Subpage of Proceedings/ICCF-2
See the Proceedings page supra for links to copies of articles, where we have them.
From http://newenergytimes.com/v2/archives/fic/F/F199204.pdf (Fusion Facts, April 1992).
B. LISTING & ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS IN THE SCIENCE OF COLD FUSION: PROCEEDINGS OF THE II ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON COLD FUSION
June 29-July 4, 1991 in Como, Italy; Edited by T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, & G. Preparata.
Order from Societa Italiana di Fisica, Redazione, Via L. Degli Andalo, 2 , 40124 Bologna, BO, Italy ($110 by air mail.)
Note: The following authors, titles, abstracts are listed in the order they appear in the book:
ITALY – 17% EXCESS HEAT
L. Bertalot, L. Bettanali, F. De Marco, V. Violante (ENEA, Dipartimento Fusione, CentroRicerche Energia Frascati, Rome, Italy), P.DeLogu, T. DikominosMakris,A. La Barbera (ENEA, Dipartimento Inn-PCM Rome, Italy), “Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells with Pd Cathodes,” The Science of Cold Fusion, Proceedings of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, Como, Italy, June 29-July 4, 1991, pp 3-7, 4 refs, 3 figs, 1 table.
A series of electrochemical cells was set up mainly with the objective of tritium detection. In the frame work of a collaboration with the Texas A&M University also some calorimetric measurement were carried out. In the experiments aimed to tritium analysis particular care was given to a clear assembling of the cells and to avoid possible tritium contamination. Nine cells were installed with different materials and
geometry. No tritium in excess of the isotopic enrichment was detected. Post mortem surface analysis shows contamination of the Pd surface. In the calorimetric experiments, one cell out of three gave about 17% of excess heat for ten days, corresponding to 55 kJ.
SPAIN – CATHODE SURFACE ANALYSIS
J. Brillas, G. Sardin (Universitat de Barcelona), J. Casado, X.
Domenech, & J.A. Sanchez-Cabeza (Universitat Autonoma Barcelona),
“Product Analysis from D2O Electrolysis with Palladium and Titanium
Cathodes,” pp 9-13, 4 refs.
The possible generation of tritium in the electrolyte and the incorporation of species such as tritium, lithium and platinum to cathodes during the electrolysis of 0.1M LiOD solutions with Pd and Ti cathodes and Pt anodes at low and high current densities have been studied by means of different techniques.
SPAIN – PHASE TRANSITION IN Ti
B.Escarpizo, F. Fernandez,J. Sevilla, F. Cuevas and C. Sanchez (Dept of Applied Physics, U. Autonoma de Madrid), “Solid State and Electrochemical Phenomena Related to Cold Fusion in Titanium,” pp 15-20, 2 refs,5 figs.
We therefore can conclude from the content of this communication that: Deuteration of Ti cathodes in electrolytic cold fusion experiments seems to take place in only the first grain layer. Grain boundaries seem to be barriers for the propagation of Deuterium in the next grain layer.Differences in behavior are found between the hydrides formed in acid and basic electrolytes. In basic media, used by most of the authors, the deuterated grains release from the cathode and a new and clean surface of Ti appears periodically.
ITALY – MULTI-CELL EXPERIMENTS
D. Gozzi, P.L. Cignini and M. Tomellini (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita “La Sapienza”, Roma, Italy), S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice and G.M. Urciuoli (Lab. di Fisica, Istit. Superiore di Sanita and Sezione INFN, Roma, Italy, “Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-related Events in Cold Fusion,” pp 21-47, 15 refs, 12 figs, 4 tables.
A new ten-electrochemical cell experiment is running in order to confirm previous results and to understand the key role of some experimental parameter sin triggering cold fusion events. The experiment is designatedt odetect: a) heatexcess; b) loading factor by in situ measurement of the cathode displacement; c) nuclear products: neutrons, tritium in the electrolytic solution and in the recombined heavy water, gamma-rays; d) effect of the palladium electrode preparation. To measure th eheat excess, a calibration curve of the input power vs. the temperature of the solution was obtained for cells equal in the shape, materials and in the same experimental condition in which the experiment is now running. The unique difference lays in the cathode. The cathode used in the calibration measurements was made of palladium rod gold-plated by electrochemicald eposition. The growth of the gold layer was carefully controlled by microprobe analysis to be sure that all of the palladium cathode surface was covered by gold. After that a further deposition of gold was done. In the multicell experiment one of the ten cells is a calibration cell previously utilized. This allows to have both a blank and to control the stability of the calibration curve. Two cells out of the ten are equipped by micro-displacement transducers which allow to measure the palladium swelling,caused by the deuterium loading, with at least 0.1 micrometer resolution. Neutron detector is a He proportional counter, the same used in the previous experiments, but
the data acquisition is now implemented by a fast pulse-shape storage and off-line discrimination for very accurate counting. The gamma-ray detection has also been improved by using a more efficient high purityGe detector and a large NaI(Ti) monocrystal detector. Each of the cathodes is different from the others in shape, dimension, and preparation.
CHINA – RESEARCH SUMMARY
Zhou Hongyu, Wen Chenlin, Rong Yanin, Fan Guoying, Yan Hua, Zhou Weidong, Wang Dachun,Hua Ming, Liu Shuzhen and Han Zhuen (Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University). Wu Zhongda, Yu Runhu and Liu Zhanghao (Chemical Department, Beijing Normal University), Ren Guoxiao (Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), “Some Results on Cold Fusion Research,” pp 49-54, 6 refs, 4 figs.
Anomalous nuclear effects in Pd+Ti+D2 system were investigated by means of a double liquid scintillator system. A recoil proton spectrum of 2.45MeV neutrons was obtained from heavy water electrolysis
experiment using Pd as cathode. Burst neutrons and random neutron emissions were observed in discharge experiments and temperature cycle experiments for Pd+Ti+D2 system.
HAWAII – MOLTEN SALT UPDATE
Bor Yann Liaw, Peng-Long Tao, and Bruce E.Liebert* (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, and *Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hawaii), “Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques,” pp 55-64, 17 refs, 11 figs, 2 tables.
We have demonstrated a novel elevated-temperature molten salt technique for generating high-level excess heat. More than 4MJ/mole D2 of excess heat, at least 600% over the input power, was measured in two incidents using a torched Pd anode and an aluminum alloy cathode merged in a eutectic LiCl-KCl mixture saturated with excessive LiD at about 370 C. No thermochemical explanation can account for this excess heat. Measurements on the hydrogen based system showed normal endothermal behaviors. The Pd samples were later examined for their morphological behaviors and for He analysis. A very porous microstructure of the samples was found. Electrolysis and deuteriding processes changed the morphology substantially. Enhancement of alpha-particles in the deuterated sample was detected while the hydrated sample showed an opposite effect. The amount of the alpha-particles in the sample, however, were not commensurate with the measured excess heat. On-line neutron (using BYU facility) and particle measurements (using ETEC/Rockwell facility) were planned and at work. Reproducibility of the experiments is poor to date.
ITALY – GOOD TRITIUM DATA
G.Mengoli, M. Fabrizio (IPELP-CNR, Padova, Italy), C. Manduchi, G. Zannoni, L. Riccardi, (Dip. Fisica “G. Galelei”, Padova, Italy), A. Buffa (IGI-CNR, Padova, Italy) “Tritium and neutron emission in conventional and contact glow discharge electrolyses of D2O at Pd and Ti Cathodes” (work performed in collaboration with ENEA-Frascati), pp 65-70, 4 figs.
