by Bongolian]

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppetsEMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 15:57, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica. EMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 16:00, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

15:59, 8 August 2018 (deleted diff. . (+581)‎ . . User talk:MrSheen ‎[revdel by Bongolian]

Oliver oliveratlantis, Atlantid) (born 1990, claims April 22) is a psychotic, socially inept, misanthropic loner who is openly[1] asexual but if you call him that, he denies it. In his autobiography[1] admits being “pro-LGBTQIA”, which looks like the homosex acronym, but he added an I for incest and an A for animals. How progressive of him! Oliver David Smith is also a pathological liar, Antifa activist, and geekazoid (he blogs about Greek mythology) better known for his anti-pornography views and extensive harassment campaigns against Kiwi Farms and Encyclopedia Dramatica.

 15:58, 8 August 2018 (diff  . . (+161)‎ . . Talk:Emil Kirkegaard ‎ (edit summary removed) [by Kazitor]

Edit summary was content:

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppetsEMILKIRKEGAARD (talk) 15:57, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

15:38, 8 August 2018 (diff. . (+182)‎ . . Talk:Michael Coombs

https://en.rightpedia.info/w/Oliver_David_Smith_sockpuppets“)EmilOWKirkegaard1488 (talk) 15:38, 8 August 2018 (UTC)

Geolocates to region for AP or Mikemikev.

Proceedings

Index to Conference Proceedings

International Conference for Cold Fusion (ICCF)
also known as
International Conference for Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCMNS)

… and there are other organizations involved.

EPRI-NSF, Washington, DC, October 16-18, 1989

ICCF-1,

ICCF-5, Monte Carlo, Monaco, April 9-13, 1995

ICCF-6 , Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan, October 13th – 18th 1996

ICCF-9, Beijing, China, 2002, May 19 – 24, 2002

ICCF-16, Chennai, India, February 2011, jcmns/v8

ICCF-20, Sendai, Japan   jcmns/v24, October 02–07, 2016

International Workshop on Anomalies in Hydrogen/Deuterium Loaded Metals (IWAHLM)

IWAHLM-8, Catania, Italy, 13-18 October 2007

IWAHLM-11, Toulouse, France, October 15–16, 2015, jcmns/v23

IWAHLM-12, Asti, Italy, June 5–9, 2017, jcmns/v26.

New Energy Times index to conferences

Lenr-canr.org page on conferences

Wikipedia on cold fusion patents

This is a subpage of jcmns/v13/p118, a review of an article by David French on Patents and Cold Fusion

https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cold_fusion&oldid=852432636#Patents

Patents

Although details have not surfaced, it appears that the University of Utah forced the 23 March 1989 Fleischmann and Pons announcement to establish priority over the discovery and its patents before the joint publication with Jones.[30] The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) announced on 12 April 1989 that it had applied for its own patents based on theoretical work of one of its researchers, Peter L. Hagelstein, who had been sending papers to journals from the 5 to 12 April.[174] On 2 December 1993 the University of Utah licensed all its cold fusion patents to ENECO, a new company created to profit from cold fusion discoveries,[175] and in March 1998 it said that it would no longer defend its patents.[75]

The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) now rejects patents claiming cold fusion.[88] Esther Kepplinger, the deputy commissioner of patents in 2004, said that this was done using the same argument as with perpetual motion machines: that they do not work.[88]

It’s a problem when Wikipedia alleges a current state of affairs with “now,” especially based on an old source. Reference 18 is to this article, from 2004. From that article, this:

… The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has refused to grant a patent on any invention claiming cold fusion. According to Esther Kepplinger, the deputy commissioner of patents, this is for the same reason it wouldn’t give one for a perpetual motion machine: It doesn’t work.

This is popular language, not a legal position. Perpetual motion machines violate a strongly-held understanding of thermodynamics, so any claim of one is going to be met with skepticism, and if skepticism is broad and wide on a particular class of inventions, and if the USPTO notices this, and if an invention actually claims what is considered impossible (that is not the same as actually being impossible), it will require proof of utility and enablement. 

These problems, Hagelstein and McKubre argue, are all tied to the 1989 DOE review. While the report’s language was measured, pointing out the lack of experimental evidence, “it was absolutely the intention of most of the framers of that document to kill cold fusion,” McKubre says.

McKubre was probably correct about that intention, though the document itself was modified to avoid that, in theory (it actually recommended research). However, the intention, whatever it was, is irrelevant to the patent situation. What is the problem is a widespread belief that cold fusion experiments are not reliably reproducible, or not reliably reproduced from a specific protocol, or . And that belief happens to be reasonable, it’s also understood by many LENR researchers, and that bears directly on patentability.

Not all real effects are patentable. They must actually be useful, and not merely potentially useful at some point in the future, but in the present. The enabling description in the patent must be adequate to generate practical results, of practical utility, when implemented by a Person Having Ordinary Skill In The Art (PHOSITA), and not only that, the patent and evidence shown to the USPTO must be such as to convince such persons that the invention will work. (or at least is likely to work!)

There came to be, after that rushed 1989 report, plenty of experimental evidence that there was a real effect, and even that the effect was nuclear in nature. (Some of that evidence shows the reality without requiring reliability, through correlation; specifically, the effect is difficult to set up, but when it does occur, there are reliable correlates.)

[. . . ] According to McKubre, the reason cold fusion experiments can’t be reproduced on demand is a materials issue: It’s a matter of developing a form of palladium, or another metal, with the right mix of impurities. With help on that issue and more funding, he suggests, a small cold-fusion-powered heater or generator could be ready in as little as two years.

And that’s the rub. That “issue” is still unresolved. If it were resolved, the suggested possibility is not unreasonable. With such a material to specify, if it were creating reliable heat and if this heat were adequate for practical use, not merely measurable experimentally — which would be enough for science — then such a generator could be patented. Until then, once the substantial doubt has been raised, clear evidence is required to rebut the skepticism.

This is often considered unfair, because most patents don’t need to provide that kind of proof. However, the courts have again and again supported this position, and I have to agree that it is sensible. There are ways for inventors to proceed, if they actually have found a way to make a practical device.

Patent applications are required to show that the invention is “useful”, and this utility is dependent on the invention’s ability to function.[176] In general USPTO rejections on the sole grounds of the invention’s being “inoperative” are rare, since such rejections need to demonstrate “proof of total incapacity”,[176] and cases where those rejections are upheld in a Federal Court are even rarer: nevertheless, in 2000, a rejection of a cold fusion patent was appealed in a Federal Court and it was upheld, in part on the grounds that the inventor was unable to establish the utility of the invention.[176][notes 5]

Yes. (This is much better than what the article used to have on this topic, by the way.) Note 176 refers to In re Swartz, called “Swartz I” in the 2018 Swartz v. PATO rejection.

A U.S. patent might still be granted when given a different name to disassociate it from cold fusion,[177] though this strategy has had little success in the US: the same claims that need to be patented can identify it with cold fusion, and most of these patents cannot avoid mentioning Fleischmann and Pons’ research due to legal constraints, thus alerting the patent reviewer that it is a cold-fusion-related patent.[177]

The issue is not the name, so much as the claim. Patents have been granted which were cold-fusion related. One of the problems is that “cold fusion” is a loose popular name for the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, and there is a large family of such effects, more commonly called Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, and that the “reactions” are nuclear in nature is a matter of theory, and only in a few instances, strong and direct evidence. Mostly what is seen is anomalous heat. “Little success in the US” is a bit misleading. Looking up the source, this was Voss, in Science, 1999, ‘New Physics’ Finds a Haven at the Patent Office and I doubt he understood the real situation (he seems to think that fringe science should not be patentable). Few cold fusion related patents had been granted by 1999, and there are fast-approval exceptions, for example for the age of the inventor. There are more, now. I don’t have the article (paywall). There was a sidebar, though, referring to Thomas Valone case. A Free Energy Enthusiast Seeks Like-Minded Colleagues. Valone won an arbitration with the USPTO. 

David Voss said in 1999 that some patents that closely resemble cold fusion processes, and that use materials used in cold fusion, have been granted by the USPTO.[178] The inventor of three such patents had his applications initially rejected when they were reviewed by experts in nuclear science; but then he rewrote the patents to focus more in the electrochemical parts so they would be reviewed instead by experts in electrochemistry, who approved them.[178][179]

Note 178 refers to Voss and gives the three patents:

US 5,616,219  US 5,628,886  US 5,672,259 are broken links. These work:  US5616219 US5628886 US5672259 .  These are Patterson patents. My understanding is that these were issued under a fast-track rule for inventors over 70 years old. So these have nothing to do with normal Patent Office practice.

Note 178 refers to a Law Review article, which I found of high interest. 2006 Wis. L. Rev. 1275 (2006) They cite an Internet Archive copy, this is the original publication: A Case Study of Inoperable Inventions: Why is the USPTO Patenting Pseudoscience, Daniel Rislove. Rislove covers the patenting of inoperable inventions, recognizes the difficulties involved, but seems to think that nevertheless the USPTO should protect the public by not issuing patents to “pseudoscientific” inventions. However, the mission of the Patent Office is not to protect the public, but to benefit inventors. The problem is that the issuance of a patent can appear to support an inventor’s claim of legitimacy, in some cases. The problem is actually public ignorance and the ability of some inventors to deceive the public or investors as to the utility of their inventions, by the fact of a patent. Rislove seems to believe that that problem is insoluble, therefore the Patent Office should avoid harm to the public by taking greater care to reject inoperable inventions. But this will raise costs to inventors, and can also harm the public (he is aware that what is considered impossible might not actually be so. Perhaps an invention operates by an unknown principle, instead of what the inventor thinks. Patents are not scientific theories, and are not “pseudoscientific,” if described accurately.

The FDA is mentioned, but the mission of the FDA is to protect the public. At least in theory! There are other legal institutions that can protect the public from fraud and fakery. On the patent issue, every patent could be accompanied by a disclaimer that the patent does not guarantee operability or suitability for purpose. It could be made a form of fraud to claim that a patent shows these things.

When asked about the resemblance to cold fusion, the patent holder said that it used nuclear processes involving “new nuclear physics” unrelated to cold fusion.[178]

The quoted phrase is not found in source 178. Rislove does cite Voss so maybe the Wikipedia editor was confused. However, that would be a generic argument. “New nuclear physics” is not inherently incredible. “Cold fusion” conjures up a specific idea that is probably impossible under the relevant conditions. But there can always be new physics, including new nuclear physics. It’s merely unlikely, and until and unless the new physics is confirmed, the USPTO may have a basis for challenging it. But it is not clear to me that this right is actually useful for the purposes of patent law. Such rejections, as Rislove points out, are rare, but plenty of garbage is patented.

Melvin Miles was granted in 2004 a patent for a cold fusion device, and in 2007 he described his efforts to remove all instances of “cold fusion” from the patent description to avoid having it rejected outright.[180]

The source is an article, Cold fusion is back at the American Chemical Society It quotes Miles:

Miles is also careful to avoid using the words ‘cold fusion’. “There are code names you can use,” he says. In 2004 Miles and colleagues were granted a US patent for a palladium material doped with boron for use in low-energy nuclear reactions, but if the patent application contained the CF words it would never have been granted, Miles says. “We kind of disguised what we did.”

The Wikipedia link for the patent is dead. US6764561B1 Remarkably, though, the patent does cover the use of his material for generating energy. My emphasis:

The present invention generally relates to processes for the production of a high-strength alloy that may be used as a gas purification membrane, as an electrode for numerous applications including the generation of heat energy or other electrochemical processes, and more particularly to the preparation and use of two-phase palladium-boron alloys which have greater strength and hardness than other palladium metals or alloys and which thus can be advantageously utilized in a variety of applications including hydrogen purification membranes or electrodes.

And then in the Background, again my emphasis:

. . . the demand for energy increases each year while the world’s natural energy sources such as fossil fuels are finite and are being used up. Accordingly, the development of alternative energy sources is very important and a number of potential new energy sources are under study. Although there have been many attempts to develop a palladium compound which can be utilized in processes to generate heat, such as through the introduction of aqueous deuterium, none of these attempts have been successful or repeatable, and there is thus a distinct need to develop palladium alloys which can be utilized for the generation of heat as a potential energy source.

So he is claiming a possible use, but not standing the patent on “nuclear reactions,” even though he is obviously talking about what is known as “cold fusion.” He is centrally claiming an alloy with multiple uses. It is not “incredible” that an alloy can be made. The utility of such an alloy might be claimed, but this is where the burden of proof would be on the USPTO, to show that it is not useful.

At least one patent related to cold fusion has been granted by the European Patent Office.[181]

The Davis patent I have cited elsewhere, which is a US patent which clearly cited Fleischmann and Pons, also cites this patent, EP0568118, “Process for storing hydrogen, and apparatus for cold nuclear fusion and method for generating heat energy, using the process.” application 1990, granted to Canon in 1993.

There are other European patents, for sure, but Wikipedia can only cite what is in reliable secondary sources, and the source here was a 1994 article in New Scientist.

A patent only legally prevents others from using or benefiting from one’s invention. However, the general public perceives a patent as a stamp of approval, and a holder of three cold fusion patents said the patents were very valuable and had helped in getting investments.[178]

Yes. Patents are not stamps of approval. Period. You want approval, for safety, go to Underwriter’s Laboratories. For drugs, go to the Food and Drug Administration (in the U.S). For investment in cold fusion inventions, scream and run in the opposite direction unless you have experts with you. Even scientists have been fooled by “demonstrations.”

What is required for validation is verification by independent experts, in circumstances under the control of those experts. For an investor, the most important word in this is “independent.” Cold fusion is not impossible, we know that, because of controlled experiment, multiply confirmed. (But the word “fusion” could still be misleading.) As it stands, a lot of very smart people have worked for decades to create reliable devices and they have failed. So a reliable cold fusion device is quite unexpected. The US Patent Office, rightly or wrongly, wants to see proof of utility and enablement, and if you actually have such a device, proving it should not be all that difficult. Unless you want to keep secrets, or don’t actually have something reliable, then it could be impossible.

Peter Gluck

This is a message to Peter Gluck as a response to https://egooutpeters.blogspot.com/2018/03/

It was suggested to me by a well-known scientist that your blog should be preserved as an important part of LENR history, and I agreed, so I am at this point downloading the entire site. Much (not all) of is on the Internet Archive. Meanwhile you have asked for updates.

Nothing is certain regarding LENR-technology, even that it does NOT exist.

“Certain” is a human reaction, which can be individual or social. Human memory and analysis can always be flawed. The Richard Garwin argument (“They must be making some mistake.”) is a default hypothesis whenever strong beliefs are challenged, and this can never be completely proven to be incorrect. However, routinely, we do accept preponderance of the evidence conclusions.

But, again, who is “we”? People who have a strong belief that “LENR” — what is that? — is “impossible,” will generally put little time into studying the evidence. But some will put in that time. What we know most certainly about so-called “cold fusion,” I continue to assert, is that in the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect, deuterium is being converted to helium, with very little else happening at substantial levels. This is very different from claiming that PdD is the energy solution of the future.

This obviously tells us nothing, either way, about NiH.

I am desperate.

I’ve always been sorry to hear that. It’s painful to be desperate. Desperation creates poor decisions, only rarely, in true emergencies, is it useful.

And that’s how I’d encourage you to think, about “useful and not-useful,” instead of right and wrong and good and bad. Yes, there is some element of “good” in “useful,” as long as we remain in the realm of choice.

So far, LENR is not useful, except for investigation, and that is why patents that claim usefulness for energy production are rejected (in the US). They are not actually useful for that when independently tested, so far, it is potential, not realization. We often think of ideas being patentable, and yes, sometimes, but not if there is doubt, then usefulness for stated purpose must be shown.

Rossi got his US patent by not claiming any nuclear reaction, the patent was for a “fluid heater,” and nobody doubts that the Doral reactor heated water. But how much? Rossi did not make claims about that in his patent application, so they did not demand proof.

Other patents have been granted that actually claim LENR, the SPAWAR patent is one. It makes no energy claim, only particle production (including neutrons). There is another granted patent for an electrolytic method for investigating the Fleischmann-Pons Heat Effect! It does not claim use for creating energy, but for testing claims of such creation. That’s useful!

The Miamy Trial – Rossi vs. Darden is a complete mistery, but it seems Rossi has not lost the trial.

It’s not a mystery to someone who has studied the documents. I compiled all of them and created study guides, etc. and my personal full trust is in reality, not in the ideas of people including myself. Out of that, I do have opinions, but hopefully rooted strongly in evidence, as if I were a member of that jury, and I was there and saw the jury selection and opening arguments, already being very familiar with the evidence that had been revealed in depositions (sworn testimony) and pleadings.

A summary:

On many, many occasions, Rossi lied.

That is, he made statements and acted in ways clearly designed to create false impressions.

He lied to Industrial Heat about the Hydro Fusion test — that he deliberately failed that test to deceive Hydro Fusion into walking away from their agreement — or he lied to IH about his purpose. There are many small deceptions, often passed off by his supporters as simple hyperbole and style, but, he created and confirmed in many ways the impression to IH, including in emails, where it was quite clear, that his customer in Doral was Johnson-Matthey. When Vaugh wrote him that he was going to visit JM in England, Rossi quickly said, “No, they don’t want to be known, I should not have mentioned them. Your customer is a Florida company.” or like that.

The Florida company was a blind trust created by Rossi’s attorney, Johnson, who was also President of Leonardo Corporation. It was owned by a friend of Rossi, on paper. Rossi actually paid for everything and totally controlled the “customer.” The customer was not at all independent, as Rossi had claimed many times, to IH, and to the world on his blog.

Rossi and Johnson met with IH in North Carolina and signed the Terms Sheet covering the sale of power to JM Chemical Products. The name was obviously designed to resemble Johnson-Matthey, and Johnson represented that JM Products was an “English entity.” Since it was obviously not (Rossi was forced to reveal, from court process, the true owner), later, in depositions, Johnson claimed that they intended to create an English entity, but it was too expensive, so they didn’t. That is, Johnson — entirely working for Rossi — lied, claiming as fact, for legal purposes, what was only an idea, in order to promote the deception of an independent customer.

Rossi later claimed that he never told them that the customer was Johnson Matthey, but it’s very clear that he created that impression, and his fake JM engineer (Bass) clearly believed that he was actually working for Johnson Matthey, this was in emails revealed in the case.

So, then, there is a background of lies, and this actually goes way back. (I learned a lot more at ICCF-21 about his thermoelectric generators) However, some people don’t care about lying, if the liar delivers what they want, and we want cheap energy, right?

So Rossi set up and controlled what he later called a “test” of the 1 MW reactor assemblies, and his friend Penon issued a report showing a megawatt generated, thus providing what Rossi claimed would trigger an $89 million payment.

(There are many deceptions in the case. The agreement allowing the test to be postponed was never actually executed, the approval was required of Rossi’s long-time friends and partners, at Ampenergo,  but they never agreed to it, and that was deliberate, not merely an accident as I thought it might have been. Rossi knew this, so he obviously tried to set up something to resemble a test and then to claim that he was still owed the money (and that they had set out to defraud him from the beginning and never had any intention to pay, and then he argued that they didn’t have the money to pay, and he argued many things that don’t match the evidence. They were well prepared to pay if the results had been good.)

But the kicker, of greatest interest, is that Rossi had failed to provide adequate ventilation to dissipate a megawatt of heat, 24/7. His own expert testified that without a heat exchanger, the warehouse would have been fatally hot. After having been asked about this in 2016, and having written on his blog that the heat was dissipated by an “endothermic reaction,” and then claiming that the roof vent was enough, and opening the back door, he, as discovery was ending, more or less last-minute, claimed he had built a heat exchanger on the second floor of the warehouse. In that, he crossed from deceptive interpretation into perjury, lying under oath, which is criminal. I won’t go into all the details, but, the jury would have agreed there was no heat exchanger and there was no evidence that it ever existed, for  it would have been very visible and very noisy and many people had visited. You have to move a lot of air to dissipate a megawatt by air cooling!

So if this case did not settle, the possibility became high that Rossi could be prosecuted for perjury. He could go to jail again. At the same time, IH was not going to recover the $11.5 million they had given him, even if he had defrauded IH with the Validation Test in Italy. They had formally accepted that, even though they knew there were problems. However, they could have recovered a few million dollars in damages from the fraudulent customer and fake test (and they could also have collected from the co-conspirators, Johnson, as well as, with various degrees of culpability, Fabiani, Penon, and Bass. It is questionable that they could have recovered their legal expenses, and, as a technology company, needing to create confidence in inventors, they would not want the appearance of attempting to punish an inventor when things don’t work out. They had not sued Rossi, they had not attempted to expose him, and only counterclaimed when sued.