We recently found that the level of3H in D2O / 0.1 M LiOD solutions electrolyzed at Pd sheet cathodes increased, although sporadically (<20%), till an order of magnitude over background, we indeed used D2O with very low background. The surface of a Pd sheet cathode (1 x 1 x 0.5 cm3) which gave apparent generation of 3H had developed localized swelling with deep pitting underneath; if this phenomenon was relating with 3H, the latter was likely formed by means of a near- surface process, which might be easier to reproduce if electrodes of relatively larger dimensions are utilized. The experimental design adopted for the four conventional electrolytic runs hereafter described was mostly in agreement with the above consideration. We are also reporting on contact glow discharge electrolyses (CGDE) aimed at inducing critical conditions at/in the metal deuteride cathode.
JAPAN – LARGE Pd CATHODE RESULTS
H. Numata, I. Ohno (Tokyo Institute of Technology), R, Takagi (Research Lab. for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo), K. Kawamura (Inst. of R&D, Takai Univ., Kanagawa), S. Haruyama (Tokyo National Col. Of Tech., Tokyo, JAPAN), “Neutron Emission and Surface Observation during a Long-term Evolution of Deuterium on Pd in 0.1 M LiOD,” pp 71-80, 16 refs, 13 figs. 2 tables.
Long-term electrolysis for well annealed thick Pd rods (9.0 and 21.2 mm phi) in 0.1M LiOD have been performed to examine anomalous phenomena;neutron emission and heat bursts. The count rate of neutron (CRN) bunched for 3 h showed no significant increase at low current densities. High CRN appeared a few days later after the current increased to 102.4 mA/cm2 and the temperature was raised to 50°C. In two experiments CRN and neutron energy spectrum of 2.45 MeV was reproduced. Metallographic observation showed two faults, blisters, cross slips and holes on Pd surface and a raw [row] of defects in a recrystallized grain. Microstructural changes of Pd electrode during long-term electrolysis is discussed.
JAPAN – NEUTRON BURSTS
Y. Fujii, N. Takahashi, M. Nakada, T. Kusunoki, M. Okamoto, “Anomalous Neutron Burst in Heavy Water Electrolysis,” pp 81-85, 1 ref, 4 figs, 1 table.
Anomalous neutron burst has been detected in heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode. The burst events occurred five times periodically for ca. 140 hours. The numbers of the burst neutrons increased gradually from 5.3–(the 1st event/10 min.) to 135–(the 5th event/10min.) and the last event continued for 50 min. and gave 1779 neutrons to the five 3He neutron counters of 1% detection efficiency. The reproducibility has been examined three times, but any further event did not occur.
CALIFORNIA – NAVY – Pd ELECTRODEPOSITION
S. Szpak, P.A. Mosier-Boss (NOSC, San Diego, CA) & J.J. Smith (DoE, Washington, D.C.), “Reliable Procedure for the Initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons Effect,” pp 87-91, 5 refs, 5 figs.
Statistics on the initiation of the Fleischmann-Pons effect are rather poor. Reports presented at The First Annual Conference on Cold Fusion have indicated that, at best, only about 1 out of 10 attempts were successful in either producing excess enthalpy or yielding products associated with nuclear reaction(s). Recently, [S. Szpak et al., J. Electroanal Chem, 302, 255 (1991)] we have shown that the Fleischmann-Pons effect can be reproducibly and rapidly initiated by employing Pd electrodes prepared by the electrodeposition from Pd2+ salts in the presence of evolving deuterium. The effectiveness of this procedure is examined in terms of tritium production. Effects of deposit morphology, electrolyte composition and temperature on the rate of tritium production are discussed.
JAPAN – SUCCESS WITH PULSING
A. Takahashi, I. Iida, T. Takeuchi, A. Mega, S. Yoshida and M. Watanabe (Osaka University, Japan) “Neutron spectra and controllability by PdD/electrolysis cell with low-high current pulse operation,” pp 93-98, 5 refs, 4 figs.
Neutron spectra with two components (2.45 and 3-7 MeV) have been repeatedly observed by pulse electrolysis of D2O-Pd cell. Tritium production with (T/n) ratio 105 w as also confirmed with low-high current operation. These results are consistently explained with the products and byproducts in competing process of d-d and d-d-d fusions in PdD lattice.
COLORADO – PARTICLES FROM D-LOADED Ti
D.H. Beddingfield, F.E. Cecil, C.S. Galovich, H. Liu (Colorado School of Mines, USA) Sally Asher (Solar Energy Research Institute, USA), “Characterization of charged particle bursts from deuterium loaded thin Titanium foils,” pp 99-103, 2 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.
AUTHORS’ INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION
Following our recently reported observation of intense bursts of charged particles from deuterium gas load thin Titanium foils, we conducted a relatively exhaustive analysis of the samples involved in this study in order to better understand the has loading process, to characterize the elemental and structural properties of the samples, and to ascertain, if possible, any differences between those samples which evinced particle bursts and those which did not.
In conclusion, the studies which we have carried out on the hydrogen and deuterium gas loaded Titanium foils indicate that we employed a reliable and reproducible gas loading technique, capable of achieving gas-metal ratios of order unity to depths of at least several microns and probably more. No differences, however, were noted between those sample from which charged particle bursts were observed versus those which did not.
ITALY – D-Ti NEUTRON MEASUREMENTS
T. Bressani, D. Calvo, F. Iazzi, C. Lamberti and B. Minetti (INFI Sez di Torino, Italy) R. Cherubini, A.M.I. Haque and R.A. Ricci (Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy), “A Study of the Neutron Emission from Ti Loaded with D in Gas Phase by Means of a Time-of-Flight Spectrometer,” pp 105-111, 9 refs, 7 figs.
The final results of an experiment carried out in order to detect and measure the energy of the neutrons emitted from Ti metal loaded with D in gas phase are reported. A neutron spectrometer based on the time-of-flight and double scattering technique was used. We observed a 2.5 sigma signal for the emission of 2.45 MeV neutrons, corresponding to 1.3 +/- 0.5 neutrons s-1 g-1.
ITALY – FUSION IN SUPERCONDUCTORS
F. Celani, A. Spallone, L. Liberatori (INFN, Lab. Naz. Frascati, Roma Italy), F. Croce, L. Storelli (Univ. di Roma, Italy), S. Fortunati, M. Tului (CSM ILVA-IRI, Italy), N. Sparvieri (ALENIA-IRI, Italy), “Search for neutron emission from deuterided high temperature superconductors in a very low background environment,” pp 113-121, 16 refs, 4 figs.
Following the experiments performed with deuterided High Temperature SuperConductors (HTSC) at underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, we have learnt the capacity to absorb Deuterium (D) by these materials and the role played by non-equilibrium conditions to get neutron burst emissions in the framework of Cold Fusion. So far, some Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (YBCO) pellets and high pressure D2 gas were enclosed in stainless steal vessel and a charging-up procedure was performed. The vessel was put in a thermal neutrons field and some thermal cycles (300-> 77-> 300 K) were performed; moreover, for comparison, background and blank runs were performed. A specific acquisition system, able to detect multiple neutron signals in defined time-windows (“time-correlated events”), was set up. One thermal cycle run showed a large increase of time-correlated events in respect to the blanks; one other urn [run], although with no relevant mean-value increase of events detected, showed, on the other hand, one interesting multiple neutron signal (triple); other similar runs produced no relevant values. One-other kind of experiment, at constant temperature (300 K), characterized by a heavy D2 gas refill, showed both some increase of time-correlated events and few ‘triple’ neutron signals.