I think Rossi believed they would settle, but that was a bridge too far for them, given that he had essentially cheated them out of millions of dollars. Because of his legal expenses, Rossi was facing the likelihood of bankruptcy, and some of his friends might have also been bankrupted.

I was there when, as Rossi’s attorneys were setting up displays for the jury, the actual trial was about to begin, Rossi’s new attorney asked to confer with the lead attorney for IH. It was obvious what was happening. Rossi had been convinced to abandon the lawsuit, and the settlement agreement abandoned all claims of the parties against each other. Rossi had filed a federal lawsuit costing many millions of dollars, and was walking away with only one thing. I’m sure that attorney knew what to say to IH: “You are claiming the technology is worthless, so it would make sense that you would abandon it.

That agreement was used later by Rossi to claim that this is what he’d wanted all along, to get out of the agreement with IH,  but, in fact, IH had not been preventing Rossi from developing and selling his technology around the world. He has also being deceptive about the agreement and IH behavior.

IH would not have been able to prove there was no excess heat. Their own testing, they testified under oath, had found nothing that did not turn out to be a measurement error. And, again, Peter, I could go on and on. But, bottom line, Rossi did not win his lawsuit and he lost many millions of dollars in legal costs, and no sane investor will put money into Rossi technology any more without taking extraordinary precautions, because there are many clear facts in the case that became public record. I’d call that a loss.

What will bring the future to LENR?

The future will bring itself, in its time, and desperately wanting something only hastens it, sometimes, when we are children, and our parents want to please us. Desperation does not generally serve adults, unless their lives are under immediate threat. Then it may motivate us to do difficult things, but complaining isn’t one of them, unless created and directed so as to effective. Desperation may delay the future when it leads us into useless activity, when smarter activity might carry the day.

In this blog I have told many times what I think about Pd/D and Ni/H etc., and I have not changed my opinion.

Don’t confuse me with facts?

Peter, you were always right, in my judgment, in certain ways, but you confused and did not understand other ways of looking at the situation. PdD is very unlikely to become a practical energy source, except maybe for special applications (such as space flight, and the SPAWAR patent I mentioned is of possible utility in a hybrid fusion/fission reactor being studied by Larry Forsley, Pam Boss, and others, working with NASA. Briefly, LENR (PdD!) is used to generate neutrons which then cause fission in associated uranium 238.

Now, is NiH viable? If so, it has very obvious advantages. At ICCF-21, there was a report from Takahashi about a collaboration where NiH is being intensively investigated, by a number of research groups, with more careful study of the effect of controlled variations than I have seen before. They are reporting XP in the 10 watt range, with some level of consistency.

What have we to do? Is any hope lost?

False hopes must always be lost. The only safety is in trusting reality no matter what. We are going to die, that comes to all of us. I have hope that LENR will be accepted as real in my lifetime, and, indeed, I hope to be able to personally help with this transformation in public understanding. I have less hope that practical applications will exist before I pass on, and even less hope that LENR will be “understood” in that time. If these things don’t happen, however, it does not distress me.

My stand is for real science and, as well, functional social process, but, again, my full trust and hope is in reality: reality is, as I wrote above, better than I can imagine. That is not a specific vision, it’s a declaration, a way of looking at the future, and I highly recommend it. It will not make things worse, particularly if you can recognize that “better” is a fantasy.

Peter, I hope you can find a way to come to terms with the reality of your life. “Reality” is not “good” or “bad.” It is largely what we say it is, as to those impressions. Reality itself doesn’t care about our opinions, those are froth, not substantial. Some think that Reality doesn’t care about us, but that is yet another opinion, and the only reasonably objective standard for judging opinions is whether or not they are useful.

From another post, one more question from Peter:

I also see that it [ICCF-21} is not organized by Darden – why?

At ICCF-20, Industrial Heat had agreed to support ICCF-21, to be held in North Carolina. However, as Rossi v. Darden was heating up, they decided that they could not maintain that commitment. David Nagel and Steve Katinsky took on the organizational task, and IH did support them. Darden was the keynote speaker. Industrial Heat is still actively supporting LENR research. So the Conference was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, on the campus of Colorado State University. ICCF-22 is planned to be in Slovenia, organized by Bill Collis.

NASA

This is a subpage of Widom-Larsen theory/Reactions

On New Energy Times, “Third Party References” to W-L theory include two connected with NASA, by Dennis Bushnell (2008) [slide 37] and J. M. Zawodny (2009) (slide 12, date is October 19, 2010, not 2009 as shown by Krivit).

What can be seen in the Zawodny presentation is a researcher who is not familiar with LENR evidence, overall, nor with the broad scope of existing LENR theory, but who has accepted the straw man arguments of WL theorists and Krivit, about other theories, and who treats WL theory as truth without clear verification. NASA proceeded to put about $1 million into LENR research, with no publications coming out of it, at least not associated with WL theory. They did file a patent, and that will be another story.

By 2013, all was not well in the relationship between NASA and Larsen.

To summarize, NASA appears to have spent about a million dollars looking into Widom-Larsen theory, and did not find it adequate for their purposes, nor did they develop, it seems, publishable data in support (or in disconfirmation) of the theory. In 2012, they were still bullish on the idea, but apparently out of steam. Krivit turns this into a conspiracy to deprive Lattice Energy of profit from their “proprietary technology,” which Lattice had not disclosed to NASA. I doubt there is any such technology of any significant value.

NASA’s LENR Article “Nuclear Reactor in Your Basement”

[NET linked to that article, and also to another copy. They are dead links, like many old NET links; NET has moved or removed many pages it cites, and the search function does not find them. But this page, I found with Google on phys.org. 

Now, in the Feb. 12, 2013, article, NASA suggests that it does not understand the Widom-Larsen theory well. However, Larsen spent significant time training Zawodny on it. Zawodny also understood the theory well enough to be a co-author on a chapter about the Widom-Larsen theory in the 2011 Wiley Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia. He understood it well enough to give a detailed, technical presentation on it at NASA’s Glenn Research Center on Sept. 22, 2011.

It simply does not occur to Krivit that perhaps NASA found the theory useless. Zawodny was a newcomer to LENR, it’s obvious. Krivit was managing that Wiley encyclopedia. The “technical presentation” linked contains numerous errors that someone familiar with the field would be unlikely to make — unless they were careless. For example, Pons and Fleischmann did not claim “2H + 2H -> 4He.” Zawodny notes that high electric fields will be required for electrons “heavy” enough to form neutrons, but misses that these must operate over unphysical distances, for an unphysical accumulation of energy, and misses all the observable consequences.

In general, as we can see from early reactions to WL Theory, simply to review and understand a paper like those of Widom and Larsen requires study and time, in addition to the followup work to confirm a new theory. WL theory was designed by a physicist (Widom, Larsen is not a physicist but an entrepreneur) to seem plausible on casual review.

To actually understand the theory and its viability, one needs expertise in two fields: physics and the experimental findings in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (mostly chemistry). That combination is not common. So a physicist can look at the theory papers and think, “plausible,” but not see the discrepancies, which are massive, with the experimental evidence. They will only see the “hits,” i.e., as a great example, the plot showing correspondence between WL prediction and Miley data. They will not know that (1) Miley’s results are unconfirmed (2) they will not realize that other theories might make similar predictions. Physicists may be thrilled to have a LENR theory that is “not fusion,” not noticing that WL theory actually requires higher energies than are needed for ordinary hot fusion.

Also from the page cited:

New Energy Times spoke with Larsen on Feb. 21, 2013, to learn more about what happened with NASA.

“Zawodny contacted me in mid-2008 and said he wanted to learn about the theory,” Larsen said. “He also dangled a carrot in front of me and said that NASA might be able to offer funding as well as give us their Good Housekeeping seal of approval.

Larsen has, for years, been attempting to position himself as a consultant on all things LENR. It wouldn’t take much to attract Larsen.

“So I tutored Zawodny for about half a year and taught him the basics. I did not teach him how to implement the theory to create heat, but I offered to teach them how to use it to make transmutations because technical information about reliable heat production is part of our proprietary know-how.

Others have claimed that Larsen is not hiding stuff. That is obviously false. What is effectively admitted here is that WL theory does not provide enough guidance to create heat, which is the main known effect in LENR, the most widely confirmed. Larsen was oh-so-quick to identify fraud with Rossi, but not fast enough — or too greedy — to consider it possible with Larsen. Larsen was claiming Lattice Energy was ready to produce practical devices for heat in 2003. He mentioned “patent pending, high-temperature electrode designs,” and “proprietary heat sources.” Here is the patent, perhaps. It does not mention heat nor any nuclear effect. Notice that if a patent does not provide adequate information to allow constructing a working device, it’s invalid. The patent referred to a prior Miley patent. first filed in 1997, which does mention transmutation. Both patents reference Patterson patents from as far back as 1990. There is another Miley patent filed in 2001 that has been assigned to Lattice.

“But then, on Jan. 22, 2009, Zawodny called me up. He said, ‘Sorry, bad news, we’re not going to be able to offer you any funding, but you’re welcome to advise us for free. We’re planning to conduct some experiments in-house in the next three to six months and publish them.’

“I asked Zawodny, ‘What are the objectives of the experiments?’ He answered, ‘We want to demonstrate excess heat.’

I remember that this is hearsay. However, it’s plausible. NASA would not be interested in transmutations, but rather has a declared interest in LENR for heat production for space missions. WL Theory made for decent cover (though it didn’t work, NASA still took flak for supporting Bad Science), but it provides no guidance — at all — for creating reliable effects. It simply attempts to “explain” known effects, in ways that create even more mysteries.

“I told Zawodny, ‘At this point, we’re not doing anything for free. I told you in the beginning that all I was going to do was teach you the basic physics and, if you wish, teach you how to make transmutations every time, but not how to design and fabricate LENR devices that would reliably make excess heat.’

And if Larsen knew how to do that, and could demonstrate it, there are investors lined up with easily a hundred million dollars to throw at it. What I’m reasonably sure of is that those investors have already looked at Lattice and concluded that there is no there there. Can Larsen show how to make transmutations every time? Maybe. That is not so difficult, though still not a slam-dunk.

“About six to nine months later, in mid-2009, Zawodny called me up and said, ‘Lew, you didn’t teach us how to implement this.’ To my amazement, he was still trying to get me to tell him how to reliably make excess heat.

See, Zawodny was interested in heat from the beginning, and the transmutation aspect of WL Theory was a side-issue. Krivit has presented WL Theory as a “non-fusion” explanation for LENR, and the interest in LENR, including Krivit’s interest, was about heat, consider the name of his blog (“New Energy”). But the WL papers hardly mention heat. Transmutations are generally a detail in LENR, the main reaction clearly makes heat and helium and very few transmuted elements by comparison. In the fourth WL paper, there is mention of heat, and in the conclusion, there is mention of “energy-producing devices.”

From a technological perspective, we note that energy must first be put into a given metallic hydride system in order to renormalize electron masses and reach the critical threshold values at which neutron production can occur.

This rules out gas-loading, where there is no input energy. This is entirely aside from the problem that neutron production requires very high energies, higher than hot fusion initiation energies.

Net excess energy, actually released and observed at the physical device level, is the result of a complex interplay between the percentage of total surface area having micron-scale E and B field strengths high enough to create neutrons and elemental isotopic composition of near-surface target nuclei exposed to local fluxes of readily captured ultra low momentum neutrons. In many respects, low temperature and pressure low energy nuclear reactions in condensed matter systems resemble r- and
s-process nucleosynthetic reactions in stars. Lastly, successful fabrication and operation of long lasting energy producing devices with high percentages of nuclear active surface areas will require nanoscale control over surface composition, geometry and local field strengths.

The situation is even worse with deuterium. This piece of the original W-L paper should have been seen as a red flag:

Since each deuterium electron capture yields two ultra low momentum neutrons, the nuclear catalytic reactions are somewhat more efficient for the case of deuterium.

The basic physics here is simple and easy to understand. Reactions can, in theory, run in reverse, and the energy that is released from fusion or fission is the same as the energy required to create the opposite effect, that’s a basic law of thermodynamics, I term “path independence.” So the energy that must be input to create a neutron from a proton and an electron is the same energy as is released from ordinary neutron decay (neutrons being unstable with a 15 minute half-life, decaying to a proton, electron, and a neutrino. Forget about the neutrino unless you want the real nitty gritty. The neutrino is not needed for the reverse reaction, apparently). 781 KeV.

Likewise, the fusion of a proton and a neutron to make a deuteron releases a prompt gamma ray at 2.22 MeV. So to fission the deuteron back to a proton and a neutron requires energy input of 2.22 MeV, and then to convert the proton to another neutron requires another 0.78 MeV, so the total energy required is 3.00 MeV. What Widom and Larsen did was neglect the binding energy of the deuteron, a basic error in basic physics, and I haven’t seen that this has been caught by anyone else. But it’s so obvious, once seen, that I’m surprised and I will be looking for it.

Bottom line, then, WL theory fails badly with pure deuterium fuel and thus is not an explanation for the FP Heat Effect, the most common and most widely confirmed LENR. Again, the word “hoax” comes to mind. Larsen went on:

I said, ‘Joe, I’m not that stupid. I told you before, I’m only going to teach you the basics, and I’m not going to teach you how to make heat. Nothing’s changed. What did you expect?’”

Maybe he expected not to be treated like a mushroom.

Larsen told New Energy Times that NASA’s stated intent to prove his theory is not consistent with its behavior since then.

Many government scientists were excited by WL Theory. As a supposed “not fusion” theory, it appeared to sidestep the mainstream objection to “cold fusion.” So, yes, NASA wanted to test the theory (“prove” is not a word used commonly by scientists), because if it could be validated, funding floodgates might open. That did not happen. NASA spent about a million dollars and came up with, apparently, practically nothing.

“Not only is there published experimental data that spans one hundred years which supports our theory,” Larsen said, “but if NASA does experiments that produce excess heat, that data will tell them nothing about our theory, but a transmutation experiment, on the other hand, will.

Ah, I will use that image from NET again:

Transmutations have been reported since very early after the FP announcement, and they reported, in fact, tritum and helium, though not convincingly. With one possible exception I will be looking at later, transmutation has never been correlated with heat. (nor has tritium, only helium has been found and confirmed to be correlated). Finding low levels of transmuted products has often gotten LENR researchers excited, but this has never been able to overcome common skepticism. Only helium, through correlation with heat, has been able to do that (when skeptics took the time to study the evidence, and most won’t.)

Finding some transmutations would not prove WL theory. First of all, it is possible that there is more than one LENR effect (and, as “effect” might be described, it is clear there is more than one). Secondly, other theories also provide transmutation pathways.

“The theory says that ultra-low-momentum neutrons are produced and captured and you make transmutation products. Although heat can be a product of transmutations, by itself it’s not a direct confirmation of our theory. But, in fact, they weren’t interested in doing transmutations; they were only interested in commercially relevant information related to heat production.

Heat is palpable, transmutations are not necessarily so. As well, the analytical work to study transmutations is expensive. Why would NASA invest money in verifying transmutation products, if not in association with heat? From the levels of transmutations found and the likely precursors, heat should be predictable. No, Larsen was looking out for his own business interests, and he can “sell” transmutation with little risk. Selling heat could be much riskier, if he doesn’t actually have a technology. Correlations would be a direct confirmation, far more powerful than the anecdotal evidence alleged. At this point, there is no experimental confirmation of WL theory, in spite of it having been published in 2005. The neutron report cited by Widom in one of his “refutations” — and he was a co-author of that report — actually contradicts WL Theory.

Of course, that report could be showing that some of the neutrons are not ultra-low momentum, and some could then escape the heavy electron patch, but the same, then, would cause prompt gammas to be detected, in addition to the other problem that is solved-by-ignoring-it: delayed gammas from radioactive transmuted isotopes. WL Theory is a house of cards that actually never stood, but it seemed like a good idea at the time! Larsen continued:

“What proves that is that NASA filed a competing patent on top of ours in March 2010, with Zawodny as the inventor.

The NASA initial patent application is clear about the underlying concept (Larsen’s) and the intentions of NASA. Line [25] from NASA’s patent application says, “Once established, SPP [surface plasmon polariton] resonance will be self-sustaining so that large power output-to-input ratios will be possible from [the] device.” This shows that the art embodied in this patent application is aimed toward securing intellectual property rights on LENR heat production.

The Zawodny patent actually is classified as a “fusion reactor.” It cites the Larsen patent described below.

See A. Windom [sic] et al. “Ultra Low Momentum Neutron Catalyzed Nuclear Reactions on Metallic Hydride Surface,” European Physical Journal C-Particles and Fields, 46, pp. 107-112, 2006, and U.S. Pat. No. 7,893,414 issued to Larsen et al. Unfortunately, such heavy electron production has only occurred in small random regions or patches of sample materials/devices. In terms of energy generation or gamma ray shielding, this limits the predictability and effectiveness of the device. Further, random-patch heavy electron production limits the amount of positive net energy that is produced to limit the efficiency of the device in an energy generation application.

They noticed. This patent is not the same as the Larsen patent. It looks like Zawodny may have invented a tweak, possibly necesssary for commercial power production.

The Larsen patent was granted in 2011, but was filed in 2006, and is for a gamma shield, which is apparently vaporware, as Larsen later admitted it couldn’t be tested.

I don’t see that Larsen has patented a heat-producing device.

“NASA is not behaving like a government agency that is trying to pursue basic science research for the public good. They’re acting like a commercial competitor,” Larsen said. “This becomes even more obvious when you consider that, in August 2012, a report surfaced revealing that NASA and Boeing were jointly looking at LENRs for space propulsion.” [See New Energy Times article “Boeing and NASA Look at LENRs for Green-Powered Aircraft.”]

I’m so reminded of Rossi’s reaction to the investment of Industrial Heat in standard LENR research in 2015. It was intolerable, allegedly supporting his “competitors.” In fact, in spite of efforts, Rossi was unable to find evidence that IH had shared Rossi secrets, and in hindsight, if Rossi actually had valuable secrets, he withheld them, violating the Agreement.

From NET coverage of the Boeing/NASA cooperation:

[Krivit had moved the page to make it accessible to subscribers only, to avoid “excessive” traffic, but the page was still available with a different URL. I archived it so that the link above won’t increase his traffic. It is a long document. If I find time, I will extract the pages of interest, PDF pages 38-40, 96-97]

The only questionable matter in the report is its mention of Leonardo Corp. and Defkalion as offering commercial LENR systems. In fact, the two companies have delivered no LENR technology. They have failed to provide any convincing scientific evidence and failed to show unambiguous demonstrations of their extraordinary claims. Click here to read New Energy Times’extensive original research and reporting on Andrea Rossi’s Leonardo Corp.

Defkalion is a Greek company that based its technology on Rossi’s claimed Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) technology . . . Because Rossi apparently has no real technology, Defkalion is unlikely to have any technology, either.

What is actually in the report:

Technology Status:
Multiple coherent theories that explain LENR exist which use the standard Quantum Electrodynamics & Quantum Chromodynamics model. The Widom-Larson(10) theory appears to have the best current understanding, but it is far from being fully validated and applied to current prototype testing. Limited testing is ongoing by NASA and private contractors of nickel-hydrogen LENR systems. Two commercial companies (Leonardo Corp. & Defkalion) are reported to be offering commercial LENR systems. Those systems are advertised to run for 6 months with a single fueling cycle. Although data exists on all of these systems, the current data in each case is lacking in either definition or 3rd party verification. Thus, the current TRL assessment is low.
In this study the SUGAR Team has assumed, for the purposes of technology planning and establishing system requirements that the LENR technology will work. We have not conducted an independent technology feasibility assessment. The technology plan contained in this section merely identifies the steps that would need to take place to develop a propulsion system for aviation that utilizes LENR technology.

This report was issued in May 2012. The description of Leonardo, Defkalion, and WL theory were appropriate for that time. At that point, there was substantial more evidence supporting heat from Leonardo and Defkalion, but no true independent verification. Defkalion vanished in a cloud of bad smell, Leonardo was found to be highly deceptive at best. And WL theory also has, as they point out, no “definition” — as to energy applications — n nor 3rd party verification.

Krivit’s articles on Rossi and Leonardo were partly based on innuendo and inference; they had little effect on investment in the Rossi technology, because of the obvious yellow-journalist slant. Industrial Heat decided that they needed to know for sure, and did what it took to become certain, investing about $20 million in the effort. They knew, full well, it was very high-risk, and considered the possibly payoff so high, and the benefits to the environment so large, as to be worth that cost, even if it turned out that Rossi was a fraud. The claims were depressing LENR investment. Because they took that risk, Woodford Fund then gave them an additional $50 million for LENR research, and much of current research has been supported by Industrial Heat. Krivit has almost entirely missed this story. As to clear evidence on Rossi, it became public with the lawsuit, Rossi v. Darden and we have extensive coverage on that here. Krivit was right that Rossi was a fraud . . . but it is very different to claim that from appearances and to actually show it with evidence.

In the Feb. 12, 2013, NASA article, the author, Silberg, said, “But solving that problem can wait until the theory is better understood.”

He quoted Zawodny, who said, “’From my perspective, this is still a physics experiment. I’m interested in understanding whether the phenomenon is real, what it’s all about. Then the next step is to develop the rules for engineering. Once you have that, I’m going to let the engineers have all the fun.’”

In the article, Silberg said that, if the Widom-Larsen theory is shown to be correct, resources to support the necessary technological breakthroughs will come flooding in.

“’All we really need is that one bit of irrefutable, reproducible proof that we have a system that works,’ Zawodny said. ‘As soon as you have that, everybody is going to throw their assets at it. And then I want to buy one of these things and put it in my house.’”

Actually, what everyone says is that if anyone can show a reliable heat-producing device, that is independently confirmed, investment will pour in, and that’s obvious. With or without a “correct theory.” A plausible theory was simply nice cover to support some level of preliminary research. NASA was in no way prepared to do what it would take to create those conditions. It might take a billion dollars, unless money is spent with high efficiency, and pursuing a theory that falls apart when examined in detail was not efficient, at all.  NASA was led down the rosy path by Widom and Larsen and the pretense of “standard physics.” In fact, the NASA/Boeing report was far more sophisticated, pointing out other theories:

Multiple coherent theories that explain LENR exist which use the standard Quantum Electrodynamics & Quantum Chromodynamics model

As an example, Takahashi’s TSC theory. This is actually standard physics, as well, more so than WL theory, but is incomplete. No LENR theory is complete at this time.

There is one theory, I call it a Conjecture, that in the FP Heat Effect, deuterium is being converted to helium, mechanism unknown. This has extensive confirmed experimental evidence behind it, and is being supported by further research to improve precision,. It’s well enough funded, it appears.

Back on Jan. 12, 2012, NASA published a short promotional video in which it tried to tell the public that it thought of the idea behind Larsen and Widom’s theory, but it did not mention Widom and Larsen or their theory. At the time, New Energy Times sent an e-mail to Zawodny and asked him why he did not attribute the idea to Widom and Larsen.

“The intended audience is not interested in that level of detail,” Zawodny wrote.

The video was far outside the capacity of present technology, but treats LENR as a done deal, proven to produce clean energy. That’s hype, but Krivit’s only complaint is that they did not credit Widom and Larsen for the theory used. As if they own physics. After all, if that’s standard physics . . . .

(See our articles “LENR Gold Rush Begins — at NASA” and “NASA and Widom-Larsen Theory: Inside Story” for more details.)

The Gold Rush story tells the same tale of woe, implying that NASA scientists are motivated by the pursuit of wealth, whereas, in fact, the Zawodny patent simply protects the U.S. government.

The only thing that is clear is that NASA tries to attract funding to develop LENR. So does Larsen. It has massive physical and human resources. He is a small businessman and has the trade secret. Interesting times lie ahead.

I see no sign that they are continuing to seek funding. They were funded to do limited research. They found nothing worth publishing, apparently. Now, Krivit claims that Larsen has a “trade secret.” Remember, this is about heat, not transmutations. By the standards Krivit followed with Rossi, Larsen’s technology is bullshit. Krivit became a more embarrassing flack for Larsen than Mats Lewan became for Rossi. Why did he ask Zawodny why he didn’t credit Widom and Larsen for the physics in that video? It’s obvious. He’s serving as a public relations officer for Lattice Energy. Widom is the physics front. Krivit talks about a gold rush at NASA. How about at New Energy Times and with Widom, a “member” of Lattice Energy, and a named inventor in the useless gamma shield patent.

NASA started telling the truth about the theory, that it’s not developed and unproven. Quoted on the Gold Rush page:

“Theories to explain the phenomenon have emerged,” Zawodny wrote, “but the majority have relied on flawed or new physics.

Not only did he fail to mention the Widom-Larsen theory, but he wrote that “a proven theory for the physics of LENR is required before the engineering of power systems can continue.”

Shocking. How dare they imply there is no proven theory? The other page, “Inside Story,” is highly repetitive. Given that Zadodny refused an interview, the “inside story” is told by Larsen.

In the May 23, 2012, video from NASA, Zawodny states that he and NASA are trying to perform a physics experiment to confirm the Widom-Larsen theory. He mentions nothing about the laboratory work that NASA may have performed in August 2011. Larsen told New Energy Times his opinion about this new video.

“NASA’s implication that their claimed experimental work or plans for such work might be in any way a definitive test of the Widom-Larsen theory is nonsense,” Larsen said.

It would be the first independent confirmation, if the test succeeded. Would it be “definitive”? Unlikely. That’s really difficult. Widom-Larsen theory is actually quite vague. It posits reactions that are hidden, gamma rays that are totally absorbed by transient heavy electron patches, which, by the way, would need to handle 2.2 MeV photons from the fusion of a neutron with a proton to form deuterium. But these patches are fleeting, so they can’t be tested. I have not seen specific proposed tests in WL papers. Larsen wanted them to test for transmutations, but transmutations at low levels are not definitive without much more work.  What NASA wanted to see was heat, and presumably heat correlated with nuclear products.

“The moment NASA filed a competing patent, it disqualified itself as a credible independent evaluator of the Widom-Larsen theory,” he said. “Lattice Energy is a small, privately held company in Chicago funded by insiders and two angel investors, and we have proprietary knowledge.

Not exactly. Sure, that would be a concern, except that this was a governmental patent, and was for a modification to the Larsen patent intended to create more reliable heat. Consider this: Larsen and Widom both have a financial interest in Lattice Energy, and so are not neutral parties in explaining the physics. If NASA found confirmation of LENR using a Widom-Larsen approach (I’m not sure what that would mean), it would definitely be credible! If they did not confirm, this would be quite like hundreds of negative studies in LENR. Nothing particularly new. Such never prove that an original report was wrong.

Cirillo, with Widom as co-author, claimed the detection of neutrons. Does Widom as a co-author discredit that report? To a degree, yes. (But the report did not mention Widom-Larsen theory.) Was that work supported by Lattice Energy?

“NASA offered us nothing, and now, backed by the nearly unlimited resources of the federal government, NASA is clearly eager to get into the LENR business any way it can.”

Nope. They spent about a million dollars, it appears, and filed a patent to protect that investment. There are no signs that they intend to spend more at this point.

New Energy Times asked Larsen for his thoughts about the potential outcome of any NASA experiment to test the theory, assuming details are ever released.

“NASA is behaving no differently than a private-sector commercial competitor,” Larsen said. “If NASA were a private-sector company, why would anyone believe anything that it says about a competitor?”

NASA’s behavior here does not remotely resemble a commercial actor. Notice that when NASA personnel said nice things about W-L theory, Krivit was eager to hype it. And when they merely hinted that the theory was just that, a theory, and unproven, suddenly their credibility is called into question.

Krivit is transparent.

Does he really think that if NASA found a working technology, ready to develop for their space flight applications, they would hide it because of “commercial” concerns. Ironically, the one who is openly concealing technology, if he isn’t simply lying, is Larsen. He has the right to do that, as Rossi had the right. Either one or both were lying, though. There is no gamma shield technology, but Larsen used the “proprietary” excuse to avoid disclosing evidence to Richard Garwin. And Krivit reframed that to make it appear that Garwin approved of WL Theory.

 

Let’s Move the Needle with our Core Competencies

This post was inspired by Cole Schafer, a professional copy writer, and it shows.

We don’t need everyone to buy in , but if we open the kimono, we can attract a few good men. Ahem, scientists, people.

Empower the community with this bleeding edge technology, instead of drinking the Kool-Aid, that Rossi or Widom-Larsen will save us.

Put out some feelers and develop our human capital!

LENR has lots of moving parts, so, double-checking, get our ducks in a row, stop working in silos, and accept that it’s just business!

If we each give 110%, we will . . .

Take a nap, that’s my idea. Whew!

110%, 24/7! Let me sit down. I just cleaned up much of my office.

(more…)

Explanation

This is a subpage of Widom-Larsen theory

Steve Krivit’s summary:

1. Creation of Heavy Electrons   
Electromagnetic radiation in LENR cells, along with collective effects, creates a heavy surface plasmon polariton (SPP) electron from a sea of SPP electrons.

Part of the hoax involves confusion over “heavy electrons.” The term refers to renormalization of mass, based on the behavior of electrons user some conditions which can be conceived “as if” they are heavier. There is no gain in rest mass, apparently. That “heavy electrons” can exist, in some sense or other, is not controversial. The question is “how heavy”? We will look at that. In explanations of this, proponents of W-L theory point to evidence of intense electric fields under some conditions, one figure given was 1011 volts per meter. That certainly sounds like a lot, but … that field strength exists over what distance? To transfer the energy to an electron, it would be accelerated by the field over a distance, and that would give it a “mass” of 1011 electron volts per meter, but the fields described exist only for very short distances. The lattice constant with palladium is under 4 Angstroms or 4 x 10-10 meter.  So a field of 1011 volts/meter  would give mass (energy) of under 40 electron volts per lattice constant.

Generally , this problem is denied by claiming that there is some collective effect where many electrons give up some of their energy to a single electron. This kind of energy collection is a violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, applying to large systems. The reverse, large energy carried by one electron being distributed to many electrons, is normal.

The energy needed to create a neutron is the same as the energy released in neutron decay, i.e., 781 Kev, which is far more than the energy needed to “overcome the Coulomb barrier.” If that energy could be collected in a single particle, then ordinary fusion would be easy to come by. However, this is not happening.

2. Creation of ULM Neutrons  
An electron and a proton combine, through inverse beta decay, into an ultra-low-momentum (ULM) neutron and a neutrino.

Neutrons have a short half-life, and undergo beta decay, as mentioned below, so they are calling this “inverse beta decay,” though the more common term is “electron capture.” What is described is a form of electron capture, of the electron by a proton. By terming the electron “heavy,” they perhaps imagine it could have an orbit closer to the nucleus, I think, and thus more susceptible to capture. But the heavy electrons are “heavy” because of their momentum, which will cause many other effects that are not observed. They are not “heavy” as muons are heavy, i.e., higher rest mass. High mass will be associated with high momentum, hence high velocity, not at all allowing electron capture.

The energy released from neutron decay is 781 KeV. So the “heavy electron” would need to collect energy across a field that large, i.e., over about 20,000 lattice constants, roughly 8 microns. Now, if you have any experience with high voltage: what would you expect would happen long before that total field would be reached? Yes. ZAAP!

Remember, these are surface phenomena being described, on the surface of a good conductor, and possibly immersed in an electrolyte, also a decent conductor. High field strength can exist, perhaps, very locally. In studies cited by Larsen, he refers to biological catalysis, which is a very, very local phenomenon where high field strength can exist for a very short distance, on the molecular scale, somewhat similar to the lattice constant for Pd, but a bit larger.

Why and how “ultra low momentum”? Because he says so? Momentum must be conserved, so what happens to the momentum of that “heavy electron?” These are questions I have that I will keep in mind as I look at explanations. In most of the explanations, such as those on New Energy Times, statements are made that avoid giving quantities, they are statements that can seem plausible, if we neglect the problems of magnitude or rate. It is with magnitude and rate that conflicts arise with “standard physics” and cold fusion. After all, even d-d fusion is not “impossible,” but is rate-limited. That is, there is an ordinary fusion rate at room temperature, but it’s very, very . . . very low — unless there are collective effects and it was the aim of Pons and Fleischmann, beginning their research, to see the effect of the condensed matter state on the Born–Oppenheimer approximation. (There are possible collective effects that do not violate the laws of thermodynamics.)

3. Capture of ULM Neutrons  
That ULM neutron is captured by a nearby nucleus, producing, through a chain of nuclear reactions, either a new, stable isotope or an isotope unstable to beta decay.

A free neutron outside of an atomic nucleus is unstable to beta decay; it has a half-life of approximately 13 minutes and decays into a proton, an electron and a neutrino.

If slow neutrons are created, expecially “ultra-slow,” they will be indeed captured, neutrons are absorbed freely by nuclei, some more easily than others. If the momentum is too high, they bounce. With very slow neutrons (“ultra low momentum”) the capture cross-section becomes very high for many elements, and many such reactions will occur (essentially, in a condensed matter environment, all the neutrons generated will be absorbed. The general result is an isotope with the same atomic number as the target (same number of protons, thus the same positive  charge on the nucleus), but one atomic mass unit heavier, because of the neutron. While some of these will be stable, many will not, and they would be expected to decay, with a characteristic half-lives.

Neutron capture on protons would be expected to generate a characteristic prompt gamma photon at 2.223 MeV. Otherwise the deuterium formed is stable. That such photons are not detected is explained by an ad hoc side-theory, that the heavy electron patches are highly absorbent of the photons. Other elements may produce delayed radiation, in particular gammas and electrons.

How these delayed emissions are absorbed, I have never seen W-L theorists explain.

From the Wikipedia article on Neutron activation analysis:

[An excited state is generated by the absorption of a neutron.] This excited state is unfavourable and the compound nucleus will almost instantaneously de-excite (transmutate) into a more stable configuration through the emission of a prompt particle and one or more characteristic prompt gamma photons. In most cases, this more stable configuration yields a radioactive nucleus. The newly formed radioactive nucleus now decays by the emission of both particles and one or more characteristic delayed gamma photons. This decay process is at a much slower rate than the initial de-excitation and is dependent on the unique half-life of the radioactive nucleus. These unique half-lives are dependent upon the particular radioactive species and can range from fractions of a second to several years. Once irradiated, the sample is left for a specific decay period, then placed into a detector, which will measure the nuclear decay according to either the emitted particles, or more commonly, the emitted gamma rays.

So, there will be a characteristic prompt gamma, and then delayed gammas and other particles, such as the electrons (beta particles) mentioned. Notice that if a proton is converted to a neutron by an electron, and then the neutron is absorbed by an element with atomic number of X, and mass M, the result is an increase M of one, and it stays at this mass (approximately) with the emission of the prompt gamma. Then if it beta-decays, the mass stays the same, but the neutron becomes a proton and so the atomic number becomes X + 1. The effect is fusion, as if the reaction were the fusion of X with a proton. So making neutrons is one way to cause elements to fuse, this could be called “electron catalysis.”

Yet it’s very important to Krivit to claim that this is not “fusion.” After all, isn’t fusion impossible at low temperatures? Not with an appropriate catalyst! (Muons are the best known and accepted possibility.)

4. Beta Decay Creation of New Elements and Isotopes  
When an unstable nucleus beta-decays, a neutron inside the nucleus decays into a proton, an energetic electron and a neutrino. The energetic electron released in a beta decay exits the nucleus and is detected as a beta particle. Because the number of protons in that nucleus has gone up by one, the atomic number has increased, creating a different element and transmutation product.

That’s correct as to the effect of neutron activation. Sometimes neutrons are considered to be element zero, mass one. So neutron activation is fusion with the element of mass zero. If there is electron capture with deuterium, this would form a di-neutron, which, if ultracold, might survive long enough for direct capture. If the capture is followed by a beta decay, then the result has been deuterium fusion.

In the graphic above, step 2 is listed twice: 2a depicts a normal hydrogen reaction, 2b depicts the same reaction with heavy hydrogen. All steps except the third are weak-interaction processes. Step 3, neutron capture, is a strong interaction but not a nuclear fusion process. (See “Neutron Capture Is Not the New Cold Fusion” in this special report.)

Very important to him, since, with the appearance of W-L theory, Krivit more or less made it his career, trashing all the other theorists and many of the researchers in the field, because of their “fusion theory,” often making “fusion” equivalent to “d-d fusion,” which is probably impossible. But fusion is a much more general term. It basically means the formation of heavier elements from lighter ones, and any process which does this is legitimately a “fusion process,” even if it may also have other names.

Given that the fundamental basis for the Widom-Larsen theory is weak-interaction neutron creation and subsequent neutron-catalyzed nuclear reactions, rather than the fusing of deuterons, the Coulomb barrier problem that exists with fusion is irrelevant in this four-step process.

Now, what is the evidence for weak-interaction neutron creation? What reactions would be predicted and what evidence would be seen, quantitatively? Yes, electron catalysis, which is what this amounts to, is one of a number of ways around the Coulomb barrier. This one involves the electron being captured into an intermediate product. Most electron capture theories have a quite different problem, than the Coulomb barrier problem, that other products would be expected that are not observed, and W-L theory is not an exception.

The most unusual and by far the most significant part of the Widom-Larsen process is step 1, the creation of the heavy electrons. Whereas many researchers in the past two decades have speculated on a generalized concept of an inverse beta decay that would produce either a real or virtual neutron, Widom and Larsen propose a specific mechanism that leads to the production of real ultra-low-momentum neutrons.

It is not the creation of heavy electrons, per se, that is “unusual,” it is that they must have an energy of 781 KeV. Notice that 100 KeV is quite enough to overcome the Coulomb barrier. (I forget the actual height of the barrier, but fusion occurs by tunnelling at much lower approach velocities). This avoidance of mentioning the quantity is typical for explanations of W-L theory.

ULM neutrons would produce very observable effects, and that’s hand-waved away.

The theory also proposes that lethal photon radiation (gamma radiation), normally associated with strong interactions, is internally converted into more-benign infrared (heat) radiation by electromagnetic interactions with heavy electrons. Again, for two decades, researchers have seen little or no gamma emissions from LENR experiments.

As critique of the theory mounted, as people started noticing the obvious, the explanation got even more devious. The claim is that the “heavy electron patches” absorb the gammas, and Lattice Energy (Larsen’s company) has patented this as a “gamma shield,” but then when the easy testability of such a shield, if it could really absorb all those gammas, was mentioned (originally by Richard Garwin), Larsen first claimed that experimental evidence was “proprietary,” and then, later pointed out that they could not be detected because the  patches were transient, pointing to the flashing spots in a SPAWAR IR video, which was totally bogus. (Consider imaging gammas, which was the proposal, moving parallel to the surface, close to it. Unless the patches are in wells, below the surface, they would be captured by a patch anywhere along the surface. No, more likely: Larsen was blowing smoke, avoiding a difficult question asked by Garwin. That’s certainly what Garwin thought. Once upon a time, Krivit reported that incident straight (because he was involved in the conversation. Later he reframed it, extracting a comment from Garwin, out of context, to make it look like Garwin approved of W-L theory.

 Richard Garwin (Physicist, designer of the first hydrogen bomb) – 2007: “…I didn’t say it was wrong

The linked page shows the actual conversation. This was far, far from an approval. The “I didn’t say” was literal, and Garwin points out that reading complex papers with understanding is difficult. In the collection of comments, there are many that are based on a quick review, not a detailed critique.

Perhaps the prompt gammas would be absorbed, though I find the idea of a 2 MeV photon being absorbed by a piddly patch, like a truck being stopped by running into a motorcycle, rather weird, and I’d think some would escape around the edges or down into and through the material. But what about the delayed gammas? The patches would be gone if they flash in and out of existence.

However, IANAP. I Am Not A Physicist. I just know a few. When physics gets deep, I am more or less in “If You Say So” territory. What do physicists say? That’s a lot more to the point here than what I say or what Steve Krivit says, or, for that matter, what Lewis Larson says. Widom is the physicist, Larson is the entrepreneur and money guy, if I’m correct. His all-but-degree was in biophysics.

ICCF 21 Gossip

I came across some LENR Forum discussions on ICCF-21 where I have some personal experience to recount. The full thread is here, but I’ll start this coverage with a post by THHuxleynew that mentions me.

As is common with a first draft, this is long. (more…)

McKubre

subpage of iccf-21/abstracts/review/

abstract

Slides: ICCF21 Main McKubre

introductory summary by Ruby Carat:

Michael McKubre followed up making a plea that “condensed matter nuclear science is anomalous no more!” He echoes Tom Darden’s sentiment that CMNS must be integrated into the mainstream of science.

“I needed to see it with my own eyes to believe that it was true”, says McKubre. “At the same time, cold fusion is reproduced somewhere on the planet every day. Verification has already happened. But self-censorship is a problem in the CMNS field. Are we guarding our secrets for fear that someone else might take credit? Yes.”

Michael McKubre with The Fleischmann Pons Heat and Ancillary Effects: What Do We Know, and Why? How Might We Proceed? (copy on ColdFusionNow, 74.16 MB)

Local copy on CFC: (1:02:32)

But energy is a primary problem and you must “collaborate, cooperate, and communicate”, McKubre says to the scientists in the room.