CHINA – SEARCH FOR CHARGED PARTICLES
Da-Wei Mo, Yi S. Liu, Li Y. Zhou, Shi Y. Dong, Ke L. Wang, Shi C. Wang, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, China), “Search for Precursor and Charged Particles in Cold Fusion,”pp 123-127, 6 refs, 5 figs.
It is clear that the energy of charged particle has a peak above the 5 MeV. It does not fit with any conventional binary D-D-> 4He+23.8 MeV, might give more energy, we had to assume an anomalous branching [ratio]. It is suggestive to use dE /dx detector for identification of the charged particles. If we assume that the low energy signals were caused by electromagnetic radiation, this was a good manifestation of precursor. We planned to use photo-electric diode for confirmation of this observation. Was there any mistake which might cause the fault signals? We were worried about this also. A good verification was that we did not detect any signals as before when the vessel sealing failed in one of the experiments.
ITALY – NEUTRONS AND TRITIUM
A. De Ninno, F. Scaramuzzi (ENEA, Areea Energia e Innovazione), A. Frattolillo, S. Migliori (ENEA, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione), F. Lanza (JRC Euratom), S. Scaglione (ENEA, Aea Energia e Innovazione), P. Zeppa (ENEA, Frascati, Italy), C. Pontorieri (ENEA student), “The Production of Neutrons and Tritium in Deuterium Gas- Titanium Interaction,” pp 129-137, 12 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.
The emission of neutrons from a titanium-deuterium gas system has been detected in experiments performedin the Springof 1989 [DeNinno et al. Europhysics Letters, 9, 221 (1989)]. One of the most striking features was the structure in bursts (duration of about 100 microsec) of the neutron emission. Using a detection system proposed by a Los Alamos Group [Menlove,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990, pg 250], suitable to analyze the structure in bursts of the emission, a preliminary set of measurements has been performed with satisfactory results [F. D’Amato et al.,Proc of First Ann Conf on Cold Fusion, Mar 1990,pg 170]. A better tailored detector is now in use in a low neutron background setup (INFN, Lab Nazionale del Gran Sasso). The first results of this experiment will be presented. Furthermore, the search for tritium excess in the samples used for neutron detection has been continued, with the technique described in above reference. Also these results will be reported.
CHINA – RESULTS FROM ION-IMPLANTATION
Shu Yun Duan, Wei Shu Guan, Shi Qing Cheng, Jun Zhang, Shu Li Hao, Biao Gu, Jia Quan Li, Wen Xue Liang, Guang Yang Zhang, Si Xiu Pei, Jun Cheng Huang, Kang Wei Cheng, Rong Liu, Xi Rong Liu, Ying Li (Southwestern Inst of Physics, Sichuan, China), “Fusion Neutron Emission Induced by Injection of Deuterium into Titanium Target in a Mirror Plasma,” pp 139-143, 2 refs, 4 figs.
A target, titanium sheet laden with deuterium, is immersed in the deuterium plasma confined in MM-2U magnetic mirror and the target is biased to a high negative voltage about 10 kv. The deuterium nuclei- deuterons are infused into the crystal structure of titanium target. After about three and a half hours’ implantation, random neutron emissions are observed and neutron bursts are measured by using two identical BF neutron detectors No. 1 and No. 2 located at different positions and a neutron dosimeter. The neutron count rates are 102 higher than the background rates of 0.8 counts/sec. It is corresponding to neutron flux of (2-5) x 105 neutron/sec. No gamma- ray counts above background are detected in our experiments. It is suggested that random neutron bursts may be from cold nuclear fusion reactions related to the propagation of microcracks of the metal lattice.
CHINA – NEUTRON BURSTS USING CR-39
Intense bursts of charged particles far larger than background have been reproducibly detected for the first time by using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector during either a high voltage discharge between deuterated palladium electrodes or a non-equilibrium out-diffusion of deuterons in palladium. Not any anomalous effects were found in the control experiments of Pd-H system under the same experimental conditions. This indicates that some anomalous nuclear effects were definitely produced in the Pd-D system under certain conditions.
ITALY – TRITIUM FROM TANTALUM
F. Lanza, G. Bertolini, V. Vocino, E. Parnisari, C. Ronsecco (Commission of the European Communities, Joint Res. Center, Ispra, Italy), “Tritium Production Resulting from Deuteration of Different Metals and Alloys,” pp 151-155, 9 refs, 2 tables.
Previous experiments have shown that tritium is produced in deuterated titanium. To define better the phenomenon a series of tests have been performed using various metals and alloys and different deuterating conditions. Sheets and shaving of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr 50% alloy have been tested. A statistical analysis of the tritium production shows that significant differences are obtained varying the type of metal used. Using pure metals the tritium production increases with the increase of the atomic number of the metal. Moreover higher productions of tritium have been obtained using materials of technical purity as tantalum, Zircaloy 2 and Ti-Zr alloy.
JAPAN – D2 GAS DISCHARGE & NEUTRONS
T. Tazima, K. Isii, & H. Ikegami (Nat’l Inst for Fusion Science,Nagoya, Japan), “Time-Correlated Neutron Detection from Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 157-
162, 5 refs, 4 figs.
Significant neutron bursts and good time-correlation between two independent neutron detection systems were observed in two kinds of experiments on cold fusion. One employed two palladium rods of 2 mm diameter and 5 cm length, deuterated under 1 atm for 30 days, and plasma discharge was applied as a trigger. The other was palladium shavings of 10 g deuterated under 11 atm for 40 days. The averaged background level was 5-6 counts/dwell time (100 s). In both cases, significant neutron emission of successive bursts of 13-60 counts/100 s were observed for several hours and repeated several times during 2-11 days in [some] cases.
CHINA – 2 PAPERS ON USING CR-39
Ke L. Wang, Xing Z. Li, Shi Y. Dong, Shi C. Wang, Da W. Mo, Cheng M. Luo, Qin R. Lin, Xiao D. Wu, Wei Z. Li, Yong F. Zhu, Ping L. Zhou, & Lee Chang (Tsinghua U, Beijing except Shi C. Wang – Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing, China), “Search for the Better Material for Cold Fusion Experiment Using CR-39 Detector,” pp 163-168, 4 refs, 4 figs, 1 table.
CR-39 (plastic track detector) has been proven to be a good detector in the research on cold fusion phenomena. It has high sensitivity and high efficiency in detection of energetic charged products of anomalous nuclear reactions. It does not need a high voltage power supply; hence, it is easy to use in the high pressure vessel of gas-loading experiments (Frascati type), and to eliminate the electronic noises. It has low background because the spurious signals due to cosmic ray can be discriminated by re-etching procedures. It can be run in batch and it is relatively cheap as well. Therefore, CR-39 technique is selected for wide-searching the better material for cold fusion. Different materials such as palladium from USA, Russia, and from different sources in China; pure titanium (in porous state), titanium alloys (e.g. V6-A16- Sn2); zirconium; nickel; lanthanum; and hydrogen-storage materials (such as LaNi5) are tested using CR-39. Preliminary results show that: (1) Russian palladium imported in 1950’s gives the highest yield of charged particles ( > 100 per sq cm per day). The Ti alloy (Ti-662) is not as good as Russian palladium (about 100 per sq cm per day), but it still has high repetition rate. Other materials give no evident signal distinct from background, which is less than 10 per sq cm per day. The yield becomes less and less after the first usage in the gas-loading experiment. (2) It is important to eliminate the contamination of the surface of the materials due to the radioactive impurities (e.g. uranium 238, radon’s daughter[s], et al.). However, it is possible to distinguish the real signal from the spurious by the shape of track in the microscopy
[of CR-39.] (3) Using vapor deposit technique to plate the Russian palladium on another surface did not give positive results. (4) Auger electron scanning probe reveals the complicated surface composition at various points on the palladium foil, although it is pure palladium inside the materials. This may explain the difficulty in reproducing the cold fusion phenomena. [May have some errors – copy quality of abstract was poor.]