That’s been my message for years. . . . the three C’s.

McKubre thanked Jed Rothwell and Jean-Paul Biberian for all the work on lenr.org and the Journal of Condensed Matter Nuclear Science, respectively. Beyond that, the communication in the CMNS field is very poor and needs to be remedied.

He also supports a multi-laboratory approach where reproductions are conducted. Verification of this science has already occurred in the 90s, with the confirmation of tritium, and the heat-helium correlation. He believes that all the many variables must be correlated to move forward. Unfortunately, he believes the same thing he said in 1996, according to a Jed Rothwell article, that “acceptance of this field will only come about when a viable technology is achieved.”

To make progress, a procedure for replication must be codified, and a set of papers should be packaged for newbies to the field. A demonstration cell is third important effort to pursue.

Electrochemical PdD/LiOD is already proven, despite the problem with “electrochemisty”, and has not been demonstrated for >10 years. Energetics Technologies cell 64 a few years back gave 40 kJ input 1.14 MJ output, gain= 27.5 Sadly, the magic materials issue prevented replication.

“1 watt excess power is too small to convince a skeptic, and 100 Watts too hard (at least for electrochemistry)”, said McKubre. The goal is to create the heat effect at the lowest input power possible.

According to McKubre, Verification, Correlation, Replication, Demonstration, Utilization are the five marks of exploring and exploiting the FPHE.

Task for a learner/volunteer: transcribe the talk, key it to the minutes in the audio and to the slide deck.

I’m postponing major review until I have the text. I’ll have a lot to say (as he predicted!).

Beiting

subpage of iccf-21/abstracts/review/

DRAFT

My comments are in indented italics.

Abstract 1

Investigation of the Nickel-Hydrogen Anomalous Heat Effect

Edward J. Beiting
TrusTech, USA
(email redacted)

Experimental work was undertaken at The Aerospace Corporation to reproduce a specific
observation of the gas-phase Anomalous Heat Effect (aka LENR).[1] This task required the
production of a quantity of heat energy by a mass of material so small that the origin of the energy
cannot be attributable to a chemical process. The goal is to enhance its credibility by reproducing
results first demonstrated in Japan and later reproduced in the U.S. by a solitary investigator. The
technique heated nanometer-sized Ni:Pd particles (20:1 molar ratio) embedded in micron-sized
particles of an inert refractory of ZrO2. It was not within the purview of this work to investigate the
physical origin of the AHE effect or speculate on its source.

The goal was off from the beginning, stated as to “enhance its credibility.” That sets up an opportunity for confirmation bias. After all, engineers will keep working toward the goal until they reach it. Not speculating on the physical origin of anomalous energy, great, though speculating on possible artifacts would be completely in order, to test them and confirm or reject them.

An apparatus was built that comprised identical test and a reference heated cells. These thermally
isolated cells each contained two thermocouples and a 10 cm3 volume of ZrO2NiPd particles.

Calibration functions to infer thermal power from temperature were created by electrically heating
the filled cells with known powers when they were either evacuated or pressurized with 1 bar of N2.
During the experimental trial, the test cell was pressurized with hydrogen and the control cell was
pressurized with nitrogen.

An obvious problem: nitrogen and hydrogen have drastically different thermal conductivity. Calibration can be a major problem with hot hydrogen work. We will study how they did it. 

After conditioning the cells, both were heated to near 300°C for a period
of 1000 hours (40 days). During this period, the test cell registered 7.5% more power
(approximately 1 W) than the input power. The control cell measured approximately 0.05 W of
excess power. The error in the excess power measurement was ±0.05 W.

Time-integrating the excess power to obtain an excess energy and normalizing to the 20 gram mass
of the ZrO2NiPd sample yields a specific energy of 173 MJ/kg. Assuming that the active material is
the 5.44g of Ni+Pd yields a specific energy of 635 MJ/kg. For comparison, the highest specific
energy of a hydrocarbon fuel (methane) is 55.5 MJ/kg. The highest chemical specific energy listed
[see Energy Density in Wikipedia] is 142 MJ/kg for hydrogen compressed to 700 bar. Based on
these results, it is unlikely that the source of heat energy was chemical in origin.

So here he is speculating on the origin, or, specifically, what is not the origin. Integrating power to determine excess energy can be quite sensitive to some systematic artifact, error would accumulate. Again, there is a show of precision in the numbers. What would be a standard error calculation? In SRI presentation of the Case experiment, where integrated energy was plotted against helium measurements, the error bars grow very large as the experiment proceeds. That shows the issue. Without error calculations, based on actual data variance, the significance of the result may be unclear.

(images can be seen in the original abstract) The full report (which will be reviewed below):

[1] E. Beiting, “Investigation of the nickel-hydrogen anomalous heat effect,” Aerospace
Report No. ATR-2017-01760, The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo CA, USA, May 15, 2017.

Abstract 2

Generation of High-Temperature Samples and Calorimetric Measurement of Thermal Power for the
Study of Ni/H2 Exothermic Reactions

Edward J. Beiting, Dean Romein
TrusTech, USA
(email redacted)

Instrumentation developed to measure heat power from a high-temperature reactor for experimental
trials lasting several weeks is being applied to gas-phase Ni/H2 LENR. We developed a reactor that
can maintain and record temperatures in excess of 1200o C while monitoring pressures exceeding 7
bar. This reactor is inserted into a flowing-fluid calorimeter that allows both temperature rise and
flow rate of the cooling fluid to be redundantly measured by different physical principles. A
computerized data acquisition system was written to automate the collection of more than 20
physical parameters with simultaneous numerical and dual graphical displays comprising both a
strip chart and complete history of key parameters.

Redundant measures, too often neglected. Nice.

The water inlet and outlet temperatures of the calorimeter are simultaneously measured with
thermocouple, RTD, and thermistor sensors. The water flow is passed in series through two
calorimeters and a Hall-effect flow meter. The first calorimeter houses a resistance heater of known
input power, which allows the flow rate to be inferred from the heater power and water inlet and
outlet temperature difference. Careful calibration of this system produces a nominal accuracy and
precision of ±1 W.

“Nominal accuracy and precision.” I.e., not measured. Not so nice. Was this correctly stated? The full report claims XP on the order of 1 W. 

The reactor is constructed by tightly wrapping Kanthal wire around an alumina tube, which is
embedded in ceramic-fiber insulation (see Figures 1 and 2). The length of the alumina tube is
chosen so that its unheated end remains below 100o C when the interior volume of the heated end is
1300o C. During use the internal reactor temperature is inferred from two type-N thermocouples
fixed to the outside of the reactor using a previously made calibration that employed internal
thermocouples. Using external thermocouples have advantages: the thermocouple metals cannot
react with the reactants; the thermocouples are kept at lower temperatures (usually < 1000C)
increasing the thermocouple’s life and accuracy; no high pressure/vacuum feedthrough is required;
no high temperature electrical insulation isolating the thermocouple from the reactants is necessary.

The design gives me a headache, trying to understand the implications of that drastic temperature gradient across the length of the alumina tube. The reasons all sound good, but the road to a very hot place is paved with good reasons. We’ll see how this is handled in the report.

This instrumentation is being used to study the gas-phase anomalous heat effect (aka LENR) using
nickel and light hydrogen. Tests are being undertaken using both LiAlH4 and bottled H2 as the
source of hydrogen. The results from these tests will be presented with special emphasis on the
morphology and the cleaning of the surface of the nickel particles, absorption of hydrogen by the
nickel, and excess heat or lack thereof.

All techniques and data will be presented in sufficient detail to allow reproducibility. Nothing will
be deemed proprietary. Source code and documentation of the data acquisition software resulting
from a significant development effort will be distributed on request.

Great. I think the better term would be replicability, i.e., the same techniques could be used. But will anyone actually do this? Results, then, might be reproducible. But what results? At this point my impression is that there were two runs, the second of which is described. What’s the variation or reliability of the result?

That is impossible to determine from such a small sample set. At the risk of sounding like a broken record, one theme of the conference, certainly that of Mike McKubre and myself, was correlation, that much more is needed to progress the field than Yet Another Anecdote, which, so far, this study seems to amount to. Was it a replication? 

The first abstract has the goal as “reproducing results first demonstrated in Japan and later reproduced in the U.S. by a solitary investigator.” This would be a reference to Y. Arata and Y. C. Zhang, ‘Formation of Condensed Metallic Deuterium Lattice and Nuclear Fusion,” Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B, 2002 78(Ser. B), p. 57 2, on the one hand, and, on the other,  B. Ahern, “Program on Technology Innovation: Assessment of Novel Energy Production Mechanisms in a Nanoscale Metal Lattice,” EPRI Report 1025575, Technical Update, August 2012.

Crucial to experiments in this field is the exact material. See the review here of the similar work of the Japanese collaboration, lead author Akito Takahashi.

Arata used “ZrO2, · Pd powder . . .  as metal specimens constructed with nanometer-sized individual Pd particles embedded dispersively into ZrO2, matrix, which were made by annealing amorphous Zr65Pd35 alloy.” However, the paper cited shows a 10 W result, with a “DS-cathode,” which is a technique Arata used to generate very high deuterium pressure. (Confirmed by SRI, long story). This is a very different technique, using different material.

Ahern:

While several research reports from Europe by Piantelli et al. [16] had indicated significant thermal energy output from nanotextured nickel in the presence of hydrogen gas, similar tests conducted under
this EPRI research project produced only milliwatt-scale thermal power release. Based on experimental calorimetric calibrations, the amount of thermal power being produced was estimated to be about
100 milliwatts per degree C of elevation above the value of the outer resistance thermal device (RTD).

In one experiment, researchers used 10-nm nickel powder from Quantum Sphere Corp. The inner RTD was 208o C hotter than the outer RTD (533o C versus 325o C) and represents roughly ~ 21 watts from 5 grams of nanopowder, based on the calibration. The powder maintained this rate of thermal power output for a period of five days when it was terminated for evaluation. There was no sign of degradation of the power output. Researchers, however, were not able to replicate this final experiment due to limited project funding.

Anecdote. So, perhaps Beiting was trying to replicate that high-output experiment? No. And I see this over and over in the field. Promising avenues are abandoned because they still are not good enough, and researchers, instead of nailing down and confirming what has come before, want to try something new, perhaps hoping that some miracle will cause their experiment to melt down. (and if it does, they won’t be ready for it!)

Beiting was using “Ni:Pd particles (20:1 molar ratio) embedded in micron-sized
particles of an inert refractory of ZrO2.”  But that is not all that was in the mix. From the full report:

Because it was an internally funded modest program, the goal was not to create a research effort to study its origin but to demonstrate reproducibility of previous work. If demonstration was successful and convincing, the hope was that this work would stimulate a subsequent larger effort.

To this end, a review of the gas-phase AHE results was made when this project was initiated in 2013 to find
an observation likely to be reproduced. Three criteria were considered to increase probability of achieving
this goal: a complete description of material preparation was required; a simple triggering mechanism was desirable to reduce the experimental complexity; and at least one reproduction of the manifestation of
excess heat† of non-chemical origin using the method should be documented by an independent investigator. At the time of this survey, only the work by Arata and Zhang [4] in Japan as reproduced by Ahern [5] in the United States met these three requirements.‡

Only to someone naive about the history of LENR research. Experiments which are vaguely similiar are often considered “confirmations.” There is commonly a lack of extended experimental sets with a single variable. The Takahashi ICCF-21 report barely begins to address this, in parts. Not realizing the danger, Beiting bet the farm on a new and unconfirmed approach. My emphasis:

This method employs a simple heat-triggering mechanism on a powder of micron-sized particles of ZrO2 imbedded with nanometer-sized particles of a nickel (with a small admixture of palladium). The active material used in the work presented in this report differs from that of Refs. [4] and [5] by the addition of magnetic particles. This addition was made with the desire of increasing the probability of observing excess energy, based on reports by other investigators [6] and the initial experimental trial in this work. Other than these additional particles, the material used here was identical to that used by Refs. [4] and [5].

Sounds like multiple reports, eh? No, this was one paper by one working group, a private company, led by Mitchell Swartz, using a proprietary device, the NANOR. And they did not use ground-up magnets. I’ll come back to that.

The Arata and Zhang report experiment was  not heat-triggered, and Ahern was not a replication of it. There were similarities, that’s all.

Ref 6 was  M. Swartz, G. Verner, J. Tolleson, L. Wright, R. Goldbaum, and P. Hagelstein, “Amplification and Restoration of Energy Gain Using Fractionated Magnetic Fields on ZrO2-PdD Nanostructured Components,” J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15, 66-80 (2015). Exactly what was found from the “fractionated magnetic fields” isn’t clearly presented, but the authors were obviously impressed. (Only two DC field data points with an effect are shown). Beiting did not do what they did, though! 

In this case, it was discovered that high intensity, dynamic, repeatedly fractionated magnetic fields have a major, significant and unique synchronous amplification effect on the preloaded NANOR®-type LANR device under several conditions of operation.

No details were given, only vague hints. This must be proprietary information, not surprising for a commercial effort. I have no idea what “fractionated magnetic field” means. Much Swartz language is idiosyncratic. Google finds only the JCMNS article for the term.

The Beiting experiment was one-off, not replication. That is unfortunate, because the relatively weak results cannot then be strengthened by other reports. The original goal seems to have been lost in the shuffle. 

I will continue study of the actual Beiting report, but am publishing this today as a draft, based on the abstracts and the single issue from the report about what the work was intended to confirm.

Yes, Virgina, there is a cabal

A link to this was posted here, and I didn’t see it until recently. By itself, this is only a rant of a disturbed fanatic skeptic, who is known to lie, but there are breadcrumbs, pieces that fit together over time, and this comment caused the picture to pop into view. I wrote in 2009, there is a cabal, presented evidence of de-facto coordinated editing on Wikipedia, by a faction. I did not claim that this violated policy, in itself, but the effect was a warping of Wikipedia process, and I wanted ArbComm to look at that. Unfortunately, ArbComm was infected by the cabal or the cabal point of view.

The cabal uses attack dogs to create a cloud of confusion that allows others to intervene to “prevent disruption,” blaming the target and the dogs, and the dogs don’t care, because there is an endless supply of dogs, a dog can be created from any non-blocked IP.


Image and video hosting by TinyPic

From later research and evidence, this was Darryl L. Smith. The story matches information from his twin brother, Oliver D. Smith.

The care and feeding of the Troll

Trolls, by definition, provoke, they “troll” for outrage. Their goal is to provoke their targets into sticking their feet in their mouths. Some people are complete suckers for this, because when “someone is wrong on the internet,” they must reply. There is a point to that, if what is being said is misleading on a matter of importance, but a skilled troll will work our “defender of truth” into such a froth that their responses become gibberish.

Kirk Shanahan — and certain other writers on LENR Forum — is a troll, among other roles. He also happens to be the last published significant skeptic on LENR, and some of his arguments are at least plausible. Yet when he joined LF, his second post was hyperskeptical trolling.

In reply to Jed R.:

No, F&P drew down the ire of the scientific world because they claimed to have found a way to “infinite energy”, but no one could reproduce it except by random chance.  […]

For the record, I believ they found a real effect, it just has nothing to do with nuclear reactions.

This was poking Rothwell. Shanahan would know, very well, how Jed would respond. Fleischmann and Pons did not claim to have found a way to “infinite energy.” The comment that no one could reproduce it (the experiment) except by random chance contradicts the “belief” he claimed. He’s not a scientist at heart, he forms beliefs without experimental confirmation — he wants everyone else to do the experiments and takes no responsibility for making them happen.

He is referring to an anomaly, unexpected “ATER,” At the electrode recombination. He ascribes an almost magical ability for ATER to fool electrochemists, without ATER ever having been demonstrated — other than by Shanahan’s legerdemain with calorimetric results, ignoring contrary evidence, etc. He is making an extraordinary claim but not providing extraordinary evidence, exactly what he accuses LENR researchers of doing. Yet there is extraordinary evidence for LENR, but it is still common that scientists are unaware of it.

And at the same time, many assume that if such evidence were discovered, surely it would be all over the news.

In any case, the occasion for my comment today is a flame war that arose on LENR Forum between Shanahan and others, most notably the very same Jed Rothwell that he poked in 2016. Some authors on LF have the bad habit of claiming that others said something really dumb, and don’t link to it. Then, when they person claims not to have said that, they claim the person is lying. Pushed, they go back and find quotes, and again, sometimes, still don’t link. The quotes don’t match what they had earlier claimed, but the quoter claims, then, that there were other comments they couldn’t find. And then the two call each other liars.

This is at least one person not knowing how to defuse stupid arguments . . . or someone really is lying or, on the other side, gaslighting, and possibly some combination. The moderators have been AWOL or have given up on these trolls or, on the other side, “dedicated believers.”

A thread was started by Rothwell on the Beiting report, which is certainly of interest. Shanahan looked at it, giving some initial concerns about the precision of the calorimetry. I intend to eventually cover the Beiting report, and at that time will study Shanahan’s objections. Rothwell attacks it with a superficial comment.

If there were an 8% shift, as Shanahan claims, much of the test shown on p. 20, the calibration runs, and the control runs would be endothermic. They would be swallowing up megajoules of heat. It would be a fantastic coincidence that the calibrations fell exactly on the zero line. This is impossible. Shanahan has a rare talent for inventing impossible physics.

For starters. Shanahan did not claim an “8% shift.” Jed does not read carefully. (The 8% figure seems to have come from Zeus46, who is also piling on Shanahan. Shanahan is doing his classic analysis, looking for possible calibration error. He did not assert that there was one. Shanahan is talking math, Rothwell is talking ad hominem. He writes:

Beiting has made a second, flow calorimeter that confirms the first one. Shanahan cannot explain this, either, except with his impossible hand-waving.

As far as is apparent, Shanahan has not begun “hand-waving.” He does that sometimes, but Rothwell is not responding to the real, present Shanahan actually writing in the thread.

I must say, Shanahan is learning to use forums. He skewers Rothwell, who had made an argument to authority. (I’m not claiming that Jed was wrong, but the claim he made was one easily set aside as unsupported. It is along the lines of believers in this or that making claims of support from “reputable professors.” It’s not necessarily wrong, but this is imitating the behavior of fanatic believers — or frauds. Pulling out and playing these cards in discussions with experienced skeptics is asking to be eviscerated.)

and the people at The Aerospace Corp. are world class. (See: http://www.aerospace.org/)

Out of curiosity, how do you measure that?

Rothwell misses the opportunity to respond with humor. The argument continues, ignoring the substance, misrepresenting what Shanahan has written in this thread. Jed is responding to older comments and ideas from Shanahan, not to the specifics here.

Shanahan’s hypothesis is even more unlikely because it is a magic problem that cannot be detected by calibration or any other test, and thus cannot be falsified.

I haven’t seen a hypothesis yet in this thread from Shanahan. He simply started to discuss the report and to consider calibrations. He has not actually asserted error, beyond this, about Beiting, but his focus by this time is Rothwell’s claim that the work must be good because Aerospace.

Shanahan had written:

He failed to compute the error of his calibration curve properly and he failed to take into account the proper chemistry in his sample prep and subsequent experimentation. There might be more if I study the paper more, but what I’ve seen so far is enough to class his efforts as ‘typical so-so CF community work’. And that isn’t ‘world-class’. With regards to other Aerospace people, no idea, don’t care.

I don’t know yet if this is valid, and the discussion is continually diverted from fact and attempted analysis, to ad hominem arguments and accusations.

There was a comment from stefan which addressed the error problem. His conclusion: Beiting may have done it right but doesn’t show this.

Back to Rothwell, and my emphasis on claims about what Shanahan allegedly claimed in the past (my emphasis below)

It only happens when there is a particular choice of metal, which cannot affect the calorimetry. There can be no physical explanation for such a thing. It resembles his claims that people cannot feel an object is hot by sense of touch, or a 1-liter object will remain hot for three days with no input power, or that a bucket of water left in a room will magically evaporate overnight. In other words, once again he makes claims that anyone should instantly recognize are preposterous. I doubt he believes these claims. I suppose he is trolling us, or hoping to fool people such as seven_of_twenty who apparently cannot tell that Shanahan is spouting impossible nonsense.

Yes, anyone could recognize that. If Shanahan actually wrote those things. Did he? I’ve been following Shanahan for almost a decade and he just isn’t quite that stupid. He does speculate on Rube Goldberg explanations that are highly implausible. Sometimes. But I’ve never seen him make such claims, so, knowing Rothwell as well, I suspect that he has done some interpretation, shifting what Shanahan actually said, converting it to classic straw-man argument.

Shanahan wrote:

JedRothwell wrote:

It seems unlikely that such people overlooked a problem that Shanahan found in an hour or so.

That is the nature of systematic errors. Or lack of training.

Rothwell’s response:

Invisible systematic errors that cannot be detected with a calibration, or by any other physical test. Unfalsifiable errors. Metaphysical errors that you alone, in all the world, believe. Perhaps you are delusional. Surely you are an egomaniac who thinks he knows better than a team of experts who spent years on this experiment.

Either that or you are trolling us.

Rothwell is being grossly uncivil, and not addressing the actual points raised by Shanahan. If Shanahan is trolling, it’s working, Rothwell is looking obsessed. He’s reacting to a ghost, the ghost of Shanahan past, I suspect. More:

You are saying the experts at The Aerospace Corporation are incapable of understanding the issues.

This went on and one. Shanahan made one comment worth reading for itself, about “working in the noise.” He’s correct, in substance. However, he overstates his case and uses his own historical ideas far too strongly. His conclusion:

Accurately determining error levels is the only way to avoid working in the noise.

This is, in fact, often missing from even some of the best work.

THHuxley wrote a cogent analysis of the discussion.

Rothwell again brought up the alleged Shanahan idiocies:

No test will refute Shanahan and other extremists because their objections are irrational nonsense. Shanahan says that sense of touch cannot distinguish between an object at 100 deg C and room temperature. He says that a 1-liter hot object will remain hot for 3 days, and that a bucket of water will evaporate overnight when left in an ordinary room. People who believe such things have no common sense and no knowledge of science. No demonstration, no matter how convincing, will change their minds. (It is possible Shanahan does not actually believe these things and he is trolling us, but in that case we can say he will never admit he is wrong or engage in a scientific discussion.)

Again, I doubt that Shanahan ever said those things. He said something that Rothwell remembers as that, because of his own extreme response. Shanahan does not believe what Rothwell claims. And he keeps repeating it, though this is actually irrelevant to the subject discussion (the Beiting report).

Let me remind you again that Shanahan is on record repeatedly claiming that an object heated on Monday and left in a room at 20 deg C will still be hot on Wednesday. Anyone who says things like that has zero credibility, to 5 significant digits. If you believe anything he says about physics, you are a naive fool who will believe any fanatic who claims the world is flat or Einstein’s theories are wrong.

What I’m seeing here is that Rothwell doesn’t understand what is in front of his face, or that which is easily verified, so what about his understanding of more complex issues?

The fact is that when we become attached, each and every one of us becomes relatively stupid. Rothwell is attached to his opinions, strongly, and he has long formed highly judgmental opinions of others. About an author, a scientist, whose book convinced me that there was something worth looking at in cold fusion, Rothwell has proclaimed that he was the “stupidest person on earth.” I’m not mentioning the name because he normally goes ballistic if I whisper it, and it’s not a pretty sight.

Shanahan finally replies:

What Rothwell thinks I say is totally in his imagination.

I’d disagree. It is not “totally in his imagination,” but what Shanahan actually said was very likely quite different from what Jed claims. What Jed does is to infer a cockamamie belief and then assert the belief as being what the person said. Thus, for example, a speculation, a looking at possibilities or brainstorming them, becomes a belief. It’s a classic error when people are arguing from fixed positions, not seeking to find any agreement. Shanahan continues replying to earlier Rothwell comments:

Let me remind you again that Shanahan is on record repeatedly claiming that an object heated on Monday and left in a room at 20 deg C will still be hot on Wednesday.

To all— This is one of Jed’s perennial lies. He can’t document that if he tried. What it shows is a) his inability to follow a technical argument, and b) the extent he will go to to try to discredit a skeptic.

My emphasis. That was a direct challenge. Jed tries and fails, but doesn’t accept the failure, though it is totally obvious, thus missing the opportunity to clear this up. No, Shanahan did not say that. In attempting to maintain the discrediting of Shanahan, he makes many errors in describing both the original Mizuno report — what this is about — and Shanahan’s comments about it. The Beiting thread was thoroughly hijacked, the substance ignored.

seven of twenty, apparently a pseudoskeptical troll, finally confronted Rothwell over that same comment:

Where exactly did he write that? You on the other hand, clearly wrote some time ago that Rossi had to be right on “prime principles” or some such, remember? Shall I dig up the quote?

seven of twenty is very unlikely to be new. This is very old, and a favorite theme of a certain well-known pseudoskeptic. Rothwell replied:

He wrote it many times, such as here:

And Rothwell linked to his own posts, quoting from them as they quoted Shanahan. The quotes do not support the silly claim attributed to Shanahan. (Links would be much better than earlier quotations without a link to the original context, because context matters. Rothwell has been and is still being quite sloppy.

Quoting Shanahan: 

I granted this given that you are referring to when they disconnected it from the heaters that had heated it up to the point it was too hot to touch.

It is unclear why Rothwell quotes this. It certainly is not what was asked about.

again

[Rothwell:] The thermocouple installed in the cell registered over 100°C for the first fewdays.

[Shanahan:] Malfunction.

Notice that this does not confirm the claim about a cell heated on Monday still being hot on Wednesday. And there was more like this. Not what he claimed. What I’m seeing is that Rothwell is taking old speculations by Shanahan and turning them into affirmative statements that Rothwell thinks are implied. He’s losing on this one. But he’s sure he’s right and is not about to listen to anyone on this, as far as I’ve seen.

He then claims that Shanahan is gaslighting. But Shanahan has, on this point about what he said, simply been truthful, and if he set Rothwell up to make him look like an idiot, he’s succeeding. This isn’t gaslighting, though, as far as anything I’ve seen.

(Shanahan, for his part, also becomes obsessed, having been successfully trolled by Zeus46. Zeus46’s response actually looks like gaslighting. Ah, I’m reminded of why I was happy to be banned from LENR-Forum.)

Jed uses his stretched claim in argument with seven of twenty. First, about his own cited error:

Ah, but I retracted that, admitted I was wrong, and explained why. Do you see the difference? When I make a mistake, I admit it frankly, correct it, and move on. Shanahan has never admitted he made a mistake about anything.

Rothwell does admit errors on occasion. Shanahan has, as well. In this case, though, Shanahan is at least technically correct, and Rothwell obviously erred. As far as anything I’ve been able to find. The truth behind Rothwell’s claims is obscured by his insistence that he’d correctly quoted Shanahan, when he clearly did not.

The truth is that Shanahan engaged in a series of speculations as to how what he calls the Mizuno anomaly. As an example, “Malfunction” (of the thermocouple) is a speculation, obviously. If he’d been careful, he’d have put a question mark after it, because speculating on possible artifacts is Shanahan’s long-term interest. He does not claim it as a fact, and this is generally true of his position. Behind that, though, appears to be a conviction that he’s right and the cold fusion researchers are wrong. Or at least that they have not “proven” their claims.  Rothwell is reacting to Shanahan’s overall concept, and is erring in asserting that Shanahan said X, when, in fact, he said Y, which Rothwell interpreted as X. So Shanahan is correct, as to fact, and Rothwell refuses to admit the possibility and claims Shanahan is gaslighting. Rothwell went on:

Now then, do you agree with Shanahan that an object of this size once heated will remain hot the next day? And three days later? Are you with him on that? Because that is what he said. He said it again and again. He denies he said it it, then he says it again, then again denies he said it. He is gaslighting you. Do you agree with him that two adult chemists might not be able to feel the difference between an object at 100 deg C and one at room temperature?

What he asserts as an assumed fact is not Shananan’s position at all! Shanahan never said that such an object will stay hot. He speculates that (1) the thermocouple may have malfunctioned, and (2) seeing the thermocouple reading, Mizuno may have imagined heat, and, therefore, (3) the object may not have been hot.

He did not speculate that “two adult chemists might not be able to feel the difference.” Rather, what he wrote is actually possible, and it is not about inability, but about transient error. It can happen, especially if one is afraid, and Mizuno was afraid, that’s part of that story. Is it likely? No. In the full context, very, very unlikely. But Shanahan does not require that some proposed artifact be likely, and will stand on possibility until the cows come home. That’s to be rejected by any assessment that cares about the preponderance of the evidence. In the real world, decisions are made by preponderance, not by absolute proof that everything else is impossible.  Here is what Rothwell had quoted:

[Rothwell] “[snip] A thermocouple malfunction cannot cause a cell to be too hot to touch, “

[Shanahan:] But it can precondition a human to believe that the cell is hot and even dangerous, which would result in misinterpreting sensory data. This impact of expectations on judgment (which is what was being done by ‘touching’) is a well-established fact. That makes any data of this nature highly suspect, and certainly not solid enough to conclude physics textbooks must be rewritten.

This argument obviously drives Rothwell up the wall. However, it’s true, that is, such a thing is possible. But is it likely, looking at all the evidence, that this is what happened? No. It is highly unlikely. Now if we had conflicting evidence, we might need to look for an explanation like the effect of expectation on how we interpret our senses. But there is no conflicting evidence, and Shanahan’s final reason is diagnostic of cold fusion pseudoskepticism, the idea that the finding destroys our understanding of physics, that “physics textbooks must be rewritten.”

That’s a blatant error, only resulting from vague and unclear speculations. This error leads some to demand insane levels of proof for a finding of anomalous heat. Ordinary science would have moved on long ago. The 2004 U.S. DoE review, 50% of the panel found the evidence for anomalous heat to be “conclusive.” It would have been more, I suspect, except for that “physics textbook” belief, which is an obvious bonehead error in basic scientific process. By definition, an anomalous result proves very little, until it is reduced by controlled experiment to solid predictive theory. An anomalous result is an indication that there is something to be discovered and understood. Maybe. Some anomalies may never be explained.

Some are so offended by anomalies that they will believe in ridiculous Rube Goldberg explanations in order to avoid allowing the possibility that something of unknown cause actually happened. Others infer a contradiction to basic physics and loudly proclaim that the laws of physics have been overthrown. All this creates is a confused mess. The cold fusion fiasco was a perfect storm in many ways, and the damage caused has still not been cleaned up.

If Mizuno had allowed someone other than his coworker to see the cell, and it were considered proven beyond a shadow of doubt that the cell stayed hot, there would not be one sentence revised in a single physics textbook.

Anomalies do not, in themselves, lead to major revisions in understanding. The idea that LENR was impossible was not derived from basic principles of physics, but from an approximation, and the idea of utter impossibility already had a known exception, muon-catalyzed fusion.

So it’s possible, certainly, to deconstruct and dismantle Shanahan’s arguments, but misquoting him is a losing strategy, unless your first name is Donald. And we will see how well that works, long-term. Or pushing for a second term, as the case may be.

Rothwell continues to repeat his blatantly false claim, including the gaslighting charge.

Rothwell responds again, this time acknowledging fact, while avoiding any responsibility for his interpretations, and continues to claim gaslighting. He wrote:

seven_of_twenty wrote:

Where exactly did he write that?

Thanks for asking. Seriously, you spurred me to look for some of the quotes. It is a pain in the butt navigating this website, but I found some of ’em.

He still did not actually link to the original Shanahan comments. Yes, LF navigation can be a pain. But it can be done. Best practice, when quoting, link to the original. It can avoid a lot of stupid argument, and it makes what is being claimed verifiable. Mistakes do get made, stating what others have said.

Skeptics are suggesting scientific rigor is required in CF work. That is an excellent suggestion, and is actually necessary. I’m suggesting academic rigor in discussions of cold fusion. That’s probably not possible on LENR Forum, because moderation is hostile and at least one moderator routinely tosses gasoline on smouldering fires. There are good moderators, but that’s not enough. There must be an overall structure that supports clarity and clear discussions, and the structure there generally is not adequate for that. Discussions become insanely long, with good content buried in the noise.

I should have documented Shanahan’s statements in my intro. to the Fleischmann-Miles correspondence. If I update it, I will add links to this website, and actual quotes.

That would be a good idea, if this were actually relevant to the presentation of the correspondence. This is taking a personal spat with Shanahan and inserting it into something that should be about Fleischmann and Miles, not Rothwell and Shanahan. Because skeptics are mentioned by Fleischmann, apparently, some explanation would be in order, but as related to the mentions in the correspondence. This is far outside it, and is an attempt to denigrate and defame Shanahan by making him look ridiculous. Bad Idea. Pseudoskeptics do stuff like that.

As you see, Shanahan does not actually come right out and say “it remained hot for 3 days.” He says:

I granted this given that you are referring to when they disconnected it from the heaters that had heated it up to the point it was too hot to touch.

Which has nothing to do with the “remained hot” claim. Nothing.

But it wasn’t “given that.” In the chronology Mizuno said this event occurred 3 days after disconnecting it from electrolysis. I and other pointed this out to Shanahan. He refuses to address that fact.

Shanahan has addressed it, though only primitively and with high speculation.  Yes, electrolysis was turned off, but the heater (yes, there was a heater!) had not been turned off. Rothwell doesn’t understand the distinction between report and fact, that theme runs through many of his comments.

To make it very clear, there is this evidence that the reactor remained hot, when it was expected to cool.

(1) At “three days after electrolysis ended,” Mizuno assessed the temperature, not by touching, but by placing his hand close and feeling. This was a deliberate attempt to directly estimate temperature, and his report has him telling Akimoto, “That’s pretty hot, That can’t be 70 degrees. It has to be over 100 C. You can’t touch it with your hand.”

(The temperature was expected to decline to 75 degrees with electrolysis off, and only the 60 watt heater. This is an important aspect of the story: at this point, Mizuno was highly skeptical of excess heat claims, and was pursuing possible neutron generation. He had difficulty believing that the cell was actually over 100 C., so he checked with his hand. Carefully, as an expert. However, in any case, the cell would have been too hot to actually touch. This gets completely missed in Rothwell’s frenzy.)

(2) The thermocouple was, at this point, being recorded. Mizuno, afraid of a possible explosion (even though the cell was rated for 250 atmospheres), decided to turn off the heater, and moved the reactor). The temperature in the record, as reported by Mizuno from Akimoto, was “30 degrees over the calibration point,” i.e., that would be about 105 C.

(3) When he moved the reactor, and checked a day later, it continued to stay hot, and he again checked the thermocouple (manually, with a voltmeter). It was 4.0 mv —  or 100 C.

(4) Still concerned about explosion, he submerged the cell in a bucket of water. The temperature fell to 60 C. (This is an indication that the thermocouple was working.) He expected the temperature to continue to fall and went home.

(5) But “next morning,” the temperature had risen to 80 C., and the water had nearly all evaporated. (about 9 liters). He got a larger bucket and added  15 liters of water to it

(6) Over the next days, he found it necessary to add more water. Total water evaporated: “about” 41.5 liters. Obviously, to use this for calorimetry would need correction from natural evaporation.

(7) April 30, the temperature had fallen to 50 C. Evaporation apparently continued at about 5 liters per day. When he came back from a 5-day holiday, May 7, the temperature had fallen to 35 C (still warm!)

Because of multiple evidences, I conclude the report shows that the reactor stayed hot after all power was turned off and, at one point, the temperature rose . There was an internal source of power. However, all this is depending on the report coming from one person: Mizuno. We only have anything from Akimoto through Mizuno. Mizuno was never again able to replicate this, and, weirdly, it does not look like he actually tried. Instead, he pursued other approaches.

From the Mizuno account, Akimoto did not personally verify the temperature by touch. Again, Jed’s enthusiasm to refute and ridicule drove him into inaccuracy. Nevertheless, Shanahan’s critiques are, when all the evidence is considered, incompatible with the Mizuno report.

Jed continued with his diatribe:

He does this again, and again, and again. He dances around, he ducks, he evades, he waxes indignant with high dudgeon, he sorta, kinda says what he says in a way that could not mean anything else, and then at the last minute he pulls away. Then, when anyone points out that is the chronology, and what he said can only mean that a hot object stays hot for 3 days, he accuses that person of lying. This is classic “gaslighting” behavior.

The indignance I have seen has been only to being misquoted, and he was misquoted. Rothwell is applying his own logic to speculations by Shanahan, and then claiming Shanahan asserted what he speculates it must mean.

Shanahan claimed that the alleged quotations were Rothwell “fantasy.” That’s reasonably accurate. It  is not gaslighting to claim misquotation when there was misquotation. And “gaslighting” is highly reprehensible, it’s worse than lying, it is lying with an intention not only to deceive but to attempt to convince the person (the one telling the truth) that they are insane.

Rothwell was not telling the truth, he erred, because of his general confusion between fact and interpretation. It’s a common ontological error, to be sure.

To recover from this is simple. He almost got there with “Shanahan does not actually come right out and say, “it remained hot for three days.”

All he has to do is admit he was interpreting instead of quoting. And stop claiming that Shanahan lies when he objected to the misquotation. Rothwell’s logic:

Either he thinks it stays hot for three days, or he thinks is a valid argument to arbitrarily replace “3 days” with “immediately after disconnecting” and no one should quibble with that substitution.

Shanahan does not think it remained hot for three days, period. That is not his idea at all. Everything he’s written is aimed at looking for flaws in that claim. As to the alternative Rothwell presents, I don’t find it intelligible. Attempting to force debate opponents into positions they do not hold and have not expressed is highly offensive.

In practice, reality is never confined to two invented options.  The “he thinks is a valid argument” is, again, mind-reading, and the difference between the two proposed wordings is obvious. No wonder Rothwell gets nowhere with Shanahan.

That outcome might not depend on Rothwell behavior, but my concern is with how people who support LENR appear in public discussions, and the full audience appears over the years. How will this flame war appear to that full audience?

This was all a distraction from the thread subject, the Beiting report. Take it out back, guys!

Either argument is nuts, in my opinion. What do you think? Is “immediate” the same as “3 days”? Or do you think it stayed hot? Do you buy either interpretation? Tell us what you think.

So, here, Rothwell is attempting to push seven of twenty into the same false choice. However, this is fascinating: my interpretation of the evidence is that the cell stayed hot, clearly. Somehow Rothwell has confused Shanahan’s position with what is very likely reality, that the cell did stay hot. Shanahan absolutely does not believe that. Rothwell has allowed himself to get so upset that he has become incoherent.

(Shanahan has not, with the Mizuno anecdote, attempted to show calorimetry error. He has really pointed to (remotely) possible error sources, and has not clearly shown belief in any of them. Yes, they are preposterous, given the full evidence, but he’s not lying. The ultimate argument about the Mizuno anecdote is simply that it’s an anecdote and an anomaly if the report is accepted. There has been no attempt to confirm the result. This is, then, a footnote, a detail of historical interest, and not useful except as the reported experience of one scientist. I’d love to see Akimoto’s account. Has anyone attempted to obtain it?

(Shanahan also objects somewhere to the reported temperature over 100 C, i.e., above the boiling point of water, he assumed. But this was a closed cell, run at substantial pressure. The assumed boiling point limit of 100 C. was an error.)

I told him that if he really thinks it was “immediately” and not 3 days later, he is saying Mizuno lied. He responded with fake high dudgeon, saying “I don’t accuse professional scientists of lying” when that is exactly what he just did. More gaslighting!

Again, he did not claim — anywhere that I have seen — that Mizuno lied, and his comment about his general practice matches my experience with Shanahan. He doesn’t accuse professional scientists of lying. He is, himself, a professional scientist. Rothwell is not. He is an opinionated amateur (though one with a lot of knowledge, from his long involvement with the field, his work as a translator, and as librarian for lenr-canr.org). Jed presented Mizuno’s talk at ICCF-21, something else I will be looking at carefully.

That Rothwell calls this “gaslighting” is, then, massively delusional. I also don’t think for a moment that Rothwell lies, but he can be in error, and in this case, it’s completely obvious and clear. He also claims that when he is wrong, he admits it, but he hasn’t done that here, other than in a way that continues to claim that Shanahan lies. So was Rothwell lying when he wrote that about himself?

No. He was mistaken. Some people do lie, which means intentionally misleading. In some common speech, “Lie” means “reprehensibly wrong,” and there is a territory that overlaps. To say something where reputation is disparaged, without taking caution about accuracy and truth and the distinctions I have pointed out, is a carelessness that can create what amounts to lies. Call it willful disregard of truth. It is still not, quite, lying.

But it can get us into trouble the same as lying. Again, the remedy is obvious: when people claim we are in error (or lying), look carefully at how they might be right. Where it is possible that they may be right, at least in some way (not necessarily overall) acknowledge it!

The people who are most to be trusted are those who are not afraid of being wrong and looking bad from some mistake, who do not attempt to deny the possibility. We have it backwards, often. To really look bad, in a deep way, let it be seen that one is attached to looking good and doesn’t care about reality.