SECOND CHINESE PAPER
Shi C. Wang & Tie S. Kang (Inst. of High Energy Physics), Ke L. Wang, Shi Y. Dong, Yu Y. Feng, Da W. Mo, Xing Z. Li (Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China), “Identification of the Energetic Charged Particles in Gas-Loading Experiment of “Cold Fusion” Using CR-39 Plastic Track Detector,” pp 169-173, 7 refs, 2 figs, 1 table.
CR-39 plastic track detectors have been used for searching for charged particles from deuterized palladium and titanium foils. Alpha particles, slowed to various energies from a Cf source were used for the calibration. Since high-pressure deuterium gas (up to 58 atm.) and low temperature (down to 77 K) may affect response of CR-39, the calibration was done in the condition which mimics experimental condition as closely as possible. Our results show that pre- and post-irradiation high-pressure deuterium gas and low temperature do not make significant difference of response of CR-39. A calibration curve was obtained, using a ‘restricted energy loss model’ of track formation, the etching behaviors of 3.22 MeV proton, 1.01 MeV triton, and 0.82 MeV helium-3 were predicted.
GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM TITANIUM
D. Seeliger, M. Bittner, A. Meister, R. Schwierz and T. Streil, “Evidence of Neutron Emission from a Titanium Deuterium System,” pp 175-179, 5 refs, 3 figs.
AUTHORS’ DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
In both experimental runs we have observed definite signs for a weak neutron production with a PRE spectrum, which corresponds to the assumption, that dd-neutrons have been detected. Following the paper of Jones et al., the reaction rates should be expressed in terms of the fusion rate lambdaDD per dd-pair per second. If we assume a full loading of the Tritanium, corresponding to TiDx with x = 2, the number of dd-pairs in the Titanium probe is equal to the number of Titanium atoms in it, which is equal to 7.28 x 1023. The fusion rate obtained is 6.6 x 10-25s-1, for the average and maximum effect, respectively. However, we have seen, that there is no correlation between the reaction rate NDD and the pressure p. This means that there is also no simple proportionality between NDD and the number of deuterons absorbed in the sample! In opposite, the present experiment gives some indication, that the dd-reaction rate is governed by dp, that means by the particle flow into the metal per second. [Maybe] even more pronounced is the dependence on p x dp, that means to the product of already absorbed deuterons and the additional flow of particles through the surface. This would be qualitatively in accordance with a simple [plasma] model of dd-fusion processes in condensed matter, published recently. However, direct quantitative application of this model in the present case is difficult, due to the complicated surface-to-volume geometry of the titanium turnings.
GERMANY – NEUTRONS FROM LARGE Pd
M. Bittner, A. Meister, D. Seeliger, R. Schwierz & P. Wüstner, “Observation of D-D Fusion Neutrons during Degassing of Deuterium Loaded Palladium,” pp 181-185, 6 refs, 2 figs.
The present experiment with a 0.5 kg palladium sample shows a definite excess neutron counting rate for [a] period of about 1 h. This period is just the time interval during which the deuterium is expulsed from the massive palladium sample. The energy of detected neutrons is near to 2.5 MeV, as expected for d-d fusion neutrons. Therefore the conclusion is obvious, that these neutrons are caused by the d-d fusion reaction. The neutron excess counting rate, which is time dependent, corresponds in its maximum to a d-d reaction rate of (3+/-) x 10-25 per second and deuteron pair.
ITALY – OVERSCREENING THEORY
Marcello Baldo (INFN, Catania, Italy), “Enhancement of Fusion Rate Induced by the Collective Electron Excitations,” pp 187-192, 10 refs, 3 figs.
The anomalously large fusion rate of deuterium absorbed in transition metals, which has been claimed by some authors, has produced a large amount of theoretical work. Legget and Baym have demonstrated that a rigorous upper bound to the fusion rate of deuterium, in equilibrium with the crystal, can be obtained in the framework of conventional solid state theory and using the phenomenological helium and deuterium chemical potentials. This bound is too small to be compatible with the claimed fusion rate. We explore the possibility that the interaction energy between helium atoms and the metal crystal possesses a second deeper minimum, which is separated by a potential barrier from the one accessible by the usual absorption experiments, but which can be more easily reached through the path followed by the deuteron-deuteron fusion process inside the crystal. The interaction of a bare positive charge with the electrons of the crystal is modeled in terms of its coupling with a set of harmonic oscillators, which describe the collective excitation of the electron gas. The energies of the latter can be obtained experimentally. Making use of the f-sum rule, evidences are presented which indicate the possibility of an ‘overscreening’ of the charge, a phenomenon that could render a configuration with delocalized electrons around the charge energetically favorable with respect to a helium-like configuration inside the crystal. Speculations about the possible connection with cold fusion are presented.
ITALY – IMPACT FUSION MODEL
G.F. Cerofolini, R. Dierckx, A. Foglio Para and G. Ottaviani, “Binuclear Atoms as Fusion Precursors in a Hot Cloud,” pp 193-197, 19 refs.
Deuteron-deuteron fusions were claimed by a Brookhaven group to result from the impact on deuterated surfaces of clusters of 25 – 1350 D2O molecules with energy up to 300 keV. The collective motion in the impact region is tentatively assumed to be responsible for these fusion events. The number of involved atoms is of the order of 104, with a mean energy of some electronvolts. The model is able to reproduce qualitatively the Brookhaven data according to an Arrhenius plot, with an activation energy approx. equal to 2E0, where E0 is the hydrogen ionization energy. At this energy an activated precursor is postulated
to be synthesized; it can tentatively by identified as the binuclear atom (D+ — D+)2e–.
VIRGINIA – LATTICE NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY
Scott R. Chubb & Talbot A. Chubb (Research Systems, Arlington, VA), “An Explanation of Cold Fusion and Cold Fusion By-Products, Based on Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry,” pp 199-204, 9 refs.
At room temperature, solid state effects may alter the framework from which nuclear processes proceed in a manner that is completely difference from the one responsible for nuclear interaction between free space deuterons. Quantum mechanical effects enter during the overcharging of a fully-loaded PdD lattice a sa result of periodic order, the requirement that energy be minimized, and the fact that deuterons which share a common potential are indistinguishable and must be described by a single, many-particle wave function. When a macroscopically small number of deuterons are added to stoichiometric PdD, a compound can be created of the form PdD1+DELTA, in which solid state physics effects provide a channel for reducing lattice strain by distributing the excess charge (delta) with equal weight to all periodically equivalent locations within the crystallite. Then, the fundamental free space idea that a huge Coulomb barrier must be overcome in order for D+D nuclear interaction to occur is replaced by a new picture in which small portions of each of the excess deuterons, on the average, are distributed throughout the solid, thereby avoiding the stress that results when two deuterons are forced into a common unit cell. Because only a small fraction of each excess deuteron is present at any site and each excess deuteron is indistinguishable from the others, it becomes possible for microscopically large numbers of pairs of excess deuterons to interact. This new form of nuclear interaction is not inhibited by proton-proton repulsion because when the excess charge (delta) is sufficiently small, the lattice provides the dominant electrostatic interaction. Lattice interaction further greatly reduces proton repulsion by inducing a broadening of proton charge. The lattice interaction is responsible for new selection rules in which the energy release is distributed among all unit cells. Release of high alpha energy particles at isolated sites is also allowed. We have previously named this new form of nuclear reaction, Lattice Induced Nuclear Chemistry (LINC). In LINC, the new selection rules allow deuterons to fuse to form 4He throughout the crystal while maintaining periodic order. Energy release occurs by coupling to phonons or coherent motion (in which the lattice moves as a whole), accompanied by the expulsion of “untrapped,” low-energy 4He into the surface and outgassing regions. In this paper, the underlying assumptions responsible for LINC and the resulting selection rules will be summarized and explained. Comparisons will be made between predictions provided by LINC with recent experiments.
MASS – MIT & HAGELSTEIN’S THEORY
Peter L. Hagelstein (MIT), “Coherent and Semi-coherent Neutron Transfer Reactions,” pp 205-209, 1 ref, 1 fig.
The novel process of coherent neutron transfer in the presence of a lattice is proposed to be the basis of a number of anomalous phenomena which have recently been reported in investigations of the Pons-Fleischmann effect.
ANN ARBOR, MI – THEORY
F.J. Mayer and J.R. Reitz, “Summary of Progress in Hydron Physics,” pp 211-216, 13 refs, 3 figs.
Electromagnetic scattering resonances in the e–p+, e–d+,e-t+ systems produce short-lived, charge-neutral, particles called hydrons. These particles provide the screening of repulsive Coulomb forces so that nuclear reactions between a hydron nucleus and a reaction partner are possible. Hydron formation, reactions, and applications to anomalous nuclear observations in the laboratory and geophysics are summarized.
COLORADO – THEORY
J.A. McNeil, “Relativistic Hyperfine Interaction and the Spence-Vary Resonance,” pp 217-
219, 8 refs, 2 figs.
…In an attempt to address this question in a qualitative yet gauge-invariant way, we have studied the two fermion system using the Breit equation. The wavefunctions explicitly obey current conservation so the Coulomb gauge terms can have no effect on the results. For the purposes of obtaining qualitative features of the affect of the hyperfine interaction at short distances we approximate the relative coordinate Breit equation by the equivalent Schrodinger-form equation for hydrogen (m2>>m2 [sic] , for applications to positronium we use the reduced mass). We examine the hyperfine interaction in the axion channel and solve the equation in the energy range of interest (0-> 2MeV). We find the hyperfine interaction introduces an effective attractive interaction at very short distances (approx. 10 fm for positronium), but find no evidence for a resonance in the energy range of interest.
ILLINOIS – EXOTIC PLASMA MODEL
M. Shaheen, M. Ragheb, G.H. Miley, & H. Hora, J.C. Kelly (U of New So. Wales, Kensington, Australia), (Fusion Studies Lab, U. of Illinois except Hora & Kelly), “Anomalous Deuteron to Hydrogen Ratio in Oklo Samples and the Possibility of Deuteron Disintegration,” pp 221-234, 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.
A hypothesis is presented to explain the anomalous D/H ratio observed in samples from the site of the naturally occurring fission reaction at Oklo. The experimentally observed D/H ratio of 127 ppm exceeds the naturally occurring value of 150 ppm [sic]. Further, using a multicomponent system consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and helium nuclei to model the Oklo reaction phenomenon and assuming a thermal fission process term, we calculate a D/H ratio of 445 ppm in the presence of the thermal neutron fluence attributed to Oklo. However, solving the same rate equations with a deuterium sink term to represent the hypothesis of deuteron disintegration, we find a deuteron disintegration constant of 7.47 x 10-14 s-1 yields the observed D/H ration. Indeed, deuteron disintegration would provide a neutron source (in addition to the fission neutrons) that could have driven the Oklo system as a subcritical (vs. a critical) reactor overt the extended period attributed to it.
ITALY – CROSS SECTION FACTORS
A. Scalia (Dipart. di Fisica, Univ di Catania, Corso, Italy) & P. Figuera (Lab Nazionaledel Sud, Doria, Italy), “The Cross Section Factor for the Reactions 2H(d,p) → 3H and 2H(d,n) → 3He at Very Low Temperature,” pp 235-242, 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tables.
The fusion cross section is obtained in terms of the Rutherford scattering by assuming that the fusion process is the “shadow” of elastic scattering. [A. Scalia, “The sub-barrier fusion as the shadow of the elastic scattering” to be publ. in Il Nuovo Cimento. See also Nuovo Cimento, 103, 85, 213, 255, 927, 1177 (1990).] The parameters which appear in the analytical expression of fusion cross section are determined by fitting the experimental values of fusion cross section. The cross section factor, <sigma nu> is obtained by using this fusion cross section and by assuming that the distribution of relative velocity between two different sets of particles will be described by Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. The values of <sigma nu> at different temperatures are determined by performing numerical integrations. At energies at which the experimental data are available the values of cross section factor obtained coincide with those reported in the literature, at very low energies experimental data are not available and our approach is able to give the values of cross section factor. At T = 300 K, we obtain: NA <sigma nu> = 3.5286 x 10-27 (cu cm per mole per sec).
ILLINOIS – IMPROVED CALORIMETER
Thomas F. Droege & Lee John Droege (Batavia, IL), “An Improved Zero Gradient Calorimeter for the Investigation of Cold Fusion Phenomena,” pp 243-248, 2 refs, 5 figs.
A second generation null balance calorimeter has been constructed for measuring anomalous heat in electrolytic cells. This calorimeter is similar in concept to an isothermal calorimeter except that it is operated with zero temperature differential. The calorimeter accuracy is 4 milliwatts when operated at a total power of 12 watts. Calibration is performed in situ by operating the cells under test reversed or at zero current.
ITALY – DOUBLE-SCATTERING N DETECTOR
M. Agnello, F. Iazzi, & B. Minetti (INFN Sezione di Torino, Italy), E. Botta, T. Bressani, O. Brunasso, D. Calvo, D. Dattola, P. Gianotti, C. Lamberti & A. Zecchina, “Improvement of the TOFUS Apparatus,” pp 249-254, 5 refs, 6 figs.
The TOFUS experiment was started in order to detect 2.45 MeV neutrons emitted from a Ti/D system in the gas phase. Improvements in the electronics of the neutron detector, based on the double scattering technique, and in the performances of a new cell are described.
ITALY – SOLID ANGLE NEUTRON DETECTOR
G. Ricco, M. Anghinolfi, P. Corvisiero, P. Prati, M. Taiuti, C. Boragno, R. Eggenhoffner, U. Valbusa (Dept. of Physics, Sezione di Genova, Italy), “A Large Solid Angle Multiparameter Neutron Detector,” pp 255-260, 5 refs, 3 figs.
We present the results of recent measurements, performed in Genoa with a novel neutron detector, on some titanium-deuterium systems. In spite of the good detector sensitivity, better of [than] the one claimed by Jones and co-workers, no neutron emission was found.