Shanahan responds with re-asserting that not only did he not say what Rothwell had claimed — which is obviously true — but that the quotes Rothwell supplies don’t show Shanahan as saying those things — which is also correct. Shanahan then uses the occasion to tar with the same brush the entire LENR field:

But you, in your preferred MO, misconstrued that in the worst way anyone could, and then said that was what I said. All that proves it that you learned the ‘strawman argument’ technique from your heroes quite well.

And this is what Rothwell opens for himself — and the field — by his carelessness and contempt. How much damage is done by this? I don’t know. I know that LENR Forum, by allowing flame wars like this, turns discussions into massive train wrecks, nearly useless for education. But LENR Forum, like many on-line fora, is like a bar, like Moletrap, say.

Shanahan has long been invited to participate in coverage and discussion of his ideas. I invited him to explore his criticisms on Wikiversity, almost a decade ago. Instead, he supported my Wikipedia ban, and seemed to believe that his ideas being excluded from Wikipedia was my doing, when, in fact, I acted to preserve content he had created. He is still invited. I’d give him author privileges here, if he’d accept them and he could write pages on his ideas. Which would, of course, be critiqued. But he could fully express himself and could ignore the potshots and incivilities that would surely appear. The same with the copy of the Wikiversity cold fusion resource that is hosted on the cold fusion community wiki. See Skeptical arguments/Shanahan. (that page is still mangled with templates placed during the process where all “fringe science” was banned on Wikiversity, which happened early this year. Long story. Bottom line: the community did not defend the right to study alleged fringe science on Wikiversity. Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. So I rescued all those deleted resources. And if nobody cares about them, there they will sit until the cows come home or I go home myself.

On LENR Forum, it gets worse: Jed wrote:

kirkshanahan wrote:

Yes, that’s sort of the point of me making that comment. Preconceptions can be very powerful. And by the way, I never referred to when the cell was wrapped in towels, we are talking about when it was in a bucket of water. The ‘towel’ thing is another of your misconceptions,

Regarding the towels, Mizuno and Akimoto held their hands over the cell, and felt the cell wrapped in towels (as with a potholder), prior to moving it from the underground lab. That is what Mizuno wrote. That is the “two people” I refer to here. Perhaps you have not read the account, so you did not know that.

The Mizuno report (his book, p. 66-70) does not have any mention of Akimoto touching the cell. Akimoto only looks at the log of temperature. Mizuno moved the cell wrapped in “rags and towels.” The cell at that point was at, from the thermocouple reading immediately after, 100 C. This is not very hot. It might feel warm through towels. Mizuno turned off the cell heater before moving it. Basically he disconnected everything. So without XP, the cell would have been at about 75 C at that point. This could also feel warm through towels.

Sure, Shanahan has probably not read the account. I only have it because I have the book. Rothwell’s introduction is available, it describes the event, but is not complete.

After the cell was placed in the bucket, only Mizuno checked it, not Akimoto. He checked it every day by sense of touch and by reading the thermocouple.

There is no mention of “sense of touch” in the accounts of the cell in the bucket of water. The temperature fell to 60 C. from the reactor being placed in the bucket, but later rose, and those are all thermocouple readings. The temperature did, by the next day, rise to 80 C. On May 7, the temperature was still 35 C., which is still anomalously high for a cell sitting in a bucket of water in a normal room, his lab. The report ends there.

It is frustrating to read this report. Mizuno could have left the reactor connected to the logger and heated, as Akimoto suggested. Akimoto realized this was an opportunity, but Mizuno was afraid, and I don’t think the full dimensions of that fear have been recognized. Mizuno did not take steps to create better confirmation of his data. He did not publish this report, though there was apparently a newspaper account. (I hope Jed will translate that, if he has it.) Most amazing, given that this is the best-observed Heat After Death incident at high power, Mizuno did not attempt to replicate.

The temperature anomaly was noticed first on April 22, 1991. That cell was tightly sealed. From what we now know, the cell atmosphere should have had helium levels far above ambient. But Mizuno didn’t talk about it. The opportunity was missed, and not from fear of explosion. His book, p. 60-70.

I have learned a valuable lesson from this experience. I am appalled at my own inability to completely shrug off the bounds of conventional knowledge. Weak as they were, I verified neutron production. I even detected tritium, although the figures  did not add up to tritium “commensurate” with the neutrons. But, in my heart, I still harbored he view that the excess heat phenomenon surely could not occur, and, for that reason, I had not made adequate preparations to measure it. When the heat did appear, I was totally ill-equipped to deal with it appropriately. You never know when this heat will appear; later I experienced it many times.

And then:

I did not report on the May 1991 excess heat burst I experienced after terminating electrolysis, because I did not have precise data. I described results from a subsequent experiment in a poster session display. Other reports were made of heat after electrolysis was turned off (so-called “heat-after-death’), an important point which I think indicates the effect is reproducible.

If he had been thinking clearly, he would not have removed the cell from the logger and would have left the heater on. HAD with external supplemental heat is better confirmed, but in this case the heat production was enough to overwhelm the normal cooling. He could have returned the cell to the original setup and continued logging. He could have had an independent report written by Akimoto. He could have gathered additional information for a report — analysis of cell contents being something obvious to us with hindsight. (He describes another event where he scrapes the “crud” off of a cathode that was active, not realizing that this could be a treasure trove of information.)

I see his behavior as rooted in fear, mostly fear of looking bad. His actual data, probably recorded in a notebook, would have been clearer and better data on excess heat than about any other report in the field. Still could be, though it’s pretty late. His precision would be as it was. He had calibrated the cell, apparently. He knew the input power record, I assume.

His reaction to the unexpected excess heat, I imagine him thinking: “I don’t understand this. Therefore it’s dangerous!” Indeed. But he’s also aware that this was not much of a real danger, that cell had been experiencing recombiner failure repeatedly, with “explosions.” It was designed to withstand them.

The unknown is dangerous. But not usually, in a context like this, and the risk was small of any actual harm. His most legitimate fear was of leaving the reactor running while nobody was around. So perhaps turning it off was a reasonable response, though, in hindsight, that may have amplified the XE, as the Flesichman and Pons explosion was preceded by turning the reactor off and leaving it. This was years later, and surely Mizuno knew about that event. Maybe he hadn’t believed it happened, or that it had been exaggerated or misinterpreted.

That event also boggles my mind. Pons and Fleischmann did not photograph the damage. They did not appear to have kept the detritus left for analysis. Why not?

Fear, quite similar to Mizuno. They were afraid that the university would shut them down. To continue with Jed’s continued mind-reading:

I do not think preconceptions could fool the sense of touch in two professional chemists. Apparently you think it can.

First of all, one professional. Second, it could. And third, given that there were three confirmations of elevated temperature, this is very, very unlikely. So Shanahan is right, it could. Rothwell is right, it didn’t.

Shanahan has not read the original, I suspect, and doesn’t put the pieces together, and, in addition, he doesn’t trust Rothwell’s report is accurate, because, after all, Rothwell errs in reporting what Shanahan has written, why not the same with Mizuno’s report? Of course, Rothwell knows Mizuno, but … I don’t trust Rothwell’s account as completely accurate, either, but it is possible that Rothwell knows more that Mizuno has told him, that is not in the book.

I will repeat this: as far as I’ve seen, Rothwell doesn’t lie. Nor does Shanahan. In court, testimony is to be accepted unless controverted, and sound court process will attempt to avoid contradiction in testimony, i.e., it will look for harmonizing interpretations. Impeaching sworn testimony is generally avoided, except that process will distinguish between eyewitness testimony and interpretation by the witness. (But a jury, based on observing the witness, may consider possible deception.) Rothwell continued to argue:

kirkshanahan wrote:
For the record, *you* are the one claiming I was talking about being fooled by a 100C object. I made no such assumption. I actually assumed it was a ‘hot object’ (remember that?) for *part* of my analysis and that when they were ‘touching’ it (in the bucket), they were in fact touching a warm object immersed in water with an attached, malfunctioning TC that said the object was much hotter than it was.

Shanahan becomes careless, though he does state his alternate hypothesis as an “assumption,” which is not the same as “believing” it.

He’s confused on the factual history from the Mizuno report, possibly because he doesn’t have a copy. Is there one somewhere? I’ve quoted from the published book. There is no account of Akimoto being involved with the cell after Mizuno took it back to his office and immersed it in water. “Much hotter” would be incorrect. There remains the water evaporation data. But the point for me, here, is that Shanahan has not assumed what Rothwell claimed.

The “part of the analysis” he refers to would be the “three days after electrolysis was turned off,” where the temperature was a bit above 100 C per the thermocouple. At that point, it was still being heated by the internal heater, and temperature was expected to be, from prior calibrations, about 75 C. The difference was stated as 30 C.

There is no report of them actually touching the cell directly. There was an attempt by Mizuno, rather, to confirm the thermocouple reading by holding his hand over the cell, as I would do with any object I suspect to be hot. And Rothwell is correct that a deliberate attempt by a professional who must make these judgments often is very unlikely to be drastically off, as with some quick deceptive “perception.”

So Shanahan is confused. From where is he getting his information about the anecdote? From Rothwell, of course. Now, my training is that if I attempt to explain a situation to someone, and they remain unclear about it, I did not explain well, something was missing in my work. Shanahan is not necessarily a good listener, but still, taking responsibility for outcome is empowering, blaming others for failure is the opposite. Given all the noise about “you said” what was not actually said, I don’t wonder that Shanahan is factually confused. [Rothwell:]

As I said, “they” (Mizuno and Akimoto) did not touch it in the bucket. That is a minor misunderstanding. Only Mizuno touched it in the bucket.

Maybe Rothwell knows this directly from Mizuno, but that’s not in the report in the book. Nobody is reported as actually touching the bucket. Mizuno obviously was close to the reactor, but it was not hot enough that his direct perception of temperature would be reliable as to distinguishing between 75 C and 100 – 105 C.  I would not assume there was direct perception (touch), and that actually seems unlikely (Mizuno actually reports saying “You can’t touch it with your bare hand,” but there still remain two major evidences: the thermocouple reading and the very unusual water evaporation, that slowly declined as the TC temperature declined. These pieces all fit together.

They touched it, and then Mizuno placed it in the bucket, 3 days after electrolysis stopped and it was disconnected.

This is clearly inaccurate. Sequence:

April 22, stopped electrolysis, internal heater remained on.

April 25, abnormal temperature noticed. Mizuno checks heater power supply, which is supplying 60 watts, same as for a “month.” From calibration, temperature should have been 75 C. Three days after electrolysis ended, the deuterium loading should have declined (he writes “nearly all should have come out of the metal. He checks the temperature manually, hand held over the surface of the cell. “That’s pretty hot. That can’t be 70 degrees. You can’t touch it with your bare hand.”

So he did not touch it. It appears that neither Akimoto nor Mizuno actually touched the cell. But, at this point, it was still being heated electrically.

It would be stone cold long before that. It could not be a warm object for any reason.

How does Rothwell manage to get this so wrong? It should have been at 75 C. Still too hot to touch! Rothwell makes this blunder because he is so focused on Shanahan’s alleged stupidity that he forgets to be careful, himself. That’s quite normal for untrained humans.  (Some people understand this more or less naturally, but many don’t.)

There is no chemical fuel in the cell except for the emerging hydrogen, and the power from that is so low it could not be detected, or felt. The total energy from it is about as much as 3 kitchen matches.

That depends on conditions. This is a closed cell and would have orphaned oxygen in it, but I don’t know how much energy would be available. Something very unusual happened with that cell. The water evaporation figures are the strongest evidence.

Right here, again, you are claiming that an object heated with electrolysis will remain hot (or warm) from April 22 to May 7, even though there is no source of heat in it. That is absolutely, positively, 100% certainly IMPOSSIBLE.

And, once again, Shanahan did not claim that “right here.” It’s simply not there, so Shanahan is correct, this is Rothwell’s “fantasy.”

kirkshanahan wrote:
But most importantly what I said is: Anecdotes aren’t science.

Tell that to an astronomer. But in any case, you are ignoring the fact that heat after death was demonstrated hundreds of times, reliably, by Fleischmann and Pons, often at power levels as high as Mizuno observed. No, you are not ignoring this. Wrong word. I and others have pointed this out to you time after time, but you pretend it did not happen.

Shanahan’s comment is slightly overstated. Science is a vast pile of anecdotes, but where possible, we look for independent confirmations, and, best of all, replication. In astronomy, that one person observes something is an anecdote. When many observe the same phenomenon,  that is a collection of anecdotes, but the observation has become confirmed. Science is a process, and it begins with the observation and reporting of anecdotes. From there, to confirmed and accepted knowledge, can be quite an involved process.

Fleischmann and Pons may have observed HAD many times, though “hundreds” is questionable. Maybe. What’s the report? I have not seen reliability data from them, and much of that research was never published, a tragedy.

I have studied the debate between Morrison and Fleischmann, though not yet completely. At this point, presenting it to skeptics as proof of something would be premature. Whether or not this confirms Mizuno is tricky and unclear. And this is all distraction from the major point, which is not actually Mizuno, Rothwell is claiming “gaslighting,” which is lying about the past to attempt to confuse. In fact, Shanahan didn’t say what Rothwell claimed, and that’s quite simple. What Rothwell does is to throw in arguments irrelevant to that, basically claiming that Shanahan is wrong about something.

But if we can’t agree about what is in front of us and accessible — the record of conversation — how could we hope to agree on something far more complex?

And that’s the bottom line here. Rothwell has asserted, many times, that he doesn’t care what skeptics think. He isn’t attempting to understand them, nor to communicate effectively with them. He is hostile and combative, and deliberately so. He does not speak for the CMNS research community, and certainly not for political outreach (i.e., Ruby Carat or, to some extent, me).

Shanahan is cleaning his clock, because of the obviousness of this.

Seven of twenty chimes in:

Just curious, JedRothwell if you believe that your arguments with Shanahan and anecdotes about water staying hot for days add substantial value to the probability that Mizuno can make 1, 10 and 100kW (or thereabouts) reactors based on LENR, as he has claimed.

Troll. Mizuno has not claimed that. Rather, it appears, some reactor designs were named with such figures. I’m not going to track it down, but assigning outrageous claims to cold fusion scientists is par for the course for pseudoskeptical trolls.  Seven of twenty is using Jed’s bad habit of getting into unwinnable arguments to attack the entire field. Obviously, that whole mess has little or nothing to do with Mizuno’s ability to do anything. IH did attempt to confirm some Mizuno findings, as I recall, and appears to have failed, but this happens in the field quite commonly. The most difficult aspect to LENR research is reliability, and an obsessive focus on More Heat, even though motivation for that is obvious, doesn’t help. So in the recent Takahashi report, we actually start to see what reliability study could look like. Too little, still, my view, but at least they are moving in a powerful direction.

The field is full of intriguing anecdotes, and is either afflicted with or looks like it could be afflicted with, confirmation bias.  Denying this is not going to convince anyone who understands the issues. There is work that carefully avoids this, but there is so much that does not, that an appearance is maintained of a systemic problem.

Basically, that there is poor research — or poorly reported research, the effect is similar — does not negate that there is solid research from which clear conclusions can be drawn. Bottom line, at the present time, analysis of research is not going to prove anything to people who are not listening, not following the research, except for a very few.

There are genuine skeptics who are listening, but some of us insult them, merely because they are skeptical. Skepticism is essential to the scientific method, and if one has developed a belief about something in science, the obligation the method prescribes is to become as skeptical as possible and attempt, vigorously, to prove the opposite of what we believe.

Shanahan is a pseudoskeptic, I’ll assert, but he is also a real skeptic on occasion, or can play one on TV, and does attempt to raise genuine issues. So Shanahan should be handled carefully. Attacking him can look like attacking skeptics in general, which is a “believer” behavior, to be avoided.

Yes, pseudoskeptics are not following the scientific method, but that does not mean that we should imitate them and fall down that rat-hole. In fact, we can use their ruminations and speculations.

Again and again, Rothwell repeats his error, and Shanahan rubs his face in it. He wrote:

JedRothwell wrote:

That is not even remotely similar to saying that two chemists might think an object is too hot to touch when it is actually stone cold. The physical sense of touch is nothing like an academic dispute. It is much harder to fool.

…says the Head Acolyte for the Church of Cold Fusion…

Shanahan is returning the favor of pure ad hominem argument. However, Rothwell has repeated clear errors. The object, at the time in question, would be expected to be at 75 C, not “stone cold.” Rothwell has forgotten about the internal heater, so sure is he that he is right, and that he knows the conditions of this event. That’s what we do when we allow ourselves to believe in the stupidity of others. It infects us, sometimes even more deeply than the others. And the “two chemists” did not touch the cell. One put his hand near it. The other only saw the temperature log and was in conversation with Mizuno, the only one actually using, not touch, but our ability to sense radiated heat without getting burned.

Rothwell is right that, as the usage is described in the report, it is very unlikely to be seriously deluded. Mizuno concluded that it was not at “70 C.,” but it was hotter. He would not touch it, then. I might use a “rapid touch, ” where the motion of a finger would only allow a very rapid contact, and I might wet the finger.  A little dangerous, but not very, on a metal surface. Observing the wet spot on the cell would have been a confirmation of “above 100 C.” I do that with the sizzle, in my kitchen. But that was not done.

The problem is that Rothwell continues to repeat his story of what Shanahan supposedly said, refusing to accept that something was off about it. He had the opportunity to recognize an error, a simple one, and take a step toward resolving the issue. Instead, he succeeds in making himself look worse and worse. And all of this is off-topic in that thread, so he’s is taking up time and space better devoted to actual exploration of genuine controversies and reports. Of course, the moderators of LENR Forum must bear some responsibility for tolerating this mess.

On the other hand, maybe they like it. Some people enjoy watching flame wars, it makes them feel superior. Shanahan wrote:

JedRothwell wrote:

Let me again advise you, however, that you must not admit the cell was even a little warm.

What do you not understand about the fact that I said *IF* what you wrote is true, we have an anomaly. The problem is that ONE EXPERIMENT NEVER PROVES ANYTHING. We don’t know why the TC read >100C for 3 days, but us conservative-types tend to opt for equipment malfunction. You fanatic believers opt for the opposite.

First of all, the cell at the point under discussion (“after three days”) would be at 75 C. with no excess power. So the premise is nuts. Shanahan is right about “proves,” but anecdotes create indications for further research, where possibilities like “equipment failure” would be ruled out — or supported. In this case, thermocouple failure is very unlikely, because of the consistent behavior of that thermocouple, particularly as cool-down proceeded. It’s too bad the logging was not continued or resumed, so we might have seen even more evidence on that.

Shanahan’s self-description as “conservative,” though, is self-serving. He isn’t conservative, scientifically, he is far, far too certain of himself and his own ideas. Here, he extrapolates from an example in a forum that attracts extremes, to all “fanatic believers.” Yet he himself is a fanatic believer, as to his behavior. That’s a long story, and the whole Mizuno affair, and “lies” and “gaslighting” were distractions from real issues. Shanahan took a look at the Beiting calorimetry, and the entire line of attack by Rothwell and others was intended, it appears, to disparage that without actually considering it in detail, through an ad hominem argument based on misrepresentation of what Shanahan had written. In a word, that sucks. Jed wrote:

kirkshanahan wrote:

Objects at about 54 to 55°C (130°F) will usually result in a sensation of warmth that is on the threshold of pain: it’s really hot!.”

Careful there! You must not admit that it might have been 54°C. If it were that temperature 3 days after disconnection, that means cold fusion is real. It would have to be 20°C, the ambient temperature in the underground lab. Stone cold. If it were even a little hot, enough to measure with the TC, that means cold fusion is real.

Again, Jed has allowed his internal incendiaries to confuse him. He thinks this is a gotcha! In fact, until the cell was removed from the underground lab, it was at over 100 C. by the thermocouple indication, and would have been expected to be at 75 C. from the 60 watt internal heater and the calibration. Mizuno is explicit about that. Jed should really study the report again. I read things like this many times. One reading can be quite inadequate to become familiar.

I also used to be interested in arguments that develop in meetings, where there was no record. So, one time, I taped a meeting where there were controversies and arguments. Later, I transcribed it. A lot of work. And I found that my memory was utterly unreliable. With training, some people can develop accurate memory, even to the point of being able to assert verbatim, what others actually said. It’s rare. Rather, we remember summaries, mostly colored heavily by emotional responses.

I have a friend and he complains to me about what his fiance said to him. What did she actually say? He often says, when I press him, that he can’t remember. But he’s upset about what he can’t remember? It’s obvious: At the time, he thought that she meant something or that her statement implied something that worried him or upset him. Under those conditions, the original statement, what she actually said, gets lost, and that, then, traps him into a fantasy (a made-up story, which may or may not have some basis in reality) that he repeats to himself, and it makes and keeps him unhappy. This is all boringly common!