SWEDEN – NEUTRON DETECTOR
We have designed a low level neutron detector for cold fusion experiments with titanium and deuterium gas. The basic principle of the system is to monitor as many relevant parameters as possible and store them event-by-event and analyze the data afterwards. The result of the experiment was that no significant excess of neutrons was observed. We also discuss the cosmic radiation that may influence low level measurement of neutrons.
ITALY – CRACK FUSION
L.H. Bagnulo, “Crack-fusion: a Plausible Explanation of Cold Fusion,” pp 267-270, 3 refs,
A hypothesis is postulated that crack growth results in charge separation on the newly formed crack surfaces, which act like a miniature “linear accelerator”; i.e. D+ ions are accelerated in the electric field across the crack tip to kinetic energies of 104 eV or more, sufficient to raise the D+D fusion probability. We assume that also in the case of deuterated Ti or Pd there is an occurrence of D+D fusion in accordance with the dynamics as described in this article. Here too, it is a case of a fusion process resulting from the liberation of deuterium atoms within the tip of an external crack.
COLORADO – MEASURING VERY LOW ENERGY
The nuclear reactions of very low energy deuterons (down to center-of- mass energies of 2 keV) with deuterons and 6Li have been measured. The measured D-D reactions are in good with agreement recent R- matrix calculations. The reaction ratios D(d,p) → T / D(d,n) → 3He and 6Li(d,p) → 7Li / 6Li(d,alpha) → 4He in particular were examined for possible evidence of an Oppenheimer-Phillips type enhancement. No significant enhancement was found in either ratio or in the absolute yields of the reactions. The radiative capture reactions D(d,lambda) → 4He and 6Li(d,lambda) → 8Be were likewise measured. The branching ratios of these radiative capture reactions to the nucleonic branches of the reactions appear roughly independent of energy. The role of these reactions in the production of heat in cold-fusion experiments is evaluated.
HUNGARY – MOSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY
E. Kuzmann, M. Gal, G.K. Solymos, & CS. Szeles (Eotvos Univ., Budapest, Hungary), “Mossbauer Spectroscopic Characterization of Samples for Cold Fusion Experiment,” pp 277-281, 7 refs, 12 figs, 1 table.
In our previous works Mossbauer spectroscopy (as well as neutron and gamma-spectroscopy) was used to study the possibility of cold nuclear fusion in Fe-Zr amorphous alloys deuterized electrolytically both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere. Electrical monopole and quadrupole as well as magnetic dipole interactions measured by Mossbauer spectroscopy can provide information about the surrounding of Mossbauer atoms in deuterized samples. Consequently, the localization of deuterium can be sensitively studied. Mossbauer spectroscopy can be especially advantageously applied to the study of the effect of electrolytical hydrogenation of Fe-Zr amorphous alloys because the considerable changes appearing in the spectra(due to the change in the deuterium concentration or due to small heat effects) allow us to detect any structural changes caused by deuterization. Because Celani et al. have shown neutron burst activity in deuterized high TC superconductor, we have prepared EuBa2(Cu1-x57Fex)3O7–DELTA high TC
superconductors for cold fusion experiments to be performed in an international collaboration. Both the Cu(1) and Cu(2) as well as the rare earth sites can be sensitively monitored by the Mossbauer measurements. The preliminary results of 151Eu and 57Fe Mossbauer investigation of these samples will be discussed.
CANADA – D IMPLANTATION
M.S. Mathur, H.L. Johnston, A. Mirzai, J.S.C. [McKee], G.R. Smith, J.J.G. Durocher, K. Furutani, J.K. Mayer, Y.H. Yeo, H. Hnatiuk, S. King, A. Hempel, K.S. Sharma & G. Williams, “Recent Modifications to the Manitoba Deuterium Implantation Accelerator and a Study of the Properties of the Online Neutron Monitor Detector,” pp 283-288, 6 refs, 4 figs.
Deuterium molecules have been implanted into Palladium, Titanium and Indium targets in recent experiments at Manitoba by means of the 60 keV, 100 microA D2+ ‘Narodny’ ion accelerator. Neutrons from D- D interactions involving beam particles with previously stopped D atoms were detected by a large plastic scintillator viewed by two Photomultiplier tubes. We describe recent modifications to the accelerator made to improve the quality of the implanting beam, and some of the properties of the neutron detector used.
MARYLAND – NAVY THEORY ON Pd DENSITY
Hans S. Uhm & W.M. Lee (Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, MD), “High Deuterium Concentration in Palladium for Application to Cold Fusion,” pp 289-293, 9 refs, 2 figs.
Based on a theoretical calculation, a new scheme to increase deuterium density in palladium over its initial value is presented. High deuterium concentration in palladium is needed for application to the solid-state fusion. The first deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the [plasma] ion implantation, which consists of a cylindrical palladium rod (target) preloaded with deuterium atoms, coated with diffusion-barrier material and immersed in a deuterium [plasma]. The second deuterium enrichment scheme makes use of the temperature gradient effects on the deuterium solubility in palladium. A heat source at temperature T2 and a heat sink at temperature T2 (where T2 >T2) [sic] are in contact with two different
parts of a palladium sample, which has been presoaked with deuterium atoms and has been coated with diffusion-barrier material or securely locked in a metal case.
JAPAN – COLD FUSION RESEARCH
H. Ikegami, “Cold Fusion Researches in Japan,” pp 297-307, 16 figs, 1 table.
Positive results as well as some negative results from cold fusion research in Japan are reviewed with some comments. Out of 11 research groups taken up in the present review, three groups are mainly working on excess heat calorimetry, and the rest of the eight groups are involved in the detection of nuclear fusion products.
CHINA – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION RESEARCH
Xing Zhong Li (Tsinghua University, Beijing, China) “Chinese Effort in Understanding the Cold Fusion Phenomena,” pp 309-317, 16 refs, 1 fig.
Review on cold fusion research in China in the past two years is presented with the emphasis on the experiments after the first national symposium on cold fusion (May 10, 1990. Beijing). There were three phases: hot, quiet, and deep-going phases. Hot phase is characterized by failures in experiments in repetition and is restrained in thinking by the conventional ideas. Quiet phase started with different approaches and newly-designed experiments. Deep-going phase encourages the scientist to be respectful to the facts and creative in mind. Three anomalies in deuterium / solid system may exist.
RUSSIA – REVIEW OF SOVIET WORK
V.A. Tsarev, “Cold Fusion Studies in the USSR,” pp 319-336, 71 refs, 4 figs, 5 tables.
This special report is dedicated to the soviet scientists whose work seems not to be well known to the western scientific community. It is possible that some of the early soviet work has been “precursors” to the “cold fusion” era. The first Soviet National Conference on CF took place only recently in March of this year (March 22-26, 1991, Dubna- Moscow). This paper illustrates by a map, the centers of work that was presented at the Dubna conference. This work was carried out by about 45 Institutes. However, others stopped or “froze” their activities after the first unsuccessful attempts and under the pressure of wide- spread skepticism. The CF reputation in our country has suffered greatly from rush and inexact experiments of the initial period, widely boosted with a mass media. The total number of soviet publications on CF certainly exceeds one hundred (more than 80 papers were submitted at the Dubna Conference). About half of them are devoted to CF experiments, about a quarter are connected with methodical and structural studies, and the rest with theoretical models. This paper categorizes and summarizes the soviet CF work and provides suitable references.
TEXAS – FUGACITY & EXCESS HEAT
J.O’M. Bockris, D. Hodko, & Z. Minevski (Texas A&M Univ.), “The Mechanism of Deuterium Evolution on Palladium: Relation to Heat Bursts Provoked by Fluxing Deuterium across the Interface,” pp 337-362, 8 refs, 7 figs.
In recent times much attention has been given to interpretations of the so-called fusion reactions which were related to the concept of high fugacity within the metal depending on the overpotential applied. In the present paper some preliminary electrochemical investigations of mechanisms of D2 evolution on Pd are outlined together with a report on some recent research upon the effect of electrical pulsing upon the initiation of excess heat generation. Cathodic overpotentials and overpotential decay transients for PdD2 electrode were measured in KOD and LiOD solutions. The mechanism of the deuterium electrode reaction is investigated and two Tafel slopes are obtained. In order to characterize the Pd surface and to find out the influence of different species, present on/in Pd, on the mechanism of D.E.R. surface techniques XPS and EDS were employed. Surface spectra and depth profiling up to 200 A are analyzed for samples exposed to different pretreatment such as annealing/abrading or exposed/not exposed to electrolyzing conditions. The atomic concentration of ad/absorbed species (Zn, Pt, Au, Cu, Fe, etc.) changes with the pretreatment and electrolysis. In respect to above impurities, the presence of Si is much less pronounced. Neutron activation analysis was employed to determine the presence of different species in solutions before and after the electrolysis. Following species are found at detectable levels: Pt, Au, and Na. Light water concentration measured by NMR technique is found to be less than 1%. Enthalpy generation during long term electrolysis of Pd in O.1 M LiOD is measured by a calorimetric method. Four-probe resistivity measurements were used to optimize a current-charging regime and to monitor changes in D/Pd ratio. Increase in current occasionally caused enhancement of D/Pd ratio (up to 0.8). After charging, the electrodes were pulsed in a potentiostatic mode. A typical pulsing regime consisted of cathodic (up to 1 A per sq cm) and anodic pulses of equal duration. The cell pulsed with 5 ms regime for more than 30 days showed no measurable excess heats. Applying 5s pulsing regime excess heats of up to 23% were observed, Fig. 2. The application of 5s pulsing regimes caused electrode to slowly discharge. An interesting observation was that excess heat bursts appeared to be correlated with the process of charging of electrode and enhanced with repetitive pulsing. The total energy production in excess enthalpy bursts shown in Fig. 1 is approx. 39 MJ per mole, the amount exceeding known chemical origin.
UTAH – F&P NOW WORKING IN FRANCE
Martin Fleischmann (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Southampton, UK) and Stanley Pons (Dept. of Chemistry, University of Utah, USA), “The Calorimetry of Electrode Reactions and Measurements of Excess Enthalpy Generation in the Electrolysis of D2O Using Pd-Based Cathodes,” pp 349-362, 8 refs, 11 figs.
The major measurement technique which we have used in our investigations of the anomalous behavior of palladium cathodes polarized in heavy water has been the calorimetry of these systems. Three types of signatures were detected in our experiments up to October 1989:
1. Low to medium levels in the rates of excess enthalpy generation (0.1-100 watts per cu. cm., 5-40 % excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells);
2. Increases of the rates of excess enthalpy generation with decreases of the rates of enthalpy input; and
3. Bursts in the rates of excess enthalpy generation lasting for periods of a few hours to 16 days (typically 10 watts per cu. cm., 1000% excess of the rate of enthalpy input to the cells).
It is the magnitudes of the excess enthalpies (typically 50 MJ per cu. cm. in the base line values and up to 16 MJ per cu. cm. in the bursts) which demand explanations of the phenomena in terms of anomalous nuclear processes in these solid state systems. We have continued to use calorimetry as a major method of investigation in the period since October 1989. In this paper we describe the various types of signature which are readily observed using such measurements. We report on the observation of a pattern of behavior intermediate to that of the base line generation of excess enthalpy and the enthalpy bursts which can be observed with some types of cathode materials.
U. S. NAVY – FINDS 4He IN EFFLUENT GASES
M.H. Miles, B.F. Bush, G.S. Ostrom (Chem Div, Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA), & J.J. Lagowski (Dept. of Chem, U. of Texas, Austin), “Heat and Helium Production in Cold Fusion Experiments,” pp 363-372, 20 refs, 3 figs, 2 tables.
A critical issue in determining whether or not the cold fusion process exists is the quality of the evidence concerning the composition of the gaseous products. The lack of neutrons, gamma-rays, and other forms of radiation in these experiments has prompted theoretical proposals of fusion processes in the Pd-D lattice that yield only heat and helium as products. Calorimetric evidence of excess heat production during the electrolysis of heavy water using a palladium cathode will be presented. Effluent gas samples collected during episodes of excess heat production and sent to the University of Texas for analysis by mass spectrometry showed the presence of helium-4. Furthermore, the amount of helium detected was within experimental error of the theoretical estimate of helium production. Various control samples gave no evidence for helium. Attempts to measure the neutron activation of metal foils in cold fusion will also be discussed.
Comments from Fusion Facts Editor: The U.S. Navy can take great pride in the cold fusion work done by Miles et al., by Szpak (NOSC) and by Chubb (NRL) in making large experimental and theoretical strides in cold fusion. By contrast, the DoE hasn’t found out that cold fusion is real.
UTAH NCFI – TRITIUM EVERY TIME
F.G. Will, K. Cedzynska, M-C Yang, J.R. Peterson, H.E. Bergeson, S.C. Barrowes, W.J. West and D.C. Linton (National Cold Fusion Inst., University of Utah, USA), “Studies of electrolytic and gas phase loading ofpalladium with deuterium,” pp 373-383, 11 refs, 8 figs, 2 tables.
Highlights are presented of recent results obtained on the deuterium and hydrogen loading of palladium both in electrolytes and in the gas phase. Experimental approaches are described to achieving deuterium to palladium loading ratios in excess of 1.0. The electrochemical cell design allows continuous determination of the loading ratio and observation of temperature excursions of the palladium electrode with a sensitivity of .05C and a response time of a few seconds. Light water controls are run simultaneously with heavy water cells. Neutron generation is monitored with helium3 detectors, employing electronics that enables neutron bursts to be observed within a time window of eight microseconds. Gas, electrolyte, and electrodes are analyzed for tritium. Gas phase experiments of the Wada-type have beenperformed on palladium, using electrical discharges to activate the palladium. Neutron bursts up to 280 neutrons in 120 microseconds and tritium enhancements in the palladium of up to 25 x background have been observed in the palladium.
NEW MEXICO – LANL & NEUTRONS
H.O. Menlove, M.A.Paciotti, T.N. Claytor & D.G. Tuggle (Los Alamos Nat’l Lab), “Low-Background Measurement of Neutron Emission from Ti Metal in Pressurized Deuterium Gas,” pp 385-394, 7 refs, 5 figs, 4 tables.
A wide variety of neutron detector systems have been used at various research facilities to search for anomalous neutron emission from deuterated metals. Some of these detector systems are summarized here together with possible sources ofspurious signals from electronic noise. During the past two years, we have performed experiments to measure neutron emission from pressurized D2 gas mixed with various forms of titanium metal chips and sponge. Details concerning the neutron detectors, experimental procedures, and results have been reported previously. Our recent experiments have focused on increasing the low-level neutron emission and finding a way to trigger the emission. To improve our detection sensitivity, we have increased the shielding in our counting laboratory, changed to low-background 3Hetubes, and set up additional detector systems in deep underground counting stations. This report is an update on this experimental work.