You have to show that two people in an underground lab where it is 20°C year round felt a 20°C object and both mistakenly perceived that it was hot.

No, he doesn’t “have” to do that. First of all, the object with no XP would be at 75 C., above the threshold of pain. Second nobody actually touched it, and only one used “feeling” — our ability to sense the temperature of a hot object close to our hand — to sense temperature.

Then one of them put it in a bucket, and 17.5 L of water evaporated, but that can happen any time.

Again, this is taking a Shanahan speculation and turning it into a preposterous statement. Shanahan noticed what I also notice: There would be some normal evaporation. But how much? Rothwell has several times used the 17.5 liter figure. That is total evaporation since April 30, not total evaporation. Total evaporation after removing all input power and placing the cell in a bucket of water was over 40 liters. Suppose the temperature was incorrect, that the cell was actually at room temperature after initial cooling. (I find the possibility of error in temperature here to be very, very low. It simply doesn’t look like thermocouple failure.) The final “measurement period” was 5 days, and water loss for that period was about 7.5 liters. That’s 1.5 liter/day. Assuming all of that is normal evaporation, that gives us “normal evaporation” from April 25 to May 2, seven days, of 10.5 liters. That still leaves 33.5 liters.

The normal evaporation artifact speculation doesn’t work, and actual normal evaporation, I’d expect, would be lower than the figure used. Apparently, Shanahan also speculated that rats drank the water. I think he had the underground lab in mind, but the evaporation took place in Mizuno’s personal lab on the third floor of a different building. Shanahan was engaging in a “what if” brainstorming, it’s completely standard for him. “What if there was some artifact, some error? What could it be?” And then one can always come up with something. Much more likely than rats — which simply don’t drink that much water, I’ve lived with them — would be a practical joker.

That’s a generic possible artifact that cannot generally be disproven. But, one will notice me saying over and over, “conservative” analysis will look at such possible artifacts and will normally reject them immediately as unlikely, and cold fusion is not what Shanahan thinks.

If the Muzuno event was real, this would not — at all — require physics textbooks to be revised. That would only happen after the cause of such an event were determined, with strong evidence, not merely the fact of it happening, and if the cause, now demonstrated with clear evidence, then required revision basic concepts of physics.

That is very unlikely, though obviously not impossible. The problem is that the circumstances of LENR are extremely complex and not easy to analyze accurately. I consider it likely that no changes to basic understanding, truly fundamental physics, will be required. It’s simply a complex situation that allows something otherwise unexpected to happen.

From all the evidence we currently have, it is no longer anywhere near as anomalous as was originally thought. But the Mizuno event was still outside the envelope of what is common. Rothwell treats every cold fusion finding of excess heat as confirming the Mizuno event. That’s simply naive, involving a loss of specificity and assuming that all cold fusion reports cover the same phenomenon. They might, and they might not. Until we have reliability, it’s going to be very difficult to resolve this issue.

There are a few results that are quite reliable, and that’s where some discussions might be fruitful.

You are sure that can happen. Again, be careful! You must never put a bucket of water in a room to test your claim, because you will see that does not happen. You must stick to your story.

Shanahan has generally backed off from claiming that it “did not happen.” His position is, quite clearly, “anecdote, and therefore not probative.” Then, out of his usual habits, he speculates on possible artifact. That’s all. It is really not such a big deal.

(Elsewhere, Shanahan pointed to sources on evaporation, which will obviously vary with temperature, exposed surface, air flow, humidity, and other factors. Simply putting a bucket in a room would not establish the fact as to what happened in that particular room at that time. I’m not going through the math, but the evaporation reported is clearly outside normal. There is an upper bound to normal evaporation in the last five days, I covered that above. Because the cell was still warm at the end of the five days, that was likely still beyond normal evaporation at room temperature.)

Shanahan wrote:

JedRothwell wrote:

Careful there!

I’m always careful. You aren’t. For example, you missed the fact that I have cited a couple of sources that says the pain limit for physical temperature measurement is around 45-60C, not 100C. So, if Mizuno and Akimoto actually touched a 100C object, they would have been badly burned, Since they weren’t (i assume absent medical evidence to the contrary) they must have only approached the cell physically. Given their preconceptions that a) CF is real and they are proving it, and b) that the cell temp is >100C, the claim that they ‘felt’ it was that hot has no factual basis. They were fooled by their preconceptions, just like Blondlot thought he saw spots.

Nobody here is terribly careful. While one might have touched a 100 C object without harm — if donet just right — we actually have no report of actual touch. Rather, only one of them “approached the cell physically,” the report is clear, so Shanahan is correct on that point. However, “they were fooled by their preconceptions” is highly unlikely given the description. Shanahan is, himself, sitting in his chair creating possibilities out of his own preconceptions.

The Blondlot illusion was based on vision at the limits of perception, dark-adapted, where it’s quite noisy.

In the Mizuno report, this was an ordinary test of heat, in a context where Mizuno was quite surprised and wondering if he could trust the thermocouple. I get why Rothwell gets worked into a froth! Shanahan is actually outrageous, on that matter. But this had nothing to do with the Beiting report! The senseless debate continues:

Remember: if the cell was palpably hot to any extent, even a few degrees, three days after it was cut off, that means cold fusion is real. You cannot admit that! You must insist it was stone cold, right at ambient.

Rothwell has forgotten what was actually reported. At the point where the cell was “palpably hot,” the temperature with no XP would have been 75 C. Not “ambient,” stone cold. He’s forgotten about the cell heater; only electrolysis had been cut off, not the heater.

(Why would they have a cell heater? Well, to increase possible reaction rates, that’s why!)

As to the later heat, there is no direct evidence in the report of feeling the heat after that single manual test on April 25. The later temperature record is from the thermocouple, and heat is inferred from evaporation, which was clearly higher than normal. But that’s a separate issue.

Shanahan is arguing — and quibbling — over trees, Rothwell is arguing about the forest, and forgetting details about the trees, inferring them from secondary records, i.e,. from talking about the talking and his ideas about the forest.

When Alan Smith made noises about trolling, Shanahan explained (more or less correctly), and added:

I thought the Beiting issue was quite simple. He miscalculated his error limits on his calibration. A better estimate leads to the conclusion that his apparent excess heat signal is potentially just noise.

Now, that’s a simple claim, and moderately simple to verify, but work to verify. It requires actual study.  This, by the way, is classic Shanahan. A key word is “potentially.” He does not actually claim that there is no excess heat, only that it is “potentially just noise.” Now, is that supportable? I don’t know yet, and I won’t have any real idea until I check Shanahan’s work, which isn’t necessarily simple, it’s reasonably sophisticated. Rothwell simply attacked it as arrogant, which is not acceptable. It’s a decent analysis or it is not. I’m going to look again. Did Rothwell or anyone actually show error in the Shanahan analysis?

Knowing Shanahan, there is a good chance there is some dead fish in his analysis. However, that is a very subjective and easily biased expectation.  Cold fusion deserves better than that. Just as the appearance of excess heat does not require that physics textbooks be changed, a defective error analysis in a cold fusion paper does not require a dismissal of the evidence found in it. The smell test at this point is from an appearance that Shanahan pulled possible error values out of a dark place. Did he?

I’m not seeing that Rothwell — or anyone — identified error or unwarranted assumption in Shanahan’s critique. Fundamentally, the discussion was extensively derailed by the ad hominem arguments.

THHuxleynew appears to agree with Shanahan on one point:

Kirk is claiming (correctly, AFAIK) that the reported results are 10X more sensitive to calibration error than you might think . . .

That is not the same as confirming that there is such error. Attention to objective measurements of error is crucial to LENR research. We need to clean up the field, to expect better work (with more extensive calibrations), and to expect clearer analysis and presentation of data, and more thorough study of possible artifacts. Part of this is respecting skeptical commentary, and, especially learning to distinguish and encourage genuine, constructive skepticism, from useless and provocative trolling.

People often behave as they are expected to behave. When a community fails to guide its members, it can fall apart. “Guidance” does not mean domination and control, it means taking responsibility for our own behavior, and expecting that of others. It means and requires deepening communication and the seeking of genuine consensus.

I end up being mentioned, by Zeus46. It’s pretty funny, Zeus46 puts up a non-functioning link.  This is all fluff, of the “who started it” variety.

The discussion continued to focus, so far, on more fluff and irrelevancies, and the real issue raised by Shanahan, originally, possible poor handling of calibrations and error statistics, is ignored. When I can get to it, I intend to look at the Shanahan critique as part of a study of the Beiting report, which is on the agenda for me, along with the rest of ICCF-21. There was a lot to digest there.

Update 2018-07-03

Zeus46 continued to troll Shanahan. However, Shanahan had declined to continue argument on the false quotations — which were indeed false, and continued deceptively as such, in the face of protest, by Zeus46.

As part of that intended refusal, Shanahan wrote:

Z is a troll and JR is a fanatic. They both seek to confuse what I say for their own personal reasons. In the process they resort to illegitimate argumentation tactics and finally to insults. I will seek from now on to avoid answering them. If they try to make some point that I feel misleads unduly I may comment, but I will try to minimize that.

As to Zeus46, Shanahan is probably correct, and LF moderation is woefully lax in that discussion (and often, elsewhere). Direct misquotation to defame is not only unfair argumentation, it is grossly uncivil and provocative. As to JR (Jed Rothwell), I don’t think he is seeking to confuse; rather, he’s confused himself.

Shanahan returned to focus on the issue of calibration and error propagation and real discussion ensued.

Update 2018-07-25

I put this up with a password and sent the password to Rothwell. He still insisted that he was right and that Shanahan was gaslighting him. He has, with dripping sarcasm, directly attacked me on a private mailing list for LENR researchers. Rothwell is a loose cannon, unfortunately, even though he has done much for the field (and supported me in various ways). I think that’s over. I have removed the password protection.

 

Takahashi and New Hydrogen Energy

Today I began and completed a review of Akito Takahashi’s presentation on behalf of a collaboration of groups, using the 55 slides made available. Eventually, I hope to see a full paper, which may resolve some ambiguities. Meanwhile, this work shows substantial promise.

This is the first substantial review of mine coming out of ICCF-21, which, I declared, the first day, would be a breakthrough conference.

I was half-way out-of-it for much of the conference, struggling with some health issues, exacerbated by the altitude. I survived. I’m stronger. Yay!

Comments and corrections are invited on the reviews, or on what will become a series of brief summaries.

The title of the presentation: Research Status of Nano-Metal Hydrogen Energy. There are 17 co-authors, affiliated with four universities (Kyushu, Tohoku, Kobe, and Nagoya), and two organizations (Technova and Nissan Motors). Funding was reportedly $1 million US, for October 2015 to October 2017.

This was a major investigation, finding substantial apparent anomalous heat in many experiments, but this work was, in my estimation, exploratory, not designed for clear confirmation of a “lab rat” protocol, which is needed. They came close, however, and, to accomplish that goal, they need do little more than what they have already done, with tighter focus. I don’t like presenting “best results,” from an extensive experimental series, it can create misleading impressions.

The best results were from experiments at elevated temperatures, which requires heating the reactor, which, with the design they used, requires substantial heating power. That is not actually a power input to the reactor, however, and if they can optimize these experiments, as seems quite possible, they appear to be generating sufficient heat to be able to maintain elevated temperature for a reactor designed to do that. (Basically, insulate the reactor and provide heating and cooling as needed, heating for startup and cooling once the reactor reaches break-even — i.e., generating enough heat to compensate for heat losses). The best result was about 25 watts, and they did not complete what I see as possible optimization.

They used differential scanning calorimetry to identify the performance of sample fuel mixtures. I’d been hoping to see this kind of study for quite some time. This work was the clearest and most interesting of the pages in the presentation; what I hope is that they will do much more of that, with many more samples. Then, I hope that they will identify a lab rat (material and protocol) and follow it identically with many trials (or sometimes with a single variation, but there should be many iterations with a single protocol.

They are looking forward to optimization for commercial usage, which I think is just slightly premature. But they are close, assuming that followup can confirm their findings and demonstrate adequate reliability.

It is not necessary that this work be fully reliable, as long as results become statistically predictable, as shown by actual variation in results with careful control of conditions.

Much of the presentation was devoted to Takahashi’s TSC theory, which is interesting in itself, but distracting, in my opinion, from what was most important about this report. The experimental work is consistent with Takahashi theory, but does not require it, and the work was not designed to deeply vet TSC predictions.

Time was wasted in letting us know that if cold fusion can be made practical, it will have a huge impact on society. As if we need to hear that for the n thousandth time. I’ve said that if I see another Rankin diagram, I’d get sick. Well, I didn’t, but be warned. I think there are two of them.

Nevertheless, this is better hot-hydrogen LENR work than I’ve seen anywhere before. I’m hoping they have helium results (I think they might,) which could validate the excess heat measures for deuterium devices.

I’m recommending against trying to scale up to higher power until reliability is nailed.

Update, July 1, 2018

There was reference to my Takahashi review on LENR Forum, placed there by Alain Coetmeur, which is appreciated. He misspelled my name. Ah, well!

Some comments from there:

Alan Smith wrote:

Abd wrote to Akito Takahashi elsewhere.

“I am especially encouraged by the appearance of a systematic approach, and want to encourage that.”

A presumptuous comment for for somebody who is not an experimenter to make to a distinguished scientist running a major project don’t you think? I think saying ‘the appearance’ really nails it. He could do so much better.

That comment was on a private mailing list, and Smith violated confidentiality by publishing it. However, no harm done — other than by his showing no respect for list rules.

I’ll point out that I was apparently banned on LENR Forum, in early December, 2016, by Alan Smith. The occasion was shown by my last post. For cause explained there, and pending resolution of the problem (massive and arbitrary deletions of posts — by Alan Smith — without notice or opportunity for recovery of content), I declared a boycott. I was immediately perma-banned, without notice to me or the readership.

There was also an attempt to reject all “referrals” to LENR Forum from this blog, which was easily defeated and was then abandoned. But it showed that the problem on LF was deeper than Alan Smith, since that took server access. Alan Coetmeur (an administrator there) expressed helplessness, which probably implicated the owner, and this may have all been wrapped in support for Andrea Rossi.

Be that as it may, I have excellent long-term communication with Dr. Takahashi. I was surprised to see, recently, that he credited me in a 2013 paper for “critical comments,” mistakenly as “Dr. Lomax”, which is a fairly common error (I notified him I have no degree at all, much less a PhD.) In that comment quoted by Smith, “appearance” was used to mean “an act of becoming visible or noticeable; an arrival,” not as Smith interpreted it. Honi soit qui mal y pense.

I did, in the review, criticize aspects of the report, but that’s my role in the community, one that I was encouraged to assume, not by myself alone, but by major researchers who realize that the field needs vigorous internal criticism and who have specifically and generously supported me to that end.

Shane D. wrote:

Abd does not have much good to say about the report, or the presentation delivery.

For those new to the discussion, this report…the result of a collaboration between Japanese universities, and business, has been discussed here under various threads since it went public. Here is a good summation: January 2018 Nikkei article about cold fusion

Overall, my fuller reaction was expressed here, on this blog post. I see that the format (blog post here, detailed review as the page linked from LF) made that less visible, so I’ll fix that. The Nikkei article is interesting, and for those interested in Wikipedia process, that would be Reliable Source for Wikipedia. Not that it matters much!

Update July 3, 2018

I did complain to a moderator of that private list, and Alan edited his comment, removing the quotation. However, what he replaced it with is worse.

I really like Akito. Wonderful man. And a great shame Abd treats his work with such disdain.

I have long promoted the work of Akito Takahashi, probably the strongest theoretician working on the physics of LENR. His experimental work has been of high importance, going back decades. It is precisely because of his position in the field that I was careful to critique his report. The overall evaluation was quite positive, so Smith’s comment is highly misleading.

Not that I’m surprised to see this from him. Smith has his own agenda, and has been a disaster as a LENR Forum moderator. While he may have stopped the arbitrary deletions, he still, obviously, edits posts without showing any notice.

This was my full comment on that private list (I can certainly quote myself!)

Thanks, Dr. Takahashi. Your report to ICCF-21 was of high interest, I have reviewed it here:

http://coldfusioncommunity.net/iccf-21/abstracts/review/takahashi/

I am especially encouraged by the appearance of a systematic approach, and want to encourage that.

When the full report appears, I hope to write a summary to help promote awareness of this work.

I would be honored by any corrections or comments.

Disdain? Is Smith daft?

Takahashi

subpage of iccf-21/abstracts/review/

Overall reaction to this presentation is in a blog post. This review goes over each slide with comments, and may seem overly critical. However, from the post:

. . . this is better hot-hydrogen LENR work than I’ve seen anywhere before. 

Abstract

Research Status of Nano-Metal Hydrogen Energy

Akito Takahashi1, Akira Kitamura16, Koh Takahashi1, Reiko Seto1, Yuki Matsuda1, Yasuhiro Iwamura4, Takehiko Itoh4, Jirohta Kasagi4, Masanori Nakamura2, Masanobu Uchimura2, Hidekazu Takahashi2,
Shunsuke Sumitomo2, Tatsumi Hioki5, Tomoyoshi Motohiro5, Yuichi Furuyama6, Masahiro Kishida3,
Hideki Matsune3
1Technova Inc., 2Nissan Motors Co., 3Kyushu University, 4Tohoku University, 5Nagoya University and
6Kobe University

Two MHE facilities at Kobe University and Tohoku University and a DSC (differential
scanning calorimetry) apparatus at Kyushu University have been used for excess-heat
generation tests with various multi-metal nano-composite samples under H(or D)-gas
charging. Members from 6 participating institutions have joined in planned 16 times
test experiments in two years (2016-2017). We have accumulated data for heat generation
and related physical quantities at room-temperature and elevated- temperature conditions,
in collaboration. Cross-checking-style data analyses were made in each party and
compared results for consistency. Used nano-metal composite samples were PS(Pd-SiO2)
-type ones and CNS(Cu-Ni-SiO2)-type ones, fabricated by wet-methods, as well as PNZ
(Pd-Ni-Zr)-type ones and CNZ(Cu-Ni-Zr)-type ones, fabricated by melt-spinning and
oxidation method. Observed heat data for room temperature were of chemical level.

Results for elevated-temperature condition: Significant level excess-heat evolution data
were obtained for PNZ-type, CNZ-type CNS-type samples at 200-400℃ of RC (reaction
chamber) temperature, while no excess heat power data were obtained for single nanometal
samples as PS-type and NZ-type. By using binary-nano-metal/ceramics-supported
samples as melt-span PNZ-type and CNZ-type and wet-fabricated CNS-type, we
observed excess heat data of maximum 26,000MJ per mol-H(D)-transferred or 85 MJ
per mol-D of total absorption in sample, which cleared much over the aimed target value
of 2MJ per mol-H(D) required by NEDO. Excess heat generation with various Pd/Ni
ratio PNZ-type samples has been also confirmed by DSC (differential scanning
calorimetry) experiments, at Kyushu University, using very small 0.04-0.1g samples at
200 to 500℃ condition to find optimum conditions for Pd/Ni ratio and temperature. We
also observed that the excess power generation was sustainable with power level of 10-
24 W for more than one month period, using PNZ6 (Pd1Ni10/ZrO2) sample of 120g at
around 300℃. Detail of DSC results will be reported separately. Summary results of
material analyses by XRD, TEM, STEM/EDS, ERDA, etc. are to be reported elsewhere.


Slides

ICCF21AkitoTakahashippt

REVIEW

  • Page 1: ResearchGate cover page
  • Page 2: Title
  • Page 3: MHE Aspect: Anomalously large heat can be generated by the
    interaction of nano-composite metals and H(D)-gas.
  • Page 4Candidate Reaction Mechanism: CCF/TSC-theory by Akito Takahashi


This is a summary of Takahashi TSC theory. Takahashi found that the rate of 3D fusion in experiments where PdD was bombarded by energetic deuterons was enhanced 10^26, as I recall, over naive plasma expectation. This led him to investigate multibody fusion. 4D, to someone accustomed to thinking of plasma fusion, may seem ridiculously unlikely; however, this is actually only two deuterium molecules. We may image two deuterium molecules approaching each other in a plasma and coming to rest at the symmetric position as they are slowed by repulsion of the electron clouds. However, this cannot result in fusion in free space, because the forces would dissociate the molecules, they would slice each other in two. However, in confinement, where the dissociating force may be balanced by surrounding electron density, it may be possible. Notable features: the Condensate that Takahashi predicts includes the electrons. Fusion then occurs by tunneling to 100% within about a femtosecond; Takahashi uses Quantum Field Theory to predict the behavior. To my knowledge, it is standard QFT, but I have never seen a detailed review by someone with adequate knowledge of the relevant physics. Notice that Takahashi does not detail how the TSC arises. We don’t know enough about the energy distribution of deuterium in PdD to do the math. Because the TSC and resulting 8Be are so transient, verifying this theory could be difficult.