NEW MEXICO – T & NEUTRONS IN Pd-Si
T.N. Claytor, D.G. Tuggle & H.O. Menlove, “Tritium Generation and Neutron Measurements in Pd-Si under High Deuterium Gas Pressure,” pp 395-408, 16 refs,
8 figs, 1 table.
A reproducible method of tritium generation has been demonstrated. The tritium output scales with the current applied to various configurations of the cells. The tritium yield is found to depend strongly on the type of palladium metal used (powder or foil) and it may be expected that other parameters that have not been investigated thoroughly will have similar effects Various tests for tritium contamination confirm that there is little chance of initial tritium contamination in the powder, foil or other materials used in this study. The tritium and neutron results are self consistent, and consistent with other reports. However, more sensitive neutron measurements are required to give a definitive neutron emission result.
SWITZERLAND – ABSORPTION OF H
Louis Schlapbach (Solid State Physics Group, Univ. of Fribourg), “Hydrogen and its Isotopes in and on Metals,” pp 409-418, 14 refs, 5 figs.
A summary description is given of phenomena related to the surface adsorption and bulk absorption of hydrogen and of its isotopes by a metallic host. Thermodynamic and surface properties, electronic and crystal structure and diffusion are illustrated for the examples of the hydride formation of Pd and of LaNi5 as typical examples of hydride forming elemental metals and intermetallic compounds.
CALIFORNIA – EPRI RESULTS
M.C.H. McKubre, R. Rocha-Filho, S.I. Smedley, F.L. Tanzella, S. Crouch-Baker, T.O. Passell & J. Santucci, “Isothermal Flow Calorimetric Investigations of the D/Pd System,” pp 419-443, 6 refs, 14 figs.
An experimental program was undertaken to explore the central idea proposed by Fleischmann et al. that heat, and possibly nuclear products, could be created in palladium lattices under electrolytic conditions. Three types of experiments were performed to determine the factors that control the extent of D loading in the Pd lattice, and to search for unusual calorimetric and nuclear effects. It is the purpose of this communication to discuss observations of heat output observed calorimetrically in excess of known sources of input heat. The central postulate guiding the experimental program was that anomalous effects previously unobserved or presently unexplained in the deuterium- palladium system occur at a very high atomic ration D/Pd. Emphasis was placed on studying phenomena that provide a fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which D gains access to the Pd lattice, and how very high loadings (near, at, or perhaps, beyond unity) can be achieved and maintained. Measurements of the interfacial impedance and of the Pd cathode voltage with respect to a thermodynamic reference electrode were made in order to characterize the electrochemical kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the absorption of D into Pd. Measurements of the Pd solid phase resistivity were used to monitor on-line, the degree of loading atomic ratios, specifically D/Pd, H/Pd and H/D. Calibration of the resistance ratio-atomic ratio functionality has been made by reference primarily to the works of Baranowski2-4 and Smith 5,6, but also by volumetric observation of the displacement of gas during loading in a closed system at constant pressure and temperature. The overall conclusions of this study are that, by careful control of the electrode pretreatment, the electrolyte composition and the current density, it is possible to load Pd to an atomic ratio approx. D/P > 1, and to sustain this loading for periods of weeks.
ITALY – GAS LOADING SURVEY
F. Scaramuzzi, “Survey of Gas Loading Experiments,”pp 445-452, 5 refs, 2 tables.
In March 1989 the results of two experiments claiming for nuclear reactions taking place, at room temperature, in metal lattices (Pd and Ti) charged with deuterium, were presented. In both cases the technique chosen for charging the metals with deuterium consisted in using an electrolytic cell, containing heavy water, in which the cathodes were made out of Pd or Ti. Soon later, in April, the Group led by the writer addressed a very straight forward question: if nuclear reactions take place in a metal lattice because of the interaction between the deuterium nuclei and the lattice, is electrolysis the only route to be followed, in order to produce them? Wouldn’t it be possible to perform experiments, having the same purpose, by letting the lattice to interact with deuterium in the gaseous phase? The question seemed quite appealing, mostly for one reason: the physical system consisting in an electrolytic cell is a very complicated one, and has to take into account a great number of parameters, while the system consisting in a metal and a gas looks much simpler. The latter would permit much cleaner experimental conditions, and thus it would be possible to analyze more clearly the experiments; it would also favor a higher reproducibility, and would enable testing the proposed theories. Experiments were performed at the Frascati Laboratory of ENEA following this alternative route, using titanium: furthermore, it was decided that, in order to favor nuclear reactions, temperature cycles should be performed on the system (from 77K to room temperature). Positive results were obtained, consisting in the detection of neutron bursts, and were soon published.
ITALY – PHYSICS OF FUSION
Giuliano Preparata (Dep di Fisica, Univ di Milano), “Cold Fusion: What do the Laws of Nature Allow and Forbid?”, pp 453-461, 29 refs, 1 fig, 2 tables.
I shall try to examine first the strange facts of hydrogen incorporation into Palladium, and then I shall discuss the phenomena of cold fusion in relation to those facts. In the light of the known experimental data I will then discuss the general features of what we might call “possible” and “impossible” theories of cold fusion, somehow drawing a demarcation line between which theoretical ideas can and cannot explain those observations, given the well established and accepted general laws of condensed matter (Quantum Electro Dynamics, QED) and nuclear physics (Quantum Chromo Dynamics, QCD). My discussion will follow quite closely a paper recently completed in collaboration with M. Fleischmann and S. Pons [Possible and
impossible theories of Cold Fusion, preprint MITH 91/23 (1991)]
GERMANY – REVIEW OF COLD FUSION
H. Gerischer (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin), “Is Cold Fusion a Reality? The Impressions of a Critical Observer,” pp 465-474, 14 refs.
Having received, at short notice, the invitation to attend the second international conference on cold fusion as a skeptical observer, I began to study some of the papers which have appeared since the fall of 1989 after which I had stopped following the publications in this area. Being skeptical from the beginning, the many negative reports from renowned laboratories seemed to confirm that the disputed claims of cold fusion occurring in a solid were, unfortunately, based on the erroneous interpretation of ill-defined experiments. I now realize that in the meantime many new positive results have been published which cannot be pushed aside quite so easily. Two reviews, currently in the course of publications, were very helpful and yielded much information on the present situation. These are the reviews of M. Srinivasan and E. Storms. Together with my reading and the lectures given on the first days of the conference, I eventually felt able to present my impressions in a lecture on the last day of the conference, as the organizers had requested. I am aware that all the arguments pro and contra the reality of cold fusion have been pointed out by others before. The first part of my contribution to the report of this conference is therefore mainly a reminder of the problems. In the second part I raise some questions seen with the eyes of a physical chemist being specially experienced in electrochemistry.
ENGLAND – FLEISCHMANN REPORTS
M. Fleischmann, “The Present Status of Research in Cold Fusion,” pp 475-527, 1 fig.
EDITORIAL NOTE: Martin Fleischmann was asked by the Royal Society of Chemistry to give an account of the II Annual Conference on Cold Fusion for the Newsletter of the Electrochemistry Group of the Society. This is a reprint of that article. This article was reviewed and quoted extensively in the December 1991 issue of Fusion Facts.