Takahashi posits a halo state resulting from this fusion that allows the 8Be nucleus, with a normal half-life of around a femtosecond, to survive long enough to radiate most of the energy as a Burst of Low-Energy Photons (BOLEP), and suggests a residual energy per resulting helium nucleus of 40 – 50 KeV, which is above the Hagelstein limit, but close enough that some possibility remains. (This energy left is the mass difference of the ground state for 8Be over two 4He nuclei.)

Notice that Takahashi does not specify the nature of the confining trap that allows the TSC to arise. From experimental results, particularly where helium is found, the reaction takes place on the surface, not in the bulk, so the trap must only be found on (or very near) the surface. Unless a clear connection is shown, this theory is dicta, not really related to the meat of the presentation, experimental results.

  • Page 5: Comparison of Energy-Density for Various Sources.  We don’t need this fluff. (The energy density, if “cold fusion” is as we have found, is actually much higher, because it is a surface reaction, but density is figured for the bulk. Bulk of what? Not shown. Some LENR papers present a Rankin diagram, which is basically the same. It’s preaching to the choir; it was established long ago and is not actually controversial: if “cold fusion” is real, it could have major implications, providing practical applications can be developed, which remains unclear. What interests us (i.e., the vast majority of those at an ICCF conference) is two-fold: experimental results, rather than complex interpretations, and progress toward control and reliability.
  • Page 6: Comparison of Various Energy Resources. Please, folks, don’t afflict this on us in what is, on the face, an experimental report. What is given in this chart is to some extent obvious, to some extent speculative. We do not know the economics of practical cold fusion, because it doesn’t exist yet. When we present it, and if this is seen by a skeptic, it confirms the view that we are blinded by dreams. We aren’t. There is real science in LENR, but the more speculation we present, the more resistance we create. Facts, please!!!
  • Page 7. Applications to Society. More speculative fluff. Where’s the beef? (I don’t recall if I was present for this talk. There was at least one where I found myself in an intense struggle to stay awake, which was not helped by the habit of some speakers to speak in a monotone, with no visual or auditory cues as to what is important, and, as untrained speakers (most in the Conference, actually), no understanding of how to engage and inspire an audience. Public speaking is not part of the training of scientists, in general. Some are good at it and become famous. . . . ) (I do have a suggested solution, but will present it elsewhere.)
  • Page 8. Required Conditions to Application: COP, E-density, System-cost. More of the same. Remarkable, though: The minimum power level for a practical application shown is 1 KW. The reported present level is 5 to 20 W. Scientifically, that’s a high level, of high interest, and we are all eager to hear what they have done and found. However, practically, this is far, far from the goal. Note that low power, if reliable, can be increased simply by scaling up (either making larger reactors or making many of them; then cost may become an issue. This is all way premature, still.) By this time, if I was still in the room, I’m about to leave, afraid that I’ll actually fall asleep and start snoring. That’s a bit more frank and honest with our Japanese guest than I’d want to be. (And remember, my sense is that Takahashi theory is the strongest in the field, even if quite incomplete. Storms has the context end more or less nailed, but is weak on theory of mechanism. Hagelstein is working on many details, various trees of possible relevance, but still no forest.)

Page 9. NEDO-MHE Project, by6Parties.
Project Name: Phenomenology and Controllability of New
Exothermic Reaction between Metal and Hydrogen
Parties:Technova Inc., Nissan Motors Co., Kyushu U., Tohoku U., Nagoya U., Kobe U.
Period: October 2015 to October 2017 R. Fund:ca. 1.0 M USD
Aim :To verify existence of anomalous heat effect (AHE) in nano-metal and hydrogen-gas interaction and to seek controllability of effect
Done:New MHE-calorimetry system at Tohoku U. Collaboration experiments to verify AHE. Sample material analyses before and after runs. Study for industrial application

Yay! I’ll keep my peace for now on the “study for industrial application.” Was that part of the charge? It wasn’t mentioned.

Page 10. Major Results Obtained. 
1. Installation of new MHE calorimetry facility and collaborative tests
2. 16 collaborative test experiments to have verified the existence of AHE (Pd-Ni/ZrO2, CuNi/ZrO2)
3. generation of 10,000 times more heat than bulk-Pd H-absorption heat, AHE by Hydrogen, ca. 200 MJ/mol-D is typical case
4. Confirmation of AHE by DSC-apparatus with small samples

“Typical case” hides the variability. The expression of results in heat/moles of deuterium is meaningless without more detail. Not good. The use of differential scanning calorimetry  is of high interest.

  • Page 11. New MHE Facility at ELPH Tohoku U. (schematic) (photo)
  • Page 12. MHE Calorimetry Test System at Kobe University, since 2012 (photo)
  • Page 13. Schematics of MHE Calorimetry Test System at Kobe University, since 2012

System has 5 or 6 thermocouples (TC3 is not shown).

  • Page 14. Reaction Chamber (500 cc) and filler + sample; common for Tohoku and Kobe

Reaction chamber is the same for both test systems. It contains 4 RTDs.

  • Page 15. Melt-Spinning/Oxidation Process for Making Sample
  • Page 16Atomic composition for Pd1Ni10/ZrO2 (PNZ6, PNZ6r) and Pd1Ni7/ZrO2 (PNZ7k)
  • Page 17. 6 [sic, 16?] Collaborative Experiments. Chart showing results from 14 listed tests, 8 from Kobe, 5 from Tohoku, and listing one DSC study from Kyushu.

These were difficult to decode. Some tests were actually two tests, one at RT (Room Temperature) and another at ET (Elevated Temperature). Other than the DSC test, the samples tested were all different in some way, or were they?

  • Page 18. Typical hydrogen evolution of LM and power in PNZ6#1-1 phase at Room Temp. I have a host of questions. “LM” is loading (D/Pd*Ni), and is taken up to 3.5. Pressure?

“20% difference between the integrated values evaluated from TC2 and those
from RTDav : due to inhomogeneity of the 124.2-g sample distributed in the
ZrO2 [filler].” How do we know that? What calibrations were done? Is this test 14 from Page 17? If so, the more optimistic result was included in the table summary. The behavior is unclear.

Page 19. Using Same Samples divided(CNZ5=Cu1Ni7/ZrO2)100g, parallel tests. This would be test 4 (Kobe, CNZ5), test 6 (Tohoku, CNZ5s)

The labs are not presenting data in the same format. It is unclear what is common and what might be different. The behaviors are not the same, regardless, which is suspicious if the samples are the same and they are treated the same. The difference, then, could be in the calorimetry or other aspects of the protocol not controlled well. The input power is not given in the Kobe plot. (This is the power used to maintain elevated temperature). It is in the Tohoku plot, it is 80 W, initially, then is increased to 134 W.

“2~8W of AHE lasted for a week at Elevated Temp. (H-gas)” is technically sort-of correct for the Kobe test (i.e., between 2 and 8 watts of AHP (this is power, not energy)  started out at 8 W average and declined steadily until it reached 2 W after 3.5 days. Then it held at roughly this level for three days, then there is an unexplained additional brief period at about 4 W. The Tohoku test showed higher power, but quite erratically. After almost rising to 5 W, for almost a day, it collapsed to zero, then rose to 2 W. Then, if this is plotted correctly, the input power was increased to raise the temperature. (for an environmental temperature, which  this was intended to be, the maintenance power is actually irrelevant, it should be thermostatically controlled — and recorded, of course. Significant XP would cause a reduction in maintenance power, as a check. But if they used constant maintenance power, then we would want to know the environment temperature, which should rise with XP. But only a little in this experiment, XP being roughly 2% of heating power. At about 240 hours, the XP jumped to about 3.5 W. I have little confidence in the reliability of this data, without knowing much more than is presented.

Page 20. 14-th Coll. Test(PNZ6): Largest AHE Data 

“Wex: 20W to 10W level excess-power lasted for a month.” This is puffery, cherry-picking data from a large set to create an impressive result. Yes, we would want to know the extremes, but both extremes, and we would even more want to know what is reliable and reproducible. This work is still “exploratory,” it is not designed, so far, to develop reliability and confidence data. The results so far are erratic, indicating poor control. Instead of using one material — it would not need to be the “best” — they have run a modest number of tests with different materials. Because of unclear nomenclature, it’s hard to say how many were different. One test is singled out as being the same material in two batches. I’d be far more interested in the same material in sixteen batches, all with an effort that they be thoroughly mixed, as uniform as possible, before dividing them. Then I’d want to see the exact same protocol run, as far as possible, in the sixteen experiments. Perhaps the only difference would be the exact calorimetric setup, and I’d want to see dummy runs in both setups with “fuel” not expected to be nuclear-active.

One of the major requirements for calorimetric work, too often neglected, is to understand the behavior of the calorimeter thoroughly, across the full range of experimental conditions. This is plodding work, boring. But necessary.

  • Page 21. Excess power, Wex, integrated excess heat per metal atom, Ea (keV/a-M), and
    excess energy per hydrogen isotope atom absorbed/desorbed, ηav,j (keV/aD(H)),
    in RT and ET phases evaluated by TC2 temp. Re-calcined PNZ6.
  • Page 22. Peculiar evolution of temperature in D-PNZ6r#1-2 phase: Re-calcined PNZ6
  • Page 23. PNZ5r sample: baking (#0) followed by #1 – #3 run (Rf = 20 ccm mostly)
  • Page 24Local large heat:Pd/Ni=1/7, after re-calcination of PNZ5. Uses average of RTDs rather than flow thermocouple.
  • Page 25. Excess heat-power evolution for D and H gas: Re-calcined PNZ5.
  • Page 26. About 15 cc 100g PNZ5r powder + D2 gas generated over 100 MJ/mol-D anomalous excess heat:
    Which is 5,000 times of 0.02 MJ/mol-D by PdD formation! More fluff, that assumes there is no systematic error, distracting from the lack of a consistent experiment repeated many times, and that this is not close to commercial practicality. I was really hoping that they had moved into reliability study.
  • Page 27. Radiations and flow rate of coolant BT400; n and gamma levels are natural BG. No radiation above background.
  • Page 28. Excess Power Evolution by CNS2(Cu1Ni7/meso-silica). Appears to show four trials with that sample, from 2014, i.e., before the project period. Erratic results.
  • Page 29. Sample Holder/Temperature-Detection of DSC Apparatus Kyushu University; M. Kishida, et al. photo)
  • Page 30. DSC Measuring Conditions: Kyushu University.
    Sample Amount: 40~100 mg
    Temperature : 25 ~ 550 ℃
    Temp. Rise Rate: 5 ℃/min
    Hydrogen Flow: 70 ml/min
    Keeping Temp.: 200~550 ℃,mainly 450℃
    Keeping Period: 2 hr ~ 24 hr,mostly 2hr
    Blank Runs : He gas flow
    Foreground Runs: H2 gas flow

See Wikipedia, Differential Scanning Calorimetry. I don’t like the vague variations: “mainly,” “mostly.” But we’ll see.

  • Page 31. DSC Experiments at Kyushu University. No Anomalous Heat was observed for Ni and ZrO2 samples.
  • Page 32. DSC Experiments at Kyushu University. Anomalous Heat was observed for PNZ(Pd1Ni7/ZrO2 samples. Very nice, clear. 43 mW/gram. Consistency across different sample sizes?
  • Page 33. Results by DSC experiments: Optimum running temperature For Pd1Ni7/zirconia sample.
  • Page 34. Results by DSC experiments; Optimum Pd/Ni Ratio. If anyone doesn’t want more data before concluding that 1:7 is optimal, raise your hand. Don’t be shy! We learn fastest when we are wrong. They have a decent number of samples at low ratio, with the heat increasing with the Ni, but then only one data point above the ratio of 7. That region is of maximum interest if we want to maximize heat. One point can be off for many reasons, and, besides, where is the actual maximum? As well, the data for 7 could be the bad point. It actually looks like the outlier. Correlation! Don’t leave home without it. Gather lots of data with exact replication or a single variable . Science! Later, on P. 44, Takahashi provides a possible explanation for an optimal value somewhere around 1:7., but the existence of an “explanation” does not prove the matter.
  • Page 35. Summary Table of Integrated Data for Observed Heat at RT and ET. 15 samples. The extra one is PNZt, the first listed.
  • Page 36. Largest excess power was observed by PNZ6 (Pd1Ni10/ZrO2) 120g.  That was 25 W. This contradicts the idea that the optimal Pd/Ni ratio is 1:7, pointing to a possible flyer in the DSC data at Pd/Ni 1:7, which was used for many experiments. It is possible from the DSC data, then, that 100% Ni would have even higher power results (or 80 or 90%). Except for that single data point, power was increasing with Ni ratio, consistently and clearly. (I’d want to see a lot more data points, but that’s what appears from what was done.) This result (largest) was consistent between #1 and #2. I’m assuming that (“#”) means two identical subsamples.
  • Page 37. Largest heat per transferred-D, 270 keV/D was observed by PNZ6r (re-oxidized). This result was not consistent between #1 and #2.
  • Page 38. STEM/EDS mapping for CNS2 sample, showing that Ni and Cu atoms are included in the same pores of the mp-silica with a density ratio approximately equal to the mixing ratio.
  • Page 39. Pd-Ni nano-structure components are only partial [partial what?] (images)
  • Page 40. Obtained Knowledge. I want to review again before commenting much on this. Optimal Pd/Ni was not determined. The claim is no XE for pure Pd. I don’t see that pure Ni was tested. (I.e., PZ) Given that the highest power was seen at the highest Ni:Pd (10), that’s a major lacuna.
  • Page 41. 3. Towards Application(next-R&D).
    Issue / Subjective [Objective?] / Method
    Increase Power / Present ca. 10W to 500-1000W or more / Increase reaction rate
    ・temperature, pressure
    ・increase sample nano
    ・high density react. site
    Enhance COP / Now 1.2; to 3.0~5.0
    Control / Find factors, theory / Speculation by experiments, construct theory
    Lower cost / Low cost nanocomposites / Optimum binary, lower cost fabrication

I disagree that those are the next phase. The first phase would ideally identify and confirm a reasonably optimal experiment. That is not actually complete, so completing it would be the next phase. This completion would use DSC to more clearly and precisely identify an optimal mixture (with many trials). A single analytical protocol would be chosen and many experiments run with that single mixture and protocol. Combining this with exploration, in attempt to “improve,” except in a very limited and disciplined way, will increase confusion. The results reported already show very substantial promise. 10-25 watts, if that can be shown to be reasonably reliable and predictable, is quite enough. Higher power at this point could make the work much more complex, so keep it simple.

Higher power then, could be easy, by scaling up, and then, as well, increasing COP could be easy by insulating the reactor to reduce heat loss rate. With sufficient scale and insulation, the reaction should be able to become self-sustaining, i.e., maintaining the necessary elevated environmental temperature with its own power.

Theory of mechanism is almost completely irrelevant at this point. Once there is an identified lab rat, then there is a test bed for attempting to verify — or rule out — theories. Without that lab rat, it could take centuries. At this point, as well, low cost (i.e., cost of materials and processing) is not of high significance. It is far more important at this time to create and measure reliability. Once there is a reliable experiment, as shown by exact and single-variable replications, then there is a standard to apply in comparing variables and exploring variations, and cost trade-0ffs can be made. But with no reliable reactor, improving cost is meaningless.

This work was almost there, could have been there, if planned to complete and validate a lab rat. DSC, done just a little more thoroughly, could have strongly verified an optimal material. It is a mystery to me why the researchers settled on Pd/Ni of 7. (I’m not saying that’s wrong, but it was not adequately verified, as far as what is reported in the presentation.

Within a design that was still exploratory, it makes sense, but moving from exploration to confirmation and measuring reliability is a step that should not be skipped, or the probability is high that millions of dollars in funding could be wasted, or at least not optimally used. One step at a time wins, in the long run.

APPENDIX ON THEORETICAL MODELS

  • Page 42. Brief View of Theoretical Models, Akito Takahashi, Professor Emeritus Osaka U. For appendix of 2016-9-8 NEDO hearing. (title page)
  • Page 43. The Making of Mesoscopic Catalyst To Scope CMNR AHE on/in Nano-Composite particles.
  • Page 44. Binary-Element Metal Nano-Particle Catalyst. This shows the difference between Ni/Pd 3 and Ni/Pd 7, at the size of particle being used. An optimal ratio might vary with particle size, following this thinking. Studying this would be a job for DSC.
  • Page 45SNH will be sites for TSC-formation. To say that more generically, these would be possible Nuclear Active environment (NAE). I don’t see that “SNH” is defined, but it would seem to refer to pores in a palladium coating on a nickel nanoparticle, creating possible traps.
  • Page 46. Freedom of rotation is lost for the first trapped D2, and orthogonal coupling
    with the second trapped D2 happens because of high plus charge density localization
    of d-d pair and very dilute minus density spreading of electrons. Plausible.
  • Page 47. TSC Langevin Equation. This equation is from “Study on 4E/Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate Condensation Motion by Non-Linear Lengevin Equation,” Akito Takahashi and Norio Yabuuchi, in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook, American Chemical Society and Oxford University Press, ed. Marwan and Krivit (2008) — not 2007 as shown. See also “Development status of condensed cluster
    fusion theory” Akito Takahashi, Current Science, 25 February, 2015, and Takahashi, A.. “Dynamic Mechanism of TSC Condensation Motion,” in ICCF-14, 2008.
  • Page 48. (plots showing simulations, first, oscillation of Rdd (d-d separation in pm) and Edd  (in ev), with a period of roughly 10 fs, and, second, “4D/TSC Collapse”, which takes about a femtosecond from a separation of about 50 pm to full collapse, Rdd shown as 20 fm.)
  • Page 49. Summary of Simulation Results. for various multibody configurations. (Includes muon-catalyzed fusion.)
  • Page 50.  Trapped D(H)s state in condensed cluster makes very enhanced fusion rate. “Collision Rate Formula UNDERESTIMATES fusion rate of steady molecule/cluster/” Yes, it would, i.e., using plasma collision rates.
  • Page 51. This image is a duplicate of Page 4, reproduced above.
  • Page 52. TSC Condensation Motion; by the Langevin Eq.: Condensation Time = 1.4 fs for 4D and 1.0 fs for 4H Proton Kinetic Energy INCREASES as Rpp decreases.
  • Page 53. 4H/TSC will condense and collapse under rather long time chaotic oscilation Near weak nuclear force enhanced p-e distance.
  • Page 544H/TSC Condensation Reactions. collapse to 4H, emission of electron and neutrino (?) to form 4Li*, prompt decay to 3He + p. Color me skeptical, but maybe. Radiation? 3He (easily detectable)?
  • Page 55. Principle is Radiation-Less Condensed Cluster Fusion. Predictions, see “Nuclear Products of Cold Fusion by TSC Theory,” Akito Takahashi, J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci. 15 (2015, pp 11-22).

Fake facts and true lies

This a little “relax after getting home” exploration of a corner of Planet Rossi, involving Mats Lewan — but, it turns out, only very peripherally –, Frank Acland’s interview of Andrea Rossi just the other day (June 11), and some random comments on E-Cat World, easily categorized under the time-wasting “Someone is wrong on the internet.” (more…)

Ask ICCF-21 Questions Here

ICCF-21-detailed-agenda/

I am taking questions for conference presenters on this page. You may request that a question be addressed to a specific speaker or presenter, and I will communicate the question and I will bring answers back to this blog. The Conference is shaping up to be a breakthrough event. There is far more major CMNS activity under way than is generally publicly announced.

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ICCF-21 Detailed Agenda

IICF-21 Detailed Agenda =  (original on ICCF-21 web site)

SHORT COURSE SPEAKERS (Sunday 3 June 2018)

  • 10:00 Introduction and Issues, David Nagel
  • 10:40 Electrochemical Loading, Michael McKubre
  • 11:20 Gas Loading, Jean-Paul Biberian
  • 12:00 Lunch
  • 13:30 Calorimetry and Heat Data, Dennis Letts
  • 14:10 Transmutation Data, Mahadeve (Chino) Srinivasan
  • 14:50 Break
  • 15:10 Materials Challenges, M. Ashraf Imam
  • 15:50 Theoretical Considerations, Peter Hagelstein
  • 16:30 Commercialization, Dana Seccombe & Steve Katinsky
  • 17:00 (end)

REGULAR CONFERENCE PROGRAM

18:00 Reception

20:00 Lounge